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Agrobacterium-mediated transient GUS gene expression in buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to standardize a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). Embryogenic calli, produced from one-year-old mature seeds of buffel grass, were used as target cells for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, harbouring pCAMBIA-1301 or pCAMBIA-2301, was used for co-cultivation with embryogenic calli from three genotypes (IG-3108, IG-9757 and IG-97101). Co-culturing of calli with Agrobacterium for 30 minutes, followed by co-cultivation with 0.1 mM acetosyringone for 3 days was found to be optimum for maximum transformation efficiency. Presence of acetosyringone during co-cultivation was found to be necessary for transformation. Transient GUS (beta-glucuronidase) gene expression was used to monitor T-DNA delivery into the target cells. Significant genotypic variations in response to transformation were observed among the tested genotypes. A very high frequency (63.3%) of GUS gene expression was obtained following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into embryogenic calli. The standardized protocol would be useful for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass with genes of agronomic importance. PMID:14617824

Batra, Shweta; Kumar, Suresh

2003-01-01

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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) grazed by goats and sheep / Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pastejada por ovinos e caprinos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de [...] 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD) e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.). A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS) de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel. Abstract in english Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, w [...] as divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD) goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM) availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis) by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

Formiga, Luiza Daiana Araújo da Silva; Pereira Filho, José Morais; Silva, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo; Oliveira, Nadjanara Souza; Soares, Diogo da Costa; Bakke, Olaf Andreas.

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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep=Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.. A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel.

Diogo da Costa Soares

2012-04-01

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Growth Response of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris to Phosphorus and Mycorrhizal Inoculation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although the majority of grasses form an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, little is known of the mycorrhization of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris. A pot study was conducted in sterilized soil to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus amendment on the biomass production in C. ciliaris. Mycorrhizal fungi used were Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum. Inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone, and combined incoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum signifi cantly (P<0.05 increased dry biomass in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum showed pronounced (P<0.05 eff ect on dry biomass compared to inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum resulted in signifi cantly (P<0.05 higher dry biomass campared to the combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Th e results clearly show that inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum is highly benefi cial for the growth and biomass production in the absence or presence of P2O5 under sterile soil conditions. Inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with these mycorrizal fungi may help in forage production in marginal and shallow soils of the rangelands of Pakistan.

Irshad Ahmad Khan

2007-06-01

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Clipping Effects on the Growth Variation, Water Use Efficiency and Photosynthetic Activity in Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. Poaceae  

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Full Text Available Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris growth, biomass allocation to root and shoot, water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity were measured in response to two defoliation heights (5 and 3 cm. Results showed that plants clipped at 5 cm showed a significant increase of diameter and water use efficiency as well as higher leaf water potential with a subsequent increase of stomatal conductance and photosynthetic activity. On the other hand, plants clipped at 3 cm presented an increase in photosynthetic activity parameters but a significant decrease in all growth parameters and water use efficiency.

M. Issoufou

2008-01-01

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Clipping Effects on the Growth Variation, Water Use Efficiency and Photosynthetic Activity in Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) Poaceae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) growth, biomass allocation to root and shoot, water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity were measured in response to two defoliation heights (5 and 3 cm). Results showed that plants clipped at 5 cm showed a significant increase of diameter and water use efficiency as well as higher leaf water potential with a subsequent increase of stomatal conductance and photosynthetic activity. On the other hand, plants clipped at 3 cm presented an incre...

Issoufou, M.; Zaman Allah, M.; Ferchichi, A.; Ferjani, E.

2008-01-01

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Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as...

Saskia Maya Beudel

2012-01-01

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Do Additional Bands (coastal, NIR-2, Red-Edge and Yellow) in WORLDVIEW-2 Multispectral Imagery Improve Discrimination of AN Invasive Tussock, Buffel Grass (cenchrus Ciliaris)?  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goals is to determine if Worldview-2 8-band multispectral imagery can be used to discriminate an invasive grass species namely, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in the subtropical arid parts of central Australia and whether it offers a tangible improvement on 4-band (visible and near infra red) multispectral imagery. A Worldview-2 scene was acquired for a 10*10km area just west of Alice Springs in central Australia following heavy rains of early Summer. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to classify the image. Target and background spectra were selected in the field and extracted from the image. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) was used to examine the spectral separability of each group of the target/ background spectra. The importance of the additional spectral bands on the image classification was assessed by running LDA for both 8 and 4 bands (red, green, blue and NIR). LDA did not indicate improved separability between groups when additional spectral bands were applied. Preliminary classification results indicate that Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is detected with an omission error 44%, commission error of 11.8% and overall accuracy of 59.5%. We were surprised that the additional spectral bands did not improve spectral separability and in part attribute this to the high degree of variance we observed within groups of spectra, which was particularly observable in the NIR2 and Yellow bands. The analyses may be significantly improved by acquiring imagery following the first big rains at the end of the dry season. At this time, phonological differences between our focal species and the surrounding native vegetation should be maximised. We suspect that Worldview-2 will offer even greater potential for the discrimination of Buffel grass under these conditions, being able to fully utilise the yellow-band in particular.

Marshall, V.; Lewis, M.; Ostendorf, B.

2012-07-01

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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12548  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

Diogo da Costa Soares

2012-03-01

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Particle-inflow-gun-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.): optimizing biological and physical parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to optimize various biological and physical parameters for developing an efficient and reproducible gene transfer method for genetic transformation of buffel grass. Transformation was carried out using a helium-driven particle inflow gun (PIG). Embryogenic calli produced from mature seeds of buffel grass cv. CC-119 were separately bombarded with four plasmids, containing Actin (pAct1DX), Ubiquitin (pAHC-25; pAHC-27) and CaMV-35S (pCaMVGUS) promoters, coated on tungsten and gold particles. The efficiency of transformation was monitored through transient GUS expression. Different parameters, viz., the type of promoter, type and size of microcarrier, helium gas pressure, distance and time of bombardment, were standardized for delivering DNA into embryogenic calli. Bombardment with plasmid DNA carrying the actin promoter coated on 1.6 micro gold particles, at a helium pressure of 4 bars, a distance of 10 cm for 10 micro sec and 28 mm Hg vacuum in the chamber, produced the best result in transient GUS expression. The Actin promoter was found to be more efficient in driving expression of the GUS gene in buffel grass, followed by Ubiquitin and CaMV-35S promoters. Lower helium pressure was found to be sub-optimal, while higher pressure produced a smaller number of blue spots, probably due to excessive damage to the cells. Maximum of 385 blue spots was observed with gold particles of 1.6 micro size, whereas only 213 blue spots were recorded for tungsten particles of 1.0 micro size. The optimized parameters can be employed for genetic transformation of buffel grass with genes of agronomic importance. PMID:14564017

Bhat, V; Dalton, S J; Kumar, S; Bhat, B V; Gupta, M G; Morris, P

2001-01-01

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Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaria L.) substitution for orange pulp on intake, digestibility, and performance of hairsheep lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty Dorper x Pelibuey male lambs were used to evaluate the effect of substitution of forage with fresh orange pulp (FOP) in diets for fattening lambs on productive behavior, nutrient intake, apparent digestibility coefficient, and feeding costs. Lambs were divided into five groups (n = 4) and then housed in individual pens during 70 d. Treatments consisted of five levels of FOP (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) which substituted buffel grass hay on the base diet (40:60%, forage:concentrate). Additionally, changes in chemical composition of FOP stored in stack during 8 d were evaluated (from the day 1 until day 8). Daily feed intake expressed as kg/day and % live weight, lamb growth rate, feeding cost of each lamb per day and per fattening period, hemicellulose intake, and DM, OM, CP, NDF and hemicellulose digestibility showed a quadratic effect (P 0.05) among storage days. Therefore, replacing around 75% of buffel grass hay with FOP in diets for fattening lambs resulted in the best growth rate and more efficient diet utilization. Fresh orange pulp stored in a stack did not change its chemical composition, and did not affect its utilization as a sheep feedstuff. PMID:19669661

Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Quintero-Elisea, Juan A; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Francisco D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Lucero-Magaña, F A; González-Reyna, Arnoldo

2010-02-01

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Utilização de adubação orgânica em pastagem de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris CV. Molopo) / Use of organic fertilizer in bufeel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris CV. Molopo) pasture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se analisar e comparar com outras fontes de adubo o efeito da digesta de bovinos sobre características estruturais, morfogênicas e de produção do capim buffel. O estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental do Instituto Nacional do Semi-Árido, localizado em Campina Grande, PB, Brasil. Util [...] izou-se um pasto de capim-buffel cultivar Molopo, já estabelecido. A área experimental foi dividida em 24 parcelas com 4 m² cada, sendo utilizado um delineamento de blocos completos ao acaso, arranjado em esquema de parcelas subdi-vididas no tempo. Os tratamentos consistiram da utilização de digesta ou esterco bovino (5 e 10 toneladas de matéria seca/ha para ambos) e adubação química 200 kg/ha da fórmula 40:10:40. Não houve interação entre a adubação e época de corte (p>0,10). Para a adubação houve efeito (p0,10) da adubação para a relação lâmina foliar/colmo, taxa de aparecimento de folhas e número de folhas vivas por perfilhos basais, porém observou-se efeito (p Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to compare with other fertilizer sources the effect of bovine digestive content on structural, morpho-genetic and production characteristics of buffel grass. The study was carried out at Estação Experimental do Instituto Nacional do Semi-árido, located in Campina [...] Grande, PB, Brazil. A previously implanted pasture of buffel grass, cultivar Molopo was used. Experimental area was split in 24 (4 m²) experimental unities and a completely randomized block in a split plot scheme, split at time. Treatments were 5 and 10 ton of dry matter per ha of digestive content or bovine manure. For mineral fertilizer treatment 40:10:40 formule was used applying 200 kg of mix per ha. There was not interaction between fertilization and time cut (p>0.10). Fertilization influenced (p0.10) of fertilization for leaf/steam ratio, leaf appearence rate and number of green leafes per tiller, whereas effect (p

Edvan, R.L.; Santos, E.M.; Vasconcelos, W.A.; Souto Filho, L.T.; Borburema, J.B.; Medeiros, G.R.; Andrade, A.P..

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Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm...

Erick de la Barrera

2008-01-01

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Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert / Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura [...] de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda. Abstract in english The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activ [...] ity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.

De la Barrera, Erick.

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Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda.

Erick De la Barrera

2008-12-01

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Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris, in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histories of seeds, among others. While the article does not explicitly discuss Clifford’s argument, it is an attempt to explore similarly diverse histories including those generated by arid zone scientists, Albert Namatjira’s efforts to gain a grazing licence, environmental impact of settlement (including erosion, dust storms and species extinction, along with personal narratives impelled by engagement with place. The article does not aim to theorise its content, rather to elaborate knowledge of landscape along with that elusive quality, a ‘sense of place’, through connecting disparate things.

Saskia Maya Beudel

2012-12-01

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Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4?×?4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods (n = 4). Animals were fed with BG with different levels of GS: 100% BG (T1, control), 90% BG + 10% GS (T2), 80% BG + 20% GS (T3), and 70% BG?+?30% GS (T4). Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P < 0.05) in those lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in the other treatments. CP digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in T4 compared to T1, T2, and T3. The study showed that inclusion of GS up to 30% with BG in forage-based diets of sheep does not affect DM and fiber intake nor influence DM and OM digestibilities but it increases CP intake and reduces NDF and ADF digestibilities. PMID:23420067

Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N; Valle-Cerdán, José L; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco; Angeles-Campos, Sergio; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar

2013-08-01

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Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

Márquez, R; Córdova, T; Castejón, L; Higuera, A.

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Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6, en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor, tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1, el mejor control de malezas (72,1% y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%. Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela using cowpea mutant ON-30(6 and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor, weeds control every 15 days (three times using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1. A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1, the best weed control (72,1% and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22% were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

R Márquez

2003-10-01

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Colonización micorrízica arbuscular y crecimiento de genotipos de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris  

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Full Text Available Para conocer la efectividad de la simbiosis por hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA en el crecimiento de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., se hizo un estudio en invernadero en el que las líneas ?PI- 409443?, ?PI-409275?, y las variedades ?Formidable?, ?Zaragoza 115? y ?Común? (testigo, fueron inoculadas o no con el HMA Glomus intraradices. Se realizaron dos muestreos, el 25 de julio y el 8 de noviembre. En el primer muestreo, el índice de clorofila y las biomasas fresca y seca de los genotipos no mostraron efectos significativos de micorrización. En el muestreo final, la simbiosis causó incrementos significativos en índice de clorofila, contenido de proteína foliar, y biomasa seca y radical. La colonización micorrízica final promedió 42 %. Los genotipos de buffel ?PI-409443? y ?Formidable? registraron los valores más altos en biomasa seca e índice de clorofila en el primero y en el último muestreo, y de biomasa radical en el final. G. intraradices fue capaz de incrementar significativamente el contenido de proteína foliar en ?PI-409443? y ?Formidable? y ?Común?. El porcentaje de colonización micorrízica radical se correlacionó con el índice de clorofila (r2=0.82 y con el contenido de proteína (r2=0.92. Los resultados indicaron que la micorrización promovió mayores valores en producción de biomasa, índice de clorofila y contenido de proteína, en tres de los cinco genotipos del pasto buffel, en el segundo muestreo.

Arturo Du00EDaz Franco

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Tackling Contentious Invasive Plant Species: A Case Study of Buffel Grass in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduced plants that have both production values and negative impacts can be contentious. Generally they are either treated as weeds and their use prohibited; or unfettered exploitation is permitted and land managers must individually contend with any negative effects. Buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) is contentious in Australia and there has been no attempt to broadly and systematically address the issues surrounding it. However, recent research indicates that there is some mutual acceptance by proponents and opponents of each others' perspectives and we contend that this provides the basis for a national approach. It would require thorough and on-going consultation with stakeholders and development of realistic goals that are applicable across a range of scales and responsive to regional differences in costs, benefits and socio-economic and biophysical circumstances. It would be necessary to clearly allocate responsibilities and ascertain the most appropriate balance between legislative and non-legislative mechanisms. A national approach could involve avoiding the introduction of additional genetic material, countering proliferation in regions where the species is sparse, preventing incursion into conservation reserves where it is absent, containing strategically located populations and managing communities to prevent or reduce dominance by buffel grass. This approach could be applied to other contentious plant species.

Grice, Anthony C.; Friedel, Margaret H.; Marshall, Nadine A.; van Klinken, Rieks D.

2012-02-01

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Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida / Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta áre [...] a destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusi [...] vely for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of the experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

Vasconcelos, Walter Alves de; Andrade, Albericio Pereira de; Santos, Edson Mauro; Edvan, Ricardo Loiola; Silva, Divan Soares; Silva, Thiago Carvalho da.

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AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

Juan Carlos Martínez-González

2011-01-01

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Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel / Use of leucaena and Cajanus cajan as protein supplements for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buff [...] el, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena), com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha). As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan as protein sources, during the dry season for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures. Nine experimental treatments resulting from the combination among three types of pasture (buffel grass, buffel grass+Caj [...] anus cajan, and buffel grass+leucaena) and three stocking rates (4, 6 and 10 lambs/ ha) were tested. Eighteen paddocks (two replicates of pastures per treatment) of 0.5 ha were used. Sixty lambs with 19.4 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment were allocated to pastures with water and mineral supplement offered ad libitum. Animal liveweight was recorded at 14 day-intervals after 16 hours of fasting. Lambs on the pasture of buffel grass+leucaena showed good performance with no variation in daily liveweight gain rate, when the stocking rate increased from 4 to 6 animals/ha. Buffel grass+Cajanus cajan pasture did not improve animal performance as compared to buffel grass pasture. It was concluded that leucaena, used as protein supplement, can improve the quality of buffel grass pastures.

Souza, Antônio Alves de; Espíndola, Gastão Barreto.

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Concentrate levels for lambs grazing on buffel grass Doses de concentrado para cordeiros mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel  

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Use of concentrate for lambs grazing buffel grass may improve animal performance and animal traits. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain and carcass traits (cold and hot carcass weights, cold and hot dressing percentages) of lambs grazing buffel grass and receiving different concentrate levels (0; 0.33; 0.66 and 1.0% of dry matter in relation to body weight). Forty lambs were used, ten animals by treatment, with 16.5 ?...

Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini; Salete Alves Moraes; Gherman Garcia Leal Araújo; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira

2011-01-01

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Características de produção do capim-buffel submetido a intensidades e freqüências de corte / Characteristics of production of buffel grass as function of cutting intensity and frequency  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas, estruturais e a produção de biomassa do capim-buffel sob intensidades e freqüências de corte. Utilizou-se um pasto já implantado de capimbuffel, cultivar Molopo. A área total utilizada foi dividida em 20 parcelas de 8 m² cada com linha de bordadura [...] de 1 m entre as parcelas. Foi utilizado um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, tendo nas parcelas um arranjo fatorial 2x2 referente a combinações entre duas alturas de corte (60 e 80 cm) e duas alturas de resíduo (20 e 40 cm), em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais, que receberam as denominações 20-60, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. Houve efeito (p Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics and biomass production of buffel grass as a function of cut intensities and frequencies. A previously established pasture of buffel grass cultivar Molopo was used. Total area was splited in twenty 8 m² expe [...] rimental unities with 1 m border lines. A split plot scheme was used with plot in factorial scheme 2x2 to combination of two height of cut (60 and 80 cm) and two height post cut (20 and 40 cm). The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with five replicates named 2060, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. There (p

Edvan, R.L.; Santos, E.M.; Da Silva, D.S.; De Andrade, A.P.; Costa, R.G.; Vasconcelos, W.A..

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Environmental Impact on Biomass and Allelopathic Effect of Cenchrus ciliaris.L  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted at the GEER foundation, Gandhinagar, India to evaluate environmental impact on biomass production of Cenchrus ciliaris.L (buffel grass and its allelopathic effect on Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum. These grasses were grown in separate plots and also in combination. Growth parameters which were studied for all sets were Shoot length, Above Ground Biomass (AGB, Below Ground Biomass (BGB and number of leaves and meteorological data were also recorded. It was observed that C.ciliaris could survive through extreme climate and Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum could not flourish in the presence of Cenchrus ciliaris, which resulted in the maximum biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris. The effect of different seasons on biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris was observed over a year. Statistical analysis of the data showed significant variation in biomass.

RAJKUMARI PARWANI

2013-06-01

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Ruminal digestion and chemical composition of new genotypes of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) under irrigation and fertilization / DIGESTÃO RUMINAL E COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA DE NOVOS GENOTIPOS DE CAPIM BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) SOB IRRIGAÇÃO E FERTILIZAÇÃO / Digestión ruminal y composición química de nuevos genotipos de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) bajo irrigación y fertilización  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo se realizou com o objetivo de avaliar e comparar o conteúdo nutritivo e degradabilidade efetiva da matéria seca (DEMS), proteína crua (DEPC) e parede celular (DEFDN) do híbrido Nozes e cinco novas linhas (PI 1, PI 2, PI 3, PI 4, PI 5) de capim buffel no noroeste do México. Todos os capins s [...] e estabeleceram usando um desenho completamente aleatório com três repetições. Foram regados e fertilizados com 100 kg·ha-1 de uréia-N e recolhidos manualmente em 5 de junho de 2000 em Nuevo León, México. A produção de matéria seca foi significativamente diferente entre os capins. O conteúdo de proteína crua, parede celular e seus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulose e lignina) foram significativamente diferentes entre os capins avaliados. Assim mesmo, DEMS, DEPC e DEFDN foram significativamente diferentes entre capins. Os conteúdos de P, Na, Cu e Zn não foram suficientes para satisfazer os requerimentos do gado de carne em crescimento. Dados de produção de matéria seca e dinâmica nutricional sugerem que os novos genótipos PI 3 e PI 4 podem ser considerados como boas fontes de nutrientes para o gado em pastoreio em regiões do noroeste do México. Abstract in spanish El estudio se llevó a cabo con el objetivo de evaluar y comparar el contenido nutritivo y degradabilidad efectiva de la materia seca (DEMS), proteína cruda (DEPC) y pared celular (DEFDN) del híbrido Nueces y cinco nuevas líneas (PI 1, PI 2, PI 3, PI 4, PI 5) de pasto buffel en el noreste de México. [...] Todos los pastos se establecieron usando un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. Fueron regados y fertilizados con 100kg·ha-1 de úrea-N y cosechados manualmente el 5 de junio de 2000 en Nuevo León, México. La producción de materia seca fue significativamente diferente entre los pastos. El contenido de proteína cruda, pared celular y sus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los pastos evaluados. Asimismo, DEMS, DEPC y DEFDN fueron significativamente diferentes entre pastos. Los contenidos de P, Na, Cu y Zn no fueron suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos del ganado de carne en crecimiento. Datos de producción de materia seca y dinámica nutricional sugieren que los nuevos genotipos PI 3 y PI 4 pueden ser considerados como buenas fuentes de nutrientes para el ganado en pastoreo en regiones del noreste de México. Abstract in english The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating and comparing the total dry matter production (TDMP), chemical composition and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), crude protein (EDCP) and neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF) of the Nueces hybrid and five new genotypes (PI 1, PI 2, PI 3, PI 4 [...] , PI 5) of buffelgrass. Grasses were irrigated and fertilized with 100kg·ha-1 of urea-N, and hand harvested on June 5, 2001 at Nuevo Leon, Mexico. All grasses were established on a completely randomized design with three replicates. The TDMP was significantly different among genotypes. The crude protein content and cell wall components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were significantly different among grasses. Moreover, EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF were significantly different among genotypes. The P, Na, Cu and Zn contents, in all grasses, were insufficient to meet growth requirements of beef cattle. Data of dry matter production and nutritional dynamics suggest that the new genotypes PI 3 and PI 4 could be considered good sources of nutrients for grazing ruminants in Northeastern Mexico.

Guillermo Juan, García-Dessommes; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez-Lozano; Rocío, Morales-Rodríguez; Graciela, García-Díaz.

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Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

2014-03-01

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In vitro Studies of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extracts of the Indian Grasses Dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Kala-Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus)  

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The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Crude extracts of the stem of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were evaluated against some medically important pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Raoultella planticola, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

2012-01-01

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Concentrate levels for lambs grazing on buffel grass Doses de concentrado para cordeiros mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel  

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Full Text Available Use of concentrate for lambs grazing buffel grass may improve animal performance and animal traits. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain and carcass traits (cold and hot carcass weights, cold and hot dressing percentages of lambs grazing buffel grass and receiving different concentrate levels (0; 0.33; 0.66 and 1.0% of dry matter in relation to body weight. Forty lambs were used, ten animals by treatment, with 16.5 ± 2.0 kg of initial body weight, distributed in four groups. Experimental design was a completely randomized with ten replicates. Concentrate levels did not influence the final body weight, the average daily gain, total weight gain and cold and hot carcass weights. However, the increase of concentrate levels promoted higher cold and hot carcass yields.O uso de concentrados para ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-bufel pode melhorar o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros de carcaça dos mesmos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário e ganho de peso total além dos parâmetros de carcaça (pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria de ovinos mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel recebendo doses crescentes de suplemento concentrado (0; 0,33; 0,66 e 1,0% na matéria seca do suplemento em relação ao peso corporal dos animais. Foram utilizados 40 ovinos machos, dez animais por tratamento, com peso corporal inicial médio de 16,5 ± 2,0 kg, distribuídos em quatro grupos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições. As doses de concentrado não influenciaram o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de total, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria. Entretanto, o aumento nas doses de concentrado proporcionaram maiores rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria.

Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini

2011-03-01

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Concentrate levels for lambs grazing on buffel grass / Doses de concentrado para cordeiros mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O uso de concentrados para ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-bufel pode melhorar o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros de carcaça dos mesmos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário e ganho de peso total além dos parâmetros de carcaça (pesos e rendi [...] mentos de carcaça quente e fria) de ovinos mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel recebendo doses crescentes de suplemento concentrado (0; 0,33; 0,66 e 1,0% na matéria seca do suplemento em relação ao peso corporal dos animais). Foram utilizados 40 ovinos machos, dez animais por tratamento, com peso corporal inicial médio de 16,5 ± 2,0 kg, distribuídos em quatro grupos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições. As doses de concentrado não influenciaram o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de total, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria. Entretanto, o aumento nas doses de concentrado proporcionaram maiores rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria. Abstract in english Use of concentrate for lambs grazing buffel grass may improve animal performance and animal traits. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain and carcass traits (cold and hot carcass weights, cold and hot dressing percentages) of [...] lambs grazing buffel grass and receiving different concentrate levels (0; 0.33; 0.66 and 1.0% of dry matter in relation to body weight). Forty lambs were used, ten animals by treatment, with 16.5 ± 2.0 kg of initial body weight, distributed in four groups. Experimental design was a completely randomized with ten replicates. Concentrate levels did not influence the final body weight, the average daily gain, total weight gain and cold and hot carcass weights. However, the increase of concentrate levels promoted higher cold and hot carcass yields.

Voltolini, Tadeu Vinhas; Moraes, Salete Alves de; Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal de; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro.

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Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus) and evaluation of their bioactivity  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids) of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and [...] carotenoids) of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E)-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%), ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one) (4.31%), fagarsterol (lupeol) (1.25%) and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%). Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

Premlata, Singariya; Padma, Kumar; Krishan Kumar, Mourya.

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Producción de materia seca en una asociación Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaenaleucocephala al aplazar su utilización durante la época seca / Dry matter production in an association of Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaena leucocephala subjected to a deferring use during the dry season  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En una región semiárida del occidente de Venezuela en el estado Zulia, se estudió el efecto de cuatro períodos de aplazamiento de utilización (PAU: 42, 84, 126 y 168 días) después del primer corte sobre la acumulación de biomasa en una asociación pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) y leucaena (Leucaena [...] leucocephala), estimándose la producción de sus componentes en la gramínea (hojas, tallos y material muerto) y la leguminosa conformada por la fracción fina (hojas, pecíolos y tallos menores de 5 mm de diámetro) y la fracción gruesa (tallos mayores de 5 mm de diámetro), a través del perfil del pastizal donde se consideraron tres estratos en el pasto buffel (0-15, 15-30 y >30 cm) y en leucaena (0-60, 60-120 y >120 cm). En ambas especies, después del corte de cada PAU, las parcelas se cosecharon cada 42 días para evaluar el rebrote. El diseño experimental usado fue de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se observaron rendimientos para ambas especies de 1.146 y 1.925 kg MS/ha para el pasto buffel y la leucaena, respectivamente. Solo en la leguminosa se encontraron diferencias (P>0,05) entre tratamientos siendo los PAU sobresalientes los de 42 y 0 días. La mayor proporción de hoja y el menor contenido de material muerto (P Abstract in english In a semi-arid region in western Venezuela at Zulia state, we studied the effect of four periods of deferment of use (PDU: 42, 84, 126, and 168 days) after the first cut on the accumulation of biomass in an association of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), estimat [...] ing production of its components in the grass (leaves, stems, and dead material) and the legume fine fraction (leaves, leaf stalk, and stems with diameter less than 5 mm) and thick fraction (stems with diameter above 5 mm). Plant samples were taken at three strata for buffel (0-15, 15-30, and > 30 cm) and leucaena (0-60, 60-120, and > 120 cm). After every PDU cut, plots were harvested every 42 days to evaluate regrowth. A randomized block experimental design with three replicates was used. Results indicated yields for both species with values of 1,146 and 1,925 kg DM/ha for buffel and leucaena, respectively. There were found differences among treatments (P>0.05) only on the legume being the best PDU 42 and 0 days. The highest leaf proportion and the lowest dead material content (P

Sánchez, Alexander; Mármol, Jesús Faria; Araque, Cesar.

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COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS) AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY)  

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Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (root, stem, leaf and flower) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene) using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens) and ...

2012-01-01

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Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN e hídrico (BH, de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2 e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9. De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia e Biloela (3,9g/dia, e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia. Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal.The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB and water balances (WB of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred Santa Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2 and % of body weight (2.9. In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day and Biloela (3.9g/day and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day. All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

R.A. Souza

2013-04-01

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Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel / Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN) e hídrico (BH), de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. [...] Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2) e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9). De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia) e Biloela (3,9g/dia), e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia) e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia). Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal. Abstract in english The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB) and water balances (WB) of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred San [...] ta Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2) and % of body weight (2.9). In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day) and Biloela (3.9g/day) and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day) and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day). All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela) presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

R.A., Souza; T.V., Voltolini; G.G.L., Araújo; L.G.R., Pereira; S.A., Moraes; C., Mistura; K.V.J., Belem; G.M.B., Moreno.

