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Sample records for buffel grass cenchrus

  1. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep=Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos

    Diogo da Costa Soares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1

  2. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12548

    Diogo da Costa Soares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

  3. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El

  4. AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

  5. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

    Roberta Machado Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth chambers at three temperatures (day/night: 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER, leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf lifespan (LL and senescence rate (SR, whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM, root mass (RM, shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

  6. Microbial and fermentation profiles, losses and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass harvested at different cutting heights

    Ricardo Martins Araujo Pinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the microbial population, fermentation profile, losses and dry matter recovery, and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass at different cutting heights. To evaluate the microbial fermentation dynamics, the treatments resulted from a 4 × 5 factorial combination consisting of 4 cutting heights and 5 fermentation periods, in a completely randomized design with three replications. The fermentation was evaluated at the end of 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. The other characteristics of silages with 30 days were evaluated following a completely randomized design with four treatments, consisting of 4 cutting heights (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm, and five replications. Fermentation period and cutting height effects and interaction between both factors were observed on the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, enterobacteria and molds and yeasts. The peak of development of LAB populations was observed on the seventh day of fermentation for the heights of 40 and 50 cm, with 8.25 and 8.30 log cfu/g, respectively. The pH values of silages ranged with different cutting heights, in which at the height of 50 cm the decrease was most pronounced. However, the pH values were similar between the cutting heights at the end of 30 days of fermentation. Quadratic relationship was observed between lactic acid concentrations and cutting heights. The crude protein content behaved linearly, initially showing 128.5 g/kg DM at 30 cm, decreasing as the cutting heights increased. The neutral detergent fiber and ether extract contents increased linearly with the cutting heights. Based on microbial populations, fermentation, losses and chemical composition, it is recommended to harvest buffel grass for silage from 50 cm on.

  7. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus and evaluation of their bioactivity

    Premlata Singariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%, δ4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.31%, fagarsterol (lupeol (1.25% and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%. Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  8. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

    JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the

  9. Meiotic chromosome behaviour in Cenchrus ciliaris

    N. C. Visser

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A basic chromosome number of x = 9 has been confirmed for Cenchrus ciliaris L. Polyploidy is common and levels vary from tetraploid to hexaploid. Aneuploidv is reported for a single specimen, where two chromosomes of a single genome were lost. Various meiotic irregularities were observed. The highest incidence of meiotic abnormalities was observed in the pentaploid specimens. This was attributed to their uneven polyploid level All specimens varied from segmental alloploid to alloploid.

  10. Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa

    Mganga, K.Z.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyariki, D.M.; Nyangito, M.M.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Clavel, D; Francis, J; Kaufmann, Von, R.; Verhagen, J.; Muiri, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall ...

  11. Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya

    Opiyo, Francis EO; Ekaya, Wellington N; Dickson M. Nyariki; Mureithi, Stephen Mwangi

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to me...

  12. Changes in Herbaceous Species Composition in the Absence of Disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Invaded Area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

    Shimane W. Makhabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A-nine year study was carried out to investigate changes in herbaceous species composition in an area invaded by Cenchrus biflorus Roxb, an exotic invader grass species. The study ensued termination of livestock and human activities in the area when residents of the area were relocated to another area. Vegetation characteristics from the disturbed sites (previous occupied areas and undisturbed sites (previously unoccupied areas were determined. The results show that C. biflorus has high tolerance to disturbance. It comprised the larger proportion of grasses in disturbed sites at the inception of the study. However, it decreased in abundance with time in disturbed areas and was absent in the undisturbed areas, suggesting that its ability to invade undisturbed sites is limited. Perennial species successfully reestablished on the third year after termination of disturbance. The study reveals that C. biflorus invasion in the Kalahari ecosystem can be controlled by termination of disturbances.

  13. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Al-Dakheel, Abdullah J.; Hussain, M. Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) accessions for three consecutive years (2003–2005). The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m−1). The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW) were in the range from 122.5 to 148.9 g/pot in control; 96.4–133.8 g/pot at 10 dS m−1; 65.6–80.4 g/pot at 15 dS m−1, and 55.4–65.6 g/pot at 20 dS m−1. The highest DW (148.9 g/pot) was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8% of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal lands to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty. PMID:27516762

  14. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Al-Dakheel, Abdullah J; Hussain, M Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005). The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m(-1)). The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW) were in the range from 122.5 to 148.9 g/pot in control; 96.4-133.8 g/pot at 10 dS m(-1); 65.6-80.4 g/pot at 15 dS m(-1), and 55.4-65.6 g/pot at 20 dS m(-1). The highest DW (148.9 g/pot) was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8% of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal lands to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty. PMID:27516762

  15. The presence of synaptic and chromosome disjunction mutants in Cenchrus ciliaris (Poaceae: Paniceae

    N. C. Visser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic mutants are present in  Cenchrus ciliaris L This species, due to the presence of linear bivalents and occasion­al trivalents and quadrivalents, is an intermediate desynaptic species. In addition, geographical distribution and environmental factors, such as high temperatures and low humidity, could also have had an influence on the desynapsis observed.The disjunction of chromosomes during anaphase I was mostly abnormal in this desynaptic species. Precocious disjunction of chromosomes into chromatids occurred during anaphase I Due to the high incidence of this chromosome abnormality, a mutant gene,  'pc'  responsible for the disjunction of chromosomes, must be present. The absence of cytokinesis in one specimen indicates a recessive mutant gene,  'va' to be active in this species.

  16. Genotypic variation in response to salinity in a new sexual germplasm of Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Quiroga, Mariana; Tommasino, Exequiel; Griffa, Sabrina; Ribotta, Andrea; Colomba, Eliana López; Carloni, Edgardo; Grunberg, Karina

    2016-05-01

    As part of a breeding program for new salt-tolerant sexual genotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris L., here we evaluated the salt-stress response of two new sexual hybrids, obtained by controlled crosses, at seedling and germination stages. A seedling hydroponic experiment with 300 mM NaCl was performed and physiological variables and growth components were evaluated. While salt-treated sexual material did not show a decrease in productivity with respect to control plants, a differential response in some physiological characteristics was observed. Sexual hybrid 1-9-1 did not suffer oxidative damage and its proline content did not differ from that of control treatment. By contrast, sexual hybrid 1-7-11 suffered oxidative damage and accumulated proline, maintaining its growth under saline stress. At the germination stage, sexual hybrid 1-9-1 presented the highest Germination Rate Index at the maximum NaCl concentration assayed, suggesting an ecological advantage in this genotype. These new sexual resources are promising maternal parental with differential response to salt and could be incorporated in a breeding program of C. ciliaris in the search of new genotypes tolerant to salinity. PMID:26906150

  17. Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming

    Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

  18. Control effect of acetochlor on growth Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.%乙草胺及其复配剂对少花蒺藜草的防除效果

    王坤芳; 彭爽; 姚凤军

    2014-01-01

    Because of the long-term lack of grassland poisonous grass attention, Cenchrus pauci-florus Benth. spread all over ZhangWu county ,and it was almost out of controlling, which had brought great influence to the grassland ecological environment. The herbicide acetochlor and its 3 mixtures with quizalofop-p-ethyl, nicosulfuron and clethodim were tested for measuring their con-trolling effects on C. pauciflorus. These treatments of acetochlor and its mixtures all had good performance with rates of 75% higher 40d after spraying . It was to say that spraying soil treat-ment agent acetochlor and its mixture with leaf treatment herbiside may be used as a means of man-agement on controlling Cenchrus pauciflorus,which has a positive meaning for comprehensive manage-ment effectly with no pollution on the biological invasion plant C. pauciflorus in the grassland.%由于长期缺乏对草原毒害草的重视,少花蒺藜草在彰武县全县范围内扩散蔓延,并已发展到难以控制的局面,给草原生态生产环境带来极大影响。本文通过喷施乙草胺单剂和乙草胺同精喹禾灵、烟嘧磺隆、烯草酮混合的3种复配剂来研究其对少花蒺藜草的防除效果。结果表明:喷施乙草胺单剂及其3种复配剂乙草胺+精喹禾灵、乙草胺+烟嘧磺隆、乙草胺+烯草酮40 d对少花蒺藜草均有较好的防治效果,防治效果都在75%以上。说明喷施乙草胺土壤处理剂及其和茎叶处理剂的复配剂可作为防除少花蒺藜草的手段之一,这对于草原上入侵生物少花蒺藜草的安全、有效防除有着重要意义。

  19. Soil feedback of exotic savanna grass relates to pathogen absence and mycorrhizal selectivity.

    van der Putten, W H; Kowalchuk, G A; Brinkman, E P; Doodeman, G T A; van der Kaaij, R M; Kamp, A F D; Menting, F B J; Veenendaal, E M

    2007-04-01

    Enemy release of exotic plants from soil pathogens has been tested by examining plant-soil feedback effects in repetitive growth cycles. However, positive soil feedback may also be due to enhanced benefit from the local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Few studies actually have tested pathogen effects, and none of them did so in arid savannas. In the Kalahari savanna in Botswana, we compared the soil feedback of the exotic grass Cenchrus biflorus with that of two dominant native grasses, Eragrostis lehmanniana and Aristida meridionalis. The exotic grass had neutral to positive soil feedback, whereas both native grasses showed neutral to negative feedback effects. Isolation and testing of root-inhabiting fungi of E. lehmanniana yielded two host-specific pathogens that did not influence the exotic C. biflorus or the other native grass, A. meridionalis. None of the grasses was affected by the fungi that were isolated from the roots of the exotic C. biflorus. We isolated and compared the AMF community of the native and exotic grasses by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel elecrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), targeting AMF 18S rRNA. We used roots from monospecific field stands and from plants grown in pots with mixtures of soils from the monospecific field stands. Three-quarters of the root samples of the exotic grass had two nearly identical sequences, showing 99% similarity with Glomus versiforme. The two native grasses were also associated with distinct bands, but each of these bands occurred in only a fraction of the root samples. The native grasses contained a higher diversity of AMF bands than the exotic grass. Canonical correspondence analyses of the AMF band patterns revealed almost as much difference between the native and exotic grasses as between the native grasses. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that release from soil-borne enemies may facilitate local abundance of exotic plants, and we provide the first evidence that these

  20. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  1. Comparative bioactivity of dhaman grass root extracts in different polar solvents against plant and human pathogens

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae is a very suitable and highly nutritive grass for environmental conditions of the desert; yet, no antimicrobial work has been done on this grass. Aim: To estimate in vitro the antibiotic activity of root extracts of C. ciliaris in various polar solvents to use the grass as a possible source for new antimicrobial compounds against important plant and human pathogens. Settings and Design: The antibiotic activity of C. ciliaris root extracts were evaluated against a few medically important pathogens including Gram-negative bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the fungi, Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: Dried, powdered, and weighted root material was successively extracted with different polar solvents [hexane, petroleum ether, toluene, benzene, isopropyl alcohol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, glacial acetic acid (GAA, and water] using a Soxhlet assembly. Antibiotic activity was performed by using disc diffusion assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations by broth dilution method, against sensitive bacteria (with good inhibition zone. Most of the extracts, at higher concentrations, showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against selected bacteria. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and standard deviation were calculated for the test bacteria and fungi. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and P values were considered significant at P<0.05. Results and Conclusions: Results revealed that the highest antibiotic activity was exhibited by the water and GAA extracts against P. mirabilis, followed by isopropyl alcohol extract against K. pneumoniae and A. tumefaciens. Water extract was observed to be the most active extract with maximum zone of inhibition against A. tumefaciens (plant pathogen as compared to all other extracts.

  2. Comparison of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Roots and Rhizosphere of Invasive Cenchrus incertus and Native Plant in Inner Mongolia, China

    Dan XIANG; Baodong CHEN; Huan LI; Ruojuan LI; Xin ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Plant invasions could significantly alter arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities, but the effect may vary with plant species and local environments. Identifying changes in the AM fungal community due to plant invasion could improve our understanding of the invasion processes. Here, we examined the AM fungal community composition both in roots and rhizo-sphere soils of the invasive plant Cenchrus incertus and the dominant native plant Setaria viridis in a typical steppe in Inner Mongolia by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP). The results showed that AM fungal abundance in the rhizosphere soils of C. incertus was significantly lower than that of S. viridis. The AM fungal community com-position in the rhizosphere soils of the two plant species also largely differed. In general, AM fungal community structures in roots corresponded very wel to that in rhizosphere soils for both plant species. The dominant AM fungal type both in invasive and native plants was T-RFLP 524bp, which represents Glomus sp. (Virtual taxa 109 and 287). Three specific T-RF types (280, 190 and 141bp) were significantly more abundant in C. incertus, representing three clusters in Glomus which also named as VT (virtual taxa) 287, 64 and 214, Rhizophagus intraradices (VT 113) and Diversispora sp. (VT 60). While the specific T-RF types, 189 and 279bp, for S. viridis, only existed in Glomus cluster 1 (VT 156), were significantly less abundant in C. incertus. These results indicated that AM fungi might play an important role in the invasion process of C. incertus, which stil remains to be fur-ther investigated.

  3. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  4. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis.

    Keba, Habtamu T; Madakadze, I C; Angassa, A; Hassen, A

    2013-03-01

    We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species' preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists' claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists' experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual

  5. Native Utah Grasses for Biomass

    Larson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Considerable breeding and genetic research is currently dedicated to the development of warm-season perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as dedicated biomass crops. However, the Great Basin and other large regions of the western United States and World are dominated by cool-season grasses with special adaptations to salinity, drought, and other harsh conditions. A project was initiated to identify perennial grass species, genes, and traits needed for low-input bio...

  6. Meadow-grass gall midge

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...... drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes...