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Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman) Under Barani Conditions  

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Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus cili...

Umar Farooq, M.; Rashid Saleem; Abdul Razzaq

2003-01-01

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Nutrient Balance of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement  

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Full Text Available In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

A.A. Aganga

2006-01-01

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Avaliação de um modelo físico de produção de bovinos no semi-árido integrando caatinga, capim-buffel e leucena.: I. fase de cria A physical model evaluation of a caatinga/buffel grass/leucaena integrated system for cattle production in the semi-arid region.: I. cow-calf operation  

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Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar um modelo físico do sistema de cria de bovinos para as áreas mais secas do Semi-Árido brasileiro, associando a pastagem natural com pastos cultivados tolerantes à seca. A caatinga foi pastejada no período verde, e o capim buffel no restante do ano. A suplementação com leucena ocorreu no período seco, sob pastejo direto e feno no cocho. Parâmetros de desempenho, monitorados de novembro de 1991 a outubro de 1995, mostraram uma taxa média de parição da ordem de 72,8% ao ano e taxas de mortalidade praticamente nulas. O peso vivo médio dos bezerros aos 205 dias de idade foi de 153,4 kg e a produ- ção de bezerros desmamados foi de 109,5 kg/matriz exposta/ano e de 25,5 kg/hectare/ano. Os resultados são considerados bastante expressivos, considerando-se que mais da metade da área era ocupada com pastagens nativas de caatinga e que a oferta de leucena foi limitada pela ocorrência de uma forte estiagem.The study was designed to evaluate a physical model performance of a cow-calf operation system for the semi-arid region, in Brazil. Native pastures (caatinga were grazed during the rainy season and buffel grass pastures over the rest of the year. Leucaena supplementation, under rotational grazing and as hay, was provided during the dry season. Performance parameters, monitored from November 1991 to October 1995, showed a 72.8% annual calving rate and a very low mortality rate. Weaning weights of calves averaged 153.4 kg at 205 days. Production of calf weaned was 109.5 kg/cow run/year and 25.5 kg/ha/year. Performance data can be concluded to be very promising if considered that above half the total area was covered by native pastures and that leucaena hay supplementation was strongly limited by occurrence of a severe drought period.

Clovis Guimarães Filho

1999-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Tizón foliar del pasto buffel: su presencia en Tamaulipas, México / Buffelgrass leaf blight: its precence in Tamaulipas, Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la región semiárida del norte de Tamaulipas México, el pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), var. Común, predomina en un área de 260 000 ha y existen otras 302 000 con potencial para ser aprovechadas con este pasto. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución, severidad de ataque y [...] pérdidas en la producción que ocasiona el tizón foliar (Pyricularia grisea) sobre el pasto buffel. Se realizaron muestreos en praderas del norte de Tamaulipas del 13 al 18 de octubre en 15 sitios en 2002 y 12 en 2003. En cada sitio se determinó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque del tizón foliar. La pérdida de rendimiento se estimó en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2004 y otoño-invierno de 2005, mediante la comparación de plantas con y sin la protección de fungicidas. Además, se evaluó la reacción al tizón foliar en 16 cultivares de buffel introducidos. La presencia del tizón se observó en todos los sitios muestreados con una severidad promedio de 5.3 en una escala de 0-9. La mayor severidad de ataque se asoció a plantas estresadas por sequía o condiciones edáficas adversas, mientras que lamenor se observó en sitios que presentaron condiciones favorables para el desarrollo de la planta o cuando el pasto se encontró en la etapa de prefloración. La mayor severidad de Pyricularia grisea se observó en el ciclo primavera-verano (2004), comparado con el ciclo otoño-invierno (2005), debido a las condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa favorable s para el patógeno. Las pérdidas en el ciclo primavera-verano fueron de 11% en clorofila, 20-26% en biomasa y 13% en proteína; por el contrario, no se registraron pérdidas significativas en otoño-invierno. Los 16 cultivares introducidos mostraron resistencia a Pyricularia grisea. Los resultados indicaron que el tizón del pasto buffel es una enfermedad epifítica en la var. Común, en Tamaulipas, con mayor prevalencia en el ciclo primavera-verano y resistencia en cultivares introducidos. Abstract in english In the semiarid region of northern Tamaulipas, Mexico, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) var, Comun predominate in 260 000 ha and there are 360 000 additional suitable to be sown with this grass. The objective of this study was to determinate the distribution, severity and production loss caused by [...] the leaf blight (Piricularia grisea) on buffelgrass. Samples were taken from northern Tamaulipas range lands at 15 sites on 2002 and 12 sites on 2003. The incidence and severity of leaf blight was registered for every site with three replications from 8/13 to 8/18 for both years. Yield loss was determinate at spring-summer season 2004 and fall-winter 2005 by means of comparison between fungicide protected and unprotected plants. The reaction of buffelgrass to foliar blight was determinated on 16 introduced cultivars. Leaf blight presence was detected at all sites with an average severity of 5.3 in a scale from 0 to 9 .The highest attack severity was observed on plants stressed by drought or adverse edafic conditions; while the lower severity was observed on sites where favorable conditions occurred or when the grass was at the preflowering stage. At the spring-summer 2004 season losses were 11% in chlorophyll content, 20-26% in biomass and 13% in protein content; on the contrary, no significant reduction of these parameters was observed at the fall-winter season 2005. The 16 introduced cultivars showed resistance to Pyricularia gricea. Results demonstrated that buffelgrass leaf blight is an epidemic disease in the Comun var., in Tamaulipas, with high prevalence at the spring-summer season and there is resistance to the disease in introduced cultivars.

Díaz Franco, Arturo; Méndez Rodríguez, Asunción; Garza Cedillo, Rubén.

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Avaliação de um modelo físico de produção de bovinos no semi-árido integrando caatinga, capim-buffel e leucena.: I. fase de cria / A physical model evaluation of a caatinga/buffel grass/leucaena integrated system for cattle production in the semi-arid region.: I. cow-calf operation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar um modelo físico do sistema de cria de bovinos para as áreas mais secas do Semi-Árido brasileiro, associando a pastagem natural com pastos cultivados tolerantes à seca. A caatinga foi pastejada no período verde, e o capim buffel no restante do ano. A suplementação [...] com leucena ocorreu no período seco, sob pastejo direto e feno no cocho. Parâmetros de desempenho, monitorados de novembro de 1991 a outubro de 1995, mostraram uma taxa média de parição da ordem de 72,8% ao ano e taxas de mortalidade praticamente nulas. O peso vivo médio dos bezerros aos 205 dias de idade foi de 153,4 kg e a produ- ção de bezerros desmamados foi de 109,5 kg/matriz exposta/ano e de 25,5 kg/hectare/ano. Os resultados são considerados bastante expressivos, considerando-se que mais da metade da área era ocupada com pastagens nativas de caatinga e que a oferta de leucena foi limitada pela ocorrência de uma forte estiagem. Abstract in english The study was designed to evaluate a physical model performance of a cow-calf operation system for the semi-arid region, in Brazil. Native pastures (caatinga) were grazed during the rainy season and buffel grass pastures over the rest of the year. Leucaena supplementation, under rotational grazing a [...] nd as hay, was provided during the dry season. Performance parameters, monitored from November 1991 to October 1995, showed a 72.8% annual calving rate and a very low mortality rate. Weaning weights of calves averaged 153.4 kg at 205 days. Production of calf weaned was 109.5 kg/cow run/year and 25.5 kg/ha/year. Performance data can be concluded to be very promising if considered that above half the total area was covered by native pastures and that leucaena hay supplementation was strongly limited by occurrence of a severe drought period.

Guimarães Filho, Clovis; Soares, José Givaldo Góes.

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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

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Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

2000-09-01

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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel / Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pel [...] o sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simula [...] ted by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

DANTAS NETO, JOSÉ; SILVA, FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E; FURTADO, DERMEVAL ARAÚJO; MATOS, JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE.

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Avaliação de fenos de capim-buffel colhido em diferentes alturas de corte / Evaluation of buffelgrass hay harvested at different cutting heights  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, composição bromatológica e recuperação de matéria seca do feno de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), colhido em diferentes alturas de corte. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental Pendência, da Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da [...] Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA), situada no Município de Soledade-PB. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro alturas de corte (30; 40; 50 e 60cm) e cinco repetições. O rendimento forrageiro foi influenciado pela altura de colheita, com aumento linear alcançando produção de matéria seca de 7206,78kg/ha a 60cm de altura. Observou-se efeito de altura de colheita para os conteúdos de lâmina, colmo e relação lâmina:colmo na matéria seca, em que os valores da relação lâmina:colmo diminuíram com o aumento da altura de colheita, obtendo valores de 0,87 e 0,48 quando colhidos aos 30 e 60cm de altura, respectivamente. Obteve-se efeito quadrático de altura de colheita apenas para o teor de fibra em detergente neutro, com teores variando de 71,82 a 77,08% na matéria seca. Os valores médios de matéria seca do feno variaram entre 82,44 e 84,48%. A recuperação de matéria seca durante a desidratação diminuiu em função das alturas de colheita, apresentando comportamento linear com menor média observada no capim colhido a 60cm de altura (76,58%). A ausência de variação nos constituintes bromatológicos e nas perdas de matéria seca final e as maiores produções de biomassa nas maiores alturas de colheita permite concluir que o capim-buffel seja colhido nas alturas de colheita que possibilite maior produção. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the forage yield, chemical composition and dry matter recovery of buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), at different cutting heights. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Pendência of Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A (EMEPA) [...] , located in city of Soledade-PB. A randomized complete block design was used, with four cutting heights (30; 40; 50 and 60cm) with five replicates. The forage yield had effect with a linear increase in values achieving dry matter yield 7206.78kg/ha for 60cm height. There was harvesting height effect for leaf, stem and leaf:stem ratio in dry matter, wherein the values of leaf:stem ratio decreased with increasing harvesting height, getting values of 0.87 to 0.48 when harvested at 30 and 60cm height, respectively. Quadratic effect was observed in harvesting height only to the neutral detergent fiber, with contents ranging from 71.82 to 77.08% in dry matter. The average values of dry matter of hay were between 82.44 and 84.48%. The dry matter recovery in dehydration decreased in function of harvesting heights, showing linear behavior, with the smallest average observed for the grass to 60cm (76.58%). The absence of variation in the bromatological constituents and dry matter final losses and higher biomass production in the highest cutting harvest may conclude that buffel grass is to be harvested in the cutting height that enable greater production.

Pinho, Ricardo Martins Araujo; Santos, Edson Mauro; Bezerra, Higor Fábio Carvalho; Oliveira, Juliana Silva de; Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de; Campos, Fleming Sena; Pereira, Gildenia Araujo; Correia, Robervânia Maria.

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Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman Under Barani Conditions  

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Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/determined at the end of spring season. The different growing season (spring summer is lacking. Estimation of shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant in two growing different seasons is essential in grazing management studies. At the beginnings of spring season reserve carbohydrates are used for the production of new shoots. The shoot biomass at the end of spring season is generally less compared to the end of summer season. The shoot and root biomass estimating of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of two different growing season is required to devise the grazing management programme. This study is proposed to quantify the shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of spring and summer growing seasons.

M. Umar Farooq

2003-01-01

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Faecal Microbial Flora of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia sericea or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement  

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Full Text Available Fifteen female and ten castrated yearling Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into five groups of five goats of which 3 were females and 2 were males. The objectives of the project was to determine effects of T. serecia and B. albitrunca at two levels on faecal egg worm count, bacterial count and bacterial identification. All the goats were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris as a basal diet, while Medicago sativa (0% tannin content was fed to the control group as a supplements. The other four groups were fed low B. albitrunca (0.267% tannin in diet, high B. albitrunca (0.497% tannin in diet, Low T. serecia (0.342% tannin in diet and high T. serecia (0.497% tannin in diet as a supplement. The basal diet comprised of 60% of the ration, while Lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Wheat bran was provided at 250 g to provide energy for the goats. Water was provided daily. The study lasted for 60 days and faecal sampling was done fortnightly from the rectum of the goats in the morning. The faecal samples which were collected fortnightly from rectum of the goats were used for evaluation of egg worm count and bacterial identification. After a week of feeding T. sericea there was significant reduction on egg worm count (p<0.05, while on other treatments there were no significant differences in all faecal sampling dates (p>0.05.

A.A. Aganga

2006-01-01

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Anti-tick effects of Melinis minutiflora and Andropogon gayanus grasses on plots experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective in this trial was to investigate the anti-tick effects of molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora) and gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) against Boophilus microplus, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a control. During a 3-year-period fieldwork was carried out in the tropical, subhumid climate at Progreso, Municipality of Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico. Experimental plots were established for three treatments with six replicates under a random factorial design in order to evaluate each of the four seasons. Additional work was developed for two more consecutive autumn seasons to evaluate the anti-tick effects of these grasses. Once the plots were established they were infested with 5000 B. microplus larvae and sampled by dragging flannel cloths. The anti-tick effects were measured by counting the number of larvae recovered from each of the experimental plots. Both grasses, M. minutiflora and A. gayanus, demonstrated anti-tick effects; however, M. minutiflora grass had the greatest anti-tick effects through the seasons studied and in the three consecutive autumns evaluated. PMID:15176734

Fernandez-Ruvalcaba, Manuel; Preciado-De-La Torre, Francisco; Cruz-Vazquez, Carlos; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino

2004-01-01

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Animal bait effect on the recovery of Boophilus microplus larvae from experimentally infested grass in Morelos, Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para cuantificar la influencia de la presencia animal en la recuperación de larvas de pastos infestados experimentalmente, se realizó un ensayo en otoño 1999 e invierno 1999-2000. Para ello se compararon 4 formas de muestreo y 3 tipos de pastos. No hubo diferencias en la recuperación de larvas entre [...] las 4 formas, pero si, entre los tipos de pastos (p Abstract in english To quantify the influence of the animal presence on the percentage of Boophilus microplus larvae recovery from plots experimentally infested with this tick, it was carried out a trial in Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico, during autumn 1999 and winter 1999-2000. For this purpose there were compared four sam [...] pling methods: human walking with chaps, bovine dressed walking, double walking flagging and double walking with baited flagging. The comparison was made on tree grasses: Andropogun gayanus(gamba), Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel) and Melinis minutiflora (molasses). It was observed the same recovery efficiency of B. microplus larvae in the four sampling methods studied in the two seasons. There were no statistical differences, although, there were differences (P

FERNÁNDEZ-RUVALCABA, MANUEL; PRECIADO-DE LA TORRE, JESUS F; CORDOBA-JUAREZ, GLORIA; GARCÍA-VAZQUEZ, ZEFERINO; ROSARIO-CRUZ, RODRIGO; SALTIJERAL-OAXACA, JORGE.

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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómic [...] a del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación) permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth. Abstract in english Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of specie [...] s of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation). To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Hugo F, Gutiérrez; Osvaldo, Morrone.

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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae  

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Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Hugo F Gutiérrez

2012-06-01

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Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan  

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Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm), number of tillers per plant (96), dry matter yield (22 t )ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forag...

Maria Ali; Qamar, Imtiaz A.; Asghar Ali; Arshad, M.; Mr.Javed Iqbal

2001-01-01

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Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm, number of tillers per plant (96, dry matter yield (22 t ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forage yield and crude protein content in the Pothwar plateau conditions.

Maria Ali

2001-01-01

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Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

2013-01-01

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NUTRIENT ACQUISITION IN DIFFERENTIALLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L. PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS  

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Full Text Available The water famine is one of the major factors for converting huge cultivated land into deserts all over the world. Likewise, in Pakistan, Salt Range due to low rainfall is also converting into uncultivable area. In the present study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to assess the extent of water stress toleranc in terms of mineral nutrient status. Two populations of each of two grass species i.e., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. were used in this experiment. One population of each of two grass species was collected from drought-hit area ‘‘Salt Range’’ and other from often irrigated Faisalabad. Each population of these of grass species were subjected to three different levels of water stress (control, 75% and 50% of field capacity. Imposition of water stress markedly decreased the shoot fresh and dry biomasses, shoot, P, N and Ca2+. However, populations of both grasses collected from the Salt Range were better in growth than Faisalabad region. Each population of both grasses collected from Salt Range accumulated high K+, Ca2+, N and P concentrations. The higher growth of the Salt Range populations of both grass species could be related to the greater accumulation of K+, N, and Ca2+ in the shoots as compared with the populations from Faisalabad.

MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

2008-08-01

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EL ZACATE BUFFEL COMO UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA INCREMENTAR LA RENTABILIDAD DE LOS RANCHOS EN LA ZONA SERRANA DE SONORA  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis económico comparativo para evaluar la rentabilidad actual en producción de carne de un rancho con agostaderos deteriorados y poco productivos en la zona serrana de Sonora, comparado con dos opciones que incluyen la siembra del zacate buffel [Cenchrus ciliaris (L. Link], como una alternativa para incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne. Se consideraron tres ranchos de 1,000 ha, similares en cuanto a manejo de ganado e índices reproductivos, uno de los cuales trabaja de acuerdo a su capacidad actual de producción, sin planes de mejoras a futuro. En las otras dos opciones se mejora el agostadero anualmente mediante la intersiembra de 200 ha de zacate buffel, con la variante que el primero trabaja con recursos propios y el segundo con financiamiento externo y apoyo gubernamental. Se utilizó un programa financiero con una proyección a 14 años para determinar la rentabilidad en los diversos escenarios. En todos los casos se calcularon costos reales, incluyendo los costos fijos y los de manejo, medicinas, suplementación, inversión para la siembra y compra de animales; así como las ganancias generadas por venta de crías y desechos. Los resultados muestran que el rancho deteriorado presenta una capacidad de mantenimiento constante anual de 40 Unidades Animal (U.A., mientras que el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios y financiamiento externo alcanzan una capacidad de mantenimiento máxima anual de 333 U.A. a partir del sexto año, respectivamente. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en el rancho con pastizal deteriorado varió de $ 10.85 a 22.19 por hectárea y se mantuvo relativamente estable durante los catorce años proyectados. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios fue negativa durante los primeros cinco años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el onceavo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con financiamiento fue negativa durante los primeros seis años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el décimo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en los ranchos rehabilitados al punto de estabilidad fluctuó de $ 435.09 a 449.03 por hectárea y resultó 25.7 veces superior en comparación con el rancho deteriorado sin rehabilitación. Se concluye que los productores en ranchos con pastizales en condición pobre deben de incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne para hacer la actividad ganadera más rentable. El mejoramiento de agostaderos mediante la siembra de zacate buffel es una buena alternativa para rehabilitar agostaderos deteriorados en ranchos con poca capacidad de producción en la Sierra de Sonora. Los apoyos externos vía financiamiento o programas de gobierno juegan un papel muy importante en la aplicación de prácticas de rehabilitación de agostaderos y pudiera ser la única opción para la mayoría de los productores.

Fernando Ibarra Flores

2005-01-01

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Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought  

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Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

2011-12-01

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Ruminal digestion and chemical composition of new genotypes of buffelgrass (cenchrus ciliaris l.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho avalia e compara a produção de matéria seca (MST), conteúdo nutricional e capacidade de degradação efetiva da matéria seca (DEMS), proteína crua (DEPC) e parede celular (DEFDN) de cinco novas líneas e um híbrido de pasto buffel no nordeste do México. O consumo potencial de minerais con [...] tidos nos novos genótipos por bovinos também foi estimado. Todos os pastos se estabeleceram sob condições de temporal usando um desenho completamente ao azar com três repetições. A colheita manual de plantas foi levada adiante em 14 nov., 2000, em Nuevo León, México. A produção de MST não foi significativamente diferente entre pastos. No entanto, a proteína crua, parede celular e seus componentes (celulosa, hemi-celulosa e lignina) foram significativamente diferentes entre os pastos avaliados. Assim mesmo, DEMS, DEPC e DEFDN foram significativamente diferentes entre pastos. A híbrida "Nozes" teve os valores mais altos para degrabilidade, enquanto que a línea PI 2 teve os valores mais baixos. Ao parecer o alto conteúdo de lignina nos novos genótipos pode ter influído na baixa degradação dos nutrientes no rúmen dos borregos. Só K, Fe e Co, em todos os pastos, tiveram concentrações suficientes para satisfazer os requerimentos de gado de carne. Os resultados de produção de matéria seca e dinâmica nutricional sugerem que as novas líneas PI 1 e PI 4 podem ser consideradas como bons substitutos do híbrido Nozes para ruminantes em pastoreio no nordeste do México. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo evalúa y compara la producción de materia seca (MST), el contenido nutrimental y degradabilidad efectiva de la materia seca (DEMS), proteína cruda (DEPC) y pared celular (DEFDN) de cinco nuevas líneas y un híbrido de pasto buffel en el noreste de México. El consumo potencial de minerale [...] s contenidos en los nuevos genotipos por bovinos también fue estimado. Todos los pastos se establecieron bajo condiciones de temporal usando un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. La colecta manual de plantas fue llevada a cabo el 14 nov., 2000, en Nuevo León, México. La producción de MST no fue significativamente diferente entre zacates. Sin embargo, la proteína cruda, pared celular y sus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los pastos evaluados. Asimismo, DEMS, DEPC y DEFDN fueron significativamente diferentes entre pastos. El híbrido Nueces tuvo los valores más altos para degrabilidad, mientras la línea PI 2 tuvo los valores más bajos. Al parecer el alto contenido de lignina en los nuevos genotipos pudo haber influido en la baja degradación de los nutrientes en el rumen de los borregos. Solo K, Fe y Co, en todos los zacates, tuvieron concentraciones suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos de ganado de carne. Los resultados de producción de materia seca y dinámica nutricional sugieren que las nuevas líneas PI 1 y PI 4 pueden ser consideradas como buenos substitutos del híbrido Nueces para rumiantes en pastoreo en el noreste de México. Abstract in english This study evaluates and compares the dry matter production (TDM), chemical composition and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), crude protein (EDCP) and neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF) of the Nueces hybrid and five new genotypes of buffelgrass growing in Northeastern Mexico. Potential inta [...] ke of minerals by cattle consuming the new genotypes was also estimated. All grasses were established in a completely randomized design with three replicates in a rain fed experiment. Plants were hand harvested on Nov. 14, 2000 at Nuevo Leon, Mexico. TDM was not significantly different among genotypes. Crude protein content and cell wall and its components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were significantly different among grasses. Also, EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF were significantly different among the buffelgrass genotypes. The Nueces hybrid had the highest degradability values

Guillermo Juan, García Dessommes; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Rahim, Foroughbackhch P.; Rocío, Morales Rodríguez; Graciela, García Díaz.

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Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena, com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha. As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel.

Souza Antônio Alves de

2000-01-01

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Phylogenetic studies favour the unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum (Poaceae): a combined nuclear, plastid and morphological analysis, and nomenclatural combinations in Cenchrus  

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Backgrounds and Aims Twenty-five genera having sterile inflorescence branches were recognized as the bristle clade within the x = 9 Paniceae (Panicoideae). Within the bristle clade, taxonomic circumscription of Cenchrus (20–25 species), Pennisetum (80–140) and the monotypic Odontelytrum is still unclear. Several criteria have been applied to characterize Cenchrus and Pennisetum, but none of these has proved satisfactory as the diagnostic characters, such as fusion of bristles in the inflorescences, show continuous variation. Methods A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological, plastid (trnL-F, ndhF) and nuclear (knotted) data is presented for a representative species sampling of the genera. All analyses were conducted under parsimony, using heuristic searches with TBR branch swapping. Branch support was assessed with parsimony jackknifing. Key Results Based on plastid and morphological data, Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum were supported as a monophyletic group: the PCO clade. Only one section of Pennisetum (Brevivalvula) was supported as monophyletic. The position of P. lanatum differed among data partitions, although the combined plastid and morphology and nuclear analyses showed this species to be a member of the PCO clade. The basic chromosome number x = 9 was found to be plesiomorphic, and x = 5, 7, 8, 10 and 17 were derived states. The nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed a reticulate pattern of relationships among Pennisetum and Cenchrus, suggesting that there are at least three different genomes. Because apomixis can be transferred among species through hybridization, its history most likely reflects crossing relationships, rather than multiple independent appearances. Conclusions Due to the consistency between the present results and different phylogenetic hypotheses (including morphological, developmental and multilocus approaches), and the high support found for the PCO clade, also including the type species of the three genera, we propose unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum. Species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum are here transferred into Cenchrus, which has priority. Sixty-six new combinations are made here.

Chemisquy, M. Amelia; Giussani, Liliana M.; Scataglini, Maria A.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Morrone, Osvaldo

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Aboveground Biomass Production of Cenchrus ciliaris in Tunisian Arid Zone  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish a non destructive method for estimating the aboveground biomass of a plant species in the Tunisian arid area. We attempted to establish some models that could be used to predict the species biomass production. Field experiments were carried out on a Poaceae of a high range value Cenchrus ciliaris. The allometric relationships between the plant volume and aerial biomass were studied in autumn 2005 and spring 2006 seasons in southern Tunisia. Linear and nonlinear regressions were tested to establish the best correlations between individual aboveground biomass and plant volume parameters. Measured parameters were the plant height (H and canopy diameters. Firstly, a model of volume (canopy elliptical cylinder was tested as a predictor of plant biomass using nonlinear regression. Secondly, It was tested various relationships between the plant biomass and the mean canopy diameter (as the average of the longest canopy diameters maintained perpendicular to each other. Correlations between the aerial biomass production of individuals and their volumes produced a relatively high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.68. Also, correlations between the mean canopy diameter and the biomass production of individuals produced the best significant relationships with the highest R2. The use of the mean canopy diameter seems to be more practical for the plant biomass prediction.

Idi Abdelkader

2007-01-01

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Water use in an Introduced Buffel Grass (Cenchurs Ciliaris) Savanna in an Arid Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the prospect of a changing climate, a major concern is the future availability of water for agriculture, irrigation, power generation and human consumption. Nowhere is the concern greater than in South Asia where, in addition to an uncertain future climate, is the prospect of a rapidly expanding population. It is possible to identify two situations: regions that are not irrigated and regions that are irrigated using water from major rivers. For the former region, predictions of future precipitation patterns will suffice. But for the irrigated regions, predicting regional rainfall is not sufficient because water availability depends on precipitation from all parts of the catchment. In addition there is a need to marry rainfall variability (remote and local) with the hydrology of the major rivers themselves. Finally, there is the imperative question of what the future rainfall patterns will be like and what aspect of climate may determine them. First we consider the present climate and relationship of the river discharge of major systems to various temporal scales of motion. In particular, we note the importance of intraseasonal variability in promoting both regional rainfall patterns and in producing a proportion of interannual variability. We also consider forced interannual variability through variations in sea-surface temperature patterns. For rivers such as the Ganges, the variability associated with ENSO is very strong. For the Brahmaputra, SST relationships are much weaker although there is some evidence that winter mid-latitude anomalies may be associated with Himalayan-Tibetan snow pack and therefore early stream flow in late spring. Second, we consider the results of the IPCC coupled ocean atmosphere model integrations. We use quantile-to-quantile rainfall corrections between model and observations to determine present climate river discharges. These simulations are then applied to future discharges using the IPCC models simulations for the next 100 years. The purpose of the study is to determine the ability of models to simulate present river discharge and, thus, their ability to determine future states. In addition, the exercise is useful in determining what hydrological quantities are useful in reanalysis efforts.

Castellanos, A.; Rodriguez, J.; de La Barrera, E.; Mendez, R.; Watts, C.

2005-05-01

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Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris. PMID:23553451

Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

2013-07-01

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DIE BUFFEL STRUIKEL: ’N STORIE VAN 32 BATALJON EN SY MENSE/L.J. BOTHMA  

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“Die Buffel Struikel: ’n Storie van 32 Bataljon en Sy Mense” (The Buffalo Stumbles: A Story of 32 Battalion and Its People) was written originally in Afrikaans. The author is an Afrikaans-speaking white South African who, as a member of the well-known South African 32 “foreign legion” Battalion, participated in the Namibian Border War in the 1970s and 1980s. The war was fought by an army whose operational language for the major part was Afrikaans. However, two reasons call for a rev...