  7. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  8. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  9. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion

  10. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  11. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by...... agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  12. 科尔沁沙地外来入侵植物光梗蒺藜草的种子库分布格局%Distribution pattern of seed band for alien invasive species of Cenchrus incertus

    徐军; 李青丰; 王树彦

    2012-01-01

    在通辽市科尔沁区的固定沙地,半流动沙地采用相邻样方法观测光梗蒺藜草已萌发种子和未萌发种子在不同埋深中的分布,发现在固定沙地中,光梗蒺藜草种子分布在埋深较浅处(0~3cm),集中分布在0~1cm;在半流动沙地中,光梗蒺藜草种子分布较为分散,在1~15cm埋深处均有分布,在埋深0~5cm处种子数量较多。固定和半流动沙地中光梗蒺藜草种子随着埋深增加出苗率也随之增加,可达到100%。负二项式法和方差/均值比率(分布系数)法一致的验证了光梗蒺藜草苗和土壤种子库的种子种群分布格局为集群分布。光梗蒺藜草自然散布距离很短,是造成其种群集聚分布格局的原因。%The investigation of distribution pattern of soil seed bank of Cenchrus incertus showed that the seeds of Cenchrus incertus mainly distribute in the soil of 0-3 cm depth.Most seeds are gathered in the soil of 0-1 cm depth in fixed sandy land.Seeds of C.incertus disperse in 1-15 cm depth in semi-mobile dune,and most seeds exist in 0-5 cm.With the depth increase,the germination rate increases in fixed and semi-moble sandy area.The negative binominal formula and the ratio of variance and mean(distribution coefficient) proved the distribution pattern of seed population is cluster distribution.The seed natural disperse distance resuts in the centralizing distribution pattern for the species.

  13. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    Ermeng Yu; Jun Xie; Guangjun Wang; Deguang Yu; Wangbao Gong; Zhifei Li; Haiying Wang; Yun Xia; Nan Wei

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass c...

  14. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  15. Effects of Different Cultivation Practices on the Amount of Seeds in the Soils and Seed Production of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth%不同农作措施对少花蒺藜草(Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth)种子库及其繁殖能力的影响

    张衍雷; 张瑞海; 付卫东; 宋振; 倪汉文; 张国良

    2015-01-01

    系统调查了天然草原及旱作农田2种典型生境中少花蒺藜草种子库动态,并深入研究了施肥、灌溉、刈割及替代种植对少花蒺藜草种群繁衍扩张的影响。结果表明:从2种生境土壤种子库中共鉴定出12科24属25种植物;天然草原及旱作农田少花蒺藜草种子总储量分别达12923粒·m-2和8960粒·m-2,分别占整个种子库的67.72%及79.74%;天然草原生境中少花蒺藜草种子主要集中分布在土壤上表层(0~2 cm),占种子总量的45.71%,而旱作农田生境中,少花蒺藜草种子在土壤表层(0~2 cm)、中层(2~5 cm)、下层(5~10 cm)中分布差异不显著(P﹥0.05)。试验也表明,低施肥量能显著提高少花蒺藜草结实量(P<0.05),而中、高水平施肥处理少花蒺藜草结实量反而降低;随着灌溉浇水量增加,少花蒺藜草结实量显著增加(P<0.05),高水平浇水量结实量平均为2562.8粒·株-1;刈割能有效抑制少花蒺藜草种群种子繁殖,每周刈割1次,抑制少花蒺藜草结实率为97.69%;替代种植向日葵、菊芋能极显著抑制少花蒺藜草生长及结实量(P<0.01)。%In the present study, the amount of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth seeds in the soils of natural grassland and farmland was measured. The effects of fertilization, irrigation, plant-mowing and using replacement plant species on C. pauciflorus were analyzed. From seeds of pas-ture and dry farmland soils, a total number of 25 plant species were identified, which fell into 24 genera of 12 families. The number of seeds of C. pauciflorus per square meter reached 12 923 in natural pasture soils and 8 960 in dry farming soils, which was 67.72%and 79.74%of the total seeds, respectively, from the two types of soils. In dry natural pasture soils, the seeds of C. pauciflorus were mainly distributed on the top 0~2.0 cm layer, being 45.71%of the total seeds. In dry farmland soils, however, the

  16. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  17. Biogas production from different grass

    Liubarskij, Vladimir; Mahnert, Pia; Heiermann, Monika; Linke, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The importance of forage as a feed supply for dairy and beef cattle stocks is decreasing. Therefore, interest is rising in alternative use of grasslands. An ecologically sound option is the anaerobic digestion of the biomass as co-substrates in biogas plants. Three fresh and ensiled grass species were investigated in lab-scale batch experiments at 35 °C to determine their maximum biogas production potential. The volatile solid-based biogas and methane yield were observed to be in the range...

  18. Unique aspects of the grass cell wall

    Grasses are amongst the most important crops worldwide, and the composition of their cell walls is critical for uses as food, feed, and energy crops. Grass cell walls differ dramatically from dicot cell walls in terms of the major structural polysaccharides present, how those polysaccharides are lin...

  19. Complete Genome of Bacillus subtilis Myophage Grass

    Miller, Stanton Y.; Colquhoun, Jennifer M.; Perl, Abbey L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram-positive model organism. Here, we describe the complete genome of B. subtilus myophage Grass. Aside from genes encoding core proteins pertinent to the life cycle of the phage, Grass has several interesting features, including an FtsK/SpoIIIE protein.

  20. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show that the...... present national energy production based on biogas. The estimated values for the energy return on invested energy (EROEI) was found to range from 2.17 to 2.88. The measured contents of heavy metals in the roadside vegetation was seen not to exceed the legislative levels for what can be applied as...... fertilizer on agricultural land, neither does it reach levels considered as inhibitory for the anaerobic fermentation process. From a practical point of view, few challenges were identified related to the acquisition and processing of the roadside vegetation. Considering the positive net energy gains...

  1. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems

    Strömberg, Caroline A. E.

    2011-05-01

    The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not necessarily coincide with the spread of open-habitat grasses. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution.

  2. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.;

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology in...

  3. X meeting utenti GRASS e GFOSS

    Francesco Marucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 10th meeting of GRASS & GFOSS usersThe 10th Italian Congress of GRASS GIS and Geospatial Free and Open Source Software (GFOSS was held on the26 and 27 Feb in Cagliari. Highlights included updates on major GFOSS projects (GRASS, QGIS, the presentation of new projects (SpatiaLite and the public release of a free 3D visualization application suitable for distribution over the internet (RATMAN. Many users and developers connected to forge new business relationships and share new ideas.

  4. X meeting utenti GRASS e GFOSS

    Francesco Marucci; Luca Dellucchi; Paolo Cavallini

    2009-01-01

    10th meeting of GRASS & GFOSS usersThe 10th Italian Congress of GRASS GIS and Geospatial Free and Open Source Software (GFOSS) was held on the26 and 27 Feb in Cagliari. Highlights included updates on major GFOSS projects (GRASS, QGIS), the presentation of new projects (SpatiaLite) and the public release of a free 3D visualization application suitable for distribution over the internet (RATMAN). Many users and developers connected to forge new business relationships and share new ideas.

  5. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  6. Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica

    Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

  7. Grass Pollen Count and Grass group 5-allergen Release across Eight European Countries: results from HIALINE

    Buters, Jeroen M.; Albertini, Roberto; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Antunes, Celia M.; Berger, Uwe; Brandao, Rui M.; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Celenk, Sevcan; Galán, Carmen; Grewling, Lukazs; Kennedy, Roy; Prank, Marje; Rantio-Lehtimaki, Auli; Reese, Gerald; Sauliene, Ingrida

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grass pollen is considered to be the most important outdoor aeroallergen in Europe. The grass ‘pollen count’ is usually used as a proxy for exposure. However, HIALINE has shown that the birch and olive pollen count is not always congruent with allergen concentrations. We therefore simultaneously measured daily exposure to grass pollen and the concentration of group 5 major allergens across eight countries in Europe during 2009– 2011. Method: Air...

  8. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  9. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  10. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  11. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Máikal S. Borja; Oliveira, Ronaldo L.; Luciano S. Lima; Adriana R. Bagaldo; Gleidson GP. Carvalho; Cláudio VDM Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis) during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of hi...

  12. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or wher...

  13. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  14. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  15. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.

    Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. PMID:24471834

  16. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  17. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  18. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore the natural

  19. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  20. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122

  1. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  2. Technology Optimization of Enzymolysis of Burmuda Grass

    Liu Jun-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose can be degraded by enzyme to glucose, which provide carbon source for ethanol fermentation. This study, taking Burmuda grass as material, analyzed effects of temperature, time, pH, PBS dosage and ratio of enzyme on reducing sugar. It came to the conclusion that the best conditions of the enzymolysis of Burmuda grass are as follows: 50°C for temperature, 32 h for time, 4.20 for pH, 2 mL for PBS dosage, 4:3 for the ratio of xylanase and cellulase, the yield of reducing sugar reached 78.63%.

  3. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

  4. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius)

    Chima Ngumah; Jude Ogbulie; Justina Orji; Ekperechi Amadi

    2013-01-01

    Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP) of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  6. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  7. Fast growing trees and energy grasses

    Samson, R.

    1993-12-31

    According to both the United States Department of Energy and the Department of Natural Resources Canada, the best way to produce biomass plantations is an agro-forestry system in which fast growing trees are used as a windbreak for fields of energy grasses. (TEC). 1 fig.

  8. MoDest GrassUp

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    The Technology The technology is one of a kind, as there is no such mathematical model estimating animal feed uptake available today. The estimation of grass uptake, is based on real time wireless sensor data, cow merit and climate data. Relevant cow behaviour data (such as location, movement vel...

  9. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203. ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  10. Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration grass species

    Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration plants have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments rely on toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide Mn toxicity thresholds for grasses commonly used in restoration. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of redtop, slender wheatgrass, tufted hairgrass, big bluegrass, basin wildrye, and common wheat were grown in sand culture and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn. The LC50, EC50-plant, EC50-shoot, EC50-root, PT50-shoot, and the PT50-root were then determined. Phytotoxicity thresholds and effective concentrations for the restoration species were generally higher than values reported for agronomic species. Our estimates of PT50-shoot for the five restoration grasses range from 41,528 to 120,082 mg Mn kg-1. Measures of EC50-plant for these restoration grasses ranged from 877 to >6,000 mg Mn l-1. These thresholds might be more useful for risk assessors than those based on crop plants that are widely used. - Mn phytotoxicity thresholds for restoration grasses should be useful for risk assessments of metal-contaminated lands

  11. Productivity and nutritional quality of Flechinha grass ( Echinolaena inflexa ), native grass of Brazilian Cerrado

    Sylvia Rocha e Silveira; Rafael Sandin Ribeiro; João Paulo Sacramento; Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira; Rogério Martins Maurício

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Due to scarce nutritional data, this study assessed the productivity and nutritional value of Echinolaena inflexa (EI) grass, native to the Cerrado biome. It was compared to B. brizantha (BB), one of the most cultivated grasses in Brazil, during a whole year (rainy; RS and dry season; DS). Sampling was held in accordance with pasture management (entry / exit height; 50 / 5cm and 80 / 25cm for EI and BB, respectively). Dry matter production (DMP), crude protein (CP), neutral and acid...

  12. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  13. Co-pyrolysis behaviors of energy grass and lignite

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics of one typical kind of energy grasses are firstly investigated in this study. • Co-pyrolysis of energy grass–lignite blends occurs in two-stages. • Interactions between energy grass and lignite are examined. • Co-pyrolysis kinetics is explored by distributed activation energy model. - Abstract: A kind of energy grass (giant reedgrass) with high calorific value, high production, low land requirement and low sulfur dioxide emission is introduced into lignite pyrolysis process in this paper. Individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis characteristics of energy grass and lignite are investigated by the thermogravimetric analyzer together with mass spectrometer. The individual decomposition indicates that energy grass possesses higher thermochemical reactivity and shorter devolatilization time than lignite. The maximum decomposition rate increases with increasing the heating rate for both energy grass and lignite. The mass spectrometric analysis reveals that the emission of sulfur dioxide from energy grass is much lower than that from lignite. The co-pyrolysis of energy grass and lignite blend is characterized by two-stage thermal degradation processes, which is dominant by energy grass content in the first stage but lignite in the second stage. No obvious interaction between energy grass and lignite is observed during the co-pyrolysis process under the operational conditions investigated in this study. Moreover, the distributed activation energy model is applied to determine the activation energy for the pyrolysis of energy grass, lignite and their blends

  14. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  15. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Chima Ngumah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

  16. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Chima Ngumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel. 42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively. The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.

  17. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  18. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

  19. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  20. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods...... of HTT and facilitated a reduction in optimum HTT temperature of 10 to 20 °C. This could, however, not be proven for grass, since the overall release of mono- and oligosaccharides for the combined pretreatment of grass did not exceed HTT of grass alone. This was due to a combination of high loss of WSC.......3. Furthermore, the HTT pretreatment of both grass and grass silage gave considerably lower xylan convertibility than HTT of wheat straw and wheat straw silage. The reason for the inaccessible xylan in grass is believed to be found in a high complexity of branching and cross linkages creating a heterogeneous...

  1. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr-1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  2. GRASS SILAGE IN DIETS FOR ORGANIC GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

    Bikker, P.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Vermeer, H. M.; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, organically raised pigs received an increasing proportion of grass silage up to 10 and 20% dry matter in the daily ration in the grower and finisher period, respectively, to determine the effects of grass silage on feed intake and growth performance. The pigs receiving a mixture of grass silage and compound feed ingested 0.3 kg DM/d (13% of their daily ration) as grass silage and realised a similar daily net energy intake as pigs fed compound feed only. However, the silage fed ...

  3. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; Seward, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  4. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  5. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  6. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  7. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®

    Moisés Calderón

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 µg major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhinoconjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment

  8. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  9. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  10. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  11. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131I in milk were also presented. (author)

  12. Degradation of Bermuda and Orchard Grass by Species of Ruminal Bacteria

    Akin, Danny E.; Rigsby, Luanne L.

    1985-01-01

    Fiber degradation in Bermuda grass and orchard grass was evaluated gravimetrically and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after incubation with pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Lachnospira multiparus D-32 was unable to degrade plant cell wall components. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49 degraded 6 and 14.9% of the fiber components in Bermuda grass and orchard grass, respectively, and Ruminococcus albus 7 degraded 11.4% orchard grass fiber but none in Bermuda grass. Both B. fibrisolv...