Abel Esterhuyse

2011-01-01

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Biomasa y composición nutricional de la asociación Cenchrus ciliaris - Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento  

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Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

J. L. Valle

2004-01-01

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DIE BUFFEL STRUIKEL: ’N STORIE VAN 32 BATALJON EN SY MENSE/L.J. BOTHMA  

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Full Text Available “Die Buffel Struikel: ’n Storie van 32 Bataljon en Sy Mense” (The Buffalo Stumbles: A Story of 32 Battalion and Its People was written originally in Afrikaans. The author is an Afrikaans-speaking white South African who, as a member of the well-known South African 32 “foreign legion” Battalion, participated in the Namibian Border War in the 1970s and 1980s. The war was fought by an army whose operational language for the major part was Afrikaans. However, two reasons call for a review of this book in English. Firstly, with the Western powers facing a serious insurgency threat in Iraq and elsewhere, the world has an urgent need for a new understanding, thinking and perspectives about counter-insurgency. Secondly, the book can be seen as a watershed contribution to the so-called Border War literature that, until now, has been dominated by contributions of journalists and writers with questionable motives.

Abel Esterhuyse

2011-08-01

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Comparative Physical Mapping of the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in Two Apomictic Grasses: Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris  

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In gametophytic apomicts of the aposporous type, each cell of the embryo sac is genetically identical to somatic cells of the ovule because they are products of mitosis, not of meiosis. The egg of the aposporous embryo sac follows parthenogenetic development into an embryo; therefore, uniform progeny result even from heterozygous plants, a trait that would be valuable for many crop species. Attempts to introgress apomixis from wild relatives into major crops through traditional breeding have ...

2006-01-01

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Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

2010-12-01

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Grass Lignocellulose  

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Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

Akin, Danny E.

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Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibras em detergente neutro (FDN e ácido (FDA, material mineral (MM, carboidratos totais (CHOT e não-fibrosos (CNF, respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, respectivamente.The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determination. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth., ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, ashes (ASH, total carbohydrates (TCH and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC, respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

Gladston Rafael de Arruda Santos

2005-04-01

71

Characterisation of grass fibres  

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The elementary grass fibres were isolated from different grass and legumes sorts, i.e. Ryegrass (Lolium hybridum Gumpenstein), Wheat straw, Trefoil (Trifolium pratense) and Lucerne (Medicago sativa). The fibre-samples were obtained in a bio-refinery, after the liquid phase containing proteins and lactic acid was eliminated from the ensiled and green grasses, respectively. For the isolation of elementary grass fibres different processes were used. The morphological characteristics of stems and...

2012-01-01

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Delineation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a single hemizygous chromosomal region associated with aposporous embryo sac formation in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.  

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Apomixis is a means of asexual reproduction by which plants produce embryos without meiosis and fertilization; thus the embryo is of clonal, maternal origin. We previously reported molecular markers showing no recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, and the collective single-dose alleles defined an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm that the ASGR is a...

2003-01-01

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Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco / Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de [...] amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS)/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), fibras em detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), material mineral (MM), carboidratos totais (CHOT) e não-fibrosos (CNF), respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), respectivamente. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determinati [...] on. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth.), ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ashes (ASH), total carbohydrates (TCH) and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC), respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

Santos, Gladston Rafael de Arruda; Guim, Adriana; Santos, Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Lira, Mário de Andrade; Dubeux Júnior, José Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria José da.

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Grass Wave (Perconia strigillaria)  

...Nature ReservesResearchSurveillance and MonitoringNatural Heritage Grant ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkGrass Wave (Perconia strigillaria)Last updated: 31 December 2010Description: Wingspan 36-41mm. Adults...

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Biocontrol Ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Different Growth Stages of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.  

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Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the biological control ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola infected to parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. at different stages of growth in a glasshouse. The study also investigated the combined effect of the infection and the competitor plant, i.e. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., a pasture species usually found in the weed habitat in Central Queensland. The 2 x 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates in each treatment. The parthenium weeds were planted with or without buffel grass. The plants were inoculated with P. abrupta var. partheniicola urediniospores either at the rosette, flowering or mature growth stage of development. As controls, an additional six non inoculated plants with and without buffel grass were planted. The results showed that P. abrupta var. partheniicola affected more on the younger plants than on the older ones. Its infection decreased the plant height. A higher reduction in plant above ground biomass was recorded because of the rust when the plants were inoculated at the rosette growth stage of development in the presence of competition. The impact of the rust was greatest on the ability of parthenium to produce seeds.

MOHAMAD TAUFIK FAUZI

2009-09-01

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Diversidad de las gramíneas de Durango, México / Diversity of the grasses from Durango, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estado de Durango, México, cuya posición geográfica se ubica en la región centro-norte del país, presenta una topografía rugosa y un clima y geología variables, lo que le confiere una riqueza florística relativamente alta en comparación con otras entidades de México. La presencia de gramíneas var [...] iadas en este estado le ha permitido ser productor de ganado de exportación durante el último siglo, Herrera (2001) reporta 97 géneros y 338 especies de gramíneas para Durango, que comparadas con otras entidades resulta ser tan sólo superada por cinco estados mexicanos: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca y Sinaloa por el número de especies (Dávila y col., 2006). En este trabajo se muestra la distribución de los taxa que se encuentran creciendo en respuesta a las condiciones climáticas del estado, así como otros grupos de especies interesantes por su condición para subsistir: 1) especies endémicas [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] y especies raras o escasas [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) especies adaptadas a suelos salinos, alcalinos o yesosos [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) especies introducidas para ser cultivadas y escapadas de cultivo [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Megathyrsus maximus]; 4) especies que requieren ambientes acuáticos y subacuáticos [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum]. Abstract in english Durango is a state located at the north-central part of Mexico, because of its geographical position it has a rugose topography, a variable climate and geology which confers to it a relatively high floristic richness compared to other Mexican states. The presence of varied grasses in this area has p [...] ermitted to it being a cattle production in the last century, Herrera (2001) reported 97 genera and 338 species of grasses from Durango, that compared with other entities results to be surpassed only for 5 Mexican states: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca and Sinaloa based on the number of species (Dávila y col., 2006). The distribution of grasses growing in response to the climatic conditions of the State is shown, as well as other species which are interesting because of the condition to subsist: 1) endemic species [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] and rare species [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) species adapted to saline, alcaline or gypsofile soils [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) introduced species to be cultivated and escaped from cultivars [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Urochloa máxima]; 4) species which are aquatic or subaquatic [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum].

Herrera Arrieta, Yolanda; Cortés Ortiz, Armando.

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Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramíneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto / Effect of polycropping on the establishment of three tropical grasses, on a Vertisol soil of the Cauto Valley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramíneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramíneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide) y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino [...] ; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz) en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro réplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interacción altamente significativa (p Abstract in english In order to evaluate the influence of polycropping on the establishment of grasses, on a Vertisol soil, three tropical grasses (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela and Chloris gayana cv. Callide) and five legumes (Vigna radiata, variety mung bean; and Vigna unguiculata, varieti [...] es: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 and IITA precoz) were sown in polycrop and monocrop systems. The design was split plots, with four replications and 18 treatments. The crop combinations did not affect the pasture establishment. There was highly significant interaction (p

Gómez, I; Fernández, J. L; Estrada, L. L; Olivera, Yuseika; Botello, A.

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Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

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Perennial Grass Growth and Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Central to the management of perennial grasses in traditional range and pasture and advanced biomass energy production systems is having a firm understanding of how grasses grow and develop.  In this lesson module, you will learn about physiology, growth, and development of perennial grasses through animation, text, and video.  It will discuss grass seed structures and functions; the process of grass seedling establishment; morphological structures of grasses once they are established; and how perennial grasses grow. This module is written for beginning agronomy, plant science, and natural resource ecology and management students and will be useful for advanced high school students or introductory-level undergraduates. Extension audiences wishing to learn more about perennial grasses will also find the lesson helpful.

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Germinación de cuatro pastos bajo condiciones de estrés salino / Germination of four grasses under salt stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las forrajeras cultivadas son en Argentina el sustento fundamental de los sistemas ganaderos tradicionales. Actualmente, la implantación de pasturas en zonas cada vez más áridas es uno de los principales desafíos para la ganadería. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la germinación de cuatro esp [...] ecies forrajeras: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas y Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino. Se utilizaron soluciones de NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 y Manitol como soluto inerte, obteniéndose potenciales osmóticos (?o) de -0,5, -1, -1,5, -2,0 y -2,5 MPa. Las semillas se sembraron en cajas de Petri sobre papel de germinación, se regaron con 4 mL de solución y se incubaron a 25 °C. El diseño fue al azar con 4 repeticiones. Diariamente, durante 10 días, se contó el número de semillas germinadas y con los datos obtenidos se calculó el porcentaje, la velocidad de germinación (ERI) y el tiempo medio de germinación (MT). Los datos se analizaron con el software estadístico Infostat. A medida que se incrementó la concentración de la solución se observó que la germinación disminuyó en las cuatro especies. En general las sales de SO4-2 resultaron más perjudiciales para la germinación que las de Cl-. Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas resultó la especie más tolerante al estrés hídrico inducido con manitol, registrando porcentajes de germinación cercanos al 50% aún en ?o de -2,5 MPa. En contraste, Panicumcoloratun cv Klein verde fue la especie menos tolerante a condiciones de estrés, presentando bajos porcentajes de germinación a -1 MPa y ninguna respuesta a -1.5 MPa o potenciales hídricos menores, independientemente del soluto utilizado. Abstract in english In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubesce [...] ns, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (?o) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of deionized water and incubated to 25 °C. We used a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. During 10 days, the number of sprouted seeds was counted daily, and the percentage of germination, the speed of germination (ERI) and the mean time to germination (MTG), were calculated. Data were analyzed with the statistical software Infostat. Germination declined with increasing concentration of the solution in the four species. In general, salts of SO4-2 proved more damaging to the germination than those of Cl-.Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas was the most water stress tolerant species, with percentages of germination close to 50% even in ?o of -2.5 MPa. On the contrary, Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde was the less tolerant, with low percentages of germination at -1 MPa, and no response to ?o of -1.5 MPa or lower.

Ruiz, M; Terenti, O.

 
 
 
 
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5.NF Grass Seedlings  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The students in Raulâs class were growing grass seedlings in different conditions for a science project. He noticed that Pabloâs seedlings were $1\\frac...

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Purple Moor-grass (Molinia caerulea)  

...ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkPurple Moor-grass (Molinia caerulea)Last updated: 31 December...Last updated: 31 December 2010Purple Moor-grass is an upright tussock forming grass found in a...

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WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS  

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Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

Akula Annapurna

2013-10-01

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common cord grass spartina trifold final  

...it to feed goats and carp and for making paper. However...Geese) What is Common Cord-Grass? Common Cord-Grass, also known as Spartina anglica...the intertidal zone. Common Cord-Grass is an invasive perennial grass that grows mostly on soft...

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Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em...

2011-01-01

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Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods  

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Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd) was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP) data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and ...

Goran Kis; Darko Grbesa; Antun Kostelic; Danijel Karolyi

2010-01-01

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Valor nutritivo da vegetação herbácea de caatinga enriquecida e pastejada por ovinos e caprinos Nutritive value of herbaceous vegetation of caatinga enriched and grazed by sheep and goats  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química, digestibilidade e o consumo da vegetação herbácea de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos. Foram utilizados 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês com peso vivo médio de 15kg. Os dados da vegetação foram analisados através de delineamento inteiramente casualizado com observações repetidas no tempo, e os de consumo dos animais foram em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e 12 repetições. O pastejo não afetou a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da vegetação herbácea. Em avaliação do dia 01 de junho os três componentes florísticos apresentaram os menores percentuais de matéria seca e os maiores de teores de proteína bruta e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. Entretanto ocorreu o inverso em 01 de agosto, que diferiu até mesmo do observado em 01 de setembro e 01 de outubro. Os caprinos apresentaram consumo de 437,47g de matéria seca, superior aos 331,78g de matéria seca ingerida pelos ovinos. Embora a matéria seca disponível da Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel apresentasse baixos teores de proteína bruta e de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, os caprinos conseguiram selecionar uma dieta capaz de permitir um consumo superior a 2% do peso vivo.The objective of this word was to evaluate the chemical composition, digestibility and intake of herbaceous vegetation in a thinned and enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. Caatinga grazed by sheeps and goats. 12 goats F1 (Boer x SRD and 12 Santa Inês sheeps with live weight of 15,00kg were used. The vegetation data were analyzed using a completely randomized design with repeated observations over time, and the animals intake of was also a completely randomized design with two treatments and twelve repetitions. Grazing did not affect the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of herbaceous vegetation. On the evaluation on june 1st the three floristic components had the lowest percentage of dry matter and the higherest percentages of crude protein and in vitro digestibility of dry matter, while the opposite occurred in august 1st, differing even from that observed in september 1st and october 1st. The goats intake was 437.47 of dry matter, compared to 331.78g of dry matter intake by sheep. Although the available dry matter from thinned and enriched caatinga with buffel grass presented low levels of crude protein and in vitro digestibility of dry matter, the goats were able to select a diet that allowed intake of more than 2% of body weight.

Marcílio Fontes Cézar

2011-06-01

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Toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala for steers in the wet tropics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brahman crossbred steers grazed Leucaena leucocephala (cv Peru) for 0, 1/2, 1 1/2, 2 1/2, 3 1/2, 4 1/2, 5 1/2, or 6 1/2 days per week grazing Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) for the 1 1/2, remainder, for at least 50 weeks. Animals grazing Buffel grass only or Leucaena for 1/2 day only grew faster than all other groups in the wet season (0.75 dg/day) but not in the dry season (0.44 dg/day) and had normal thyroxine concentrations in blood. All other groups grew more slowly, had reduced blood thyroxine, fatter carcasses and in some cases showed alopecia, excessive salivation and goitre; 1 steer died. Poorest growth rates in the wet season (0.44 dg/day) were achieved with signs occurred with 4 1/2, 5 1/2 or 6 1/2 days of Leucaena. The frequent observation of toxicity of Leucaena when grazed by cattle under irrigated or wet tropical conditions suggests that its use as a browse legume under these conditions needs further examination. PMID:7233563

Holmes, J H

1981-05-01

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Use of browses (Terminalia serecia, Combretum apiculatum or Euclea schimperi) as a supplement for growing Tswana goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty yearling male castrated Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals. All the animals were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while lucerne (Medicago sativa) was fed to the control group as supplement. The other three groups were fed either Combretum apiculatum, Terminalia serecia or Euclea schimperi as a supplement. The basal diet comprised 60% of the ration, while the lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Water was provided daily. Leftover water and feed were measured daily. The goats were weigted every 2 weeks, prior to the morning feed. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The average daily dry matter intake of the lucerne, C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi supplements was 702.17, 769.91, 776.68 and 752.50 g, respectively, and was not significantly different between treatments (p > 0.05). The average daily water intake was significantly different (p 0.05). Differences in feed conversion ratio were not significant (p > 0.05), but the ratio was lower for the goats on lucerne at 9.00 compared to 10.41, 11.98, and 11.23 for C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi, respectively. The study demonstrated that these browses can be used to replace lucerne as a supplement for Tswana goats fed on buffel grass hay as the basal diet. PMID:10509422

Aganga, A A; Monyatsiwa, C B

1999-10-01

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Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

Sullivan, R.G.

1992-06-01

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REPELENCIA DE LOS PASTOS Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha Y Cenchrus ciliaris SOBRE LARVAS DE GARRAPATA Amblyomma cajennense F. (Acari:Ixodidae  

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Full Text Available En el trópico y subtropico a nivel mundial, uno de los principales problemas zoosanitarios que afectan la productividad ganadera, principalmente en bovinos es la garrapata, además trasmiten las enfermedades Anaplasmosis y Babesiosis. El establecimiento de pastos repelentes a la garrapata es un control biológico alternativo para solucionar este problema. Por tanto, el objetivo fue determinar la repelencia en Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha y Cenchrus ciliaris sobre larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. La investigación se realizó en la localidad de Mora, municipio de Tepic, Nayarit, México. Se formaron 24 parcelas de 35 m2 a distancia entre ellas de 1 m, con cinco unidades de muestreo cada una (5 x 1 m de ancho y pasillos de 0.5 m entre unidades. Las unidades se infestaron con aproximadamente 5,000 larvas de A. cajenennse, el efecto anti-garrapata de los pastos se evaluó mediante la recuperación de larvas adheridas por método de Franela en los tiempos 7, 14, 21 días de post-infestación. Los tratamientos fueron los cuatro pastos descritos con seis repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados fueron analizados por el procedimiento PROC MIXED de SAS y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p<0.05, donde M. minutiflora presentó el mayor efecto repelente (p<0.05 por la menor cantidad de larvas recuperadas (2.39 ± 0.13 que el resto de los pastos, en C. ciliaris (1,192.04 ± 10.3, A. gayanus (72.48 ± 10.30 y B. brizantha (56.48 ± 11.68, en los dos últimos tratamientos no hubo significación en larvas recolectadas. Para los tres tiempos de colecta también se mostraron diferencias (p<0.05 en la media de larvas recuperadas en los pastos. Se concluye que los zacates Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus y Brachiaria brizantha manifestaron repelencia contra larvas de A. cajennense, sin embargo el que muestra mayor es M. minutiflora.

Ulloa Castañeda RR

2013-07-01

92

Comparative genetics in the grasses  

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Genetic mapping of wheat, maize, and rice and other grass species with common DNA probes has revealed remarkable conservation of gene content and gene order over the 60 million years of radiation of Poaceae. The linear organization of genes in some nine different genomes differing in basic chromosome number from 5 to 12 and nuclear DNA amount from 400 to 6,000 Mb, can be described in terms of only 25 “rice linkage blocks.” The extent to which this intergenomic ...

Gale, Michael D.; Devos, Katrien M.

1998-01-01

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Desempenho produtivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas à base de feno de gramíneas tropicais / Performance of sheep fed tropical grass hay based diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo e o consumo de matéria seca e nutrientes em ovinos confinados e alimentados com dietas à base de fenos das gramíneas: capim-elefante, capim-buffel, capim-milhã-roxa e capim-urochloa. Foram utilizados 32 animais da raça Santa Inê [...] s (16 machos e 16 femeas) com peso médio de 26,5 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por dois animais. Os animais apresentaram respostas semelhantes para todos os parâmetros avaliados. O ganho de peso foi semelhante entre as dietas estudadas, sendo o valor médio para ganho de peso de 95 g/animal/dia. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de matéria seca e fibra detergente neutro entre as várias dietas estudadas. As dietas à base de feno de milhã-roxa permitiram maior consumo de proteína bruta. Concluiu-se que os fenos avaliados podem ser utilizados na alimentação de ovinos. Abstract in english A study was conducted to evaluate the performance and the dry matter and nutrients intake in feedlot sheep fed diets with different levels of hray from tropical grasses: elephantgrass, buffelgrass, "milhã-roxa" and "urochloa"grass. Santa Inês hairy sheep (16 males and 16 females; average weight = 26 [...] ,5 kg). A completely randomized design, with four replicates and two animals per experimental unit, was used. Males and females showed the same response to all treatments. Weight gain was similar for all diets, with an average of 95 g/animal/day. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake were not different among all treatments. However, diets with "milhã-rôxa" hay were associated to the highest crude protein intake. It was concluded that all types of hay can be used for feedlot sheep.

Camurça, Daniel Aguiar; Neiva, José Neuman Miranda; Pimentel, José Carlos Machado; Vasconcelos, Vânia Rodrigues; Lôbo, Raimundo Nonato Braga.

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Desempenho produtivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas à base de feno de gramíneas tropicais Performance of sheep fed tropical grass hay based diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo e o consumo de matéria seca e nutrientes em ovinos confinados e alimentados com dietas à base de fenos das gramíneas: capim-elefante, capim-buffel, capim-milhã-roxa e capim-urochloa. Foram utilizados 32 animais da raça Santa Inês (16 machos e 16 femeas com peso médio de 26,5 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por dois animais. Os animais apresentaram respostas semelhantes para todos os parâmetros avaliados. O ganho de peso foi semelhante entre as dietas estudadas, sendo o valor médio para ganho de peso de 95 g/animal/dia. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de matéria seca e fibra detergente neutro entre as várias dietas estudadas. As dietas à base de feno de milhã-roxa permitiram maior consumo de proteína bruta. Concluiu-se que os fenos avaliados podem ser utilizados na alimentação de ovinos.A study was conducted to evaluate the performance and the dry matter and nutrients intake in feedlot sheep fed diets with different levels of hray from tropical grasses: elephantgrass, buffelgrass, "milhã-roxa" and "urochloa"grass. Santa Inês hairy sheep (16 males and 16 females; average weight = 26,5 kg. A completely randomized design, with four replicates and two animals per experimental unit, was used. Males and females showed the same response to all treatments. Weight gain was similar for all diets, with an average of 95 g/animal/day. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake were not different among all treatments. However, diets with "milhã-rôxa" hay were associated to the highest crude protein intake. It was concluded that all types of hay can be used for feedlot sheep.

Daniel Aguiar Camurça

2002-09-01

95

Solar house for drying grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar grass-drying facility has been developed for agricultural purposes. The collector also serves as the roof for a drying building and comprises a collecting plate made of dull-black corrugated steel and a transparent cover plate of FRP, FRA, MMA, PC or glass. There is a small gap between the collecting plate and the cover plate, thus forming a heat-insulating space and a ventilating space enclosed by the collecting plate and a heat-insulating enclosure. The specifications of one commercial-type solar grass-drying facility are: a 59.6-m/sup 2/ building, a 89.4-m/sup 2/ (40% slope) collecting area, a 29.8-m/sup 2/ drying room, a 3-phase 2.25-kW motor for ventilation and an axial flow-type blower (770-mm diameter, 230 m/sup 3//min ventilating rate, 300-mm aq. effective static head and 1450 rpm). The results of actual grass-drying processes at the facility as well as the weather conditions and the drying cost are discussed.

Kojima, K.

1981-01-01

96

Ningxia decision on grass, tree planting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports on plans to plant grass and trees, develop animal husbandry, and transform areas in northwestern China which are subject to drought. Proposed governmental measures include an educational program to show the relationship between grass and tree planting and developing animal husbandry and grain production; a mobilization of the people in the grass and tree planting campaign; the strengthening of scientific and technical guidance; and the creation of cadre responsibility systems.

1983-10-15

97

Non-systemic fungal endophytes of grasses.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[ENG] Many fungi behave as endophytes in grasses. Unlike the well known Epichloë/Neotyphodium species, most other endophytes are not capable of systemic colonization of plant organs, or seed transmission. The species diversity of the non-systemic endophytic mycobiota of grasses is large, dominated by ascomycetes. The relative abundance of species is very unequal, a few dominant taxa like Acremonium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, and Penicillium spp., occur in many grasses and location...

2011-01-01

98

Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN) e hídrico (BH), de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi ut...

2013-01-01

99

Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-07-01

100

Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales: Revisión / Apomixis importance for tropical forage grass selection and breeding: Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Apomixis es un tipo reproductivo donde la producción de semilla ocurre sin fusión de gametos, resultando por generaciones, en descendencia que genéticamente, es copia fiel del progenitor materno. La apomixis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida entre las gramíneas forrajeras tropicales: Bothriochloa [...] , Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. Las especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México. Abstract in english Apomixis is a reproductive system resulting in seed production without gametes fusion, and produces, through generations, offspring that is a genetic copy from the maternal progenitor. Apomixis importance is widespread among tropical grasses: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchru [...] s, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum, Urochloa, among the most important. Apomictic species contain diploid as well as polyploid individuals conforming "agamic complexes" and reproductive barriers limited both by apomixis as well as ploidy level which has a great impact on apomictic species utilization. Diploid individuals maintain active the sexuality and these are rare out of the center of specie's genetic origin center. Polyploid individuals in nature are apomictic, and sexual individuals may be induced to polyploidy in the laboratory, allowing hybrid descendants production. Genetic richness originated within the specie's center of diversity is the basis to overcome productive challenges and ecological stability: dry season productivity, nitrogen fixation, forage quality, pest and disease resistance, etc.; as it has been shown by successful breeding programs for Brachiaria and Panicum, between the most recognized for Latin America, and Cenchrus in USA. Apomixis research advancements has elucidated the biology for this reproductive process as well as the techniques for its manipulation; however, the impact of this advancements on forage research in México has promoted a critical review on forage genetic resources utilization, resulting in an increased interest on hybrid material production to face the requirements for extensive grazing production systems in Mexico.

Adrián R., Quero Carrillo; Javier F., Enríquez Quiroz; Carlos R., Morales Nieto; Leonor, Miranda Jiménez.

102

Processing and utilizing Reed Canary Grass briquettes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Finland should increase the share of renewable energy to the level of 38 % by the end of 2020. Main pat of the increase will be based on bioenergy, as wood and agro biomass. The aim of this study is to test and develop Reed Canary Grass briquettes processing and distribute information of production possibilities to the region of South Savo. The Reed Canary Grass briquettes durability and usability were tested in the LUT laboratory. The results were compared to wood briquettes test results. The aim of laboratory tests was to find out possibilities to test Reed Canary Grass briquettes in small-scale district heating plants. Thus in the future Reed Canary briquettes could be one fuel option for those plants. Nowadays, Reed Canary Grass is utilized in large scale CHP plants and the share of Reed Canary Grass is under 20 % from total fuel consumption in these plants. The production of Reed Canary Grass briquettes was developed and tested in Kuortane, Finland. In the future, the utilization of Reed Canary Grass briquettes can play a little part to achieve the targets of national renewable energy use. (orig.)

Laihanen, M.; Ranta, T. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland). LUT Energy)

2009-07-01

103

Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein (CP) after passing the rumen, the intestines and the total gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in grass and grass silages were determined with the two-step mobile nylon bag technique and a two-step in vitro...

Cone, J. W.; Gelder, A. H.; Mathijssen-kamman, A. A.; Hindle, V. A.

2006-01-01

104

Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

Hall, R.L.

2003-07-01

105

Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

Laats, Alar

2006-01-01

106

Relationships of cereal crops and other grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grass family includes some 10,000 species, and it encompasses tremendous morphological, physiological, ecological, and genetic diversity. The phylogeny of the family is becoming increasingly well understood. There were two major radiations of grasses, an early diversification leading to the subfamilies Pooideae, Bambusoideae, and Oryzoideae, and a later one leading to Panicoideae, Chloridoideae, Centothecoideae, and Arundinoideae. The phylogeny can be used to d...

Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

1998-01-01

107

Genetic Compatibility Determines Endophyte-Grass Combinations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertica...

2010-01-01

108

Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cul...

Edilane Aparecida da Silva; Wilson Jesus da Silva; Antônio Carlos Barreto; Antonio Barbosa de Oliveira Junior; José Mauro Valente Paes; José Reinaldo Mendes Ruas; Domingos Sávio Queiroz

2012-01-01

109

Morphogenetic characteristics and management of Tanzania grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing interval and period of evaluation over tissue turnover in Tanzania grass pastures (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania and to ascertain if herbage accumulation rate can be used as a criterion to establish a defoliation schedule for this grass in Southeast of Brazil. A randomized block design with a split-plot arrangement was used. The effect of three grazing intervals was evaluated within seven periods between October 1995 and September 1996. Responses monitored were leaf and stem elongation rates, leaf senescence rate, stem length, and tiller density. Net herbage accumulation rate was calculated using tissue turnover data. The grazing intervals for Tanzania grass should be around 38 days between October and April (spring and early autumn and 28 days during the reproductive phase of the grass (April/May. Between May and September (late autumn and winter, grazing interval should be around 48 days. Herbage accumulation rate is not a good criterion to establish defoliation time for Tanzania grass. Studies on the effects of stem production in grazing efficiency, animal intake and forage quality are needed to improve Tanzania grass management.

Santos Patricia Menezes

2003-01-01

110

Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. PMID:24471834

Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

2014-04-29

111

Afforestation of degraded grass land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

Basappa, B.

1983-01-01

112

Molecular aspects of flower development in grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grass family (Poaceae) of the monocotyledons includes about 10,000 species and represents one of the most important taxa among angiosperms. Their flower morphology is remarkably different from those of other monocotyledons and higher eudicots. The peculiar floral structure of grasses is the floret, which contains carpels and stamens, like eudicots, but lacks petals and sepals. The reproductive organs are surrounded by two lodicules, which correspond to eudicot petals, and by a palea and lemma, whose correspondence to eudicot organs remains controversial. The molecular and genetic analysis of floral morphogenesis and organ specification, primarily performed in eudicot model species, led to the ABCDE model of flower development. Several genes required for floral development in grasses correspond to class A, B, C, D, and E genes of eudicots, but others appear to have unique and diversified functions. In this paper, we outline the present knowledge on the evolution and diversification of grass genes encoding MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors, based on information derived from studies in rice, maize, and wheat. Moreover, we review recent advances in studying the genes involved in the control of flower development and the extent of structural and functional conservation of these genes between grasses and eudicots. PMID:21877128

Ciaffi, Mario; Paolacci, Anna Rita; Tanzarella, Oronzo Antonio; Porceddu, Enrico

2011-12-01

113

Evolution of Centromeric Retrotransposons in Grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) constitute a family of plant retroelements, some of which have the ability to target their insertion almost exclusively to the functional centromeres. Our exhaustive analysis of CR family members in four grass genomes revealed not only horizontal transfer (HT) of CR elements between the oryzoid and panicoid grass lineages but also their subsequent recombination with endogenous elements that in some cases created prolific recombinants in foxtail millet and sorghum. HT events are easily identifiable only in cases where host genome divergence significantly predates HT, thus documented HT events likely represent only a fraction of the total. If the more difficult to detect ancient HT events occurred at frequencies similar to those observable in present day grasses, the extant long terminal repeat retrotransposons represent the mosaic products of HT and recombination that are optimized for retrotransposition in their host genomes. This complicates not only phylogenetic analysis but also the establishment of a meaningful retrotransposon nomenclature, which we have nevertheless attempted to implement here. In contrast to the plant-centric naming convention used currently for CR elements, we classify elements primarily based on their phylogenetic relationships regardless of host plant, using the exhaustively studied maize elements assigned to six different subfamilies as a standard. The CR2 subfamily is the most widely distributed of the six CR subfamilies discovered in grass genomes to date and thus the most likely to play a functional role at grass centromeres.

Sharma, Anupma; Presting, Gernot G.

2014-01-01

114

Branching of tillers in some grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In investigations on the grass regeneration biology a special attention was paid to the formation of aerial tillers and branching pseudostolons in Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Festuca pratensis Huds., Festuca rubra L., Phleum pratense L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., Lolium perenne L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Arrhenatherum elatius (L. P. B., Holcus lanatus L., Agropyron repens (L. P. B., Avenastrum pubescens (Huds Opiz and Agrostis alba L. Aerial tillers, vegetative short ones and with partly elongated internodes as well as generative tillers formed in tufted and rhizomatous grasses. Parental raised tillers, on which aerial tillers developed, had the anatomical structure specific for grass stems. In tufted grasses, moreover, parental branching pseudostolons developed; in their cross section the arrangement of tissues specific for stolons was observed. They constituted the starting point for agglomerations of new plants rooting in soil, contrary to raised tillers. In some grass species, beside pendant roots, shorter roots grew at the base of aerial tillers; they surrounded with a ring the parent shoot in the node, thus reinforcing the connection of aerial tillers with the stem. An attention was paid to the favourable role of branching pseudostolons in the sward thickness formation. Conditions of the arrangement of tissues in the stem cross section, owing to which the rhizomatous form is developed, are discussed. The fertilization with compost or the covering with sand results in the formation of tillers resembling pseudorhizomes.

Leontyna Olszewska

1981-06-01

115

Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus, orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii, feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris; os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1 comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes.Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to fertilization. Cenchrus ciliaris had higher K concentrations and contents than the legumes, indicating a larger K absorption capacity. There was no correspondence between soil analysis and nutrient supplying capacity.

Eduardo R. Araújo

2011-09-01

116

Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species

Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno

2012-01-01

117

Measuring the flow resistance of submerged grass  

Science.gov (United States)

Through laboratory experiments conducted in a grass-lined flume, the hydraulic resistance of grass is measured and quantified. For the grass examined, it is found that Manning's n value is greater than those recommended in well-established texts such as Chow (1959. Open Channel Flow. McGraw-Hill: Singapore), relatively lower than those predicted by n-UR methods, but corresponds well with the value found from calibration studies of two- and three-dimensional numerical models. The assumption of a uniform Manning's n value with flow depth, which is often made in numerical modelling, may be invalid depending on the relative submergence of the vegetation. Drag coefficients are evaluated for a method applicable to three-dimensional numerical models. Further detailed experimental investigation and application of these approaches within a numerical modelling framework is now recommended.

Wilson, C. A. M. E.; Horritt, M. S.

2002-09-01

118

Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

2012-01-01

119

Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1, clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1, tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1, haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones, applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 , clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 , tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 , fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 , haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 and control (no herbicide. In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

A.L.L. Barroso

2010-01-01

120

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will be limited to ornamental plants grown for commercial sale and seeds and transplants produced for commercial sale as propagation stock....

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Clover-grass as an energy crop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breeding of clover grass on fallow areas as a resource for methane generation has several important advantages. It does not require any additional nitrogen fertilizer as it can fix the atmospheric nitrogen.Herbicides are unnecessary as most weeds are one-year plants, while clover is perennial. From methane generation data for clover-grass the gross energy generation has been calculated to 11.08 MJ per kg dry matter. Net energy generation (with account for electric power) is calculated to 14.00 MJ/kg dry matter. (EG)

1996-01-01

122

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days ...

2013-01-01

123

Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dyn...

Hang Qiu; Leiting Chen; Chen, Jim X.; Yugang Liu

2012-01-01

124

Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration grass species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration plants have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments rely on toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide Mn toxicity thresholds for grasses commonly used in restoration. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of redtop, slender wheatgrass, tufted hairgrass, big bluegrass, basin wildrye, and common wheat were grown in sand culture and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn. The LC50, EC50-plant, EC50-shoot, EC50-root, PT50-shoot, and the PT50-root were then determined. Phytotoxicity thresholds and effective concentrations for the restoration species were generally higher than values reported for agronomic species. Our estimates of PT50-shoot for the five restoration grasses range from 41,528 to 120,082 mg Mn kg-1. Measures of EC50-plant for these restoration grasses ranged from 877 to >6,000 mg Mn l-1. These thresholds might be more useful for risk assessors than those based on crop plants that are widely used. - Mn phytotoxicity thresholds for restoration grasses should be useful for risk assessments of metal-contaminated lands

2005-05-01

125

Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration grass species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration plants have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments rely on toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide Mn toxicity thresholds for grasses commonly used in restoration. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of redtop, slender wheatgrass, tufted hairgrass, big bluegrass, basin wildrye, and common wheat were grown in sand culture and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn. The LC50, EC50-plant, EC50-shoot, EC50-root, PT50-shoot, and the PT50-root were then determined. Phytotoxicity thresholds and effective concentrations for the restoration species were generally higher than values reported for agronomic species. Our estimates of PT50-shoot for the five restoration grasses range from 41,528 to 120,082 mg Mn kg{sup -1}. Measures of EC50-plant for these restoration grasses ranged from 877 to >6,000 mg Mn l{sup -1}. These thresholds might be more useful for risk assessors than those based on crop plants that are widely used. - Mn phytotoxicity thresholds for restoration grasses should be useful for risk assessments of metal-contaminated lands.

Paschke, Mark W. [Colorado State University, Department of Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Stewardship, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1472 (United States)]. E-mail: mark.paschke@colostate.edu; Valdecantos, Alejandro [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo (CEAM), 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Redente, Edward F. [Colorado State University, Department of Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Stewardship, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1472 (United States)

2005-05-01

126

Native grasses for rehabilitating Hunter Valley minesites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introduced plant species, particularly grasses, have long been used to rehabilitate mined land in Australia. Interest in using native species spawned a research project in the Hunter Valley which has demonstrated the suitability of certain native species for rehabilitation and put forward guidelines to enhance the chance of their successful establishment. 4 photos., 1 tab.

Huxtable, C. [NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW (Australia)

1998-04-01

127

Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

Danijel Karolyi

2010-01-01

128

A comparison of the immune response to immunotherapy with polymerized grass allergen and monomeric grass allergen.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the immune response of ten patients treated with polymerized grass (PG) immunotherapy with that of 12 patients treated with conventional monomer grass (MG) immunotherapy. The patients treated with PG immunotherapy received a mean cumulative dose of 44,840 protein nitrogen units (PNU), and those treated with MG immunotherapy received a mean cumulative dose of 46,083 PNU. Total antibody binding of perennial rye grass groups I, II, and III (RGGI, RGGII, and RGGIII) was measured in the serum of each individual. In addition, IgG titers to partially purified extracts of Bermuda, timothy, and orchard grass were also determined. A significant increase in the total antibody binding of RGGI, as well as an increase in the mean IgG titer to Bermuda, timothy, and orchard grass was demonstrated after treatment in the patients who had received PG immunotherapy. The mean total antibody binding of RGGII and RGGIII also increased in these patients, although not significantly. No significant difference in the mean total antibody binding of RGGI, RGGII, or RGGIII nor in the mean IgG titer to the three grass extracts was found in the sera of the two groups of patients. This study demonstrates a comparable immune response between immunotherapy with PG and MG, and retention of antigenic determinants during the polymerization process. PMID:3767091

Fitzsimons, R; Grammer, L C; Shaughnessy, M A; Patterson, R

1986-10-01

129

Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

1983-01-01

130

Catalytic characteristics of peroxidase from wheat grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crude enzyme extract of wheat grass was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and isoelectric chromatofocusing on Polybuffer exchanger (PBE 94) for purification. The purified peroxidase was then characterized for its catalytic characteristics. It was found that AgNO3 at a concentration of 0.25 mM and MnSO4 and EDTA at concentrations of 5 mM significantly inhibited the activity of wheat grass peroxidase. However, KCl, NaCl, CuCl2, CaCl2, ZnCl2, and MgCl2 at concentrations of 5.0 mM and HgCl2 at a concentration of 0.25 mM enhanced enzyme activity. Chemical modification significantly influenced the activity of wheat grass peroxidase. Particularly, N-bromosuccinimide (5 mM) inhibited 16% of the enzyme activity, whereas N-acetylimidazole (2.5 mM), diethyl pyrocarbonate (2.5 mM), and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (2.5 mM) enhanced by 18-29% of the enzyme activity. Such results implied that tryptophan, histidine, tyrosine, and serine residues are related to enzyme activity. The pH optima for wheat grass peroxidase to catalyze the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (OPD), catechol, pyrogallol, and guaiacol were 5.0, 4.5, 6.5, and 5.0, respectively. The apparent Km values for OPD, catechol, pyrogallol, and guaiacol were 2.9, 18.2, 2.5, and 3.8 mM, respectively. Under optimal reaction conditions, wheat grass peroxidase catalyzed the oxidation of OPD (an aromatic amine substrate) 3-11 times more rapidly than guaiacol, catechol, and pyrogallol (phenolic substrates containing one to three hydroxy groups in the benzene ring). PMID:17061841

Lai, Lih-Shiuh; Wang, Dai-Jung; Chang, Chen-Tien; Wang, Cheng-Hsin

2006-11-01

131

A REVIEW ON LEMON GRASS: AGRICULTURAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lemongrass (Cymbopogan flexuosus and Cymbopogan Citraus is regarded as one of the grass which is commonly available in India and abroad. It is widely used in different conditions of pain and discomfort. The oil (Lemongrass oil obtained from the grass has diverse medicinal value. It also produces semi-synthetic Vitamin A that reduces the risk of Xerophthalmia and Night blindness. The grass has great benefits to mankind as it revitalizes the body and mind, helps with infections and act as muscle and skin toner. This review will explore the plant / grass and also suggest for more cultivation of the grass because of its medicinal importance.

Vaibhav Srivastava

2013-08-01

132

Pelletizing Reed canary grass; Pelletering av roerflen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heavy growth in production of wood pellets in Sweden the last years and the expected increase of demand in the future will raise the need of other raw material sources than wood residues. At the Swedish University of Agricultural sciences (SLU) and the unit of biomass technology and chemistry (BTK) the energy grass, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied for several years. A special method of delayed harvest in springtime the year after the growing season has improved the combustion characteristics of the grass. The delayed harvested grass show lower content of chlorine and potassium compared to grass harvested in summer and this will improve fuel quality. Dry matter of delayed harvested reed canary grass has also reached high (85-88 %) levels by baling in springtime. In this work the upgrading conditions of delayed harvested reed canary grass have been studied. Pelletizers and other equipment for energy pellets industry has mainly been developed for woody materials. Problems with this and other ways of pre treating the raw material have been studied in this project in order to create a better material flow and a more even pelletizing process. The main part of the studies has been carried out at the pilot plan BTC. A test arrangement has been built up with different mills, conveyors and a small scale pelletizer with a nominal capacity of 300 kg/h. This press has a working principal with a fixed cylindrical die and rotating holder for the press roles. A general problem in pelletizing this dry grass material has been the uneven material flow into the die. This was shown by the uneven electrical consumption that was registered and that were compared to electrical consumption by pelletizing of saw dust. Because of the low density und low friction between the milled grass particles transportation of material into the material film between press roles and die seem to be uneven. In order to raise friction and soften the fibres overheated steam was added. In this operation it was found that small particles were absorbing most of the steam. They glued together and formed blocking covers. To avoid this raw material was fractionated and most of the small particles were eliminated. Fraction 1-4 mm seemed to have better characteristics in this respect. In order to examine whether these problems were related to the construction of he pelletizer a comparison trail was carried out in a small industrial scale. The pelletizer in this test was constructed with a rotating die and fixed press rolls shafts. Result from this with fractionated raw material of reed canary grass showed same operating problems as with the pelletizer used in the main project. Best results of the pelletizing trails were obtained after a special pretreatment of the grass raw material. The coarsely milled reed canary grass was passed trough a briquette press and the briquettes were then milled again. This material was fed into the pelletizer and pellets were produced with very even electrical consumption and the press operated in a gentle way. This indicates that raw material from dry delayed harvested reed canary grass needs some pre treatment that is not needed for woody materials. More research work is necessary in this field. Combustion tests were done in a small scale burner.The burner was operating with underfed pellet supply and with a rotating ring on top of the burner cup Three different assortments of RCG with different ash contents were combusted and emissions were registered. The behaviour of ash during and after the combustion was observed. 1. RCG low ash contents. 2.6 %. Produced in Glommerstraesk, Vaesterbotten. 2. RCG medium ash contents 7%. Produced in Aenget,Roebaecksdalen,Vaesterbotten. 3. RCG high ash contents 11%. Produced in Roebaecksdalen Vaesterbotten. The transportation of ash from the burner cup worked well for assortment 2 and 3 with higher ash contents. The assortment with low ash contents formed sintering ash and resulted in stop of ash transportation from the burner cup. Emissions of NO{sub x} were significant higher in flue gases com

Oerberg, Haakan; Kalen, Gunnar; Thyrel, Mikael; Finell, Michael; Andersson, Lars-Olof

2006-07-01

133

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pen [...] nisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p

Rerisson José Cipriano dos, Santos; Mário de Andrade, Lira; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos, Santos; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de, Mello.

134

Sustained effects of grass pollen AIT.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the sustained efficacy of the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet Grazax® (Phleum pratense 75000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark) from a 5-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe grass pollen allergy inadequately controlled by symptomatic medications were followed for 2 years after the completion of 3 years of treatment. The active group demonstrated a 31% reduction in median rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score over the season compared with placebo. Individual symptom scores favoured active treatment. Combined symptom and medication scores demonstrated a 33% reduction in medians with active treatment. Persistent clinical efficacy was accompanied by prolonged increases in allergen-specific IgG(4) antibodies and IgE-blocking factor, confirming clinical and immunological tolerance for at least 2 years after the treatment completion. No safety issues were identified during follow-up. PMID:21668855

Durham, S R

2011-07-01

135

Invasive warm-season grasses reduce mycorrhizal root colonization and biomass production of native prairie grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil organisms play important roles in regulating ecosystem-level processes and the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with a plant species can be a central force shaping plant species' ecology. Understanding how mycorrhizal associations are affected by plant invasions may be a critical aspect of the conservation and restoration of native ecosystems. We examined the competitive ability of old world bluestem, a non-native grass (Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa bladhii]), and the influence of B. bladhii competition on AM root colonization of native warm-season prairie grasses (Andropogon gerardii or Schizachyrium scoparium), using a substitutive design greenhouse competition experiment. Competition by the non-native resulted in significantly reduced biomass production and AM colonization of the native grasses. To assess plant-soil feedbacks of B. bladhii and Bothriochloa ischaemum, we conducted a second greenhouse study which examined soil alterations indirectly by assessing biomass production and AM colonization of native warm-season grasses planted into soil collected beneath Bothriochloa spp. This study was conducted using soil from four replicate prairie sites throughout Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. Our results indicate that a major mechanism in plant growth suppression following invasion by Bothriochloa spp. is the alteration in soil microbial communities. Plant growth was tightly correlated with AM root colonization demonstrating that mycorrhizae play an important role in the invasion of these systems by Bothriochloa spp. and indicating that the restoration of native AM fungal communities may be a fundamental consideration for the successful establishment of native grasses into invaded sites. PMID:21845465

Wilson, Gail W T; Hickman, Karen R; Williamson, Melinda M

2012-07-01

136

Modelling interactions in grass-clover mixtures.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in binary mixtures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under cutting. The first part of the study describes the dynamics of growth, production and the structural characteristics of contrasting grass and clover cultivars under field conditions. This basic information is used in the second part to quantify light absorption, C0 2 assimilat...

Nassiri Mahallati, M.

1998-01-01

137

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

2012-01-01

138

PURPLE GUINEA GRASS: PRETREATMENT AND ETHANOL FERMENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Treatment with dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4 or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 at 121?C and 103.4 kPa was used to improve the efficiency of the cellulose digestion of purple guinea grass. Cellulase hydrolysis of the dilute H2SO4-pretreated purple guinea grass under optimized conditions (6% (w/v in 3% (w/v H2SO4 for 30 min yielded a slightly higher level of reducing sugars than that from the Ca(OH2 pretreatment under optimized conditions (6% (w/v in 4% (w/v Ca(OH2 for 5 min. However, the level of glucose released from the Ca(OH2-pretreated purple guinea grass was slightly higher than that from the dilute H2SO4 pretreatment. Ethanol fermentation, via the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, of the Ca(OH2-pretreated purple guinea grass and then hydrolyzed with commercial cellulase (9 PFU/g, dry wt. for 6 h yielded ethanol at 0.44 g/g glucose (0.21 g/g cellulose within 48 h, while that from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process yielded 14.3% less ethanol at 0.18 g/g cellulose within 96 h (including the 6 h saccharification time. The ethanol yield from the SHF process increased 1.14-fold to 0.497 g/g glucose (0.24 g/g cellulose when the fermentation was performed in a 5 L fermentor.

Suvapatr Ratsamee,

2012-02-01

139

A new grass frog from Namibia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A new species of grass frog of the genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs in advisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that Ptychadena floweri must be re...

Channing, A.

2012-01-01

140

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® / Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate p [...] ara o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1); glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1) e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens. Abstract in english Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Comme [...] lina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1); glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1) and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

Cleber Daniel de Goes, Maciel; Juliana Parisotto, Poletine; Saulo Leme, Amstalden; Dionísio Luis Piza, Gazziero; Michel Alex, Raimondi; Gesley Ramos Guimarães, Lima; Antônio Mendes de, Oliveira Neto; Naiara, Guerra; Wagner, Justiniano.

 
 
 
 
141

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L., erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L. e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1; glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1 e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens.Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Commelina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1; glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1 and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel

2011-02-01

142

Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

Luciano S. Lima

2013-03-01

143

Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum×Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208mgkg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100mgkg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0mgkg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

2014-08-01

144

Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract - Grazax®.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax(®). Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet) for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 mug major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhino-conjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment of rhino-conjunctivitis due to grass pollen allergy. PMID:19337432

Calderón, Moisés; Brandt, Tove

2008-12-01

145

Predicting grass stand adequacy from early stand parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Early evaluation of grass stand establishment is important for making timely decisions on reseeding or proper management that will enhance the new grass stand. A field study with 5 species, 11 seeding dates per year, and 3 replications was conducted to determine which dates resulted in the best stands when direct seeded into wheat stubble using the same seeding techniques at each date. Seedings were made during the seeding years of 1987, 1988, and 1989. Stands were monitored for 5 years, 2 years after each seeding year. The number of grass seedlings m{sup -2} was measured 45 days after emergence. This early stand parameter was correlated with the number of grass plants m{sup -2}, number of grass stems m{sup -2} and grams of grass dry matter m{sup -2} measured 2 years after the seeding year.

Ries, R.E. [USDA/ARS, Mandan, ND (United States)

1996-12-31

146

Rainfall effects on grass-weed seedbanks in wheat  

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Forage, chickpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotations which always included wheat . These experiments took place in Southern Portugal, a mediterranean area where dryland agriculture is usual. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The variation in wheat plots without weed control was used to assess the effects of rainfall on grass-weed seedbanks. Evaluation of all grass-weeds taken togeth...

Belo, Anabela D. Ferreira; Dias, L. S.

2000-01-01

147

Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses  

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The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes th...

Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

2011-01-01

148

Nitrogen Immobilization by Congo Grass Roots Impairs Cotton Initial Growth  

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Full Text Available In crop-livestock integration systems the presence of both grass roots in the soil and straw on the surface can temporarily immobilize nitrogen. This study examined the persistence of grass residues in the system as well as their effects on cotton response to N when grown after Congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Syn. Urochloa ruziziensis. Congo grass was grown in pots with soil. Next, cotton was grown in the same pots without residues, with whole plant residues (Congo grass roots and shoots or root residues (grass roots and fertilized with N as ammonium nitrate. Congo grass and cotton roots were separated using stable carbon isotope fractioning. Congo grass roots showed higher C/N ratio than shoots, losing 14% of its mass after 45 days and increasing soil N immobilization. The lower N availability resulted in N deficient and shorter cotton plants with lower dry matter yields. Nevertheless, the application of 80 to 120 mg kg-1 of N compensated the immobilization by the soil microorganisms, allowing cotton to show normal growth. When Congo grass is present in the cropping system, the effects of the decaying roots on soil N dynamics and availability are more important than those of the straw left on the soil surface.

Ciro A. Rosolem

2012-07-01

149

MR imaging of lumbar spine using GRASS technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The axial images of 107 lumbar disks imaged by gradient recalled acquistion in the steady status (GRASS) and spin echo (SE) sequences of high field strength were compared for diagnostic quality. In GRASS images, focal pathways of the herniated nucleus pulposus and the bulging annulus fibrosus were often clearly distinguished because margins of the vertebrae were conspicuous due to their low intensities. The post-laminectomy bone defects were better outlined by GRASS images than by SE images. Axial GRASS images are therefore an important adjunct to SE images for effective MRI of the lumbar spine at high field strength.

Murayama, Sadayuki; Numaguchi, Yuji; Robinson, A.E.

1988-07-01

150

Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m. They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.

A.A. Aganga

2005-01-01

151

EroGRASS: Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical understanding of the failure of grass cover layers due to different wave loads is therefore indispensable today, especially against the background of enhanced hydraulic impact due to climate change.

2009-01-01

152

Influence of limestone, silica and selection of grass on effects of grass growth on hydroinsulating linings made of ashes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates the results of investigations on utilization of plates made of pressed fossil-fuel power plant ash and slags to cover slopes of water reservoir embankments. For prevention of ash plate destruction by atmospheric factors the plates were covered with sod. Dependence of grass growth on composition of ashes as well as on grass selection was investigated 4 years long. Ash composition is shown in 4 tables. Grass growth is given in 4 diagrams. Investigations show that calcium oxide content lower than 5% increases hazard of ash plate perforation by roots of the plants and early destruction of the plates. When calcium oxide content exceeds 5% and content of colloidal silica is not lower than 10% grass growth is not associated with perforation hazard. The grass forms a dense protective cover on the ash plates (usually 30 cm thick). Four types of grass are used in the experiments: Lolium perene, Dactylis parentis, Lestuca ruba and Poa parentis. Lolium perene (rye grass) should be used during the first year of grass growth and other grass types in the following years. Waterglass is used as reagent in ash plate production. Calcium oxide content in the plates is increased by means of hydrated lime, burnt lime, carbide residue. (4 refs.)

Kuziemska, I.

1981-01-01

153

Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass  

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Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

Orchard, J.; Chivers, I.; Aldous, D.; Bennell, K.; Seward, H.

2005-01-01

154

Effects of Temperature on Food Consumption, Food Conversion, and Growth of Grass Carp 'Ctenopharyngodon idella'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to determine the food consumption and growth of Grass Carp under different temperatures, effects of temperature on food conversion and growth of grass carp, and relationship between grass carp production and increase in nutrient le...

R. V. Kilambi W. R. Robison

1978-01-01

155

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

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Full Text Available The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the identification of the investigated taxa based on fruit characters is provided.

Nagwa R.A. Hussein

2012-01-01

156

Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 µg major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhinoconjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment of rhino-conjunctivitis due to grass pollen allergy.Keywords: sublingual immonotherapy, grass pollen allergy, rhinoconjunctivitis, immunotherapy, tablet

Moisés Calderón

2008-11-01

157

Germination of native grasses with potential application in the recovery of degraded areas in Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil / Germinação de gramíneas nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero com potencial aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As gramíneas nativas apresentam potencial para revegetação de áreas degradadas, no entanto, devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre sua biologia, dá-se preferência ao uso de espécies exóticas, que podem ser invasoras, afetando assim a biodiversidade local. No intuito de ampliar o conhecimento acerca da p [...] ropagação via sementes de espécies nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), e desta forma, indicar possíveis candidatas a aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas da região, este trabalho objetivou avaliar os padrões germinativos das seguintes gramíneas: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.). Chase e Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. As espiguetas (com presença ou não das estruturas que envolviam a cariopse, dependendo da espécie) foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1-controle; T2-umedecimento do substrato com 0,2% de nitrato de potássio, T3-aquecimento a 80 ºC por 2 minutos, T4-escarificação com ácido sulfúrico (exceto gênero Andropogon) e para os gêneros Andropogon e Setaria, T5-armazenamento a temperatura ambiente e T6-armazenamento sob refrigeração. Os tratamentos foram realizados em 4 repetições de 25 cariopses colocadas para germinar a temperatura de 25 ºC e iluminação constante. Variação significativa foi observada quando comparadas as quantidades de germinações ocorridas entre as semanas, entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies. Para o gênero Andropogon o tratamento mais eficiente foi T6, seguido por T2 em A. bicornis e T3 em A. leucostachyus. T6 também foi o tratamento mais eficiente para S. parviflora, seguido por T5 e T2. C. brownii apresentou resultados próximos sob T1, T2 e T3 (média 39%). E. inflexa e A. euprepes apresentaram altos índices de dormência que não foram superadas pelos tratamentos propostos. A. bicornis, A. leucostachyus, S. parviflora e C. brownii apresentaram maiores potenciais de germinação, sendo possíveis candidatas para recuperação de áreas degradas no QF. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos complementares com os tratamentos mais eficientes e testes de germinação e estabelecimento em condições de campo. Abstract in english Native grasses are potential species to be used in land rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of better knowledge of their performance, preference is given to exotic plants, which may be invasive and negatively affect the local biodiversity. In order to better understand the propagation of native [...] species of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using their seeds, and in so doing, indicate possible candidates for land rehabilitation, this study investigated the germination patterns of the following grasses: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen; Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, and Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. The spikelets (depending on the species, removing or not the structures that surround the caryopsis) were treated as follows: T1-Control, T2-moistening with 0.2% potassium nitrate, T3-heating at 80 ºC for 2 minutes, T4-scarification with sulfuric acid (except genus Andropogon) and, for genera Andropogon and Setaria T5-storage at room temperature and T6- refrigerated storage. The treatment was repeated four times for 25 caryopses incubated at 25 ºC and constant light. Significant variation was observed when comparing germination rates from week to week, treatment to treatment and species to species. The most efficient treatment for genus Andropogon was T6, followed by T2 for A. bicornis and T3 for A. leucostachyus. T6 was also the most effective treatment for S. parviflora, followed by T5 and T2. C. brownii showed similar results when applying T1, T2 and T3 (mean 39%). E. inflexa and A. euprepes showed high levels of dormancy that were not overco

Maurílio Assis, Figueiredo; Hudson Eustáquio, Baêta; Alessandra Rodrigues, Kozovits.