  13. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam

    Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than

  14. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing th

  15. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model Grass Brachypodium Distachyon.

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the compl...

  16. Criteria of response of lawn grass to the environmental pollution

    Y. V. Likholat

    2005-01-01

    Growth, physiological and biochemical criteria of reaction of the lawn grass on heavy metals influence are ascertained. Connection between levels of the heavy metals accumulation and changes of morphological parameters and activity of antioxidative protection enzymes of the plants is shown. Revealed specific features of lawn grasses stability to separate pollutants (heavy metals) action will be used for gardening industrial sites.

  17. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  18. Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses

    E. Sanhueza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane flux measurements from the soil-grass system were made during the wet season in unperturbed plots and plots where standing dry and green Trachypogon sp. grasses were clipped to just above the soil surface. Results support the surprising discovery that vegetation emits methane. The results of this work allows to infer that the savanna dry/green mixture of grasses produce methane at a rate of ~10 ng m−2 s−1, which is in agreement with early published soil-grass system fluxes. An extrapolation of this flux to the global savanna produces an annual emission much lower than the CH4 production recently suggested in the literature. On the other hand, during the wet season savanna soil consume CH4 at a rate of ~4.7 ng m−2 s−1. Therefore, the tropical savanna soil-grass system would make a modest contribution to the global budget of methane.

  19. Grass Lignin Acylation: p-Coumaroyl Transferase Activity and Cell Wall Characteristics of C3 and C4 Grasses

    Grasses have always been a predominate source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Species belonging to the C3 and C4 grass types have recently been championed as feedstock sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermenta...

  20. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®

    Calderón, Moisés

    2008-01-01

    Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available t...

  1. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF THE EXCLUSION OF JOHNSON GRASS BY TALL GRASS PRAIRIES

    Marilyn A. Semtner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, plant distribution typically has been studied with the purpose of learning why a species grows and survives where it does; but why a species does not survive in a particular habitat has rarely been studied, although it may be just as important. According to the US Department of Agriculture, Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.; formerly Johnson grass] is listed as an agricultural pest in most states south of the 42nd parallel. Control of Johnsongrass inagricultural fields involves various labor intensive cultural, mechanical, and chemical means. Release of a bio-control agent has not been suitable for intensively cropped areas. An agriculturally important weed and prominent member of early stage secondary succession, Johnsongrass is not present in later stages of prairie succession. Various environmental factors (biotic and abiotic that might be involved in restricting Johnsongrass survival were examined in this research. In two sites in Oklahoma, soil conditions were found to be more favorable for survival and growth of Johnsongrass in undisturbed prairie than in the disturbed areas in which Johnsongrass was found vigorously growing. However, even when its rhizomes were introduced into mature prairie, Johnsongrass did not thrive. In laboratory and field trials, presence of the living dominant prairie grasses or leachate from living or dead leaf blades seemed to influence growth and survival of Johnsongrass rhizomes. The prairie grasses, little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx. Nash] and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L. Nash], seem to play a similarallelopathic role in restricting the growth of Johnsongrass to outside of the prairies. Looking at this past study might lead to new methods for the future. (Semtner 2012

  2. Gramene, a tool for grass genomics.

    Ware, Doreen H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ni, Junjian; Yap, Immanuel V; Pan, Xioakang; Clark, Ken Y; Teytelman, Leonid; Schmidt, Steven C; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Kuan; Cartinhour, Sam; Stein, Lincoln D; McCouch, Susan R

    2002-12-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a comparative genome mapping database for grasses and a community resource for rice (Oryza sativa). It combines a semi-automatically generated database of cereal genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences, genetic maps, map relations, and publications, with a curated database of rice mutants (genes and alleles), molecular markers, and proteins. Gramene curators read and extract detailed information from published sources, summarize that information in a structured format, and establish links to related objects both inside and outside the database, providing seamless connections between independent sources of information. Genetic, physical, and sequence-based maps of rice serve as the fundamental organizing units and provide a common denominator for moving across species and genera within the grass family. Comparative maps of rice, maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and oat (Avena sativa) are anchored by a set of curated correspondences. In addition to sequence-based mappings found in comparative maps and rice genome displays, Gramene makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to describe specific biological attributes in ways that permit users to query those domains and make comparisons across taxonomic groups. Proteins are annotated for functional significance using gene ontology terms that have been adopted by numerous model species databases. Genetic variants including phenotypes are annotated using plant ontology terms common to all plants and trait ontology terms that are specific to rice. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the search tools available to the plant research community in Gramene. PMID:12481044

  3. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  4. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  5. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  6. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  7. Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition

    A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

  8. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    2010-02-11

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops. PMID:20148030

  9. Prescribed Burn Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1998 Switch Grass

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fire management plan is for Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge on a 3.5 acre segment of the refuge that is almost entirely switch grass. The plan specifies the...

  10. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. It gives a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  11. Grass silage in diets for organic growingfinishing pigs

    Bikker, P.; Binnendijk, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    The supply of a mixed ration of grass silage and concentrate to growing-finishing pigs reduced the growth performance and feed utilisation. Further improvements of the feeding system would be required to substantially reduce the feed costs.

  12. An Ecofeminist Approach to The Grass Is Singing

    张娜

    2014-01-01

    The article intends to interpret The Grass Is Singing from the perspective of ecofeminism and analyze the unequal rela-tionships between man and nature, man and woman, the white race and the black race.

  13. Investigation of the Interactions Among Grass, Chlorophenols and Microbes

    Crane, Cynthia Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore the interactions among rye grass, chlorophenols and microorganisms. The objectives were to examine some of the processes by which plants affect the fate of subsurface organic contaminants. The research was divided into three studies: interactions between live grasses and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP); physico-chemical interactions between the three chlorophenols and root tissue; and effect of root exudate...

  14. Biomethane production from grass silage: laboratory assessment to maximise yields

    Wall, David M.

    2015-01-01

    On-farm biogas production is typically associated with forage maize as the biomass source. Digesters are designed and operated with the focus of optimising the conditions for this feedstock. Thus, such systems may not be ideally suited to the digestion of grass. Ireland has ca. 3.85 million ha of grassland. Annual excess grass, surplus to livestock requirements, could potentially fuel an anaerobic digestion industry. Biomethane associated with biomass from 1.1 % of grassland in Ireland, could...

  15. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Steven A. Hughes; Christopher I. Thornton

    2015-01-01

    Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time) overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves). The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of ...

  16. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  17. A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses

    Dabney, Clemon; Ostergaard, Jason; Watkins, Eric; Chen, Changbin

    2016-01-01

    Background The deposition of silicon into epidermal cells of grass species is thought to be an important mechanism that plants use as a defense against pests and environmental stresses. There are a number of techniques available to study the size, density and distribution pattern of silica bodies in grass leaves. However, none of those techniques can provide a high-throughput analysis, especially for a great number of samples. Results We developed a method utilizing the autofluorescence of si...

  18. Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens) Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants

    Susan G. Low

    2015-01-01

    Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread through South America, Australia, Indonesia, Vanuatu and Malaysia due to its adaptation to a wide range of soil types and environments. Animal production from these B. decumbens pastures is highly variable due to sporadic outbreaks of photosensitisation associated with low growth rates of young animals, anorexia and wasting. The identification of B. decumbens toxicity through clinical signs may gross...

  19. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome wat...

  20. Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405 to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405, and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405, G2 (V 14406 and G3 (V 14337, V 14404. Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

  1. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  2. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  3. Adubação orgânica da batata com esterco e, ou, Crotalaria juncea: II - disponibilidade de N, P e K no solo ao longo do ciclo de cultivo Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: II - soil N, P, and K availability throughout the growing season

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2007-02-01

    . During 2003, these treatments were repeated and the decomposition dynamics evaluated in samples contained in 0.5 mm-mesh nylon decomposition bags with organic materials buried at 20 cm soil depth. Soil nutrient availability was also evaluated in soil samples (0-20 cm during the growing season. In the green-house, buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. was grown for 300 days in pots containing soil from the field plots and submitted to successive cuts of the shoots. Dry matter and nutrient losses from the incorporated material in the decomposition bags peaked in the first 30 days in all treatments. At the end of the growing season, dry matter and nutrient losses were lower for the treatments with manure, compared to treatments C and T. Manure incorporation increased soil P and K levels throughout the study period, but led to net N immobilization during the first few weeks after incorporation. Treatment C increased soil mineral N concentration shortly after incorporation, but decreased later in the growing season. Soil P and K levels remained unchanged. In the green-house study, 35 days after planting the biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake by buffel grass was the highest in treatment CE. In the following harvests, treatment E led to a greater biomass and nutrient uptake by buffel grass, indicating that N immobilization after manure incorporation limited plant growth in the first weeks. These results show that planting and incorporation of crotalaria coupled with the application of only half the usual manure rate was enough to avoid soil net N immobilization and increased soil P and K levels. The combined application of animal and green manure leads to availability of soil nutrients more synchronized with the plant demand.

  4. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  5. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  6. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  7. How much gas can we get from grass?

    Highlights: ► We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ► The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg−1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ► We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ► A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH4 kg−1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ► A two phase system achieved 341 L CH4 kg−1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg−1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH4 kg−1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH4 kg−1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.

  8. Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.

    Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  9. A capillary pumping device utilizing super-hydrophobic silicon grass

    In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity

  10. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. PMID:26924175

  11. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  12. The Building of Grass-roots Agricultural Technology Extension System

    Wen; YANG; Jian; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey of 154 farmers in Guiyang City, we analyze the basic situation of building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City. Then we point out some problems in the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City: the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center weakens; the content of agricultural technology extension is difficult to adapt to farmers’ needs for technology; the extension mode of agricultural technology departments does not adapt to the needs of modern agriculture. In order to perfect the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system, the countermeasures and recommendations are put forth as follows: strengthening the input of funds, and ensuring that the basic work of public welfare agricultural technology extension is smoothly carried out; innovating upon the system, and improving the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center; implementing management on agricultural technology extension personnel’s performance, and promoting the extension efficiency; strengthening the building of extension team in rural areas, and cultivating high-quality agricultural technology extension personnel; exploring the advanced service mode to meet farmers’ needs.

  13. Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health

    Ruckmani Rajesvari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.

  14. Response of four temperate grasses to defoliation height and interval

    Geoffrey E. Brink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative-stage meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds. P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L., reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., and quackgrass [Elymus repens (L. Gould] tillers grown in the greenhouse were clipped to 5- or 10-cm height every 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 days for two growth cycles and sampled after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days of regrowth. Grasses produced greater number of tillers, herbage dry weight, and root dry weight when defoliated to 10- compared to 5-cm height. Herbage and root dry weight of most grasses exhibited a quadratic increase in response to defoliation interval. The increase in herbage dry weight with increasing defoliation interval and regrowth time was due to an increase in average herbage dry weight per tiller in orchardgrass, but to an increase in number of tillers per plant in other grasses

  15. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Toor, Saqib Sohail;

    /ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost...... factor and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a......This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different types of grasses available in Denmark using a GIS (Geographical Information System) based approach and to supplement these with biofuel potential maps based on HtL conversion. Biomass yields (t/ha) and biofuel energy equivalent (GJ...

  16. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed.

  17. EGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SUDANESE GRASSES AND GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

    A.O. Idris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen plant species, three ingredients, and six diets were studied for their degradation characteristics, using gas production techniques. The palatable grasses were selected during the rainy season from the range land of Kordofan, Sudan. The ingredients were Roselle seeds, Sorghum grain and Groundnut cake. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using rumen inoculum of three of the sheep used for the nylon bag. The results showed a large variation between the different plant species in the gas volume. The potential gas volume reflected the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Gas production from the ingredients indicated that sorghum grain recorded the highest gas production volume. The gas production at different time intervals showed increased degradability in the grasses, diets and the ingredients. Eragrostis tremula could be used as reference forage in evaluating the organic matter digestibility and energy density of grasses and Farsefia longisiliqua as a reference for crude protein.

  18. Variations of Roughness Coefficients with Flow Depth of Grassed Swale

    Mustaffa, N.; Ahmad, N. A.; Razi, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Grassed swales are the best management practice (BMP), which has been widely used to reduce the peak flow, reduce water pollution through vegetated filtration, and improve the groundwater recharge. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) is using the approach of grassed swales recommended by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) for reducing the risk of flooding and controlling the water pollution. This paper investigates the variations of roughness coefficients with the flow depth of grassed swales in the campus of UTHM. Fieldwork was carried out on the grassed swale to collect the hydraulic data, which including the levelling work, measuring the flow depth and flow velocity of the swale. The flow depth of swale was taken at three points divided along the width of swale and the flow velocity is captured three times at each of the point. The variations of roughness coefficients of grassed swales are presented in Manning's equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the increasing of flow depth. Manning's coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.110 to 0.756, which are higher than the value proposed by the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA). The relationships of flow depth and velocity at each section of the swale are portrayed in graphs, which show that the velocity increases with the decreasing of flow depth. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the swale profile, flow depth, flow velocity, and as well as the vegetation used in the grassed swale concerned.

  19. Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production

    Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

  20. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    Thyme, Mette; Ambus, Per

    2002-01-01

    In organic as well as conventional dairy farming, grass-clover pastures is an important component of the cropping system. This is because grass-clover is an excellent cattle fodder, and because clover has the ability of fixing atmospheric N2. When budgets for N2O emissions are made accord-ing to the IPCC guidelines it is assumed that 1.25 % of added nitrogen is emitted as N2O. This emission factor is used for all nitrogen inputs although the factor relies on experiments with fertilizer and ma...

  1. Gasification of corn and clover grass in supercritical water

    Pedro D' Jesus; Nikolaos Boukis; Bettina Kraushaar-Czarnetzki; Eckhard Dinjus [Chemisch-Physikalische Verfahren (ITC-CPV), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Technische Chemie

    2006-05-15

    The influence of pressure, temperature, residence time, and alkali addition on the gasification of corn starch, clover grass and corn silage in supercritical water was investigated. Changing the pressure did not alter the gasification yield. An increase in the temperature notably improved the conversion of biomass. Residence time variations revealed that with longer residence time, gasification yield was improved until a maximum was reached. Gas composition changed with residence time and temperature. Potassium addition affected the gasification yield of corn starch, but did not influence the gasification yield of the potassium-containing natural products of clover grass and corn silage. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    Carter, Mette S.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these syste...

  3. U.S. Grass-Fed Beef: Marketing Health Benefits

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Li, Quan; Wandschneider, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Grass-fed beef is a product with health benefits that may appeal to health-conscious consumers. This article analyzes the results of a choice experiment to explore the importance of health benefits in the marketing of grass fed beef. Both price and fat and calories have a negative effect on the choice of the product, and higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids have a positive effect. Price is the most important attribute to respondents (39.5%), a low level of fat and calories is the second most ...

  4. 13 Gene Expression Pattern of Arabidopsis EXPB1, a Nonallergenic Homologue of Grass Group 1 Pollen Allergens

    Bhalla, Prem; Tiwari, Ruby; Singh, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass pollen allergy is one of the most common allergies worldwide. Group I allergens constitute the major allergenic component of grass pollen with more than 85% of grass pollen allergic patients showing IgE reactivity. These are highly immunologically cross-reactive glycoproteins specifically expressed in pollen of all grasses. Alignments of the amino-acid sequences of grass group I allergens derived from diverse grass species reveal up to 95% homology. It is therefore likely tha...

  5. Relevance of a 5-grass sublingual tablet for immunotherapy of patients with grass pollen allergy in North America.

    Moingeon, Philippe; Cox, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Grass pollen allergy is common and clinically consequential in North America. While it is frequently treated with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy, debate remains regarding whether allergen immunotherapy is best carried out using a single representative or multiple cross-reactive allergen(s). Patients are commonly exposed to pollens from multiple allergenic grass species belonging to the Pooideæ subfamily. Beyond the known IgE cross-reactivity, considerable molecular heterogeneity exists with respect to allergen content among grass species, with further evidence that these molecular variants can be detected by the patients' immune system. These observations provide a compelling scientific rationale for the use of mixed pollen allergen extracts to broaden the allergen repertoire, with the aim of reorienting inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. PMID:26813047

  6. Effect of fire and grazing on invasive species in northern mixed grass prairie

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive plants pose a threat to pristine and natural mixed grass prairie so managers seek to control them. On the basis of experience in the tall grass prairie,...

  7. Compatibility, Yield, and Quality of Matua Prairie Grass, Bromus Willdenowii (Kunth), With Legumes.

    Guay, Jennifer Fincham

    2001-01-01

    Matua prairie grass has a potential to extend the grazing season in Virginia due to its higher early spring and fall production. However, little is known about the compatibility of Matua prairie grass with legumes or the effects of legumes on the yield and quality of Matua prairie grass/legume mixtures. An experiment was conducted in 1998 and 1999 to investigate the botanical composition, yield, and chemical composition of Matua prairie grass grown with legumes. Legume treatments consistin...

  8. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Nur Ain Izzati, M. Z.; SITI NORDAHLIAWATE, M.S; NOR AZLIZA, I; Salleh, B.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum) and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digit...

  9. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    Kothari, Saroj; Jain, Anand K.; Mehta, Swaroop C.; Tonpay, Shrinivas D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administra...

  10. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    Kothari Saroj; Jain Anand; Mehta Swaroop; Tonpay Shrinivas

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice admi...

  11. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Vanessa Soares Miranda; Karina Guimarães Ribeiro; Alexandre Christófaro Silva; Rosana Cristina Pereira; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Pablo Vidal Torrado; José Sebastião Cunha Fernandes; Maxwel Coura Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. ...

  12. Development and characterization of a recombinant, hypoallergenic, peptide-based vaccine for grass pollen allergy

    Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Stegfellner, Gottfried; Maderegger, Bernhard; Hauer, Martina; Stolz, Frank; Niederberger, Verena; Marth, Katharina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Weiss, Richard; Thalhamer, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen is one of the most important sources of respiratory allergies worldwide. Objective This study describes the development of a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant hypoallergenic derivatives of the major timothy grass pollen allergens Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 by using a peptide-carrier approach. Methods Fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the 4 major timothy grass pollen allergens and the PreS protein from hepatitis B viru...

  13. Magnitude of efficacy measurements in grass allergy immunotherapy trials is highly dependent on pollen exposure

    Durham, S.R.; Nelson, H S; Nolte, H; Bernstein, D I; Creticos, P S; Li, Z.; Andersen, J S

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the association between grass pollen exposure, allergy symptoms and impact on measured treatment effect after grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet treatment. Methods The association between grass pollen counts and total combined rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication score (TCS) was based on a post hoc analysis of data collected over six trials and seven grass pollen seasons across North America and Europe, including 2363 subjects treated w...

  14. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr;

    2009-01-01

    tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test...

  15. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  16. Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations

    Belo, A.F.; Dias, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

  17. Estimates for Canary grass for combustion - summer - and spring harvest

    The economy of cultivating Canary grass for fuel has been estimated. All costs (work, machinery, fertilizers, processing) have been calculated. Total costs for summer or spring harvest are around 0.18 and 0.15 SEK/kWh (about 0.028 and 0.023 USD/kWh) respectively

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the...

  19. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian;

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...

  20. Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using panicum maximum forage grass

    B. L. Chavan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum Jacq (Guinea grass is an important multicut forage grass with ease of propagation, fast growth available at local level and high quality forage for livestock. This grass is a biotic resource, due to its several properties grass. It is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Panicum maximum was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. Designed Angular Horizontal Subsurface type constructed wetland for the treatment of sewage was used for recycling and reuses. The samples of sewage with different dilutions viz. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% were tested for the treatment. Results reveal that pH range was changed from 6.79 to 7.10, maximum reduction of E.C was 25.14 % at 80%, TSS by 48.70%, TDS by 55.73 %, TS by 54.31 %, COD by 61.05 %, BOD by 59.25 %, NO3 by 69.32%, PO4 by 48.10% and SO4 by 41.48% respectively. The colour and odour were removed resulting into clear water.

  1. Chemotypic diversity of epichloae, fungal symbionts of grasses

    The epichloid fungi - comprising sexual Epichlo€e species and asexual Neotyphodium species - are symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Po€oideae), mostly vertically transmissible (seedborne), and well known for production of anti-herbivore alkaloids. Four classes of alkaloids are known to be p...

  2. Wave overtopping resistance of grassed slopes in Viet Nam

    Trung, L.H.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Simulator was applied to test the resistance against wave overtopping of grass covered dike slopes in Viet Nam. Observation and measurement during destructive tests were performed to investigate the development process of damage induced by overtopping flow. Damages were likely to be initiated at

  3. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the...

  4. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial co

  5. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial co

  6. Translational Biology: From Arabidopsis Flowers to Grass Inflorescence Architecture

    One of the key events in plant development is the initiation of lateral organs from the flanks of the meristem. In grasses, the inflorescence meristem (IM) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates. Our understanding of the genes and networks that regulate g...

  7. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  8. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

    T. Magura

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge effect on the studied carabid communities: the Shannon diversity increased significantly along the transects from the forest towards the grass. The diversity of the carabids were significantly higher in the forest edge and in the grass than in the forest interior. The carabids of the forest, the forest edge and the grass are separated from each other by principal coordinates analysis and by indicator species analysis (IndVal, suggesting that each of the three habitats has a distinct species assemblages. There were 5 distinctive groups of carabids: 1 habitat generalists, 2 forest generalists, 3 species of the open area, 4 forest edge species, and 5 forest specialists. It was demonstrated by multiple regression analyses, that the relative air moisture, temperature of the ground, the cover of leaf litter, herbs, shrubs and canopy cover, abundance of the carabids’ preys are the most important factors determining the diversity and spatial pattern of carabids along the studied transects.

  9. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer

    Various management practices have been proposed to help alleviate deleterious effects of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetla...

  10. Rainbows in the grass. II. Arbitrary diagonal incidence.

    Adler, Charles L; Lock, James A; Fleet, Richard W

    2008-12-01

    We consider external reflection rainbow caustics due to the reflection of light from a pendant droplet where the light rays are at an arbitrary angle with respect to the horizontal. We compare this theory to observation of glare spots from pendant drops on grass; we also consider the potential application of this theory to the determination of liquid surface tension. PMID:19037345

  11. Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Review of Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art. Dale Rosengarten, Theodore Rosengarten, and Enid Schildkrout, eds. 2008. Museum for African Art, New York. Distributed by University of Washington Press, Seattle. Pp. 269, copiously illustrated in black-and-white and color. ISBN (cloth) 978-0-945802-50-1, (paper) 978-0-945802-51-8.

  12. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fiber and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, phy...

  13. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  14. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  15. Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study

    Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

  16. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Fibulin-4 as a potential interacting partner for grass carp reovirus outer capsid proteins.

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Lu, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (Fibulin-4/EFEMP2), an extracellular matrix(ECM) protein and a member of the fibulin family, is involved in elastic fiber formation, connective tissue development and some human diseases. In a yeast-two hybrid screening of host proteins interacting with outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a grass carp homologue of Fibulin-4 (designated as GcFibulin-4) is suggested to hold the potential to bind VP7, VP56 and VP55, the outer capsid protein encoded by type I, II, III GCRV, respectively. GcFibulin-4 gene of grass carp was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. Full-length cDNA of GcFibulin-4 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a putative protein of 440 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of GcFibulin-4 indicated that it shared a high homology with zebra fish Fibulin-4 protein. Transcriptional distribution analysis of GcFibulin-4 in various tissues of healthy grass carp showed that GcFibulin-4 was highly expressed in muscle, moderately expressed in the intestine and brain, and slightly expressed in other examined tissues; the expression pattern is consistent with tissue tropism of GCRV resulting in hemorrhage symptom in the corresponding tissues. Our results suggested that Fibulin-4 might enable free GCRV particles, the pathogen for grass carp hemorrhagic disease, to target fish tissues more efficiently by interacting with viral outer capsid proteins. PMID:26626583

  17. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  18. Estimating the content of clover and grass in the sward using a consumer camera and image processing

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Karstoft, Henrik; Søegaard, Karen;

    the dry matter ratio of clover and grass in clover grass fields from sparse close up images. First, the light conditions is determined, which is used for selecting model parameters to estimate the coverage of both clover and grass. Next, the clover and grass coverage are transformed to give the dry...

  19. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. PMID:27367811

  20. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob;

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done......-evening, likely reflecting diurnal variation in the emission of grass pollen. This trend is contrary to what the monitoring station predicts, and this has implications where allergen avoidance is being advocated as a method for controlling symptoms. An exposure model for grass pollen is currently being developed...... for Aarhus. Model performance will be tested against the empirical exposure data described here, the ultimate aim being to build upon this study by using the model to assess the importance of source proximity to exposure....

  1. The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples

    The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

  2. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt;

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local...

  3. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  4. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  5. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake and transport infectious prions

    Sandra Pritzkow; Rodrigo Morales; Fabio Moda; Uffaf Khan; Glenn C. Telling; Edward Hoover; Claudio Soto

    2015-01-01

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc) to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-...

  6. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  7. Mycorrhizas effects on nutrient interception in two riparian grass species

    Hamid Reza Asghari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on plant growth and soil nutrient depletion are well known, but their roles as nutrient interceptor in riparian areas are less clear. The effects of AM fungi on growth, soil nutrient depletion and nutrient leaching were investigated in columns with two riparian grass species. Mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal (NM plants were grown in a mixture of riparian soil and sand (60% and 40%, w/w respectively for 8 weeks under glasshouse conditions. Mycorrhizal colonization, AM external hyphae development, plant growth, nutrient uptake and NO3, NH4 and available P in soil and leachate were measured. Mycorrhizal fungi highly colonized roots of exotic grass Phalaris aquatica and significantly increased plant growth and nutrient uptake. Columns containing of AM Phalaris aquatica had higher levels of AM external hyphae, lower levels of NO3, NH4 and available P in soil and leachate than NM columns. Although roots of native grass Austrodanthonia caespitosa had moderately high levels of AM colonization and AM external hyphae in soil, AM inoculation had no significant effects on plant growth, soil and leachate concentration of NO3 and NH4. But AM inoculation decreased available soil P concentration in deeper soil layer and had no effects on dissolved P in leachate. Although both grass species had nearly the same biomass, results showed that leachate collected from Austrodanthonia caespitosa columns significantly had lower levels of NO3, NH4 and dissolve P than leachate from exotic Phalaris aquatica columns. Taken together, these data shows that native plant species intercept higher nutrient than exotic plant species and had no responsiveness to AM fungi related to nutrient leaching, but AM fungi play an important role in interception of nutrient in exotic plant species.

  8. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED; YOUSIF ABDALLA ABAKR; FEROZ KABIR; SUZANA YUSUP

    2015-01-01

    Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0) improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the p...

  9. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  10. Mycorrhizas effects on nutrient interception in two riparian grass species

    Hamid Reza Asghari; Timothy Richard Cavagnaro

    2014-01-01

    Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant growth and soil nutrient depletion are well known, but their roles as nutrient interceptor in riparian areas are less clear. The effects of AM fungi on growth, soil nutrient depletion and nutrient leaching were investigated in columns with two riparian grass species. Mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal (NM) plants were grown in a mixture of riparian soil and sand (60% and 40%, w/w respectively) for 8 weeks under glasshouse conditions. Mycorrhi...

  11. Epichloe endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC, a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue. We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation.

  12. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Marco Ciolli; Sören Gebbert; Pietro Zambelli

    2013-01-01

    PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS), a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the mo...