158

Intercropping of four Leucaena cultivars with three grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A table shows the yield of DM in 809 days from each of Leucaena leucocephala varieties K8, Hawaiian common, Peru and Cunningham, interplanted with each of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Hybrid Napier NB 21 (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Total yield was greatest with the Cunningham/Hybrid Napier combination.

Relwani, L.L.; Nakat, R.V.; Khandale, D.Y.

1982-01-01

159

GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS  

Science.gov (United States)

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

160

Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dynamic simulation of grass field swaying in wind. The representation of large-scale grassland relies on three different levels of detail that reduce the rendering cost and still allow high-fidelity rendering of grass close to the viewer. To simulate real-time waggle of grasses, some physically based methods and procedural approaches are put forward according to different levels of detail. Experiments demonstrate that our method not only can realistically render the animated grass scenes in wind, but also can support the variable wind field.

Yugang Liu

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Die Eigenart der polnischen Rezeption von Günter Grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mit dieser umfassenden Erschließung der wechselvollen polnischen Rezeption von Günter Grass demonstriert Leszek Zylinski einmal mehr, welch großen Gewinn die Inlandsgermanistik von einer lebendigen, kulturwissenschaftlich orientierten internationalen Forschung erfahren kann. Der deutsche Blick auf Günter Grass erfährt durch diese Studie eine notwendige und gehaltvolle Ergänzung.

Zylinski, Leszek

2009-01-01

162

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

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Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

2013-02-01

163

Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage  

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Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

Máikal S. Borja

2012-08-01

164

From pasture grass to cattle milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of _1_3_1I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed _1_3_1I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of _1_3_1I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing _1_3_1I in milk were also presented. (author)

1979-11-29

165

Grass carp status in the United States: A review  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.

Pierce, Barry A.

1983-03-01

166

Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

2007-06-01

167

Symbiotically modified organisms: nontoxic fungal endophytes in grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose that symbiotically modified organisms (SMOs) should be taken into account in sustainable agriculture. In this opinion article, we present the results of a meta-analysis of the literature, with a particular focus on the potential of SMOs in forage and turf grass production, to determine the impact of endophytes in grasses on livestock, the grassland ecosystems, and associated environments. SMOs can be incorporated into breeding programs to improve grass yield, resistance to pests and weeds, and forage quality for livestock by decreasing the level of toxic alkaloids. However, the benefits of these selected grass-endophyte symbiota appear to be highly dependent on grass cultivar, fungal strain, and environmental conditions, requiring a comprehensive understanding of the genetic bases and phenotypic plasticity of the traits of the plant-microbe unit in different environments. PMID:23562460

Gundel, Pedro E; Pérez, Luis I; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

2013-08-01

168

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

1998-12-31

169

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

1998-05-17

170

Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1, internode elongation (GS2 i and flowering (GS3. Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001, organic matter, (P<0.001, neutral detergent fibre (NDF (P<0.05 and acid detergent fibre (ADF (P<0.001. Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001 in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

Marija Teskera

2009-03-01

171

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

Davies Janet

2012-03-01

172

Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet) for s...

Caldero?n, Moise?s; Brandt, Tove

2008-01-01

173

Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader grou...

Moisés Calderón; Tove Brandt

2008-01-01

174

Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda / In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilid [...] ad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ruminal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag techn [...] ique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

Jaime, Salinas-Chavira; Juan Carlos, Gutiérrez-González; Ramón, García-Castillo; Ramiro, López-Trujillo; Arturo, Duarte-Ortuño.

175

Grass carp reovirus induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) kidney cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass carp hemorrhage is an acute contagious disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The pathogenesis of GCRV and the relationship between GCRV and the host cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations among apoptosis, intracellular oxidative stress and virus replication in GCRV infected-cells. The results showed that GCRV induced activation of caspase proteases as early as 12h, and reached maximum activities at 24h or 48h post-infection in a grass carp kidney cell line (CIK cells). Meanwhile, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) also were increased in GCRV-infected CIK cells and showed a statistically significant difference from 24h to 96h post-infection. The infection of GCRV caused the destruction of entire monolayer and the death of host cells. Accompanied by the infection, a severe oxidative stress occurred, which led to extensive loss of antioxidants and formation of lipid peroxidation after 48h post-infection. These data suggested that the apoptosis which was triggered at an early stage (12-24h) in the viral infection cycle, might be independent of virus replication, while the oxidative stress induced by GCRV was mostly related to the virus replication. PMID:24680657

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jia-Hao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guo-Jun

2014-06-24

176

Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine. PMID:18362477

Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

2008-01-01

177

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2005-07-01

178

Study on contamination of grass by caesium isotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 134Cs and 85Sr uptake by Rye-grass is studied in a pot experiment. The influence of some important factors like type of soil, applied chemicals and level of soil contamination is examined. The radioactivity measurements are carried out separately in each sample collected at different time. The following conclusions are drown: 1. Radioactivity of the first samples of Rye-grass are lowest in case of Chernozem soil compared to Podzolic and Meadow soils. 2. The applied chemicals (zeolite and Ca-bentonite) significantly decrease radioactivity of all plant samples compared to the control. 3. Radioactivity of grass samples increases parallelly to the increase in soil contamination level. (author)

1994-09-12

179

Localization and chemical speciation of Pb in roots of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) contamination of soils is of global importance but little is known regarding Pb uptake, localization, or the chemical forms in which Pb is found within plants, or indeed how some plants tolerate elevated Pb in the environment. Two grasses, signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf) (Pb-resistant) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth)(Pb-sensitive), were grown for 14 d in dilute nutrient solutions before examination of roots using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the distribution and speciation of Pb in situ. In both grasses, Pb was initially present primarily in the cytoplasm of rhizodermal and cortical cells before being sequestered within vacuoles as the highly insoluble (and presumably nontoxic) chloropyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl). In signal grass, Pb also accumulated within membranous structures (perhaps the Golgi apparatus), prior to apoplastic sequestration as chloropyromorphite. These findings suggest that the ability of signal grass to sequester insoluble Pb in the cell wall represents an additional and potentially important mechanism of Pb tolerance not possessed by the Pb-sensitive Rhodes grass. PMID:18605592

Kopittke, Peter M; Asher, Colin J; Blamey, F Pax C; Auchterlonie, Graeme J; Guo, Yanan N; Menzies, Neal W

2008-06-15

180

Revegetation of coal mine spoil using pasture on the Darling Downs of Queensland, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given of a revegetation experiment established on a spoil heap of the exploratory coal open-cut near Millmerran on the Darling Downs of southern Queensland. The experiment tested buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), and the legumes siratro (macroptilium atropurpureum) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). This experiment demonstrates that: (a) persistent pastures can be established on spoil at Millmerran as they have been on coal spoils elsewhere in eastern Australia: (b) a surface covering of 20-30 cm of suitable soil is adequate for good pasture establishment and persistence on spoil even on slopes up to 33%; (c) initial amendments with phosphatic and nitrogenous fertilizers produced a small positive response in cover and yield which went with time, but the pastures continue to persist and flourish; (d) the legumes siratro and lucerne can be established in such pastures. The relevance of these experimental results to post-mining land use are discussed. 16 references.

Russell, M.J.; Roberts, B.R.

1986-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

2005-07-01

182

Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization (15N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization (15N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm3 of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg-1 as NH4NO3 enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of 15N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg-1 and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

2005-09-02

183

Control of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in grazing horses with calcium plus phosphorus supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A supplement system for the control of equine nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSH) was evaluated on 4 farms in the Arcadia Valley of the Queensland brigalow region. Thirty-three local stock horses (of which 13 had clinical NSH and 7 were recent introductions) were grazed on buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) for the 6 months from September 1979 to February 1980. Each horse was fed 1.0 kg of a mixture of ground limestone plus dicalcium phosphate (1:2) in 1.5 kg molasses each week. The pasture was hazardous during this time (total oxalate content above 0.5% and calcium: oxalate ratio below 0.5), but no new NSH cases occurred and those horses with clinical NSH improved, most becoming normal. After the first 6 months of supplementation, 3 new cases occurred on one farm. Doubling of the supplement dose and substituting rock phosphate in molasses for the previous mixture corrected the problem. The breakdown was thought to be partly because the supplement dose was slightly inadequate and partly because of behavioural factors. PMID:7340778

McKenzie, R A; Gartner, R J; Blaney, B J; Glanville, R J

1981-12-01

184

Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

185

Grass Carp Stocking Rate Model (AMUR/STOCK).  

Science.gov (United States)

The AMUR/STOCK model is a coupled plant growth and fish feeding and bioenergetics simulation model that evaluates the effectiveness of grass carp stocking rate strategies for controlling nuisance growth of aquatic plants under user-selected site condition...

R. M. Stewart W. A. Boyd

1999-01-01

186

Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

O Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R. P. O.; O Kiely, P.; O Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S. T. J.; Struik, P. C.

2010-01-01

187

INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

188

Gravity perception and response in shoot of cereal grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

1985-01-01

189

Nutrient supply to reed canary grass as a bioenergy crop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of renewable energy from herbaceous crops on agricultural land is of great interest since fossil fuels need to be replaced with sustainable energy sources. Reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea L. is an interesting species for this purpose.

2012-01-01

190

The accumulation of semivolatile organic compounds in welsh ray grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relative contributions of wet, dry particle bound and dry gaseous deposition to the accumulation of SOC in welsh ray grass were investigated under near natural conditions. Dry gaseous deposition was found to be the most important pathway of SOC to this typical pasture grass. The mechanism of dry gaseous deposition was studied in the laboratory using a solid phase fugacity meter developed by the research group. It was found that the partitioning isotherm of SOC between the gas phase and welsh ray grass was linear for plant concentrations ranging over two orders of magnitude. The partition coefficient was linearly proportional to the octanol/air partition coefficient of the compound. A model of dry gaseous deposition that included two plant compartments was assembled on the basis of the laboratory results. This model was then partially validated by simultaneously sampling ambient air and welsh ray grass growing outdoors.

McLachlan, M.S.; Welsch-Pausch, K.; Tolls, J.; Umlauf, G. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany)

1994-12-31

191

Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes ("3"2P, "8"6Rb and "4"5Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of "8"6Rb and "3"2P

1986-04-01

192

Analyses of grass samples in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive fallout in Sweden was concentrated to the mid-eastern part of the country. A systematic survey of the country from south to north was done. Grass samples were taken at positions with relative distances of 20-50 km. In some areas in the north where there was very little grass, soil samples were taken. The results indicate that about 15-20% of the total fallout of Cs-137 will be found in the grass. Sr-90 analyses of grass samples show that the Sr-90/Cs-137 relation varies very little in the fallout over the country. The Sr-90 activity is everywhere between 1 and 3% of the Cs-137 activity

1987-07-01

193

1.5-T GRASS imaging of benign extradural disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors compared gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) with standard spin-echo sequences and CT myelography in 31 patients with surgically confirmed disease at 45 spinal levels (23 lumbar, four thoracic, 18 cervical). GRASS was highly accurate in identifying the level, causative agent (disk vs bone), and severity of spinal canal compromise at all levels operated on. GRASS detected 16 of 18 sites of foraminal encroachment (89%), demonstrated accurately the degree of foraminal narrowing in 78% (14/18), and correctly differentiated bone from soft-tissue foraminal narrowing in 67% (12/18). In five instances, the entity (disk vs bone) responsible for foraminal stenosis was correctly diagnosed only with CT myelography. The noninvasive nature, sensitivity, ease of interpretation, and shorter acquisition time of GRASS MR imaging make it the preferred screening examination. However, CT myelography more reliably defines the cause and degree of foraminal stenosis

1988-12-02

194

Characteristics of Cogon Grass Rhizomes and its Perforation of a Maiden Cane Rhizome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical) is one of the most aggressive grasses world wide and spreads by an extensive rhizome system. This study adds observational detail to growth of cogon grass rhizomes and provides for a mechanism by which cogon grass is able to perforate other species of plants. During a competition study between I. cylindrica and native grasses, where the plants were grown in 30 cm pots, under greenhouse conditions, the underground systems were harvested by remov...

Muchovej, J. J.; Onokpise, O. U.; Bambo, S. K.

2009-01-01

195

Chemical Compositions and Nutrient Degradation of Elephant Grass Silage Ensiled with Black Tea Waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the chemical compositions and nutrient degradation during ensiling of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage with black tea waste (BTW) addition. Four silage treatments were elephant grass (S0); elephant grass + 100 g BTW/ kg fresh matter (S1); elephant grass + 200 g BTW/kg fresh matter (S2); elephant grass + 300 g BTW/kg fresh matter. About 220 g of silage material were ensiled for 30 days at room temperature (approximately 28°C). Three replicates were prepared...

2007-01-01

196

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

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Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum...

Davies Janet; Li Hongzhuo; Green Melissa; Towers Michelle; Upham John

2012-01-01

197

Rangeland dynamics in southern Ethiopia: (1) botanical composition of grasses and soil characteristics in relation to land-use and distance from water in semi-arid Borana rangelands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution and compositional pattern of the grass layer, as well as soil quality of southern Ethiopian semi-arid rangelands were examined under three land-use systems (communal land, government ranch and a traditional grazing reserve enclosure) and along a distance gradient (near, middle and far) from water sources. In total, 49 grass species were identified, 65% of which were perennials. Of the most commonly distributed highly desirable species, Chrysopogon aucheri showed the greatest frequency under the traditional grazing reserve (27.6%), and the lowest in the communal land (14.0%). The frequency of Cenchrus ciliaris was similar in all the study sites. The proportion of Lepthotrium senegalensis was low under the land-use systems (3.9%) and increased away from water sources (2.3%). Of the less desirable species, Sporobulus nervosus was extremely more abundant (0.05) frequency percentages under the land-use systems and along the distance gradients from water. Basal cover was low and similar on all the study sites (3.3%). Concerning the soil texture, sand (71.1%) constituted the largest proportion, followed by silt (21.3%) and lastly, clay (7.7%). With regard to soil exchangeable cations, organic C and total nitrogen were generally low and did not show marked variation in all the study sites. The study showed significant differences for most of the vegetation variables between the communal land and the other land-uses. This suggested that grazing intensity was higher in the communal land and moderate in the government ranch and in the traditional grazing reserves (kallos). The lack of significant differences in most of the studied (vegetation) variables along the distance gradient from water could be ascribed to the fact that grazing disturbance has already exceeded a certain threshold of degradation. Under the present low states of soil nutrients and rainfall, cultivation is neither sustainable nor environmentally friendly and this will lead to further degradation of the soil in these marginal lands. PMID:17129661

Tefera, Solomon; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

2007-10-01

198

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharific...

2012-01-01

199

Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.

1976-01-01

200

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

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Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums...

Juliana Medianeira Machado; Marta Gomes da Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin; Aline Bosak dos Santos; Maria José de Oliveira Sichonany; Laila Arruda Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da Rosa

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comparison of natural and recombinant isoforms of grass pollen allergens.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 95% of grass pollen allergic patients possess IgE antibodies against grass group I, a heterogeneous group of glycoproteins found in all temperate grasses. We studied the structural variability of the group I allergens in single species and among different grasses. By 2-DE blotting using patients' IgE and monoclonal antibodies, we detected IgE-reactive isoforms with molecular masses between 32 and 37 kDa and focusing in a wide pI ranging from 4.7 to 7.6. While the group I allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 1) were composed of 37 and 35 kDa components, only single isoforms were found for ryegrass (Lol p 1) and velvet grass (Hol l 1): 32 and 34 kDa, respectively. By N-terminal microsequencing we determined single amino acid substitutions in different-sized group I allergens. The post-translational modifications (one N-glycosylation site, two hydroxylated proline residues and seven cysteine residues for potential disulfide formations), which contribute to IgE reactivity, were identical in all. From the cDNA sequences we deduced protein sequence homologies > 90%, a result which might explain the high IgE cross-reactivity among the grasses. In order to test whether recombinant group I grass allergens can act as substitutes for the natural forms, we expressed rPhl p 1 in E. coli and in P. pasteuris. 2-DE immunoblotting again demonstrated a microheterogeneity in molecular mass and pI. While the E. coli products were free from post-translational modifications, rPhl p 1 from Pichia is a heterogeneous glycoprotein fraction with a carbohydrate content of about 15%. This rPhl p 1 is hyperglycosylated compared to the nPhl p 1, which only has a 5% carbohydrate content. PMID:9194614

Petersen, A; Grobe, K; Lindner, B; Schlaak, M; Becker, W M

1997-05-01

202

The content of mineral elements in some grasses and legumes  

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Mineral element (Ca, P, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co) content in some plants, such as alfalfa (Medicato sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense), alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum), meadow pea (Lathyrus pratensis), quack-grass (Elymus repens), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), red fescue (Festuca rubra), timothy (Phleum pratense), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis), cocks-foot (Dactylis glomerata), and meadow grass (Poa pra...

Juknevic?ius, Stasys; Sabiene?, Nomeda

2007-01-01

203

A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichloë Endophytes of Grasses? †  

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Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosyn...

2007-01-01

204

Determination of Nutritional Value of Some Legume and Grasses  

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The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of legumes and grasses for productivity of livestock. Vicia sativa, Pisum arvense, Lathrus sativus, Vicia narbonensis, Dactylis glomerata, Chrysopogon gryllus and Festuca ovina were taken as plant materials from field and rangeland Koseilyas village Tekirdag, Turkey. The results of present examination showed large differences in nutritive value between grass and legumes. The nutritional value and digestibility of forag...

Canan Tuna; Levent Coskuntuna; Fisun Koc

2004-01-01

205

Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

206

Synergism of Wild Grass and Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria in Petroleum Biodegradation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of plants and microbes utilization for remediation measure of pollutant contaminated soil is the newest development in term of petroleum waste management technique. The research objective was to obtain wild grass types and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria which are capable to synergize in decreasing petroleum concentration within petroleum contaminated soil. This research was conducted in a factorial by using a randomized completely block design. The first factor was wild grass type which were without plant, Tridax procumbens grass and Lepironia mucronata grass. The second factor was hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria type which were without bacterium, single bacterium of Alcaligenes faecalis, single bacterium of Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and mixed bacteria of Alcaligenes faecalis with P. alcaligenes. The results showed that mixed bacteria (A. faecalis and P. alcaligenes were capable to increase the crown and roots dry weights of these two grasses and bacteria population, decreased percentage of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon and had better pH value than that of single bacterium. The highest TPH decrease with magnitude of 70.1% was obtained on the treatment of L. mucronata grass in combination with mixed bacteria.

Nuni Gofar

2013-05-01

207

Repeated evolution of salt-tolerance in grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of salt-affected agricultural land is increasing globally, so new crop varieties are needed that can grow in salt-affected soils. Despite concerted effort to develop salt-tolerant cereal crops, few commercially viable salt-tolerant crops have been released. This is puzzling, given the number of naturally salt-tolerant grass species. To better understand why salt-tolerance occurs naturally but is difficult to breed into crop species, we take a novel, biodiversity-based approach to its study, examining the evolutionary lability of salt-tolerance across the grass family. We analyse the phylogenetic distribution of naturally salt-tolerant species on a phylogeny of 2684 grasses, and find that salt-tolerance has evolved over 70 times, in a wide range of grass lineages. These results are confirmed by repeating the analysis at genus level on a phylogeny of over 800 grass genera. While salt-tolerance evolves surprisingly often, we find that its evolution does not often give rise to a large clade of salt-tolerant species. These results suggest that salt-tolerance is an evolutionarily labile trait in grasses.

Bennett, T. H.; Flowers, T. J.; Bromham, L.

2013-01-01

208

Nitrogen cycle in pure grass and grass/legume pastures. Evaluation of pasture sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the impact on pasture sustainability of the introduction of a forage legume (Desmodium ovalifolium) into a Brachiaria humidicola pasture, studies of the contribution of legume N2 fixation, litter recycling, the plant material on offer and the animal live weight gain were made on grazed pure grass and mixed pastures at three different grazing pressures at the CEPLAC field station at Itabela in the Atlantic forest region of souther Bahia. The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to D. ovalifolium was estimated to be approximately 50% of plant N in a satellite experiment using the 15N isotope dilution technique. Evaluation of the plant material on offer showed that the proportion of legume in the mixed swards ranged between 39% (at the lowest stocking rate of two animals/ha) and 16 and 2% (three and four animals/ha, respectively). The total contribution of BNF was calculated at 74, 28 and 3 kg N·ha·a-1 for the three stocking rates, respectively. Litter deposition varied little between the different treatments, but the N content of the litter was considerably higher in the mixed sward and was considerably lower at the highest stocking rate in both pastures. Analysis of the 13C isotopic abundance of the soil organic matter showed that 5 years after establishment of the pure B. humidicola pasture, approximately 27% of the soil carbon was derived from grass at a depth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportion (20%) was derived from grass at 5-15 cm. Analysis of the 13C abundance of cattle faeces indicated that the proportion of legume consumed by cattle in the mixed sward was between 10 and 37%. The data indicate that selection of an appropriate grazing pressure can greatly influence recycling. Therefore, presumably pasture sustainability and the introduction of a legume in the pasture are beneficial to both animal production and pasture sustainability. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

1994-10-17

209

Rhodeps Grass Evaluation - Evaluation of Rhodes Grass Cultivars under Emirates Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six genotypes of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana L. were evaluated for their forage yield and quality under Emirates conditions during 1991/1992. The results revealed no significant differences between Katambora, Callide and Samford which produced significantly higher forage yield than other cultivars. Forage yield of different cuts increased gradually and reached its peak at the fifth cut. Later cuts during summer had the highest forage yield. Percent crude protein decreased while percent crude fiber increased with cuts but the difference was significant only for early cuts. Pioneer, an early flowering genotype, had the lowest protein and the highest crude fiber while the late flowering genotypes performed well.

Ibrahim, YM.

1999-01-01

210

Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405 to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405, and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405, G2 (V 14406 and G3 (V 14337, V 14404. Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

Cristiano Reschke Lajús

2011-11-01

211

Phosphorus reserves increase grass regrowth after defoliation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of P above levels that promote growth, a common plant response called "luxury consumption", can be considered as a form of reserve to support future growth when the nutrient can subsequently be mobilized. However, the effect of P reserves on regrowth following defoliation has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that P luxury consumption increases plant tolerance to defoliation. We performed two experiments with four grass species from a continuously grazed temperate grassland in the Flooding Pampa (Argentina). The first experiment, aimed at generating P luxury consumption by fertilization, resulted in one species (Sporobolus indicus) showing luxury consumption. In this way, we were able to obtain plants of S. indicus with similar biomass but contrasting amounts of P reserves. The second experiment evaluated the subsequent regrowth following defoliation on a P-free medium of these plants differing in P reserves. Regrowth was larger for plants that had shown P luxury consumption during a previous period than for plants with lower levels of P reserves. During regrowth these plants showed a clear pattern of P remobilization from the stubble, crown, and root compartments to the regrowing tissue, in addition to a likely reutilization of P present in leaf-growth zones. This work is the first showing that high levels of P reserves can confer tolerance to defoliation by promoting compensatory growth under P deficiency. PMID:19132398

Oyarzabal, Mariano; Oesterheld, Martín

2009-04-01

212

A influência da cobertura morta sobre características físicas e químicas de frutos da pinha (Annona squamosa L.) The influence of mulching in relation to physical and chemical characteristics of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

De forma geral a aplicação de resíduos vegetais ao solo tem efeitos benéficos sobre os nutrientes do solo, sob as suas condições físicas, sob a atividade biológica e sobre a performance das culturas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante um ciclo produtivo, o efeito da cobertura de bagaço de cana, casca de café e palha de Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L.), quanto ao seu efeito sobre características físicas e químicas do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.). O de...

2007-01-01

213

EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume at saline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in this research was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged in randomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grass monoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grass monoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch; M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed by Duncans Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grass-legume with 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

F. Kusmiyat

2013-03-01

214

Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

2013-12-01

215

Comparison of four grass pollen species concerning their allergens of grass group V by 2D immunoblotting and microsequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification and characterization of allergenic components is a vital step towards improving diagnosis and therapy. Members of the grass family (Poaceae) reveal a high cross-reactivity among each other caused by the close phylogenetical relationship. In order to investigate the variability between allergenic components, we studied the allergen grass group V, one of the major allergens. Pollen extracts of 4 different tribes (timothy grass (Phleum pratense)--Agrostidae, perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne)--Festuceae, meadow velvet (Holcus lanatus)--Aveneae, and rye (Secale cereale)--Triticeae) of the Festucoideae subfamily were separated by 2D PAGE and investigated by immunoblotting using patients' poolserum and monoclonal antibodies (raised against group V allergens of timothy grass pollen). The antibodies identify different allergens in the four grass species. The components vary from 30-50 kDa and pI 4.8-7.0. The eight NH2-terminal amino acids were determined and indicated high similarities between the different components. These results cast doubt on the suitability of classifying allergens into groups based only on their molecular mass, isoelectric point and N-terminal sequence analysis. It suggests to classify allergens according to their IgE-reactive epitopes. PMID:7505588

Petersen, A; Schramm, G; Becker, W M; Schlaak, M

1993-09-01

216

Ellen R. Grass lecture: Back to the future: from grass roots to microchips.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and other clinical neurophysiology (CNP) measurement tools has evolved over the last 70 years. In this evolutionary process, Ellen Grass and many professional technologists along the way have been instrumental in the translation of new developments in CNP technology to clinical utility. Technological developments in long-term EEG/video intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring, intraoperative monitoring, high frequency oscillation (HFO) recordings, automated signal analysis tools, seizure prediction devices, and the study of implanted intracranial recording and stimulation devices will improve our understanding of how the nervous system works. Improved understanding and translation of this evolving technology for improved patient care and outcomes remains the ultimate goal of such endeavors. Professional organizations such as the American Board of Registration of Electroencephalographic and Evoked Potential Technologists (ABRET) and the American Society of Electroneurodiagnostic Technologists (ASET) must continue to serve the CNP community and society to guide the application of this technology with an emphasis on providing information, guidelines on its use, and setting standards of professionalism. Any prior prediction of the demise of CNP technology has been greatly exaggerated. Quite the opposite has occurred, considering that the humble origins of vacuum tube powered Grass EEG machines will eventually yield to intracranial implanted microchip based recording and stimulation devices; the future appears bright for our profession. PMID:21809744

Drazkowski, Joseph F

2011-06-01

217

Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

Kroumov Victor

2009-01-01

218

Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

1997-01-01

219

Combining Ability in Mixtures of Prairie Grass and Clovers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the combining ability among cultivars of forage species, commonly sown in temperate regions of Argentina using a short rotation system. Three genetically diverse cultivars of prairie brome grass (Bromus catharticus, cv Copetona, cv Ñandú and cv Tango, a white clover cultivar (Trifolium repens, cv Lucero and a red clover cultivar (T. pratense, cv Tropero were evaluated. A randomized complete block design experiment was established in 2005. The treatments included five monocultures and ten binary mixtures. The experiment was harvested 6 times over an 18-month period. Cumulative dry matter yield (kg?ha–1 was calculated as the sum of the six individual harvests. Diallel analysis provided estimates of the general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA. Red clover in monoculture and mixtures produced the highest yields, with significant positive GCA effects (P < 0.01. Lucero white clover, and Copetona and Tango prairie grasses had significant negative GCA effects (P < 0.05. In mixtures, red clover with each of the three grass cultivars and white clover with Tango had significant and outstanding SCA effects (P < 0.01. Grass/grass mixtures and the legume/legume mixture showed non-significant SCA effects, while the grass/legume mixtures generally had higher yield than either component sown as a monoculture (P < 0.01. Given the short-term nature of this study, we must limit our inference to short-term pastures (<2 years. Under these conditions, red clover had the best combination with prairie brome grass.