  13. Radioactive isotope uptake in a grass-legume association

    The radioactive uptake of Medicago sativa and Rye grass in a pasture exposed to the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, was determined in four consecutive harvests covering a period of one year after the accident. In plants of Medicago sativa, inoculated with an effective Rhizobia meliloti strain isolated from Greek soils, a high degree of biological nitrogen fixation was observed at all harvests using N-15 techniques. At the second and third harvests, the percentage nitrogen derived from fixation (%NdfF), the percentage nitrogen derived from soil (%NdfS), as well as the radioactive uptake from the soil remained stable. At the fourth harvest, however, the %NdfF decreased while the %NdfS and the radioactive uptake from soil significantly increased. At the first harvest the radioactivity in both plants, caused mainly by direct fallout contamination, was considerably higher than that observed at the later harvests. Medicago sativa contained significantly less radioactivity than the grass at all harvests, although both plants were grown under the same environmental conditions. Even at the fourth harvest, almost one year after the initial contamination, the radioactivity of grass remained at high levels (20 Bq g-1 of protein) while in Medicago sativa it assumed considerably lower values (3.6 Bq g-1 of protein). A possible involvement of biological nitrogen fixation in the reduction of radioactive uptake is discussed. Finally, certain practical conclusions are drawn with respect to a safer management of pastures exposed to radioactivity. (author)

  14. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  15. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  16. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

  17. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  18. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.

    Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

    2005-12-01

    Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges. PMID:15964059

  19. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater. PMID:23488000

  20. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  1. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  2. EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

    2008-11-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site. PMID:19297989

  3. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  4. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2004-08-01

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species.

  5. Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.

    Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

  6. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses.

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a 'water-spending' behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a 'water-saving' nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  7. Effect of mixing low palatable grasses and ipil ipil leaves on forage quality

    The study was conducted at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan to investigate the impact of mixing low palatable grasses namely Heteropogon contortus, Desmostachya bipinnata, Sorghum halepense and Chrysopogon aucheri with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and for grass 25% + Ipil ipil 75%, it was 55%. The CP value of the treatments showed significant variation ranging from less than 10% in grasses to almost 30% in pure Ipil ipil leaves. The mixtures had CP content corresponding to proportions of grasses and legume tree leaves. The CF values also varied significantly among the treatments. Grasses had in general higher CF content than legume leaves. It can be concluded that addition of Ipil ipil leaves to grasses improved overall nutrition especially CP of the feed. (author)

  8. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  9. Reductions in native grass biomass associated with drought facilitates the invasion of an exotic grass into a model grassland system.

    Manea, Anthony; Sloane, Daniel R; Leishman, Michelle R

    2016-05-01

    The invasion success of exotic plant species is often dependent on resource availability. Aspects of climate change such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and extreme climatic events will directly and indirectly alter resource availability in ecological communities. Understanding how these climate change-associated changes in resource availability will interact with one another to influence the invasion success of exotic plant species is complex. The aim of the study was to assess the establishment success of an invasive exotic species in response to climate change-associated changes in resource availability (CO2 levels and soil water availability) as a result of extreme drought. We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of four co-occurring native grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney, Australia, under ambient and elevated CO2 levels and subjected them to an extreme drought treatment. We then added seeds of a highly invasive C3 grass, Ehrharta erecta, and assessed its establishment success (biomass production and reproductive output). We found that reduced biomass production of the native grasses in response to the extreme drought treatment enhanced the establishment success of E. erecta by creating resource pulses in light and space. Surprisingly, CO2 level did not affect the establishment success of E. erecta. Our results suggest that the invasion risk of grasslands in the future may be coupled to soil water availability and the subsequent response of resident native vegetation therefore making it strongly context- dependent. PMID:26780256

  10. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Ryan L Klimstra; Christopher E Moorman; Converse, Sarah; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  11. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    Kothari Saroj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administration produced dose related significant (P < 0.05 reduction in total chloesterol,triglycerides,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in normal rats as compared to control.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids,tannins, saponins and sterols in Triticum aestivum grass. Conclusion: The results of the present study lndicate hypolipidemic activity of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice.

  12. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10−1 and 1.8 × 10−1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10−2 d L−1 and 4.6 × 10−2 d L−1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10−2 d L−1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10−3 d L−1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied

  13. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family) associations of grass species (families) using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families) were positive association...

  14. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Simić Aleksandar S.; Dželetović Željko S.; Vučković Savo M.; Sokolović Dejan R.; Delić Dušica I.; Mandić Violeta T.; Anđelković Bojan S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata) was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A) thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full devel...

  15. Mitigating Agricultural Phosphorus Leaching : The Effect of Timing in Grass Harvesting in Mitigating Wintertime Phosphorus Leaching

    Yli-Heikkilä, Katariina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study how much the above-ground grass biomass, harvested at different times during the growing season, contains phosphorus at the end of the growing season, and how much of it is leached after freezing and thawing. The study aims to give information about the ideal time for grass harvesting in order to mitigate the wintertime phosphorus leaching. The grass biomass was harvested from managed uncultivated arable field at MTT Agrifood Research Centre experi...

  16. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems

    Saulo M. Sousa; Pâmela S. Silva; Lyderson F. Viccini

    2010-01-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous...

  17. Preference for C4 shade grasses increases hatchling performance in the butterfly, Bicyclus safitza.

    Nokelainen, Ossi; Ripley, Brad S; van Bergen, Erik; Osborne, Colin P; Brakefield, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The Miocene radiation of C4 grasses under high-temperature and low ambient CO 2 levels occurred alongside the transformation of a largely forested landscape into savanna. This inevitably changed the host plant regime of herbivores, and the simultaneous diversification of many consumer lineages, including Bicyclus butterflies in Africa, suggests that the radiations of grasses and grazers may be evolutionary linked. We examined mechanisms for this plant-herbivore interaction with the grass-feeding Bicyclus safitza in South Africa. In a controlled environment, we tested oviposition preference and hatchling performance on local grasses with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways that grow either in open or shaded habitats. We predicted preference for C3 plants due to a hypothesized lower processing cost and higher palatability to herbivores. In contrast, we found that females preferred C4 shade grasses rather than either C4 grasses from open habitats or C3 grasses. The oviposition preference broadly followed hatchling performance, although hatchling survival was equally good on C4 or C3 shade grasses. This finding was explained by leaf toughness; shade grasses were softer than grasses from open habitats. Field monitoring revealed a preference of adults for shaded habitats, and stable isotope analysis of field-sampled individuals confirmed their preference for C4 grasses as host plants. Our findings suggest that plant-herbivore interactions can influence the direction of selection in a grass-feeding butterfly. Based on this work, we postulate future research to test whether these interactions more generally contribute to radiations in herbivorous insects via expansions into new, unexploited ecological niches. PMID:27551380

  18. Morphogenetic characteristics in Tanzania grass conhsorted with Stylosanthes Campo Grande or fertilized with nitrogen under grazing

    Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida Lins; Ulysses Cecato; Alyson Andrade Pinheiro; Bruno Shigueo Iwamoto; Alexandre Krutzmann; Tatiane Beloni; Robério Rodrigues Silva

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to study morphogenic and structural characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) intercropped with Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala) or fertilized with nitrogen. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Were used a randomized complete blocks with split plots and three replications. The treatments were: Tanzania grass + Stylosanthes; Tanzania grass + 75 Kg N.ha. year-1; Tanza...

  19. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    S. J. Siebert; Fish, L.; M. M. Uiras; S. A. Izindine

    2004-01-01

    A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicat...

  20. GRASS: a server for the graphical representation and analysis of structures.

    Nayal, M.; Hitz, B. C.; Honig, B

    1999-01-01

    GRASS (Graphical Representation and Analysis of Structures Server), a new web-based server, is described. GRASS exploits many of the features of the GRASP program and is designed to provide interactive molecular graphics and quantitative analysis tools with a simple interface over the World-Wide Web. Using GRASS, it is now possible to view many surface features of biological macromolecules on either standard workstations used in macromolecular analysis or personal computers. The result is a W...

  1. A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions

    Christopher (Kit) J. A. Macleod; Humphreys, Mike W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Turner, Lesley; Binley, Andrew; Watts, Chris W.; Skøt, Leif; Joynes, Adrian; Hawkins, Sarah; King, Ian P.; O'Donovan, Sally; Haygarth, Phil M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the evaluation of a novel grass hybrid that provides efficient forage production and could help mitigate flooding. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is the grass species of choice for most farmers, but lacks resilience against extremes of climate. We hybridised L. perenne onto a closely related and more stress-resistant grass species, meadow fescue Festuca pratensis. We demonstrate that the L. perenne × F. pratensis cultivar can reduce runoff during the events by 51% compared t...

  2. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas; Kádár, Zsófia; Anne S. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at ...

  3. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    after grain legumes had a higher grass proportion before incorporation as compared to grass-clover after oat, which had the greatest clover proportion. The dynamic response of interspecific interactions in the catch crop to the soil mineral N levels is moderating the preceding effect of main crops in...... observed. A higher soil mineral N content in the soil profile without undersown grass-clover increased the spring wheat yield. This effect was circumvented in the subsequent winter triticale, where yields in the treatments with catch crops undersown were significantly greater. The grass-clover catch crop...

  4. Canopy growth and density of Wyoming big sagebrush sown with cool-season perennial grasses

    Hild, A.L.; Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Williams, M.I. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. for Renewable Resources

    2006-07-15

    Post-mining revegetation efforts often require grass seeding and mulch applications to stabilize the soils at the same time as shrub seeding, creating intraspecific competition between seeded shrubs and grasses that is not well understood. In 1999, we initiated a study at the Belle Ayr Coal Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, to evaluate the influence of grass competition on establishment and growth of Wyoming big sagebrush. Combinations of three sagebrush seeding rates (1, 2, and 4 kg pls ha{sup -1}) and seven cool-season perennial grass mixture seeding rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 kg pls ha{sup -1}) were seeded during winter 1998-1999. Shrub density and grass cover were assessed from 1999 to 2004. We monitored sagebrush canopy size in 2001, 2002, and 2004. All sagebrush seeding rates provided shrub densities (>=) 1 shrub m {sup -1} after six growing seasons. Grass production (>=) 75 g m{sup -2} was achieved by seeding grasses at 6 to 8 kg pls ha{sup -1}). Canopy growth of individual sagebrush plants was least in the heaviest grass seeding rate. Reduced grass seeding rates can aid in achieving Wyoming big sagebrush density standards and enhance shrub canopy growth.

  5. Structural, productive and bromatologic characteristcs of Tifton 85 and Jiggs grasses fertilized with some macronutrients

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization of Tifton 85 and Jiggs grasses with some macronutrients on the structural, productive and bromatologic characteristics. Were evaluated two grasses (Cynodon dactylon cv. Tifton 85 and C. dactylon cv. Jiggs and five sources of fertilizer (three formulations NPK: 08-28-16, 30-00-20 and 20-10-10, and two sources nitrogen: urea and super N in a factorial scheme 2 x 5, distributed in a completely randomized design with four replications. The planting of grasses without fertilization was performed to simulate a pasture located in low natural fertility. The highest yields (P = 0.009 and ratios of leaves (P < 0.001 were observed in Tifton 85 grass, resulting in a lower proportion of stems when compared to Jiggs grass. The sources of fertilizers used changed the weight and the proportion of leaves and stems, as well as the leaf/stem ratio, number of tillers and mass production of Tifton 85 and Jiggs grasses. There was a significative interaction between the study factors (grass and fertilizer for concentrations of DM (P = 0.024, ADF (P = 0.012, hemicellulose (P = 0.007, DMD (P = 0.012, TDN (P = 0.012, DE (p = 0.012 and ME (P = 0.012 leaves and the protein content (p = 0.016 of the stem. In general, the application of 30-00-20 fertilizer resulted in lower ADF content in the leaves of Tifton 85 grass and higher DM, with higher energy content also, and providing super N implied lower ADF content and higher DM digestibility of Jiggs grass leaves. In the whole plant, the Jiggs grass had higher NDF (P = 0.017 compared to Tifton 85 grass, however, the concentration of ADF that grass was lower (P < 0.001 than Tifton 85 grass, which resulted in higher DM (P < 0.001 and energy intake (P < 0.001. The application of super N decreased the ADF content (P = 0.026 of grasses, mainly from Jiggs, implying an increase in the digestibility of DM (P = 0.026 and energy content (P = 0.026. Although there are

  6. Deriving Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) using a Web Processing Service implementation based on GRASS GIS

    Christian Schwartze

    2009-01-01

    QGIS releases equal to or newer than 0.7 can easily connected to GRASS GIS by means of a toolbox that provides a wide range of standard GRASS modules you can launch – albeit only on data coming from GRASS. This QGIS plugin is expandable through XML configurations describing the assignment of options and inputs for a certain module. But how about embedding a precise workflow where the several processes don’t consist of a single GRASS module by force? Especially for a sequence of dependent task...

  7. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb. PMID:21411942

  8. Evapotranspiration parameterizations at a grass site in Florida, USA

    Rizou, M.; Sumner, David M.; Nnadi, F.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the fact that grasslands account for about 40% of the ice-free global terrestrial land cover, their contribution to the surface exchanges of energy and water in local and regional scale is so far uncertain. In this study, the sensitivity of evapotranspiration (ET) and other energy fluxes to wetness variables, namely the volumetric Soil Water Content (SWC) and Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), over a non-irrigated grass site in Central Florida, USA (28.049 N, 81.400 W) were investigated. Eddy correlation and soil water content measurements were taken by USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) at the grass study site, within 100 m of a SFWMD (South Florida Water Management District) weather station. The soil is composed of fine sands and it is mainly covered by Paspalum notatum (bahia grass). Variable soil wetness conditions with API bounds of about 2 to 160 mm and water table levels of 0.03 to 1.22 m below ground surface, respectively, were observed throughout the year 2004. The Bowen ratio exhibited an average of 1 and values larger than 2 during few dry days. The daytime average ET was classified into two stages, first stage (energy-limited) and second stage (water- limited) based on the water availability. The critical values of API and SWC were found to be about 56 mm and 0.17 respectively, with the second one being approximately 33% of the SWC at saturation. The ET values estimated by the simple Priestley-Taylor (PT) method were compared to the actual values. The PT coefficient varied from a low bound of approximately 0.4 to a peak of 1.21. Simple relationships for the PT empirical factor were employed in terms of SWC and API to improve the accuracy of the second stage observations. The results of the ET parameterizations closely match eddy-covariance flux values on daily and longer time steps.

  9. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães; Lopes Fernando César Ferraz; Soares João Paulo Guimarães; Deresz Fermino; Verneque Rui da Silva; Arcuri Pedro Braga; Matos Leovegildo Lopes de

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI) and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI) by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 d...

  10. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

    T. Magura; B. Tóthmérész; Molnár, T

    2001-01-01

    During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge eff...

  11. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, R.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Smith, M.; Sommer, J.; Hertel, Ole

    2014-01-01

    pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in...... Aarhus - a twin peak profile during the early season, a single evening profile during the middle of the season, and a single midday peak during the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that it was driven by a...

  12. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed. PMID:17234253

  13. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing

    Petras, V.; Gebbert, S.

    2014-12-01

    GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists directly or through other projects such as R or QGIS to perform geoprocessing tasks. Thus, a large number of scientific geospatial computations depend on quality and correct functionality of GRASS GIS. Automatic functionality testing is therefore necessary to ensure software reliability. Here we present a testing framework for GRASS GIS which addresses different needs of GRASS GIS and geospatial software in general. It allows to test GRASS tools (referred to as GRASS modules) and examine outputs including large raster and vector maps as well as temporal datasets. Furthermore, it enables to test all levels of GRASS GIS architecture including C and Python application programming interface and GRASS modules invoked as subprocesses. Since GRASS GIS is used as a platform for development of geospatial algorithms and models, the testing framework allows not only to test GRASS GIS core functionality but also tools developed by scientists as a part of their research. Using testing framework we can test GRASS GIS and related tools automatically and repetitively and thus detect errors caused by code changes and new developments. Tools and code are then easier to maintain which results in preserving reproducibility of scientific results over time. Similarly to open source code, the test results are publicly accessible, so that all current and potential users can see them. The usage of testing framework will be presented on an example of a test suite for r.slope.aspect module, a tool for computation of terrain slope, aspect, curvatures and other terrain characteristics.

  14. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  15. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  16. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  17. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  18. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  19. Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants

    Susan G. Low

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread through South America, Australia, Indonesia, Vanuatu and Malaysia due to its adaptation to a wide range of soil types and environments. Animal production from these B. decumbens pastures is highly variable due to sporadic outbreaks of photosensitisation associated with low growth rates of young animals, anorexia and wasting. The identification of B. decumbens toxicity through clinical signs may grossly underestimate the impact and severity of the disease. Affected animals without clinical signs have elevated serum liver enzyme concentrations resulting from blockage of the bile ducts by birefringent crystals, identified as calcium salts of steroidal saponins found in leaves and stems. The concentrations of the steroidal saponins vary through the year and within the plant. Young, green leaves contain 5–10 times the saponin concentration of mature leaves indicating that B. decumbens pastures are likely to be more toxic during sprouting and early growth. Previous exposure, selective grazing, and avoiding toxic leaves may partly explain apparent resistance of some animals to B. decumbens toxicity. Further research is needed to define growing conditions that produce elevated saponin levels and to investigate the impact of B. decumbens on rumen function.

  20. Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass

    Mustafa Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed. Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The one with highest (R2 and lowest (MBE and (RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. Three temperatures (35, 45 and 55°C and three humidities (30, 40 and 50% were investigated with a fixed air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Conclusion/Recommendation: The increase in the drying air temperature increased the drying process and decreased the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC of Lemon grass. The drying process decreased as the air humidity increases. The effect was less than that of the temperature. The EMC have high values with high relative humidity.

  1. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment. PMID:24037300

  2. Safety and tolerability of grass pollen tablets in sublingual immunotherapy--a phase-1 study

    Larsen, T H; Poulsen, Lars K.; Melac, M;

    2006-01-01

    A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis.......A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis....

  3. Quality evaluation of signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha ensiled with forage as tannin source

    B Santoso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on examining the possibility of using three kinds of plant leaves i.e. Acacia mangium Willd, Persea americana Mill and Psidium guajava as tannin source to signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha silage. The silages were made from the first cut of signal grass harvested at 50 days. Four treatment silages were TA: grass ensiled without tannin as control, AM: grass ensiled with A. mangium (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, PA: grass ensiled with P. americana (6 g tannin /kg fresh weight, and PG: grass ensiled with P. guajava (6 g tannin/kg fresh weight. After mixing, the materials were packed into glass bottle silos (225 g capacity, in triplicate, which were ensiled for 30 days. The results showed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein concentrations in signal grass silage mixed with tannin of A. mangium were higher (P<0.01 compared to other silages. Degradations of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein during ensiling were the lowest in silage with A. mangium tannin additive. This data was supported by good fermentation quality of that silage e.g. low pH value, NH3-N and VFA concentrations, and high lactic acid concentration and Fleigh point as compared to other silages. It is concluded that addition of tannin from A. mangium leaf at rate of 6 g/kg fresh weight improved fermentation quality and has potential as protein protection agents during the ensilage of signal grass.

  4. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity must keep a record of its lobbying expenditures for the taxable year. Lobbying expenditures of which...

  5. The eating quality of meat of steers fed grass and/or concentrates.

    French, P; O'Riordan, E G; Monahan, F J; Caffrey, P J; Mooney, M T; Troy, D J; Moloney, A P

    2001-04-01

    The objective was to determine, relative to animals expressing their full potential for carcass growth, the impact on meat quality of increasing carcass growth of grazing steers by supplementing with concentrates or by increasing grass supply. Sixty-six continental (Limousin and Charolais) crossbred steers (567 kg) were assigned to one of six diets: (1) 18 kg grass dry matter (DM); (2) 18 kg grass DM grass and 2.5 kg concentrate; (3) 18 kg grass DM and 5 kg concentrate; (4) 6 kg grass DM and 5 kg concentrate; (5) 12 kg grass DM and 2.5 kg concentrate; or (6) concentrates daily. Animals were slaughtered after an average of 95 days. Samples of the M. longissmus dorsi (LD) were collected at the 8-9th rib interface and subjected to sensory analysis and to other assessments of quality following 2, 7, or 14 days aging. Carcass weight gain averaged 360, 631, 727, 617, 551 and 809 g/day for treatments 1 to 6, respectively. There was no difference between diets for colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) or any sensory attribute of the LD. WBSF was negatively correlated with (Pmeat quality between animals could be attributed to diet pre-slaughter or carcass fatness. It is concluded that high carcass growth can be achieved on a grass-based diet without a deleterious effect on meat quality. PMID:22061710

  6. Beneficial effects of Neotyphodium tembladerae and Neotyphodium pampeanum on a wild forage grass

    Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...

  7. Anti-Insect Properties of Grass Fungal Endophytes for Plant Resistance to Insects

    Many temperate grass species host Epichloë and Neotyphodium endophytic fungi that produce alkaloids with anti-mammalian and anti-insect properties. Ergot and lolitrem alkaloid production by endophyte-infected (E+) grasses can have deleterious effects on grazing livestock, whereas insecticidal alkal...

  8. Overland flow resistances on varying slope gradients and partitioning on grassed slopes under simulated rainfall

    Pan, Chengzhong; Ma, Lan; Wainwright, John; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-04-01

    It is still unclear how slope steepness (S) and revegetation affect resistance (f) to overland flow. A series of experiments on runoff hydraulics was conducted on granular surfaces (bare soil and sandpaper) and grassed surfaces, including grass plots (GP), GP with litter (GL), and GP without leaves (GS) under simulated rainfall and inflow (30erosion on hillslopes impacted by vegetation restoration.

  9. Soil sterilization alters interactions between the native grass Bouteloua gracilis and invasive Bromus tectorum

    Aims: The invasive grass Bromus tectorum negatively impacts grassland communities throughout the western U.S. We asked whether soil biota growing in association with a native grass (Bouteloua gracilis) increase growth and competitive ability of Bromus, and whether responses vary between soils collec...

  10. Nutrient fluxes in splanchnic tissue in dairy cows: Influence of grass quality

    Visser, de H.; Valk, H.; Klop, A.; Meulen, van der J.; Bakker, J.G.M.; Huntington, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    A crossover design was used to investigate the effects of high (450 kg of N/ha) or low (150 kg of N/ha) N fertilization of ryegrass on fermentation and nutrient fluxes in splanchnic tissue of dairy cows fed those grasses. Grass that was fertilized with the high amount of N contained more N and less

  11. Studies on the influence of some auxin herbicides on grass-seed crops

    Sen, K.M.

    1960-01-01

    Applications of 2,4-D or MCPA may cause malformations in the initiated leaves of both grasses and cereals, during vegetative stages of development. 2,4,5-TP also caused malformations in stems and leaves, but only after the plants started to shoot. By their strong tillering the reaction of grasses to

  12. Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest

    Veldman, J.W.; Mostacedo, B.; Peña-Claros, M.; Putz, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5 yr af

  13. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  14. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to good relation between morphology and crude protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Napier grass.

  15. A Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial Assessing Compliance, Tolerability, Safety, and Efficacy to Treatment with Grass Allergy Tablets in 261 Patients with Grass Pollen Rhinoconjunctivitis

    Silvia Pecora; Massimo Milani; Roberta Alesina

    2012-01-01

    Background. Allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is considered a causal treatment of respiratory allergies. Compliance to the SLIT is an important aspect for a positive clinical outcome. Study Aim. To evaluate if compliance with grass Allergy Immunotherapy Tablet (AIT) can be increased by providing an electronic compliance device (CED) (Memozax; a tablet-container with a programmable daily acoustic alarm). Patients and Methods. 261 patients with grass allergy were enrolled and ra...

  16. The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya

    Mganga, K.Z.; Nyangito, M.M.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyariki, D.M.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Muiri, W.M.; Clavel, D; Francis, J.; Kaufmann, Von, R.; Verhagen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semiarid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure ...

  17. The Role of Moisture in the Successful Rehabilitation of Denuded Patches of a Semi-Arid Environment in Kenya

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) at three phenological stages (early growth, elongation and reproduction) as pure stands and two-grass mixtures. The grasses were sown on either rainfed (Sites 1 and 2) or simulated ...

  18. Improving Hydrological Responses of Degraded Soils in Semi Arid Kenya

    Mganga, K.Z.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyangito, M.M.; Nyariki, D.M.; A.W. Mwang`Ombe

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the contribution of reseeding using indigenous perennial grasses; Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass) in improving soil hydrological properties and thus controlling soil erosion in the degraded areas of Kibwezi district, Kenya. The experiment was carried out using simulated rainfall, Kamphorst simulator, on bare ground and at different grass stubble heights. The experiment...

  19. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian;

    yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  trial coordinates, the average altitude, the average of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to  trees and hedges......Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16...... different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The...

  20. Anaerobic Mono- and Co-digestion of Mechanically Pretreated Meadow Grass for Biogas Production

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biomass from permanent grasslands and meadows can be exploited for biogas production, because this substrate is abundant and does not compete with food production. In the present study, the biogas productivity of meadow grass silage, harvested in two different seasons (early and late Cut), was...... investigated. The grass silage was mechanically pretreated with different methods to increase its biodegradability. It was found that the early cut of non-treated meadow grass silage led to higher methane production [294 mL of CH4/g of volatile solids (VS)] compared to the corresponding non-treated meadow...... grass silage from the late cut (282 mL of CH4/g of VS). Moreover, it was found that the application of two mesh grating plates, as the pretreatment method, greatly enhanced the methane production in early and late cut silage in a range of 15 and 17%, respectively, compared to the non-treated grass...

  1. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... to 24 (w/w)% (45 to 57% cellulose convertibility), and at 180°C glucose yield improved from 22 to 29 (w/w)% (54 to 69% cellulose convertibility). Direct HTT of grass at 190°C gave the same high glucose yield as for grass silage (35 (w/w)% (77% cellulose convertibility)) and improved xylan yields (27......% xylan convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar...

  2. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  3. Establishing a grassland signature in veins: 18O in the leaf water of C3 and C4 grasses

    Helliker, Brent R.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2000-01-01

    We show that 18O evaporative enrichment of bulk leaf water in grass species can be significantly more enriched than predicted by the Craig–Gordon model, with C4 grasses considerably more enriched than C3 grasses. Our results suggest that the unanticipated 18O leaf water enrichment of grasses is attributable to the progressive evaporative enrichment along parallel veins (a function of both leaf length and interveinal distance), a pattern that does not occur in Dicotyledonous species. We propos...

  4. Fractions of carbohydrates and of nitrogenous compounds of tropical grasses at different cutting ages Fracionamento de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados de gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte

    Patrícia Regina de Souza Siqueira Campos; José Fernando Coelho da Silva; Hernán Maldonado Vásquez; Andréa Vittori; Martinho de Almeida e Silva

    2010-01-01

    It was evaluated by the Cornell System carbohidrates fractions and nitrogenous compounds of the following grasses at the cutting ages of 14, 28, 42, and 56 days: nilo grass (Acroceras macrum), angola grass (Brachiaria purpurascens), aleman grass (Echinochloa polystachya), limpo grass (Hemarthria altíssima), setaria grass (Setaria anceps), tanner grass (Brachiaria arrecta), and tifton-85 grass (Cynodon spp). The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design, in a split plot ...

  5. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high

  6. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    2010-01-01

    ... straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. 72.19 Section 72.19 Animals... Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises...

  7. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which

  8. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  9. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  10. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... differences between groups allows us to predict changes in the exotic-native balance under climate change scenarios. Exotic species are more likely to be annual, taller, with larger leaves, larger seeds, higher specific leaf area, and higher leaf N percentage than native species. Across the state, all...... species. This study provides some of the first evidence for an important interaction between climate change and species invasions across very broad geographic and taxonomic scales....