Miguel Jacinto Arturi

2012-10-01

220

Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  coordinates, the mean altitude, the mean of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to wood, trees and hedge close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the factors time of: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; 

Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

Heiskanen, V.P.

1995-12-31

222

Performance of West African dwarf goats fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture, N-fertilized and unfertilized Guinea grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The supplementary values of Verano stylo in a mixed Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Ntchisi)-Verano stylo (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) diet from a sown grass-legume mixture and N fertilized grass were compared in West African dwarf (WAD) goats. Liveweight (LW) gain, feed intake, digestibility and N utilization were determined using 15 goats in two trials lasting for 98 days. Goats were fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture (GSM), N-fertilized (NFG) and unfertilized grass (UFG). The goats were divided into three groups of five animals each and randomly allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Total DM and OM intakes of the goats did not vary significantly among the forage diets and averaged 55.1 and 50.4gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day, respectively. CP intake (gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day) was highest with NFG (5.6) followed by GSM (4.8) and the UFG (3.5). Total N excreted followed the same trend as the CP intake. There was no significant difference between N-retention of GSM and NFG (28.5 and 26.7%), but goats on UFG had a negative N balance (-9.16%). Animals on GSM had significantly higher liveweight gain (31.9g per day) than those of NFG (25.1g per day) and UFG (21.9g per day) which also differed significantly. The digestibilities of total DM, OM, CP, NDF were higher with GSM than NFG or UFG. It is concluded that growing Verano stylo in mixture with Guinea grass is a better option for improving the feed quality of forage diets for goats than direct application of inorganic fertilizer at 200kgNha(-1) to the pure grass. PMID:11182307

Bamikole, M A.; Ezenwa, I; Akinsoyinu, A O.; Arigbede, M O.; Babayemi, O J.

2001-02-01

223

Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

2010-12-01

224

Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves. PMID:24420892

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

1994-01-01

225

Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue. PMID:24231391

Klan?nik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberš?ik, Alenka

2014-01-01

226

Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in Aarhus - a twin peak profile during the early season, a single evening profile during the middle of the season, and a single midday peak during the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that it was driven by a succession of different grass species with different diurnal flowering patterns dominating atmospheric pollen loads as the season progressed. The potential for exposure was found to be significantly greater during the late-season period than during either the early- or mid-season periods.

Peel, R. G.; Ørby, P. V.; Skjøth, C. A.; Kennedy, R.; Schlünssen, V.; Smith, M.; Sommer, J.; Hertel, O.

2014-02-01

227

Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja / Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchr [...] us echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones), applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinat [...] us in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 ), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 ), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 ), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 ), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 ) and control (no herbicide). In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

Barroso, A.L.L.; Dan, H.A.; Procópio, S.O.; Toledo, R.E.B.; Sandaniel, C.R.; Braz, G.B.P.; Cruvinel, K.L..

228

Batch and continuous biogas production from grass silage liquor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic digestion of grass silage liquor was studied. The continuous process was carried out in Armfield digesters with an OLR ranging from 0.851 to 1.77 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). The effect of recirculation of effluent from the digester was investigated using different OLRs of grass silage liquor feed. These results showed that as the OLR increased, the methane yield decreased for the reactor with no recycle and increased for the reactor with recycle. However, the COD removal for both digesters was nearly the same at the same OLR. Overall these studies show that grass silage liquor can produce a high quality methane steam between 70% and 80% and achieve methane yields of 0.385 m3 kg(-1) COD. PMID:21993325

Abu-Dahrieh, Jehad; Orozco, Angela; Groom, Elaine; Rooney, David

2011-12-01

229

FEEDING VALUE OF GRASS SILAGES BASED ON DRY MATTER CONCENTRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total of 477 grass silage samples of different origin and quality were analysed by NIR spectroscopy to determine crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, digestible organic matter (OM in the dry matter (DM (D-value, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value and the ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N. According to DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample, the samples were divided into 8 classes: (1> 228; (2 229 313; (3 314-398;(4 399-483; (5 484-568; (6 569-653; (7i 654-738;(8 0.005 in NDF and pH value. It was concluded that increased DM concentration in silage samples was not a result of –grass wilting before ensiling but of advanced grass maturity at harvest.

Maja Lujanac

2010-12-01

230

The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds. The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

Vu?kovi? Savo

2003-01-01

231

Grass lignin acylation: p-coumaroyl transferase activity and cell wall characteristics of C3 and C4 grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasses are a predominant source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Grasses with high lignin content have lower energy conversion efficiencies for production of bioenergy either in the form of ethanol or to milk and meat through ruminants. Grass lignins are uniquely acylated with p-coumarates (pCA), resulting from the incorporation of monolignol p-coumarate conjugates into the growing lignin polymer within the cell wall matrix. The required acyl-transferase is a soluble enzyme (p-coumaroyl transferase, pCAT) that utilizes p-coumaroyl-CoenzymeA (pCA-CoA) as the activated donor molecule and sinapyl alcohol as the preferred acceptor molecule. Grasses (C3and C4) were evaluated for cell wall characteristics; pCA, lignin, pCAT activity, and neutral sugar composition. All C3 and C4 grasses had measurable pCAT activity, however the pCAT activities did not follow the same pattern as the pCA incorporation into lignin as expected. PMID:19288269

Hatfield, Ronald D; Marita, Jane M; Frost, Kenneth; Grabber, John; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Kim, Hoon

2009-05-01

232

MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these histopathological lesions were absent in all the groups in all the organs. But after 96 hours, these respective lesions in respective organs were usually of mild, moderate and severe nature in groups B, C and D, respectively. It was concluded that mercury intoxication not only resulted in marked histopathological changes and abnormal clinical signs but also depressed growth rate of fish.

M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

2004-01-01

233

Fractions of carbohydrates and of nitrogenous compounds of tropical grasses at different cutting ages Fracionamento de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados de gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was evaluated by the Cornell System carbohidrates fractions and nitrogenous compounds of the following grasses at the cutting ages of 14, 28, 42, and 56 days: nilo grass (Acroceras macrum), angola grass (Brachiaria purpurascens), aleman grass (Echinochloa polystachya), limpo grass (Hemarthria altíssima), setaria grass (Setaria anceps), tanner grass (Brachiaria arrecta), and tifton-85 grass (Cynodon spp). The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design, in a split plot...

Patrícia Regina de Souza Siqueira Campos; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Hernán Maldonado Vásquez; Andréa Vittori; Silva, Martinho Almeida E.

2010-01-01

234

Comparisons of Chlorophyll Content and Leaf Structure in Arctic and Alpine Grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasses under natural conditions from arctic and alpine tundras were compared with respect to pigment content, leaf density-thickness, and width. General differences between arctic and alpine grasses were not large. The higher fresh weight to dry weight r...

L. L. Tieszen

1968-01-01

235

Uptake and Transformation of the Propellants 2,4-DNT, Perchlorate and Nitroglycerin by Grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using grasses, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus escalantus), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) in the clean-up of propellant contaminated soil was assessed by performing hydroponic and soil experiments. Th...

G. Riefler S. Guruswamy V. Medina

2006-01-01

236

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DITHIOCARBAMATE TOXICITY TO THE GRASS SHRIMP, 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO'  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate formulations caused a dose...

237

Clover-grass as an energy crop; Kloevergraes som energiafgroede  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Breeding of clover grass on fallow areas as a resource for methane generation has several important advantages. It does not require any additional nitrogen fertilizer as it can fix the atmospheric nitrogen.Herbicides are unnecessary as most weeds are one-year plants, while clover is perennial. From methane generation data for clover-grass the gross energy generation has been calculated to 11.08 MJ per kg dry matter. Net energy generation (with account for electric power) is calculated to 14.00 MJ/kg dry matter. (EG)

NONE

1996-11-01

238

Gasification of corn and clover grass in supercritical water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of pressure, temperature, residence time, and alkali addition on the gasification of corn starch, clover grass and corn silage in supercritical water was investigated. Changing the pressure did not alter the gasification yield. An increase in the temperature notably improved the conversion of biomass. Residence time variations revealed that with longer residence time, gasification yield was improved until a maximum was reached. Gas composition changed with residence time and temperature. Potassium addition affected the gasification yield of corn starch, but did not influence the gasification yield of the potassium-containing natural products of clover grass and corn silage. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Pedro D' Jesus; Nikolaos Boukis; Bettina Kraushaar-Czarnetzki; Eckhard Dinjus [Chemisch-Physikalische Verfahren (ITC-CPV), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Technische Chemie

2006-05-15

239

Native grasses for reclaiming mine sites in Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A research project to select, test, and develop varieties of four native grass species for revegetating mine sites at high elevations in the Rocky Mountains and foothills is described. Multi-location trials show that lines of alpine bluegrass and slender wheatgrass perform much better than check varieties at mountain sites, and in some cases are better at lower elevations. Three varieties of these grasses have been developed for reclamation uses, and more will be released later. Several more years of research are needed to develop varieties of Rocky Mountain fescue and spike trisetum. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

Darroch, B.A.; Woosaree, J.; James, B.T. [Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, AB (Canada)

1995-06-01

240

[Grazax--treatment for grass pollen hay fever].  

Science.gov (United States)

Grazax is approved in 27 European countries for treatment of grass pollen-induced hay fever in adults with a proper diagnosis and clinically-relevant symptoms. Grazax is put under the tongue where it dissolves instantly. Treatment should be initiated at least 8-16 weeks prior to the start of the grass pollen season, and similar to traditional immunotherapy the treatment should continue for three years. The recommended dose is one tablet daily. In this review the clinical documentation is briefly discussed. The demonstrated efficacy is clinically relevant and the safety profile is acceptable. Complete documentation of long-term effects is still pending. PMID:18208728

Svendsen, Ulrik Gerner

2008-01-14

 
 
 
 
241

Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto), and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis pr...

Trache D.; Khimeche K.; Donnot A.; Benelmir R.

2013-01-01

242

Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. ...

Vanessa Soares Miranda; Karina Guimarães Ribeiro; Alexandre Christófaro Silva; Rosana Cristina Pereira; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Pablo Vidal Torrado; José Sebastião Cunha Fernandes; Maxwel Coura Oliveira

2012-01-01

243

Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and leaves. This study (i) quantified and compared the tensile fracture properties of stems and leaves of seven tropical grass species and (ii) provided insight into the underlying plant traits that expla...

Jacobs, A. A. A.; Scheper, J. A.; Benvenutti, M. A.; Gordon, I. J.; Poppi, D. P.; Elgersma, A.

2011-01-01

244

DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum) and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digit...

2009-01-01

245

Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

Belo, A. F.; Dias, L. S.

1998-01-01

246

Estimates for Canary grass for combustion - summer - and spring harvest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economy of cultivating Canary grass for fuel has been estimated. All costs (work, machinery, fertilizers, processing) have been calculated. Total costs for summer or spring harvest are around 0.18 and 0.15 SEK/kWh (about 0.028 and 0.023 USD/kWh) respectively

1992-01-01

247

Salt flat and salt grass habitat at the Mojave desert  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt flat/ grass habitat provides shade and shelter for desert organisms. This habitat is found at a higher elevation than the sand and rock habitats and has slightly cooler temperatures and more moisture, which accounts for the abundance of vegetation.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-06

248

Gamma radioactivity of grass of Central-Eastern Poland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration of gamma emitters in grass samples of central-eastern Poland have been determined. The transfer factors for Cs-137 were calculated for particular samples. The effects of soil type, location of the sampling points and of potassium concentration on this transfer factor were studied. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

Solecki, J.; Szczypa, J.; Chibowski, S. [Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland)

1995-12-31

249

Gamma radioactivity of grass of Central-Eastern Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of gamma emitters in grass samples of central-eastern Poland have been determined. The transfer factors for Cs-137 were calculated for particular samples. The effects of soil type, location of the sampling points and of potassium concentration on this transfer factor were studied. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

1995-01-01

250

Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

Our results proved that there was a significant edge effect on the studied carabid communities: the Shannon diversity increased significantly along the transects from the forest towards the grass. The diversity of the carabids were significantly higher in the forest edge and in the grass than in the forest interior. The carabids of the forest, the forest edge and the grass are separated from each other by principal coordinates analysis and by indicator species analysis (IndVal, suggesting that each of the three habitats has a distinct species assemblages. There were 5 distinctive groups of carabids: 1 habitat generalists, 2 forest generalists, 3 species of the open area, 4 forest edge species, and 5 forest specialists. It was demonstrated by multiple regression analyses, that the relative air moisture, temperature of the ground, the cover of leaf litter, herbs, shrubs and canopy cover, abundance of the carabids’ preys are the most important factors determining the diversity and spatial pattern of carabids along the studied transects.

T. Magura

2001-02-01

251

Perennial fodder grasses as intercrop in Areca and Coconut gardens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to encourage the farmers to cultivate fodder grasses as an intercrop in the areca and coconut gardens. A live demonstration of fodder crops was under taken in 12 villages of Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga district, Karnataka, to educate the farmers in cultivating perennial fodder grasses in their areca and coconut gardens as inter crops.100 farmers were selected randomly from the 12 villages for demonstration of intercropping of fodder grass. Amongst these 58% of the farmers could achieve success by transplanting the fodder grass seedlings to areca & coconut gardens as intercrop. In 6 villages the success rate was to the tune of 60-80%, 4 villages were in the range of 40-60% and the remaining 2 villages showed less than 40% success. The success of the program depended on the necessity for fodder crops or the association of the farmers with Dairy co-operative societies. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 68-70

R.Jayashree and A.Suneetha

2010-04-01

252

Theoretical versus Grass-Roots Development of a Community Partnership  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine Bracht, Kingbury, and Rissel's five-stage community development model as applied to a grass-roots community action group. The sample consisted of low-income, predominantly Hispanic women in a community action group in a Southwestern barrio, some of whom were experiencing domestic violence. The…

Escandon, Socorro

2010-01-01

253

CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

254

Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using panicum maximum forage grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Panicum maximum Jacq (Guinea grass is an important multicut forage grass with ease of propagation, fast growth available at local level and high quality forage for livestock. This grass is a biotic resource, due to its several properties grass. It is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Panicum maximum was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. Designed Angular Horizontal Subsurface type constructed wetland for the treatment of sewage was used for recycling and reuses. The samples of sewage with different dilutions viz. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% were tested for the treatment. Results reveal that pH range was changed from 6.79 to 7.10, maximum reduction of E.C was 25.14 % at 80%, TSS by 48.70%, TDS by 55.73 %, TS by 54.31 %, COD by 61.05 %, BOD by 59.25 %, NO3 by 69.32%, PO4 by 48.10% and SO4 by 41.48% respectively. The colour and odour were removed resulting into clear water.

B. L. Chavan

2012-10-01

255

Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens, and Dactylis glomerata were the only important grass weeds with a declining frequency during the six years. Vulpia spp. has recently become a significant problem in red fescue for seed production, and a significant increased frequency was seen during the study period. However, the study also showed that Vulpia spp. is primarily a problem in red fescue crops established in the autumn, whereas spring establishment of red fescue almost solves the problem with this primarily autumn-germinating grass weed.

Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

2013-01-01

256

Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass) in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass) on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB): 1) 49% alfalfa hay; 2) 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3) 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4) 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB). In trial 1, four lactating Holstein co...

Alvarez, E. G.; Plascencia, A.; Zinn, R. A.

2005-01-01

257

Ovine white-liver disease (OWLD). Botanical and chemical composition of pasture grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most important grass species on the ovine white-liver disease (OWLD) pastures (S) were Poa spp., Agropyron repens and Lolium perenne, while the control pastures (H), where lambs grew well, consisted of Poa spp., Festuca rubra and Agrostis tenuis. The soil was more acidic on the H pastures as compared with the S pastures. OWLD grass (S grass) contained marginal to deficient amounts of cobalt during the first 2 months of grazing. During 2 years out of 3, the average Co content was slightly lower in the S grass as compared with the content in the H grass. The lowest average grass Co was, however, found during one year in the H grass, in spite of the fact that the H lambs also this year grew well, and were 13 kg heavier than the S lambs after 3 1/2 months on pasture. Results thus indicate that the H lambs some years were subclinically Co deficient, without developing clinical symptoms or OWLD, and that factors other than marginal/deficient grass Co are of importance as to whether OWLD will develop or not. S grass differed from H grass by having significantly lower copper, molybdenum, manganese and zinc content, lower protein N/amid N ratios and higher aluminium and iron contents. According to the results, marginal to deficient grass Co is essential for development of OWLD, but cofactors play a part. PMID:2080770

Ulvund, M J; Pestalozzi, M

1990-01-01

258

Uptake and Transformation of the Propellants 2,4-DNT, Perchlorate and Nitroglycerin by Grasses  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

The feasibility of using grasses, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus escalantus), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) in the clean-up of propellant contaminated soil was assessed by performing hydroponic and soil experiments. The propellants 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), perchlorate and nitroglycerin (GTN) often contaminate firing ranges due to partially detonated ordnances and incomplete combustion of munitions. In hydroponic experiments, sorption of 2,4-DNT to roots was significant in the grasses. Perchlorate accumulated in large amounts in leaves of the grasses with maximum accumulation in yellow nutsedge (732 mg kg-1). GTN was removed from the solution rapidly and almost 100% degradation was seen in all grasses within 52 hours. From soil experiments, it is evident that yellow nutsedge was effective in degrading 2,4-DNT. Perchlorate was accumulated in leaves of yellow nutsedge and Indian grass and GTN degradation was nearly 100% in Indian grass. Degradation in perchlorate and OTN was by bacteria.

2006-01-01

259

Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk, Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu, Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes, Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85. The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE. The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

Edilane Aparecida da Silva

2012-03-01

260

Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

1998-11-09

 
 
 
 
261

Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS), a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the mo...

Pietro Zambelli; Sören Gebbert; Marco Ciolli

2013-01-01

262

Emerging technologies advancing forage and turf grass genomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grassland is of major importance for agricultural production and provides valuable ecosystem services. Its impact is likely to rise in changing socio-economic and climatic environments. High yielding forage grass species are major components of sustainable grassland production. Understanding the genome structure and function of grassland species provides opportunities to accelerate crop improvement and thus to mitigate the future challenges of increased feed and food demand, scarcity of natural resources such as water and nutrients, and high product qualities. In this review, we will discuss a selection of technological developments that served as main drivers to generate new insights into the structure and function of nuclear genomes. Many of these technologies were originally developed in human or animal science and are now increasingly applied in plant genomics. Our main goal is to highlight the benefits of using these technologies for forage and turf grass genome research, to discuss their potentials and limitations as well as their relevance for future applications. PMID:24309540

Kopecký, David; Studer, Bruno

2014-01-01

263

Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H2SO4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

2011-10-16

264

Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

Science.gov (United States)

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.

1977-01-01

265

The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

1986-09-23

266

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Juliana Medianeira Machado

2013-01-01

267

Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto, and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with thermogravimetric analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposing patterns of the cellulosic preparations, obtained by hydrochloric hydrolysis gave additional evidence to the relatively higher stability of the more crystalline cellulosic preparations. In the main decomposition stage, the cleavage of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose reduces the polymerization degree leading to the formation of CO2, H2O and other hydrocarbon derivatives.

Trache D.

2013-07-01

268

Soil nutrient heterogeneity alters competition between two perennial grass species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differences in root foraging behavior between species have been well documented, but the effects of these differences on belowground competitive ability are only beginning to be studied. Here we report the results of a competition experiment in homogeneous and heterogeneous soils between two species that differ in their ability to acquire nutrients from patchy environments. The perennial grasses Festuca rubra and Anthoxanthum odoratum have comparable growth rates, but results of previous stud...

Fransen, B.; Kroon, H.; Berendse, F.

2001-01-01

269

Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygrothermal performance in the field, four test walls have been built. The relative humidity and temperature in the constructions have been measured during a winter period and are presented in this paper.

Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

2008-01-01

270

THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

2009-05-01

271

Characterization of grass carp reovirus minor core protein VP4  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a tentative member in the genus Aquareovirus of family Reoviridae, contains eleven segmented (double-stranded RNA) dsRNA genome which encodes 12 proteins. A low-copy core component protein VP4, encoded by the viral genome segment 5(S5), has been suggested to play a key role in viral genome transcription and replication. Results To understand the role of minor core protein VP4 played in mole...

Yan Liming; Guo Hong; Sun Xiaoyun; Shao Ling; Fang Qin

2012-01-01

272

Study of some biochemical parameters in the grass carp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experimental investigations were devoted to some biochemical parameters (glycogen, catalase, alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferase in three summer-old representatives of grass carp, at the level of the hepatic and muscular tissue. The results obtained evidenced significant differences between the tissues under analysis, both in the concentration of the main reserve polyglucides, as a supplier of circulating glucose, and in the enzymatic activity, in close correlation with the physiological and biochemical role of each tissue in part.

Sabina-Ioana Cojocaru

2009-12-01

273

Induced mutations in highly heterozygous vegetatively propagated grasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience with mutation induction of turf and forage grasses indicates that much progress can be achieved by this method. More than 300 mutations have been produced in our laboratory in the cultivars Tifgreen and Tifdwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). In the Tifway and Tifcote bermudagrasses we have demonstrated similar mutation responses. The first three clones are triploids and Tifcote is a probable tetraploid. No seeds are set on these clones. Two clones of bermudagrass, Coastal and Coastcross-1, occupy millions of hectares in the USA. Both are mutable and are known to be hybrids with 36 chromosomes. Biotypes of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) exist with 40 and 50 chromosomes and reproduce as sexual and obligate apomictic forms. Gamma-ray and thermal-neutron treatment of seed of these biotypes produced mutants that maintained the maternal characteristics in subsequent generations. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) also has sexual and apomictic biotypes. Some success was indicated for increased seed set by mutagen treatment. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a facultative apomict with varying numbers of chromosomes in different cultivars. Gamma-ray mutagen treatment of rhizomes produced numerous mutations for plant type and disease reaction. Most mutations perpetuate themselves through the seed. The characteristic in common with all these grasses is their heterozygosity, which is maintained by the vegetative propagation or apomictic mode of reproduction. The experience in using ionizing radiation to induce heritable changes in these vegetatively propagated grasses is one of considerable success. Mutation rates in some of these irradiated grasses exceeded 65% and aberrant plants with characteristics previously never observed were found. Numerous hemizygous and heterozygous loci seem to be a sensitive target for mutagens. (author)

1975-10-17

274

Production of elephant grass. [Miscanthus]. Produktion af elefantgraes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Elephant grass (Miscanthus) can be a viable renewable energy resource the combustion of which does not produce carbon dioxide and which has good potentials as a biomass fuel which can be grown on fallow areas. If it should be a rentable alternative, it is important that production rates are high, costs of establishment of crops are low, harvesting and transport is rational and - perhaps most important - sales possibilities are very good. Cultivation techniques for miscanthus plantations are described in detail. (AB).

Joergensen, U.; Bonderup Kjeldsen, J. (Afdeling for Kulturteknik, Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark))

1992-01-01

275

Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT). Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT). This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-co...

Frati, Franco; Scurati, Silvia; Puccinelli, Paola; David, Marie; Hilaire, Cecile; Capecce, Maurizio; Marcucci, Francesco; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

2010-01-01

276

Morphological and physiological studies of prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii Kunth).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis reports the results of seven indoor and outdoor studies on the growth of prairie grass( Bromus willdenowiiKunth) . In five studies comparisons were also made with ryegrass( Loliumspp.). Leaf and tiller production were quantified for undisturbed growth and growth under different cutting regimes. Water soluble carbohydrate reserves for regrowth were also determined. Particular attention was given to the effects of reproductive development on partitioning of bio...

1990-01-01

277

Insular Organization of Gene Space in Grass Genomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wheat and maize genes were hypothesized to be clustered into islands but the hypothesis was not statistically tested. The hypothesis is statistically tested here in four grass species differing in genome size, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, and Aegilops tauschii. Density functions obtained under a model where gene locations follow a homogeneous Poisson process and thus are not clustered are compared with a model-free situation quantified through a non-parametric densi...

Gottlieb, Andrea; Mu?ller, Hans-georg; Massa, Alicia N.; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Deal, Karin R.; You, Frank M.; Xu, Xiangyang; Gu, Yong Q.; Luo, Ming-cheng; Anderson, Olin D.; Chan, Agnes P.; Rabinowicz, Pablo; Devos, Katrien M.; Dvorak, Jan

2013-01-01

278

Evaluation of Annual Wild Grass Species for Leaf Rust Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Annual wild grass species of wheat i.e. Aegilops tauschii, Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta, Ae. variables, Ae. speltoids and Ae. triunciallis were screened against leaf rust Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desmaz.f.sp. tritici (Eriks. &E.henn.) D.M. Henderson . The frequency of immune and resistant accessions was fairly high in Ae. geniculata, Ae. variables and Ae. tauschii while low in the accessions of Ae. neglecta. No accession of Ae. genicula...

Shah, Tariq M.; Javed Ahmed; Asghar, M.; Iqbal, N.; Shafqat Farooq

2000-01-01

279

Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

2008-12-01

280

Three recently-introduced alien grasses in the Iberian Peninsula  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three non-native grasses (Gramineae/Poaceae): Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa laguroides subsp. torreyana and Agropyron desertorum, apparently hitherto unrecorded, have been detected in the Iberian Peninsula in recent years, and a further species, Nassella neesiana, is recorded as increasing its known distribution area in Catalonia (NE Spain).

Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa lag...

Pyke, S.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Phytoremediation : Vetiver Grass in Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Trichloroethylene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is chlorinated hydrocarbon which used in degreasing oil and grease fromprocess products. It was found that this chemical was contaminated in environmental, soil and wateraround industrial area. Soil was collected from Pratum Thani province which had TCE higher than thestandard set by Ministry of Industry in Thailand. Four ecotypes of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides)were used for phytoremediation including Songkla3, Sri Lanka, Kamphaeng Phet2 and Surat Thani. Allec...

2010-01-01

282

Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very c...

Franco Frati; Silvia Scurati; Paola Puccinelli; et al

2010-01-01

283

Reconstructing the Ndebele grass dome house : an integrated heritage initiative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the cultural heritage of the Ndebele grass dome house is investigated. Multiple sources, ranging from the written record, oral tradition and archaeological evidence are applied, in order to reconstruct the dome house which has become extinct in the Ndebele community. The reconstruction process is then described in detail. It is argued that this multidisciplinary approach complies with the basic guidelines of national and international heritage legislation and practice.

Vuuren, Chris J.

2007-01-01

284

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

A. Priolo

2011-03-01

285

Nitrogen use efficiency in six perennial grasses from contrasting habitats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. We studied the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in six perennial grasses adapted to a wide range of nutrient availability. The glasshouse experiment was carried out in pots containing nutrient solution, with two fertility treatments. Nitrogen-use efficiency was considered as the product of nitrogen productivity and mean residence time of the nitrogen in the plant (calculated using 15N pulse labelling). 2. The species investigated are characteristic of habitats ranging from very nutrient rich...

Vazquez Aldana, B. R.; Berendse, F.

1997-01-01

286

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically ...

Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Rodriguez, Adriana P. M.

2001-01-01

287

Mycorrhizas in the Perennial Grasses of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roots of eleven perennial grass species and their associated rhizosphere soil samples were collected from different rangeland habitats of Cholistan desert and studied for the occurrence of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations of Glomalean fungi with their roots and AM fungal propagules in their rhizospheres. Panicum antidotale roots showed highest percentage of AMF colonization (i.e., 92.75%) while lowest percentage (43.5%) was recorded in the roots of Cyprus conglomer...

Chaudhry, M. S.; Nasim, F. H.; Khan, Abdul G.

2006-01-01

288

Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation induced sexuality in this apomictic grass. Sexual strains were isolated and selected individuals were crossed. Polycross and recurrent single cross methods allowed restoring apomixis. The resulting apomictic strains showed excellent traits and transgressed hereditary potentials of parental components. The method is described of breeding and the productivity of individual breeding techniques is discussed. It is shown that the number of strains should be reduced and the most productive strains should be used for the formation of synthetic cultivars. (author)

1980-10-08

289

Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed). Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Bias Error (MBE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The one with highest (R2) and lowest (MBE)...