  11. Development and sterilization of instant flavor grass carp

    An instant food of flavor grass carp was developed by curing, drying, flavoring, packaging in vacuum, and sterilizing. The influences of high temperature and high pressure sterilization and irradiation sterilization on texture, color, contents of hydrolyzed amino acid, and microorganism counts of product were studied The quality of fish fillets that were cured by 2% (weight fraction) salt for 3 h, and then dried at 50℃ for 24 h, turned to be the best. Compared with those sterilized by high temperature and high pressure, products by irradiation possessed higher L* value and Hunter whiteness. but lower a* and b* value. The products sterilized by irradiation were preferable in hardness and chewiness After sterilization, the contents of hydrolyzed amino acid increase, but the difference is not significant, and the microorganism counts are less than 10 cfu·g-1. (authors)

  12. Warm season grass establishment (in one year without the weeds)

    Native warm season grasses, big bluestem and indian, were established by the broadcast method on a relatively large area (130 acres) of reclaimed coal surface-mined land in Perry County, Illinois. Existing vegetation was controlled using two quarts of Round-Up and 12 ounces of Plateau per acre the first week of May. Five pounds of pure live seed of both species were applied by airflow using 100 pounds per acre of 0-46-0 and 100 pounds per acre of 0-0-60, primarily to carry the seed. The surface was cultipacked to insure good seed to soil contact. Planting was initiated and completed the last week of June. An estimated 95% to 100% ground cover was evident by mid to late August. By mid September, numerous big blue stem flower/seed stalks were noticeable

  13. Radiation and temperature influence on forage grasses yield

    Biomass production has been studied in forage plants, as well as the temperature and radiation effects on plant growth. Four cultivars of grasses: Lolium multiflorum var westerwoldicum cv Promenade, Lolium perenne cvs Combi and Compas and Bromus inermis were growing as microswards in a growth chamber with constant temperature and outdoors. A field assay was done also with the same cultivars. L. multiflorum was the highest productive genotype anywhere showing also more active growth at low temperatures. Total production showed significant differences among genotypes. It was also a clear correspondence among microswards and field productions. Highest efficiency values (in % of PAR accumulated as dry matter) was obtained in 6th cut (April) achieving to 5.18 % in L. multiflorum. Biomass production variations through the growth period show a low correlation with <> and very high correlation with total irradiation received by the sward between consecutive cuts

  14. Processing Uav and LIDAR Point Clouds in Grass GIS

    Petras, V.; Petrasova, A.; Jeziorska, J.; Mitasova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Today's methods of acquiring Earth surface data, namely lidar and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, non-selectively collect or generate large amounts of points. Point clouds from different sources vary in their properties such as number of returns, density, or quality. We present a set of tools with applications for different types of points clouds obtained by a lidar scanner, structure from motion technique (SfM), and a low-cost 3D scanner. To take advantage of the vertical structure of multiple return lidar point clouds, we demonstrate tools to process them using 3D raster techniques which allow, for example, the development of custom vegetation classification methods. Dense point clouds obtained from UAV imagery, often containing redundant points, can be decimated using various techniques before further processing. We implemented and compared several decimation techniques in regard to their performance and the final digital surface model (DSM). Finally, we will describe the processing of a point cloud from a low-cost 3D scanner, namely Microsoft Kinect, and its application for interaction with physical models. All the presented tools are open source and integrated in GRASS GIS, a multi-purpose open source GIS with remote sensing capabilities. The tools integrate with other open source projects, specifically Point Data Abstraction Library (PDAL), Point Cloud Library (PCL), and OpenKinect libfreenect2 library to benefit from the open source point cloud ecosystem. The implementation in GRASS GIS ensures long term maintenance and reproducibility by the scientific community but also by the original authors themselves.

  15. Dynamic evolution of rht-1 homologous regions in grass genomes.

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available Hexaploid bread wheat contains A, B, and D three subgenomes with its well-characterized ancestral genomes existed at diploid and tetraploid levels, making the wheat act as a good model species for studying evolutionary genomic dynamics. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and related grass genomes to examine the dynamics of homologous regions surrounding Rht-1, a well-known "green revolution" gene. Our results showed that the divergence of the two A genomes in the Rht-1 region from the diploid and tetraploid species is greater than that from the tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The divergence of D genome between diploid and hexaploid is lower than those of A genome, suggesting that D genome diverged latter than others. The divergence among the A, B and D subgenomes was larger than that among different ploidy levels for each subgenome which mainly resulted from genomic structural variation of insertions and, perhaps deletions, of the repetitive sequences. Meanwhile, the repetitive sequences caused genome expansion further after the divergence of the three subgenomes. However, several conserved non-coding sequences were identified to be shared among the three subgenomes of wheat, suggesting that they may have played an important role to maintain the homolog of three subgenomes. This is a pilot study on evolutionary dynamics across the wheat ploids, subgenomes and differently related grasses. Our results gained new insights into evolutionary dynamics of Rht-1 region at sequence level as well as the evolution of wheat during the plolyploidization process.

  16. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  17. Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n< 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Interactions between grass distribution and land surface form in a semiarid region with complex terrain

    Bras, R. L.; Flores Cervantes, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of grass biomass and topographic features in two semiarid region in the Southwestern USA. We find that: 1) north-facing terrain has more grass biomass and higher slopes than south-facing terrain; 2) in north-facing hillslopes, grass biomass abundance increases with slope, and in south-facing hillslopes, grass biomass is least abundant at intermediate slopes; 3) grass biomass inversely correlates to solar irradiation that varies as a function of terrain orientation and slope; and 4) biomass distribution is also controlled by the spatial distribution of the channel network. These findings indicate that water availability, as a function of terrain form, controls vegetation growth in the water-limited region, leading to topographically-controlled spatial vegetation patterns that affect terrain form at a local scale. The effects of topography on grass biomass distribution and vice versa are largely dependent on the water fluxes on the surface of the terrain. A model that represents the erosion processes, grass biomass dynamics, and water fluxes in small watersheds is used to elucidate the observations discussed in the previous paragraph.

  19. The effect of seaweed Ecklonia maxima extract and mineral nitrogen on fodder grass chemical composition.

    Ciepiela, Grażyna Anna; Godlewska, Agnieszka; Jankowska, Jolanta

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the biostimulant Kelpak and different nitrogen rates on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents as well as non-structural carbohydrates in orchard grass and Braun's festulolium. The experiment was a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. It was set up at the experimental facility of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, in late April 2009. The following factors were examined: biostimulant with the trade name Kelpak SL applied at 2 dm(3) ha(-1) and a control-no biostimulant; nitrogen application rates 50 and 150 kg ha(-1) and a control (0 kg ha(-1)); pure stands of grass species grown in monoculture--orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), cv. Amila,-Braun's festulolium (Festulolium braunii), cv. Felopa. Kelpak significantly increased non-structural carbohydrates, and increasing nitrogen rates reduced the concentration of these components in plants. Increasing nitrogen rates significantly decreased cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and non-structural carbohydrate contents. Compared with orchard grass, Braun's festulolium proved to be of a higher nutritional value due to lower cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents and more non-structural carbohydrates. The aforementioned contents in the grasses differed significantly depending on the cut. Most cellulose and non-structural carbohydrates were determined in second-cut grass whereas most hemicellulose and lignin in second-cut grass. PMID:26408121

  20. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  1. MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique

    Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; No, In Gye; Chin, Seoung Bum; Kim, Joon Sik; Choi, Jae Yeul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears.

  2. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  3. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  4. Transfer of 137Cs and stable Cs in soil-grass-milk pathway in Aomori, Japan

    The soil-to-grass transfer factors and grass-to-milk transfer coefficients were determined for 137Cs and stable Cs in soil, grass and milk samples collected in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. The concentrations of 137Cs in the soil and grass samples collected from 25 sampling sites were 13 ± 12 Bq x kg-1 and 2.0 ± 2.1 Bq x kg-1 dry wt., respectively. The geometric mean of soil-to-grass transfer factor of 137Cs was 0.13 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.017-0.98. The transfer factor of 137Cs was higher than that of stable Cs, and they had a positive correlation. The concentration of K in the soil affected both transfer factors. The concentration of 137Cs in milk samples collected from 16 sites was 76 ± 43 mBq x kg-1 fresh wt. and had a good correlation with that of stable Cs. The geometric mean of grass-to-milk transfer coefficient of 137Cs was 0.0027, assuming that a cow's total daily intake was 20 kg of dry grass. The transfer coefficient of 137Cs was positively correlated with that of stable Cs. (author)

  5. Estimation of grass to milk transfer coefficient for Strontium for emergency situations

    The grass to milk transfer coefficient is usually represented as Fm values. This paper reports the results of grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for Strontium for emergency situation. An experimental grass field was developed in Kaiga region and 2 cows were adopted for collecting milk samples regularly. Grass was cut from the field and spiked with very low concentration of stable Strontium, taken in the form of Sr(No3)2, to simulate a sudden deposition of Strontium on grass and fed to the adopted cows. The milk samples were collected during normal milking periods (morning and evening) for several days and analyzed. The peak concentration of Sr in milk was observed during time period 12-36 hrs after the intake of spiked grass. The mean value of transfer coefficient was found to be 1.4 x 10-3 d L-1. The grass to milk transfer coefficient values observed under spiked conditions were similar to that observed for equilibrium transfer coefficient for Kaiga region. (author)

  6. Estimation of grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for emergency situations

    Several studies have been reported on soil to grass equilibrium transfer factors and grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for 137Cs for the environs of different nuclear power plants of both India and other parts of the world. In such studies, the activity concentration of 137Cs is measured in grass collected from different places. Cow's milk samples are collected from nearby localities or from milk dairies and analyzed for 137Cs and the grass to cow's milk transfer coefficient is estimated. In situation where 137Cs is not present in measurable activity concentrations, its stable counterpart (Cs) is measured for the estimation of transfer coefficients. These transfer coefficient values are generally used in theoretical models to estimate the dose to the population for hypothetical situation of emergency. It should be noted that the transfer coefficients obtained for equilibrium conditions may not be totally applicable for emergency situation. However, studies aimed at evaluating transfer coefficients for emergency situations are sparse because nuclear power plants do not release 137Cs during normal operating situations and therefore simulating situation of emergency release is not possible. Hence, the only method to estimate the grass to milk transfer coefficient for emergency situation is to spike the grass with small quantity of stable Cs. This paper reports the results of grass to milk transfer coefficients for stable isotope of Cesium (Cs) for emergency situation

  7. MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears

  8. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  9. Biogas production from communal grass cuttings. Final report. Biogaserzeugung aus kommunalen Grasabfaellen im Klaewerk. Endbericht

    Perwanger, A.; Seifert, M.; Radeloff, D.

    1988-02-01

    An investigation was carried out in the sewage works of the town of Selb over a period of two years as to the possibility of adding grass to sewage sludge for biogas production. Communal grass cuttings were added to the large (2500 m{sup 3}) reactor tower of the sewage plant. Additionally the gas production rate from grass and sludge was determined using a continuous flow trial reactor of 1 m{sup 3} capacity run in parallel to the main reactor. The remaining grass was analysed for mineral and heavy metal content, and the vollumetric reduction measured. In accompanying laboratory investigations using 45 biogas reactors of 10 to 1000 litre capacity 29 specific trials were carried out. The principle factors determined were: 1. Optimum mixture of sewage sludge and grass, 2. Specific gas production from grass, silage and hay, 3. Comparative suitability of batch storage and flow biogas reactors. The results are evaluated in terms of substrate and reactor efficiency. Based on the insight gained, three proposals for the construction and operation of biogas plants for energy production from grass have been designed. (orig.) With 22 refs., 29 tabs., 98 figs.

  10. Changes in organic matter (C, N and P) of soils under subsistence agriculture

    Productivities under low input or subsistence agriculture are strongly dependent on nutrient supply from soil organic matter mineralization (SOM). Few results are available and they indicate declines in soil fertility under this agricultural system, particularly in SOM levels. In an attempt to understand the nature and extent of these declines we selected ten sites having cultivated areas adjacent with areas under native vegetation at the same slope position, in the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba. Based on the management history, in situ observations and 137 Cs concentrations to evaluate soil erosion, the areas were divided in four groups having different levels of soil use intensity: Undisturbed Dry Forest (UDF), Disturbed Dry Forest (DDF), Preserved-Cultivated (PC) and Degraded-Cultivated (DC). In the first part of this work we quantified total organic C, N and P, in addition to 137 Cs concentrations, under the assumption that changes in organic nutrient contents among land use groups would be greater than the within group variability, thus enabling inferences at a regional scale. Concentrations of C and N in DC were 50% smaller (P-3) (C-lf); C-CO2 produced during three days of incubation (C-min3d); C oxidized with 333 mM (C-ox 333) and 16,5 mM (C-ox16) KMnO4. The only fraction that did not correlate with total C was C-fl. Average proportions of total C extracted by C-mins3d, C-ox 16 were 1.5%, 24% and 7.2 %, respectively. In the second phase, the whole sample set (n=160) was analyzed for C-ox16. This C fraction decreased from 1.65 g kg-1 under UDF to 0.70 in DC (P-1, in a pot experiment. Total C correlated significantly with N mineralized in 60 d (N-min60d) (r=0.79***) while N-min60 and P-Mehlich-1 explained 80% of the variation in dry matter production by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Low P availability, C and N losses, limited water availability and sometimes-inappropriate land management techniques, are considered strong limiting conditions for the

  11. The Effect of Integrated Grasses in Controlling Soil, Nutrient and Organic Matter in Loess Plateau, China

    Honest Augustine Mosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and nutrient loss is one of a serious problem in Loess plateau china. The eroded materials are directly transported to the lakes and rivers specifically yellow river in China, this might lead to eutrophication if no prevention measures will be taken. The experiment was conducted on soil, and nutrient loss from 5º slope. Individual grasses plots for rye grass(Lolium, white clover(Trifolium repens and integrated grass (rye + white clover plots were prepared with a percentage cover of 25, 50, 80 and 100 in each treatment. Bare land was used as a reference plot. The results show that, the sediment loss in a bare land reported to be 1.5, 3, 2.7 and 1.3, 2.1, 1.9 in 100 % and 80 % cover plots. The runoff rate as compared to bare land, shown to be about 2 times less for white clover and rye grass plots, while more than 2 times less for integrated grasses plots. The total nitrogen and organic matter loss the results were in the order bare land white clover rye grasses and integrated grasses in which 100 %, 80 % and 50 % vegetative cover shown to perform better. On average enrichment ratio range was 40 % to 90 % for nutrient loss, and 50 % to 85 % for organic matter for all plots in comparison with soil origin. The enrichment ration significantly shown to be high from bare land> rye and white clover plots> integrated grasses plot. It has been concluded that integrated grasses is more effective measure over others in controlling both soil, nutrient and organic matter loss in the soil. This study contributed some information on the erosion modeling and improvement of soil and grassland conservation techniques for better land use for sustainable development

  12. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  13. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil...... contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium to grass...