Mustafa Ibrahim; Sopian, K.; Daud, W. R. W.

2009-01-01

290

Combining Ability in Mixtures of Prairie Grass and Clovers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our objective was to evaluate the combining ability among cultivars of forage species, commonly sown in temperate regions of Argentina using a short rotation system. Three genetically diverse cultivars of prairie brome grass (Bromus catharticus, cv Copetona, cv Ñandú and cv Tango), a white clover cultivar (Trifolium repens, cv Lucero) and a red clover cultivar (T. pratense, cv Tropero) were evalua...

Miguel Jacinto Arturi; Mónica Beatriz Aulicino; Oscar Ansín; Gustavo Gallinger; Rodolfo Signorio

2012-01-01

291

Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP) supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36) and cont...

Venugopal Shonima; Iyer Uma

2010-01-01

292

Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

2014-04-01

293

Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conversion considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass. A warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soils by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season gasses.

McLaughlin, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bransby, D.I. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Soils; Parrish, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences

1994-10-01

294

Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges. PMID:15964059

Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

2005-12-01

295

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

Dornelas Marcelo C.

2001-01-01

296

Genetic improvement of grass pea for low neurotoxin (?-ODAP) content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass pea is a promising crop for adaptation under climate change because of its tolerance to drought, water-logging and salinity, and being almost free from insect-pests and diseases. In spite of such virtues, global area under its cultivation has decreased because of ban on its cultivation in many countries. The ban is imposed due to its association with neurolathyrism, a non-reversible neurological disorder in humans and animals due to presence of neurotoxin, ?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP) in its seedlings and seeds. The traditional varieties of grass pea contain 0.5-2.5% ?-ODAP. Exploitable genetic variability for ?-ODAP has been observed for development of low ODAP varieties, which along with improved agronomic and detoxification practices can help reduce the risk of lathyrism. Collaborative efforts between ICARDA and NARS have resulted in development of improved varieties such as Wasie in Ethiopia, Ratan, Prateek and Mahateora in India, and BARI Khesari-1 and BARI Khesari-2 in Bangladesh with <0.10% ?-ODAP. Soil application of 15-20 kg ha(-1) zinc sulphate, early planting, and soaking seeds in water have shown significant effects on ?-ODAP. Because of the often cross-pollination nature, the current breeding procedures being followed in grass pea requires paradigm shift in its approach for a possible genetic breakthrough. PMID:20659523

Kumar, Shiv; Bejiga, G; Ahmed, S; Nakkoul, H; Sarker, A

2011-03-01

297

Radioactive isotope uptake in a grass-legume association  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactive uptake of Medicago sativa and Rye grass in a pasture exposed to the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, was determined in four consecutive harvests covering a period of one year after the accident. In plants of Medicago sativa, inoculated with an effective Rhizobia meliloti strain isolated from Greek soils, a high degree of biological nitrogen fixation was observed at all harvests using N-15 techniques. At the second and third harvests, the percentage nitrogen derived from fixation (%NdfF), the percentage nitrogen derived from soil (%NdfS), as well as the radioactive uptake from the soil remained stable. At the fourth harvest, however, the %NdfF decreased while the %NdfS and the radioactive uptake from soil significantly increased. At the first harvest the radioactivity in both plants, caused mainly by direct fallout contamination, was considerably higher than that observed at the later harvests. Medicago sativa contained significantly less radioactivity than the grass at all harvests, although both plants were grown under the same environmental conditions. Even at the fourth harvest, almost one year after the initial contamination, the radioactivity of grass remained at high levels (20 Bq g{sup -1} of protein) while in Medicago sativa it assumed considerably lower values (3.6 Bq g{sup -1} of protein). A possible involvement of biological nitrogen fixation in the reduction of radioactive uptake is discussed. Finally, certain practical conclusions are drawn with respect to a safer management of pastures exposed to radioactivity. (author).

Douka, C.E.; Xenoulis, A.C. (National Centre for Scientific Research, Demokritos (Greece))

1991-01-01

298

Revising Himself : Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass  

Science.gov (United States)

An impressive feat of literary collation, the Library of Congress presents this exhibition on Walt Whitman, probably America's first superstar author, and Whitman's book of poetry, _Leaves of Grass_. Initially published in 1855, _Leaves of Grass_ contained 12 poems. Whitman continuously revised it until his death in 1892, when it contained 400 poems. The poet added new poems, renamed older ones, reworded lines, changed punctuation, and regrouped poems (through the 1881 edition), as well as inventing typography, and posing for frontispiece portraits wearing various styles of clothing and props. (front and back views of a cardboard butterfly that Whitman posed with in 1877 are included in the show). The exhibition traces this evolution of _Leaves of Grass_ and Whitman's life, as a poet and a person, from the first appearance of the lines "I am the poet of the body, And I am the poet of the soul" in a notebook dating 1847-1950s, to the final "Deathbed edition" of 1891-1892. A wealth of interesting biographical material on Whitman, his friends and associates, his work as a teacher, tending the wounded during the Civil War, and for the federal government, also appears in the exhibit.

299

Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. "1"3"7Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with "1"3"7Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with "1"3"4Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

1989-01-01

300

Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit, durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan. Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d; e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d. Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B. Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

Antônio Alves de Souza

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit) durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos / Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit), durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L) ou em pastagem consorciada [...] de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan). Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d); e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d). Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D) apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B). Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

Souza, Antônio Alves de; Espíndola, Gastão Barreto.

302

Selenium supplementation and selenium status of dairy cows fed diets based on grass, grass silage or maize silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

In three separate trial series (TS) the effect of diet composition on selenium (Se) status of dairy cows were investigated. Diets were formulated based mainly on grass (TS1), grass silage (TS2) or maize silage (TS3) with different levels of Se supplementation. Each TS comprised a total of 30 dairy cows and contained one treatment group without Se supplementation (control) and two groups with increasing levels of Se supplementation (levels 1 and 2). Selenium was administered as Na-selenite. The control groups of the different TS showed a very low Se supply of 38-54 microg Se/kg DM. At level 1 the Se supply was increased to 102-165 microg Se/kg DM and at level 2 was 294-373 microg Se/kg DM. After completion of the 6-week trials the average plasma Se concentration of the control cows (without Se supplementation) across all TS was 21.5 microg/l; this increased significantly following Se supplementation, to 37.7 microg/l at level 1 and 61.5 microg/l at level 2. The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the control cows averaged 67 U/l, rising considerably after supplementation at level 1 to a value of 101 U/l, but showed little further increase at level 2 with a mean value of 120 U/l. By contrast, the average Se content of the milk was unchanged in the control and level 1 groups at 10.5 microg/kg and 10.9 microg/kg, respectively, and only increased markedly after supplementation at level 2 to a mean value of 15.1 microg/kg. The diet based on maize silage, while having a similar Se content as the grass and grass silage-based diets, resulted in a slightly improved Se status, which is due to a higher Se intake from soybean meal. PMID:11972675

Gierus, M; Schwarz, F J; Kirchgessner, M

2002-04-01

303

A guardian of grasses: specific origin and conservation of a unique disease-resistance gene in the grass lineage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maize Hm1 gene provides protection against a lethal leaf blight and ear mold disease caused by Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 (CCR1). Although it was the first disease-resistance (DR) gene to be cloned, it remains a novelty because, instead of participating in the plant recognition and response system as most DR genes do, Hm1 disarms the pathogen directly. It does so by encoding an NADPH-dependent reductase, whose function is to inactivate Helminthosporium carbonum (HC) toxin, an epoxide-containing cyclic tetrapeptide, which the pathogen produces as a key virulence factor to colonize maize. Although CCR1 is strictly a pathogen of maize, orthologs of Hm1 and the HC-toxin reductase activity are present in the grass family, suggesting an ancient and evolutionarily conserved role of this DR trait in plants. Here, we provide proof for such a role by demonstrating its involvement in nonhost resistance of barley to CCR1. Barley leaves in which expression of the Hm1 homologue was silenced became susceptible to infection by CCR1, but only if the pathogen was able to produce HC toxin. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hm1 evolved exclusively and early in the grass lineage. Given the devastating ability of CCR1 to kill maize, these findings imply that the evolution and/or geographical distribution of grasses may have been constrained if Hm1 did not emerge. PMID:18230731

Sindhu, Anoop; Chintamanani, Satya; Brandt, Amanda S; Zanis, Michael; Scofield, Steven R; Johal, Gurmukh S

2008-02-01

304

Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

1995-08-01

305

Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we c...

Chen Jin; Li Cai; Huang Rong; Du Fukuan; Liao Lanjie; Zhu Zuoyan; Wang Yaping

2012-01-01

306

An Integrated Physical, Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of Brachypodium distachyon, a Model System for Grass Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pooid subfamily of grasses includes some of the most important crop, forage and turf species, such as wheat, barley and Lolium. Developing genomic resources, such as whole-genome physical maps, for analysing the large and complex genomes of these crops and for facilitating biological research in grasses is an important goal in plant biology. We describe a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map of the wild pooid grass Brachypodium distachyon and integrate this with whole ...

Febrer, Melanie; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wright, Jonathan; Mckenzie, Neil; Song, Xiang; Lin, Jinke; Collura, Kristi; Wissotski, Marina; Yu, Yeisoo; Ammiraju, Jetty S. S.; Wolny, Elzbieta; Idziak, Dominika; Betekhtin, Alexander; Kudrna, Dave; Hasterok, Robert

2010-01-01

307

A Group-1 Grass Pollen Allergen Influences the Outcome of Pollen Competition in Maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worldwide, 400 million people suffer from hay fever and seasonal asthma. The major causative agents of these allergies are pollen specific proteins called the group-1 grass pollen allergens. Although details of their antigenicity have been studied for 40 years with an eye towards immunotherapy, their function in the plant has drawn scant attention. Zea m 1 constitutes a class of abundant grass pollen allergens coded for by several genes that loosen the walls of grass cells, including the maiz...

Valdivia, Elene R.; Wu, Yajun; Li, Lian-chao; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Stephenson, Andrew G.

2007-01-01

308

Grass cell wall feruloylation: distribution of bound ferulate and candidate gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cell walls of grasses such as wheat, maize, rice, and sugar cane, contain large amounts of ferulate that is ester-linked to the cell wall polysaccharide glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX). This ferulate is considered to limit the digestibility of polysaccharide in grass biomass as it forms covalent linkages between polysaccharide and lignin components. Candidate genes within a grass-specific clade of the BAHD acyl-coA transferase superfamily have been identified as being responsible for the este...

Molinari, Hugo B. C.; Pellny, Till K.; Freeman, Jackie; Shewry, Peter R.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.

2013-01-01

309

High gene density is conserved at syntenic loci of small and large grass genomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative genomic analysis at the genetic-map level has shown extensive conservation of the gene order between the different grass genomes in many chromosomal regions. However, little is known about the gene organization in grass genomes at the microlevel. Comparison of gene-coding regions between maize, rice, and sorghum showed that the distance between the genes is correlated with the genome size. We have investigated the microcolinearity at Lrk gene loci in the genomes of four grass spec...

Feuillet, Catherine; Keller, Beat

1999-01-01

310

Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. R...

2008-01-01

311

Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methane flux measurements from the soil-grass system were made during the wet season in unperturbed plots and plots where standing dry and green Trachypogon sp. grasses were clipped to just above the soil surface. Results support the surprising discovery that vegetation emits methane. The dry/green mixture of grasses produce methane at a rate of ~10 ng m?2 s?1, which extrapolated to the global savanna would produce an annual emission of ~5 Tg, much lower than the ...

Sanhueza, E.; Donoso, L.

2006-01-01

312

Genetic diversity in Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars: implications for breeding and conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Napier grass is an important forage for smallholder dairy farms. However, there has been a comparatively low effort to improve Napier grass. It is necessary to strengthen forage breeding programs for development of cultivars with superior traits like. With a high rich gene pool; correct identification of Napier grass accessions is a prerequisite because the existing germplasm information is scanty and cannot be relied upon for crop improvement. Thus the genetic assessment of various Napier gr...

2013-01-01

313

Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous...

2010-01-01

314

Fire Control – A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emi...

Paulsamy, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramaniam, V.; Arumugasamy, K.; Nagarajan, N.

2001-01-01

315

Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics of four grass species on some dike slopes in the north of Viet Nam including root diameter, root distribution over depth, root tensile stress. Roots are classified into four levels 1, 2, 3 and 4. Le...

2012-01-01

316

Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that improves plant growth. TGF and torrefied grass extracts (TGE) were inoculated with a suspension of microorganisms obtained from soil. Sequential microbial enrichment steps were then performed in both...

Trifonova, R. D.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J. J. M. H.; Elsas, J. D.

2008-01-01

317

Facilitation or Competition? : Tree Effects on Grass Biomass across a Precipitation Gradient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the i...

Moustakas, Aristides; Kunin, William E.; Cameron, Tom C.; Sankaran, Mahesh

2013-01-01

318

Effects of nutrients and shade on tree-grass interactions in an East African savanna.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Savanna trees have a multitude of positive and negative effects on understorey grass production, but little is known about how these effects interact. We report on a fertilization and shading experiment carried out in a Tanzanian tropical dry savanna around Acacia tortilis trees. In two years of study there was no difference in grass production under tree canopies or in open grassland. Fertilization, however, indicate that trees do affect the nutrient limitation of the grass layer with an N-l...

Ludwig, F.; Kroon, H.; Prins, H. H. T.; Berendse, F.

2001-01-01

319

Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products present in the silage. These include organic acids (lactic acid, volatile fatty acids) and N-containing fermentation products (ammonia (NH 3 ) and amines). The impact of N-containing fermentation produ...

Os, M.

1997-01-01

320

Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass) has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every sta...

Mare?chal, Pierre-yves; Henriet, Franc?ois; Vancutsem, Franc?oise; Bodson, Bernard

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Yield, forage quality of grass species and varieties established on topsoiled mine spoils in western Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yield, productivity, and forage quality of 16 cool-season, perennial grass species and varieties, some not commonly grown for forage in the east-central US, were compared in 2 harvests on topsoil over spoil. Effects of harvesting grasses on ground-cover and survival were also evaluated. Nutrient levels in grasses (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, and Na) and fiber (ADF, NDF) were analyzed for harvested grasses in spring and fall. Groundcover was evaluated for harvested and unharvested grasses in spring and fall, and plant height measured in spring only. Tall fescue had highest sustained yield for both harvests and low fiber. Other low-fiber grasses for both harvests were reed canarygrass, bluegrass, creeping red fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Orchardgrass and redtop were intermediate in yield for each harvest but high fiber, high spring yield but low fall yield. Grasses in the vegetative stage had lower fiber than grasses in the seed stage. Cutting grasses appeared to lower groundcover but prompted species to undergo regrowth. Manhattan perennial ryegrass and Kenhy tall fescue showed trends for higher productivity and lower fiber than other tested varieties. These data were from the first of a 5-year study.

Laue, S.K.; Barnhisel, R.I.; Powell, J.L.

1982-12-01

322

Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affects the grass yield negatively and more than the tire pressure

Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

2009-01-01

323

Canopy growth and density of Wyoming big sagebrush sown with cool-season perennial grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Post-mining revegetation efforts often require grass seeding and mulch applications to stabilize the soils at the same time as shrub seeding, creating intraspecific competition between seeded shrubs and grasses that is not well understood. In 1999, we initiated a study at the Belle Ayr Coal Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, to evaluate the influence of grass competition on establishment and growth of Wyoming big sagebrush. Combinations of three sagebrush seeding rates (1, 2, and 4 kg pls ha{sup -1}) and seven cool-season perennial grass mixture seeding rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 kg pls ha{sup -1}) were seeded during winter 1998-1999. Shrub density and grass cover were assessed from 1999 to 2004. We monitored sagebrush canopy size in 2001, 2002, and 2004. All sagebrush seeding rates provided shrub densities (>=) 1 shrub m {sup -1} after six growing seasons. Grass production (>=) 75 g m{sup -2} was achieved by seeding grasses at 6 to 8 kg pls ha{sup -1}). Canopy growth of individual sagebrush plants was least in the heaviest grass seeding rate. Reduced grass seeding rates can aid in achieving Wyoming big sagebrush density standards and enhance shrub canopy growth.

Hild, A.L.; Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Williams, M.I. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. for Renewable Resources

2006-07-15

324

Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10?2 d L?1 and 4.6 × 10?2 d L?1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10?2 d L?1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10?3 d L?1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of 137Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y?1 and 0.04 ?Sv y?1,while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y?1 and 0.05 ?Sv y?1, respectively. -- Highlights: • This is a detailed study on Fv and Fm for 137Cs and stable Cs around the Kaiga nuclear power plant, India. • The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. • The Fm value for 137Cs for the local breed cows was estimated to be 2.4 × 10?2 d L?1. • The Fm value for dairy farm cows (4.0 × 10?3 d L?1) was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. • The reasons for the higher Fm values for 137Cs for the local breed cows are identified

2013-10-01

325

Impact of grass and grass with poplar buffer strips on atrazine and metolachlor losses in surface runoff and subsurface infiltration from agricultural plots.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many areas of intensive corn production, atrazine and metolachlor are among the most commonly found herbicides in surface and ground water. This 2-yr study compared the impact of grass and grass+tree buffer strips on the exported masses of atrazine, metolachlor, and a degradation product of atrazine, desethylatrazine (DEA). The experimental system consisted of four replicate plots in a three-way completely randomized design (no buffer zone, grass buffer zone, and grass+tree buffer strips). The field plots were 5 m wide and 30 m long and grown in corn. The grass and grass+tree buffer strips were 5 m and had the same grass vegetation except for eight young hybrid poplars. Over the 2-yr study, surface runoff and subsurface infiltration water (under the buffer strip) were collected after the initial three rainfall events after herbicide application. Dissolved atrazine, metolachlor, and DEA were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The presence of buffer strips decreased the exported masses of atrazine and metolachlor in surface runoff. A three-way ANOVA with treatment (type of buffer strip), water (surface runoff or subsurface infiltration), and time between herbicide application and rainfall event as factors showed a significant reduction (40-60% in 2004 and 75-95% in 2005) in the total (surface runoff+infiltrated water) exported masses of atrazine and metolachlor in the presence of buffer strips. Rainfall events after herbicide application were different between the 2 yr and greatly affected the flow distribution (e.g., subsurface infiltration) and the leached herbicide concentrations. No significant difference in the capacity to reduce herbicide exports was observed between grass and grass+tree buffer strip treatments; the poorly developed young poplar biomass at the time of the study may partly explain this observation. PMID:20176835

Caron, Emmanuelle; Lafrance, Pierre; Auclair, Jean-Christian; Duchemin, Marc

2010-01-01

326

Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb. PMID:21411942

Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

2011-01-01

327

Microseisms in geothermal exploration: studies in Grass Valley, Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frequency-wavenumber (f-k) spectra of seismic noise in the bands 1 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 10 Hz in frequency and parallel bar k parallel bar less than or equal to 35.7 cycles/km in wavenumber, measured at several places in Grass Valley, Nevada, exhibit numerous features which can be correlated with variations in surface geology and sources associated with hot spring activity. Exploration techniques for geothermal reservoirs, based upon the spatial distribution of the amplitude and frequency characteristics of short-period seismic noise, are applied and evaluated in a field program at a potential geothermal area in Grass Valley, Nevada. A detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the noise field was made to guide subsequent data acquisition and processing. Contour maps of normalized noise-level derived from carefully sampled data are dominated by the hot spring noise source and the generally high noise levels outlining the regions of thick alluvium. Major faults are evident when they produce a shallow lateral contrast in rock properties. Conventional seismic noise mapping techniques cannot differentiate noise anomalies due to buried seismic sources from those due to shallow geological effects. The noise radiating from a deep reservoir ought to be evident as body waves of high phase velocity with time-invariant source azimuth. A small two-dimensional array was placed at 16 locations in the region to map propagation parameters. The f-k spectra reveal local shallow sources, but no evidence for a significant body wave component in the noise field was found. With proper data sampling, array processing provides a powerful method for mapping the horizontal component of the vector phase velocity of the noise field. In Grass Valley, and probably in most areas, the 2 to 10 Hz microseismic field is predominantly fundamental mode Rayleigh waves controlled by the very shallow structure.

Liaw, A.L.C.

1977-11-01

328

Prevalence of Copepod Ectoparasites of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and twenty grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, were examined over a period of one year from March 1998 to February 1999 at Government Fish Hatchery, Mian Channu, Punjab, Pakistan. Four species of copepod ectoparasites recovered were Lernaea (L. polymorpha (Yu, 1938, L. cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1761, L. lophiara (Harding, 1950 and L. ctenopharyngodonis. The parasitic infestation was low during the summer months when temperature ranged between 30-32?C and highest in winter months when temperature was between 13 -23?C.

Zahida Tasawar

1999-01-01

329

Limnological Studies of Intensively Stocked Grass Carp Rearing Ponds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of three iso-caloric test diets, viz. 30, 35 and 40 per cent crude protein (C.P.) on the physico-chemical characteristics of water and grass carp yields was studied for 270 days. In control treatment, fish yield was 84.47 per cent dependent on water nitrates, phosphates and temperature while nitrates along with hardness, alkalinity, pH and temperature accounted for 85.90 per cent variations in fish yield under 30 per cent C.P. treatment. In 35 per cent C.P. level fish yield showed ...

Muhammad Javed; Sheri, A. N.

1998-01-01

330

Functional investigation of grass carp reovirus nonstructural protein NS80  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a highly virulent agent of aquatic animals, has an eleven segmented dsRNA genome encased in a multilayered capsid shell, which encodes twelve proteins including seven structural proteins (VP1-VP7), and five nonstructural proteins (NS80, NS38, NS31, NS26, and NS16). It has been suggested that the protein NS80 plays an important role in the viral replication cycle that is similar to that of its homologous protein ?NS in the genus...

Cai Lin; Sun Xiaoyun; Shao Ling; Fang Qin

2011-01-01

331

Sources of Carbon and Nitrogen for Leaf Growth in Grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: The subject of the present study was the use of carbon and nitrogen substrates for leaf growth in a C3 (Lolium perenne L.) and C4 (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) grass. Specifically, the interests were, first, to explore how carbon and nitrogen substrates are used to produce leaf area, and second, to determine which sources supply them. In order to do this, a novel methodological approach to estimate C and N import into leaf growth zones was developed and coupled with steady-state labelling ...

Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo

2006-01-01

332

Round baled grass silage as food for reindeer in winter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Round baled silage of mixed grasses was tested as emergency food for reindeer in winter. The silage was made of leaf rich regrowth of Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis and Poa spp. It contained 33-3% dry matter (DM), and 14.8 % crude protein, 24.5% cellulose and 26.7% hemicellulose on a DM basis. Palatability, food intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, body mass (BM), carcass weight and gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy were investigated. A group of adult female reindeer (n = 38), were taken from...

Aagnes, Tove H.; Mathiesen, Svein D.

1995-01-01

333

Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

Our results proved that there was a significant edge eff...

Magura, T.; To?thme?re?sz, B.; Molna?r, T.

2001-01-01

334

Occurrence of Fumonisin in Forage Grass in New Zealand †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) was isolated from samples of forage grass originating in paddocks associated with an idiopathic disease of Canadian wapiti and wapiti-red deer hybrids characterized by “ill thrift” and liver dysfunction. Four of 40 samples contained 1, 3, 6, and 9 ppm (micrograms per gram) of FB1 and 4, 0.5, 2, and 0.5 ppm, respectively, of the methyl ester of FB1. Analyses were done by ion spray mass spectrometry and confirmed by both fast atom bombardment (solids probe) and mass spect...

Mirocha, C. J.; Mackintosh, C. G.; Mirza, U. A.; Xie, W.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.

1992-01-01

335

Radon transport through a cool-season grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

"2"2"2Rn released by mature tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) growing on uranium mill wastes in a controlled environment was a direct function of leaf area and essentially unrelated to the quantity of water transpired by the plants. The quantity of "2"2"2Rn released by the grass blades at maturity was approximately 0.01 Bq m"-"2 s"-"1. We suggest that the radioactive gas is transported from the rooting medium to leaves by mass flow in liquid water, but from leaves to the atmosphere by a path generally independent of water, i.e., primarily through the leaf cuticle and epicuticular wax. (author)

1986-01-01

336

Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI) and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI) by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 d...

2001-01-01

337

Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

1980-10-08

338

Versatile utilization of peat bogs - reed canary grass for energy production; Ruokohelpiae energiantuotantoon - Turvesoiden hyoedyntaeminen monipuolistuu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is possible to cultivate reed canary grass on peatlands reserved for peat production or on cut-off peatlands. Vapo Oy has developed new technology for harvesting of reed canary grass, and investigated the utilization of chopped grass for power production. According to the results it is possible to use the harvested reed canary grass harvest for production of mixed fuels in addition to peat. Traditional agricultural machines are used for preparation of the cultivation areas and for cultivation of reed canary grass, but the demanding conditions set special requirements for the harvesting equipment. Vapo Oy has developed new equipment for harvesting of reed canary grass. Kemper harvester, designed for harvesting of sugar cane, was purchased in 1996. The machine enables the harvesting of the grass shorter, which makes it possible to use it as a mixture with peat. About 3000 m{sup 3} of reed canary grass was harvested in 1997. All of it was purchased to Oulu Energia for energy production. By the side of this Vapo Oy delivered 4000 m{sup 3} of reed grass and 5000 m{sup 3} of straw to Oulu Energia and Kemira Chemicals. The beating down of the grass renders the harvesting of reed canary grass. About 20 % of the harvest may remain on the field. The low density of the straw biomasses renders the utilization of pure straw fuels in the processing equipment and conveyors of present power plants and increases the transportation costs. These difficulties can be overcome by mixing the chopped straw with peat. Straw from harvesting of crops is still the most important source of straw biomass. It has been estimated that the potential of straw would be 1-2 TWh. TTS-Institute has investigated the present situation, and the results show that there in 35 Finnish heating plants of the scale 5-100 MW could 10 % of the fueled be replaced by chopped straw

Kinnunen, L.

1998-12-01

339

The development of reed canary grass fuel chain; Ruokohelven polttoaineketjun kehittaeminen liiketoimintamahdollisuuksien parantamiseksi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cultivation of reed canary grass is growing rapidly in Finland because it is increasingly utilised as a solid fuel in heat and power plants. Reed canary grass is renewable biomass and because of it's CO{sub 2} neutrality it is an attractive alternative for power plants under CO{sub 2} quota regulations. The cultivation area of reed canary grass in 2007 is estimated to be about 20 000 ha which is 1 % of the total cultivation area in Finland. It is estimated that about 70-80 power plants in Finland could utilise reed canary grass as a co-firing fuel. Nowadays more than 20 plants have already some experience of reed canary grass utilisation. Reed canary grass is co-combusted with fuels like peat, bark, sawdust and forest chips. Typical moisture content of these fuels is about 50 % and boilers in power plants are designed for fuels with that moisture content. The moisture content of reed canary grass is much lower (15-25 %). In terms of energy the maximum annual share of reed canary grass has been nowadays only {approx} 1 % of the total annual fuel input at power plants. The highest momentary shares have been around 15% of the total fuel energy. The most critical limiting factor at the plant is normally the fuel conveyor and feeding capacity which is designed for much energy denser fuels. The energy content of reed canary grass chop is only 0,3 MWh/m3 while it is 0,6-1,1 MWh/m{sup 3} for wood and peat. The aim of the project (2006-2008) is to enhance the competitiveness of reed canary grass as a solid biofuel by means of technical development work and economical studies. The decrease of harvesting losses and long-distance transportation costs and the development of fuel handling and utilisation on power plant are the main targets for development. The aim is to decrease harvesting losses of reed canary grass which can be quite high. Losses are caused mainly by mowing too roughly fragile and lodged plants. The transport costs of baled reed canary grass must also be lowered in order to lower the price of reed canary grass and to extend the cost-effective transport distance. The optimal chopping and mixing techniques for reed canary grass are also research topics in the project. Reed canary grass should be mixed very carefully with primary fuels and the chaff should be as short as possible. Reed canary grass is supplied mainly in bales to power plants and existing choppers of agriculture and sometimes also crushers on power plants are not suitable or effective enough for chopping of reed canary grass. Dusting and thus fire risk must be especially taken into account when comminuting reed canary grass. One important objective in the project is to study pneumatical feeding system for reed canary grass in which the fuel is fed directly into the boiler. This solution requires relatively low investment costs and is suitable for many power plants. The chop size on separate air conveying is not so crucial and also the share of reed canary grass can be increased in the fuel blend. In this project test runs at selected power plants are performed. The performance of the system and the effects of reed canary grass on boiler operation are studied. (orig.)

Leinonen, A.; Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Isolahti, M.; Loetjoenen, T. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkari, A.-M. [Work Efficiency Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

2007-07-01

340

Grass pea and neurolathyrism: farmers' perception on its consumption and protective measure in North Shewa, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as water logging and frost hazards) influence consumption of grass pea. Most of the respondents have the idea that some chemical contained in grass pea causes a health problem. Different processing and preparation methods are used to prepare grass pea into different food forms. The major processing methods include washing and soaking, as the farmers apply these methods mainly because they assume that the chemical that causes lathyrism, scientifically known as ?-ODAP (?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid) is reduced through washing and soaking. The farmers adopt different strategies to avoid the problem of lathyrism such as avoiding consumption of grass pea in the form that they suspect to cause the problem, blending/mixing with other crops, applying different processing/detoxification methods. Since grass pea is consumed with a fear of lathyrism, future research should concentrate either on developing grass pea varieties with safe level of ?-ODAP content or improving the traditional/indigenous processing methods. PMID:20850494

Girma, Anteneh; Tefera, Beneberu; Dadi, Legesse

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Occurrence of ergovaline in endophyte infected grasses from mediterranean grasslands.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungal endophytes of the genera Neo~yphodium and Epich/oc systemicaIly infect several grasses. One of the most relevant aspects of the grass-endophyte interaction is the production of secondary compounds (alkaloids) which are toxic to both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores.

Va?zquez Aldana, Beatriz R.; Garci?a Criado, B.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; Garci?a Ciudad, A.

2000-01-01

342

Wheat grass juice reduces transfusion requirement in patients with thalassemia major: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat grass juice is the juice extracted from the pulp of wheat grass and has been used as a general-purpose health tonic for several years. Several of our patients in the thalassemia unit began consuming wheat grass juice after anecdotal accounts of beneficial effects on transfusion requirements. These encouraging experiences prompted us to evaluate the effect of wheat grass juice on transfusion requirements in patients with transfusion dependent beta thalassemia. Families of patients raised the wheat grass at home in kitchen garden/pots. The patients consumed about 100 mL of wheat grass juice daily. Each patient acted as his own control. Observations recorded during the period of intake of wheat grass juice were compared with one-year period preceding it. Variables recorded were the interval between transfusions, pre-transfusion hemoglobin, amount of blood transfused and the body weight. A beneficial effect of wheat grass juice was defined as decrease in the requirement of packed red cells (measured as grams/Kg body weight/year) by 25% or more. 16 cases were analyzed. Blood transfusion requirement fell by >25% in 8 (50%) patients with a decrease of >40% documented in 3 of these. No perceptible adverse effects were recognized. PMID:15297687

Marawaha, R K; Bansal, Deepak; Kaur, Siftinder; Trehan, Amita

2004-07-01

343

AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER: TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION ABOVE A GRASS SEED FIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oregon, in the summer of 1993. he report describes the changes in the atmospheric surface layer over a grass seed field ...

344

Decomposing grass herbage as a source of ammonia in the atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The volatilization of ammonia from grass herbage, cut and then placed on grass stubble during simulated showery weather, was measured using a system of wind tunnels. Herbage containing 2.98% nitrogen lost 10% of its N through NH 3 volatilization over a period of 28 days, whereas no volatilization was detected from herbage containing 0.92% N.

Whitehead, D. C.; Lockyer, D. R.

345

Sod-seeding to modify coastal bermuda grass on reclaimed lignite overburden in Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted to investigate the ability of nine low-maintenance species to establish and persist with Coastal bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) established on reclaimed lignite overburden; to evaluate the establishment and persistence of seventeen low-maintenance species seeded in overburden with no vegetation cover; and to examine seeding mixtures and rates for establishing low-maintenance species into three cover types (bermuda grass, oats, (Avena fatua L.) and no cover). Seventeen low-maintenance species established and persisted in overburden without fertilization during years of low precipitation. Several seeded grasses showed sufficient stand development in monoculture for erosion control. Most of the other seeded species were slower in establishment, yet persisted on the site and promoted multiple use of the reclaimed area. Recommended seeding rates were generally adequate for seedling establishment in oat, bermuda grass, and no vegetation cover types. Sod-seeding into bermuda grass resulted in higher seedling densities than those in oats and no cover because of stored moisture beneath the sod during bermuda grass dormancy. Using /sup 15/N-labelled fertilizer, Coastal bermuda grass demonstrated the ability to rapidly recovery applied N. Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani Schrad.) was suppressed by Coastal bermuda grass in mixture at all fertilizer N rates.

Skousen, J.G.

1986-01-01

346

Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO_3) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO_3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 ?m and 5 ?m iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO_3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 ?m particles, 5 ?m particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

1982-01-01

347

Competition for water between deep- and shallow-rooted grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition between root systems of neighboring plants may be altered by seasonal variation in precipitation and soil moisture. Competitive effects of a deep-rooted, perennial grass, Pseudoroegneria spicata, on a shallow-rooted, perennial grass, Poa sandbergii, were monitored over two growing seasons by isolating the root system of P. sandbergii individuals within PVC tubes and comparing plant and soil characteristics to controls. When isolated for the entire growing season, P. sandbergii continued vegetative growth three weeks longer and later season soil water content was significantly greater than controls. Differences in soil water content were greatest between 30 and 50cm, below P. sandbergii's typical rooting depth. Flowering phenology was unchanged. When plants were isolated late in the season, treated plants showed more negative predown xylem pressure potential the morning after isolatron. Compared to controls, soil water content was reduced the day after tube insertion. These immediate effects on plant and soil water status may be due to removal of water supplied nightly by hydraulic lift.

Healy, J.L.; Black, R.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)); Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States))

1994-06-01

348

Prairie grass establishment on calcareous reclaimed mine soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reclaimed Appalachian surface mined lands have difficulty in sustaining native deciduous forest communities. Establishing prairie communities could increase ecosystem function; however, a native model system does not exist. We evaluated establishment of 15 North American prairie grasses as monocultures on reclaimed mine soil in southeast Ohio in four randomized complete blocks planted May 2005 and 2006. Population density was assessed 30 d after planting (30 DAP) and in October of the planting year (YR1) and second year following planting (YR2) and expressed as percentage of viable seeds sown (PVSS). Canopy cover of nonnative species reestablishing in the plots was measured in 2007. Eastern gamagrass ( L.) population was >50 PVSS in all censuses. Western wheatgrass [ (Rydb.) A. Löve] was initially 7 PVSS at 30 DAP, but increased to 154 PVSS by YR2 from rhizomes spreading into gaps. Big bluestem ( Vitman) was 7 PVSS at 30 DAP and 4 PVSS at YR2. Blue grama [ (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths] and sideoats grama [ (Michx.) Torr.] did not survive past YR1. Gaps left from poor stand establishment were primarily recolonized by nonnative Kentucky bluegrass ( L.) in the 2005 planting and birdsfoot trefoil ( L.) in the 2006 planting, but was least in eastern gamagrass and tall dropseed [ (P. Beauv.) Kunth]. This research demonstrates the potential for increasing diversity and species richness on mine soil habitats with regionally native grasses that could increase functional quality through ecological resilience. PMID:22031565

Thorne, Mark; Cardina, John

2011-01-01

349

Report on the grass ecosystem project: results for 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the Chernobyl accident, some 20 grass samples were collected over a wide area of Europe by a carefully prescribed protocol. The samples were dried, homogenized, and distributed by the IAEA to Member States who had expressed an interest in participating in their analysis. Thirteen radionuclides were measured in these samples, and the range in activity ratios for some radionuclides was over a hundredfold. This variability appears to be associated with particulate versus vaporized radionuclide releases from the reactor core, and/or the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide source term at the time of the release. The radionuclide concentrations observed by the various laboratories generally indicated good analytical consistency, and the few cases where consistency does not seem to hold may possibly be attributed to inhomogeneity of aliquots (hot particles) of the grass samples. The wide geographic coverage of this sampling programme, together with multiple laboratory analyses, provides a data resource which should be valuable for comparing and understanding the nature of Chernobyl fallout which was deposited at selected sites throughout Europe. (author). Figs and tabs

1989-01-01

350

Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F_1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F_1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

1980-02-15

351

Photoinhibition of germination in grass seed - Implications for prairie revegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germination photoinhibition is not a recognized cause of revegetation failure; yet prolonged sunlight exposure can inhibit germination of several grass species. This research addressed susceptibility to photoinhibition of selected native grass species used to restore Canadian prairies, and reclamation treatments to alter environmental conditions in order to release seeds from photoinhibition. Under laboratory conditions effects of photoinhibition were tested on the ability of seeds to germinate at low water potential and effects of daily alternating temperatures and nitrates to break photoinhibition. Whether surficial mulch can release seeds from photoinhibition was assessed in a field experiment. Germination photoinhibition was evident in Festuca hallii and Koeleria macrantha seeds even under very low irradiances. The prolonged exposure to light decreased germination rates and ability of seeds to germinate at low water potentials. Daily fluctuating temperatures released a fraction of Bromus carinatus and Elymus trachycaulus seeds from photoinhibition yet did not improve F. hallii or K. macrantha germinability. Nitrates failed to break seed photoinhibition in all species tested. In the field experiment, mulched F. hallii seeds (covered with an erosion control blanket) showed a tenfold increase in germination percentages relative to seeds exposed to direct sunlight, indicating the facilitative effects of mulching on attenuation of the light environment. We conclude that germination photoinhibition as a cause of emergence failures in land reclamation where seed is broadcast or shallow seeded should be recognized and germination photoinhibition included in the decision making process to select revegetation seeding techniques. PMID:24794519

Mollard, Federico P O; Naeth, M Anne

2014-09-01

352

Dynamic evolution of rht-1 homologous regions in grass genomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexaploid bread wheat contains A, B, and D three subgenomes with its well-characterized ancestral genomes existed at diploid and tetraploid levels, making the wheat act as a good model species for studying evolutionary genomic dynamics. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and related grass genomes to examine the dynamics of homologous regions surrounding Rht-1, a well-known "green revolution" gene. Our results showed that the divergence of the two A genomes in the Rht-1 region from the diploid and tetraploid species is greater than that from the tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The divergence of D genome between diploid and hexaploid is lower than those of A genome, suggesting that D genome diverged latter than others. The divergence among the A, B and D subgenomes was larger than that among different ploidy levels for each subgenome which mainly resulted from genomic structural variation of insertions and, perhaps deletions, of the repetitive sequences. Meanwhile, the repetitive sequences caused genome expansion further after the divergence of the three subgenomes. However, several conserved non-coding sequences were identified to be shared among the three subgenomes of wheat, suggesting that they may have played an important role to maintain the homolog of three subgenomes. This is a pilot study on evolutionary dynamics across the wheat ploids, subgenomes and differently related grasses. Our results gained new insights into evolutionary dynamics of Rht-1 region at sequence level as well as the evolution of wheat during the plolyploidization process. PMID:24086561

Wu, Jing; Kong, Xiuying; Shi, Chao; Gu, Yongqiang; Jin, Cuiyun; Gao, Lizhi; Jia, Jizeng

2013-01-01

353

Biosynthesis and assembly of cell wall polysaccharides in cereal grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have just completed the second year of a three-year project entitled Biosynthesis assembly of cell wall polysaccharides in cereal grasses.'' We made significant progress on two aspects of cell wall synthesis in grasses and greatly refined gas-liquid and high- performance liquid chromatographic techniques necessary to identify the products of synthesis in vitro and in vivo. First, Dr. David Gibeaut, a post-doctoral associate, devised a convenient procedure for the enrichment of Golgi membranes by flotation centrifugation following initial downward rate-zonal separation. Based on comparison of the IDPase marker enzyme, flotation centrifugation enriched the Golgi apparatus almost 7-fold after the initial downward separation. This system is now used in our studies of the synthesis in vitro of the mixed-linkage {beta}-D-glucan. Second, Gibeaut and I have devised a simple technique to feed radioactive sugars into intact growing seedlings and follow incorporation of radioactivity into and turnover from specific cell wall polysaccharides. The project has also provided a few spin-off projects that have been productive as well. First, in collaboration with the group of Prof. Peter Kaufman, University of Michigan, we examined changes in cell wall structure concomitant with reaction to gravistimulation in the gravisensing oat pulvinus. Second, Dr. Gibeaut developed a simple clean-up procedure for partially methylated alditol derivatives to remove a large amount of undesirable interfering compounds that confound separation of the derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography. 5 refs.

Carpita, N.C.

1991-04-01

354

Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed. Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The one with highest (R2 and lowest (MBE and (RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. Three temperatures (35, 45 and 55°C and three humidities (30, 40 and 50% were investigated with a fixed air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Conclusion/Recommendation: The increase in the drying air temperature increased the drying process and decreased the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC of Lemon grass. The drying process decreased as the air humidity increases. The effect was less than that of the temperature. The EMC have high values with high relative humidity.

Mustafa Ibrahim

2009-01-01

355

Belowground zone of influence in a tussock grass species  

Science.gov (United States)

Belowground plant competition is strong and mediated by resource depletion as well as by high variety of exudates. Both factors contribute to active root segregation, affecting neighbours' growth. In field and greenhouse experiments we investigated the belowground zone of influence of Stipa tenacissima, a tussock-forming grass which is the dominant species in many semiarid communities of the western Mediterranean Basin. Sometimes tussocks show a fringe nearly devoid of annual plants, most likely caused by competition or interference. Fringe size was a function of water availability, so that the more water available the smaller the fringe and vice-versa. Aboveground mass of annual plants was higher in gaps than in the fringe, but root mass was higher in the fringe. More species emerged in soils from gaps than in soils from the fringe, and productivity was ten times higher in soils from gaps than in soils from the fringe. Growth of barley plants was inhibited in the vicinity of S. tenacissima tussocks. S. tenacissima produced a belowground zone of influence around the tussock through resource depletion, particularly water, but also likely through root exudates. Both mechanisms might inhibit the establishment of other annual and grass species within the fringe. Fringe area has important effects for plant establishment, influencing population and community dynamics in these semiarid environments.

Armas, Cristina; Pugnaire, Francisco I.

2011-05-01

356

Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m"2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10"-"1"1m"-"1. The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

1979-01-01

357

Effect of Cutting Heights on Productivity and Quality of King Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King Grass) under Irrigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment to study the effect of cutting heights on yield and nutritive values of King napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass) was conducted on sandy loam, Korat soil series (Oxic Paleustults) under irrigation during June 2006 to November 2007 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Development Research Center, Thailand. Four treatments of cutting height at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3) and 15 (T4) cm above ground level in randomized complete block design with 4 replications were employ...

2009-01-01

358

A Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial Assessing Compliance, Tolerability, Safety, and Efficacy to Treatment with Grass Allergy Tablets in 261 Patients with Grass Pollen Rhinoconjunctivitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is considered a causal treatment of respiratory allergies. Compliance to the SLIT is an important aspect for a positive clinical outcome. Study Aim. To evaluate if compliance with grass Allergy Immunotherapy Tablet (AIT) can be increased by providing an electronic compliance device (CED) (Memozax; a tablet-container with a programmable daily acoustic alarm). Patients and Methods. 261 patients with grass allergy were enrolled and ra...

Alesina, Roberta; Milani, Massimo; Pecora, Silvia

2012-01-01

359

Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional ?-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency. PMID:22939601

Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

2012-11-01

360

Yield and Chemical Composition of Common Roadside Grasses Available in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to estimate the yield and nutritive value of common roadside grasses available in Bangladesh. A land was developed as an experimental plot and made for growing roadside grasses and was partitioned into four quarters each of 200 sq.m. Pasture was established as a grazing land. The average herbage yield (DM and OM recorded in the month of November was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that of August, September or February. The fresh yield (P<0.05 and CP yield of Phaseolus mungo were significantly higher than that of other grass species. The OM content of Imperata cylindrica was significantly (P<0.05 than other grasses. The DM content of Cynodon dactylon and Imperata cylindrica, NDF content of Cynodon dactylon and CP content of Phaseolus mungo were significantly (P<0.01 higher than other grass species.

F. Kabir

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Phytostabilisation potential of lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Stend) Wats) on iron ore tailings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present pot culture study was carried out for the potential phytostabilisation of iron ore tailings using lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) a drought tolerant, perennial, aromatic grass. Experiments have been conducted by varying the composition of garden soil (control) with iron ore tailings. The various parameters, viz. growth of plants, number of tillers, biomass and oil content of lemon grass are evaluated. The studies have indicated that growth parameters of lemon grass in 1:1 composition of garden soil and iron ore tailings are significantly more (-5% increase) compared to plants grown in control soil. However, the oil content of lemon grass in both the cases more or less remained same. The results also infer that at higher proportion of tailings the yield of biomass decreases. The studies indicate that lemongrass with its fibrous root system is proved to be an efficient soil binder by preventing soil erosion. PMID:23741871

Mohanty, M; Dhal, N K; Patra, P; Das, B; Reddy, P S R

2012-01-01

362

An ecohydrological framework for grass displacement by woody plants in savannas  

Science.gov (United States)

the past several decades, woody plants have been encroaching into grasslands around the world. This transition in plant dominance is often explained as a state shift in bistable ecosystem dynamics induced by fire-vegetation feedbacks. These feedbacks occur when woody plants are able to displace grasses because of their better access to soil water and light. On the other hand, grasses can displace woody plants because of their ability to increase fire frequency and of the higher susceptibility of woody plants to fire-induced mortality. In this study, we present an ecohydrological framework to investigate the displacement of grasses by woody plants. Considering the effect of lateral root spread and of soil water and light limitations, we found that woody plant encroachment can substantially suppress grass production even without the presence of grazers. Bistable dynamics emerge as a result of the grass-fire feedback for a wide range of rainfall conditions, fire susceptibility, and woody plant growth rates.

Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo

2014-03-01

363

The interplay between the effectiveness of the grass-endophyte mutualism and the genetic variability of the host plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neotyphodium endophytic fungi, the asexual state of Epichloë species, protect cool-season grasses against stresses. The outcomes of Neotyphodium-grass symbioses are agronomically relevant as they may affect the productivity of pastures. It has been suggested that the mutualism is characteristic of agronomic grasses and that differential rates of gene flow between both partners’ populations are expected to disrupt the specificity of the association and, thus, the mutualism in wild grasses. ...

Gundel, Pedro E.; Omacini, Marina; Sadras, Victor O.; Ghersa, Claudio M.

2010-01-01

364

Detrimental and Neutral Effects of a Wild Grass-Fungal Endophyte Symbiotum on Insect Preference and Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass—endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass—endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against...

Clement, Stephen L.; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V.; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R.

2011-01-01

365

Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of a dearth of Cenozoic grass fossils, the timing of the taxonomic diversification of modern subclades within the grass family (Poaceae) and the rise to ecological dominance of open-habitat grasses remain obscure. Here, I present data from 99 Eocene to Miocene phytolith assemblages from the North American continental interior (Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana/Idaho), constituting the only high-resolution mid-Cenozoic record of grasses. Analyses of these assemblages show that o...

Stro?mberg, Caroline A. E.

2005-01-01

366

Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle fattened on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) or Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle, fattened for 2 years on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) and Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures, were investigated in twelve 3-years old males. Groups had similar carcass quality except for kidney fat percentage (higher in cattle of the grass-legume group). This group also had a lighter meat (Longissimus dorsi, Infraspinatus) than the grass-only fed cattle. Shear force was generally at the borderline to tender meat, and was unaffected by treatment as were other texture-related properties except muscle fibre diameter. Meat of the grass-legume group was perceived less juicy (P<0.05) but more tender (P<0.1). The meat of the grass-legume-fed cattle also had more intramuscular fat (4.3% vs. 3.4%) and a slightly less favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (2.2 vs. 2.0). In conclusion, the mostly weak differences in carcass and meat quality did not clearly favour one of the grazing systems. PMID:22063976

Jaturasitha, S; Norkeaw, R; Vearasilp, T; Wicke, M; Kreuzer, M

2009-01-01

367

Photosynthesis of a C[sub 3] grass and a C[sub 4] grass under elevated CO[sub 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The net photosynthetic rate (P(N)), intercellular CO[sub 2] concentration (C(i)), transpiration rate (E), stomatal resistance (r(s)), and water potential (PSI(W)) of a C[sub 3] grass (Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L.) and a C[sub 4] grass (big bluestem, Andropogon gerardii Vitman) growing in the spring in a tall grass prairie under two levels of CO[sub 2] (ambient and twice ambient) were compared. Elevated CO[sub 2] (HC) increased P(N) of Kentucky blue grass (C[sub 3]) by 47.0% but did not affect P(N) of big bluestem (C[sub 4]). HC increased C(i) of both grasses by about the same amount but reduced E (and parallelly increased r(s)) of big bluestem more than those of Kentucky bluegrass. HC increased PSI(W) of both grasses by about 30%. Kentucky bluegrass had a lower PSI(W) than big bluestem, but HC increased PSI(W) of Kentucky bluegrass to values more similar to those of big bluestem under ambient CO[sub 2](LC). Hence a high PSI(W), resulting from HC, was necessary for a high P(N).

Nie, D.; He, H.; Kirkham, M.B.; Kanemasu, E.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

1992-01-01

368

Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

Judith L. Capper

2012-04-01

369

Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp. PMID:23108805

Wang, Lu; Shang, Na; Feng, Hong; Guo, Qionglin; Dai, Heping

2013-08-01

370

Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB: 1 49% alfalfa hay; 2 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB. In trial 1, four lactating Holstein cows (475 kg with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the treatments effects on digestive function. In trial 2, eight multiparous Holstein cows (567 kg with 80 ? 8 DIM were utilized in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects of on DMI and lactational performance. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10 on ruminal digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 51 and 31%, respectively. Microbial efficiency (g microbial N/ kg OM fermented was greater (20%, P = 0.07 for alfalfa (30 than for grass hay substituted diets (25. Nonammonia N flow to the small intestine, as a percentage of N intake (ruminal N efficiency averaged 101%, and was lower (linear effect, P 0.10 on total tract digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 70 and 43%, respectively. Digestible energy content of the diet was lower (5%, P 0.20 on DMI, milk yield, averaging 21.8 and 32.2 kg, respectively. Body condition scores were greater (linear, P > 0.05 for cows fed elephant grass than for cows fed sudangrass. Substituting grass hay for a portion of the alfalfa hay increased (1.2%, P < 0.10 milk fat percentage. We conclude that although substitution of a portion (40% of alfalfa hay with grass hay in diets for lactating cows may slightly decrease ruminal microbial efficiency, the impact on ruminal and total tract digestion of OM and NDF are small. The feeding value of elephant grass is at least equivalent to that of sudangrass in diets for lactating dairy cows. Grass hay can replace up to 40% of the forage in lactation diets without detrimentally affecting fat corrected milk yield, and milk yield efficiency.

A. Plascencia

2005-01-01

371

Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high initial N2O emission from simulated urine patches. The results are discussed in relation to the national N2O inventory guidelines issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the environmental impact of organic farming practises are also considered. Suggestions for future research are outlined. (au)

2005-01-01

372

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Como na maior parte das gramíneas, num determinado momento do seu ciclo de vida, o meristema vegetativo da cana-de-açúcar é convertido em meristema reprodutivo. Em cana-de-açúcar há pelo menos duas conversões meristemáticas distintas entre a indução para o florescimento e a formação do florete. Em e [...] spécies dicotiledôneas modelo, a conversão sucessiva das identidades dos meristemas, bem como o arranjo concêntrico de órgãos florais são controlados geneticamente. Todos os genes e/ou proteínas sabidamente envolvidos no desenvolvimento floral foram anotados e identificados no banco de dados do SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project). Comparações de seqüências entre genes reconhecidamente envolvidos no controle do desenvolvimento floral revelaram a conservação evolutiva entre os mecanismos de formação do padrão de desenvolvimento floral entre mono- e dicotiledôneas, bem como entre as gramíneas. Nossos estudos se concentraram na análise das famílias multigênicas dos fatores de transcrição do tipo MADS-box e AP2, uma vez que estes têm um papel importante na regulação do desenvolvimento reprodutivo vegetal. Também são apresentadas considerações sobre a genética evolutiva do desenvolvimento das flores de gramíneas e sua relação com o modelo ABC do desenvolvimento floral. Abstract in english In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (f [...] loret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Project (SUCEST) database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2) family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Rodriguez, Adriana P.M..

373

Solution growth of ZnO microwires and grass architectures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were produced. • Au nanoparticles resulted in uniformly dispersed and standing ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles also resulted in ZnO grass architectures. -- Abstract: In spite of extensive research in gold (Au) nanoparticles, it remains a challenge to synthesize structurally homogeneous sample-set with controlled morphologies. The latter critically affect the role of Au nanoparticles as a seed/catalyst for the growth of other nanostructures. Here, we systematically studied and quantified the growth of Au nanoparticles in a single-step chemical synthesis approach and observed the effects of growth temperature and duration, metal salt and surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. These parameters strongly influenced morphological evolution, distribution, and heterogeneities in the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Next, the synthesized Au nanoparticles were utilized for the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) microwires in a solution growth approach. It was observed that Au nanoparticles on the substrate did not catalyze the growth of ZnO microwires but facilitated uniform dispersion of standing microwires. Supported by microscopic analysis, the proposed growth mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation of ZnO on the loosely bound Au nanoparticles on the substrates, favored by lattice match between the ZnO and Au. Based on this mechanism, Au nanoparticles only assisted in the initial stages of ZnO microwire growth. For longer growth duration (?10 h), over-deposition of ZnO from the solution on already grown wires led to their micron scale diameters as well as grass architectures and making the growth process independent of size and shape of the Au nanoparticles. The formation of ZnO grass architecture is due to attachment of Au nanoparticles on the growing microwire surface, which further served as a heterogeneous nucleation site for the ZnO growth. These Au nanoparticles detached from the Si wafer due to cleavage of Au-S bonds or hydrolysis of Si-O bonds on the thiolated Si wafer in presence of the ZnO growth precursor (hexamethylenetetramine) and conditions. As-synthesized Au nanoparticles and ZnO microwires were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy

2013-06-20

374

Low frequency electromagnetic prospecting system. [Grass Valley, KGRA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prototype portable electromagnetic sounding system was assembled and depth sounding survey was conducted in Grass Valley, Nevada, as a part of a program to evaluate geophysical techniques in geothermal exploration. A horizontal loop transmitter of radius 50 meters operating between .01 Hz and 100 Hz was used in conjunction with a SQUID magnetometer. A digital synchronous detector was used for on site processing of magnetometer output. This detector allowed useful data acquisition with transmitter-receiver separation of up to 2 km with power requirements of less than 72 watts. Conductive sediments (1 to 10 ohm-m) of thicknesses of up to 1.5 km were well resolved with this system, and the interpreted sections compared very well with dc resistivity measurements made with much heavier equipment and larger arrays in the same area.

Jain, B.K.

1978-04-01

375

Limnological Studies of Intensively Stocked Grass Carp Rearing Ponds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of three iso-caloric test diets, viz. 30, 35 and 40 per cent crude protein (C.P. on the physico-chemical characteristics of water and grass carp yields was studied for 270 days. In control treatment, fish yield was 84.47 per cent dependent on water nitrates, phosphates and temperature while nitrates along with hardness, alkalinity, pH and temperature accounted for 85.90 per cent variations in fish yield under 30 per cent C.P. treatment. In 35 per cent C.P. level fish yield showed positively significant regression on ammonia-N, electrical conductivity and water temperature. In 40 per cent C.P. planktonic productivity showed positively significant while ammonia-N had negatively significant regression on fish yield. However, combined contribution of these two variables towards fish yield was 68.49 per cent.

Muhammad Javed

1998-01-01

376

Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The objective function of the optimisation is the maximisation of the profit which means the maximization of the difference between revenue and cost. The