  14. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  15. POLLEN DISPERSAL ABILITIES OF ALS TARGET-SITE RESISTANT BLACK-GRASS (ALOPECURUS MYOSUROIDES HUDS.)

    Maréchal, Pierre-Yves; Henriet, François; Vancutsem, Françoise; Bodson, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Target-Site Resistant (TSR) black-grass individuals were introduced in a field, at different growing stages to be synchronised with autochthonous population. Patches of susceptible black-grass were created by setting protective canvas on few areas (from 0,5 up to 32m²), during herbicide spraying and they were removed afterwards. Those patches were disposed along rays starting from the introduction point at distances from 2 to 128 meters. In those patches, local black-grass grew regularly and ...

  16. Molecular Evolution of Hypoallergenic Hybrid Proteins for Vaccination against Grass Pollen Allergy

    Linhart, Birgit; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Narayanan, Meena; Neubauer, Angela; Mayrhofer, Hannes; Blatt, Katharina; Lupinek, Christian; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    More than 10% of the population in Europe and North America suffer from IgE-associated allergy to grass pollen. In this article, we describe the development of a vaccine for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy based on two recombinant hypoallergenic mosaic molecules, designated P and Q, which were constructed out of elements derived from the four major timothy grass pollen allergens: Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6. Seventeen recombinant mosaic molecules were expressed and pur...

  17. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen...... with other components that simulate pollen release in order to calculate urban-scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are additionally available...

  18. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  19. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    Nielsen, S.P.

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil...... contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium to grass...

  20. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P < 0.003). In conclusion, stage of maturity at harvest strongly affects the distribution of particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silages....

  1. Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection

    Bányai, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The

  2. Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea

    Kirsch, E.M.; Gray, B.R.; Fox, T.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plants are a growing concern worldwide for conservation of native habitats. In endangered wet meadow habitat in the Upper Midwestern United States, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a recognized problem and its prevalence is more widespread than the better-known invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Although resource managers are concerned about the effect of reed canary grass on birds, this is the first study to report how common wet meadow birds use habitat in relation to reed canary grass cover and dominance. We examined three response variables: territory placement, size of territories, and numbers of territories per plot in relation to cover of reed canary grass. Territory locations for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) were positively associated with reed canary grass cover, while those for Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) were not. Only Swamp Sparrow (M. georgiana) territory locations were negatively associated with reed canary grass cover and dominance (which indicated a tendency to place territories where there was no reed canary grass or where many plant species occurred with reed canary grass). Swamp Sparrow territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and litter depth. Common Yellowthroat territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and shrub cover. Song Sparrow territories were negatively associated with litter depth. Reed canary grass cover within territories was not associated with territory size for any of these four bird species. Territory density per plot was not associated with average reed canary grass cover of plots for all four species. Sedge Wrens and Song Sparrows may not respond negatively to reed canary grass because this grass is native to wet meadows of North America, and in the study area it merely replaces other tall lush plants. Avoidance of reed canary grass by Swamp Sparrows may be mediated

  3. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly

  4. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental consequences of using grass (from both unused and cultivated boreal grasslands) as a co-substrate to dairy cow manure for biogas production. Environmental impact categories assessed were global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment...... global warming category, for other categories it did not show clear benefits. Using reed canary grass specially produced for biogas purpose resulted in a climate change impact just as big as the reference manure management, mainly as a result of indirect land use changes. Increased impacts also occurred...... (distinguishing between N and P). Scenarios studied were: traditional management of dairy cow manure, monodigestion of manure, manure co-digestion with reed canary grass and manure co-digestion with residual grass from semi-natural grasslands. The latter scenario showed the best environmental performance for the...

  5. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS33)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 75...

  6. The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates.

    Siri eFjellheim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons, so that flowering and seed production coincide with favourable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can adapt cereals or grasses to different climates and geographical regions. The possible evolutionary origins of the seasonal flowering responses of the Pooideae are discussed and key questions for future research highlighted. These include the need to develop a better understanding of the molecular basis for seasonal flowering in perennial Pooideae and in temperate grasses outside the core Pooideae group.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  8. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...

  9. Ergot fungus Claviceps cynodontis found on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in the Americas

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2005), s. 1-6. ISSN 0706-0661 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : claviceps cynodontis * ergot * bermuda grass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2005

  10. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2004-07-01

    This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

  11. Distinguishing grass from ground using LiDAR: Techniques and applications

    Pelletier, J. D.; Swetnam, T.; Papuga, S. A.; Nelson, K.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Chorover, J.

    2011-12-01

    Standard protocols exist for extracting bare-earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from LiDAR point clouds that include trees and other large woody vegetation. Grasses and other herbaceous plants can also obscure the ground surface, yet methods for optimally distinguishing grass from ground to generate accurate LiDAR-based raster products for geomorphic and ecological applications are still under development. Developing such methods is important because LiDAR-based difference products (e.g. snow thickness) require accurate representations of the ground surface and because raster data for grass height and density have important applications in ecology. In this study, we developed and tested methods for constructing optimal bare-earth and grass height raster layers from LiDAR point clouds and compared the results to high-quality field-based measurements of grass height, density, and species type for nearly 1000 precisely geo-referenced locations collected during the acquisition of a >200 km^2 airborne LiDAR flight of the Valles Caldera National Preserve (New Mexico). In cases of partially bare ground (where the skewness of return heights above a plane fit to the lowest first returns is sufficiently large), a planar fit to the lowest first returns provides a good method of producing an accurate bare-earth DEM and the statistics of the first returns above that planar fit provide good estimates of the mean and variance of grass height. In areas of relatively thick grass cover, however, a fit to the lowest first returns yields a bare-earth DEM that may be a meter or more above the actual ground surface. Here we propose a method to solve this problem using field-measured correlations among the mean, variance, and skewness of grass heights. In this method, the variance and skewness of the differences between LiDAR first returns and a 10m^2 planar fit to the lowest first returns is used, together with field-based correlations of grass height statistics, to estimate the mean

  12. Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya

    Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

  13. Solar Grass Cutter With Linear Blades By Using Scotch Yoke Mechanism

    P.Amrutesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Solar grass cutter is a machine that uses sliding blades to cut a lawn at an even length. Even more sophisticated devices are there in every field. Power consumption becomes essential for future. Solar grass cutter is a very useful device which is very simple in construction. It is used to maintain and upkeep lawns in gardens, schools, college’s etc. We have made some changes in the existing machine to make its application easier at reduced cost. Our main aim in pollution control is attained through this. Unskilled operation can operate easily and maintain the lawn very fine and uniform surface look. In our project, ―Solar grass cutter‖ is used to cut the different grasses for the different application.

  14. Phytoliths of common grasses in the coastal environments of southeastern USA

    Lu, Houyuan; Liu, Kam-biu

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-four grass species were collected for phytolith analysis from a variety of coastal environments in the southeastern USA (Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana), including salt marshes, freshwater/brackish marshes, pine/oak forests, maritime hardwood forests, and sand dunes. Phytoliths produced by these modern grasses include a large diversity of shapes and types. We propose a preliminary relationship between modern coastal plant communities and their predominant phytolith contents. The dominant grasses of coastal sand dunes, such as Uniola paniculata, produce primarily flat tower and two-horned tower phytoliths. Rondel/saddle ellipsoid phytoliths are mainly produced by Spartina alterniflora, the most common plant in coastal salt marshes. Rondel and spool/horned tower phytoliths are common in brackish marsh grasses. Plants from interdune meadow produce primarily dumbbell phytoliths, as well as small cross and Cyperaceae-type phytoliths. These results provide a basis for the interpretation of fossil phytolith assemblages and the reconstruction of coastal environmental changes.

  15. A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions

    Macleod, Christopher (Kit) J. A.; Humphreys, Mike W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Turner, Lesley; Binley, Andrew; Watts, Chris W.; Skøt, Leif; Joynes, Adrian; Hawkins, Sarah; King, Ian P.; O'Donovan, Sally; Haygarth, Phil M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the evaluation of a novel grass hybrid that provides efficient forage production and could help mitigate flooding. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is the grass species of choice for most farmers, but lacks resilience against extremes of climate. We hybridised L. perenne onto a closely related and more stress-resistant grass species, meadow fescue Festuca pratensis. We demonstrate that the L. perenne × F. pratensis cultivar can reduce runoff during the events by 51% compared to a leading UK nationally recommended L. perenne cultivar and by 43% compared to F. pratensis over a two year field experiment. We present evidence that the reduced runoff from this Festulolium cultivar was due to intense initial root growth followed by rapid senescence, especially at depth. Hybrid grasses of this type show potential for reducing the likelihood of flooding, whilst providing food production under conditions of changing climate. PMID:23619058

  16. Molecular evolution of hypoallergenic hybrid proteins for vaccination against grass pollen allergy.

    Linhart, Birgit; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Narayanan, Meena; Neubauer, Angela; Mayrhofer, Hannes; Blatt, Katharina; Lupinek, Christian; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-04-15

    More than 10% of the population in Europe and North America suffer from IgE-associated allergy to grass pollen. In this article, we describe the development of a vaccine for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy based on two recombinant hypoallergenic mosaic molecules, designated P and Q, which were constructed out of elements derived from the four major timothy grass pollen allergens: Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6. Seventeen recombinant mosaic molecules were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli using synthetic genes, characterized regarding biochemical properties, structural fold, and IgE reactivity. We found that depending on the arrangement of allergen fragments, mosaic molecules with strongly varying IgE reactivity were obtained. Based on an extensive screening with sera and basophils from allergic patients, two hypoallergenic mosaic molecules, P and Q, incorporating the primary sequence elements of the four grass pollen allergens were identified. As shown by lymphoproliferation experiments, they contained allergen-specific T cell epitopes required for tolerance induction, and upon immunization of animals induced higher allergen-specific IgG Abs than the wild-type allergens and a registered monophosphoryl lipid A-adjuvanted vaccine based on natural grass pollen allergen extract. Moreover, IgG Abs induced by immunization with P and Q inhibited the binding of patients' IgE to natural allergens from five grasses better than IgG induced with the wild-type allergens or an extract-based vaccine. Our results suggest that vaccines based on the hypoallergenic grass pollen mosaics can be used for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:25786690

  17. The effect of feedstock cost on biofuel cost as exemplified by biomethane production from grass silage.

    McEniry, J.; O’Kiely, P.; Crosson, P.; Groom, Elaine; Murphy, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The potential variance in feedstock costs can have signifi cant implications for the cost of a biofuel and the fi nancial viability of a biofuel facility. This paper employs the Grange Feed Costing Model to assess the cost of on-farm biomethane production using grass silages produced under a range of management scenarios. These costs were compared with the cost of wheat grain and sugarbeet roots for ethanol production at an industrial scale. Of the three feedstocks examined, grass s...

  18. Herbage utilisation efficiency of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass subjected to nitrogen fertilisation

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira; Adenilson José Paiva; Vitor Del’Álamo Guarda; Priscila de Mesquita Pereira; Fábio Olegário Caminha; Sila Carneiro da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen fertiliser accelerates plant growth and increases herbage utilisation efficiency in continuously stocked temperate grass swards, indicating greater herbage production and harvest efficiency. There is no similar evidence, however, for tropical pastures. In this study we evaluated the morphogenetic responses, the patterns of defoliation and the efficiency of herbage utilisation of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf. cv. Marandu...

  19. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases.Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases.Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis ...

  20. Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi

    Rolz, C.; Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; Cabrera, S. (Sonia)

    1986-01-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berk...

  1. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban) its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-01-01

    Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated f...

  2. Effects of feeding salt-tolerant grasses on the reproductive efficiency of dwarf goats

    Salinity of soil and groundwater is a major agricultural problem facing several countries. Numerous approaches have been made to alleviate this situation. A biological approach has been developed at our Institute whereby salt-tolerant plants that are more suited to the environment have been grown rather than reclamation of land for conventional crops. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) has been grown on such lands using brackish water for irrigation, thus producing large amounts of biomass. Since this biomass is not usually used as forage it was necessary to evaluate its effects on the growth and reproduction of farm animals. Buffalo, cows and goats are important for providing milk and meat in Pakistan. Goats are more important in arid and semi-arid areas. Dwarf goats were selected for the study because of easier handling, a shorter maturity period, better breeding, etc. One group of goats was contained and fed only Kallar grass throughout the year. (This grass is green in summer and, although it is a perennial, it dries in winter). Another group was allowed to free graze an area where, in addition to Kallar grass, some other wild species were also available. The effects of this forage were evaluated by recording the weight of the animals, pregnancies, lamb survival and hormone levels. It was found that when dry grass was the only source of nutrition the animals lost weight and reproduction was also affected; even though conception did take place lactation was reduced, the animals had difficulty in delivery and the lambs were born weak and did not survive. The progesterone and oestradiol levels and patterns were normal. The study concludes that dwarf goats can survive even when fed dry, low protein grass and that their body weight increases when the grass is green. They can, therefore, be raised on Kallar grass if kept for meat purposes; however, if they are to be maintained for breeding some supplementary fodder is desirable. Poor nutrition did not affect the hormone

  3. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  4. Vegetative Hyphal Fusion and Subsequent Nuclear Behavior in Epichloë Grass Endophytes

    Jun-Ya Shoji; Charlton, Nikki D.; Mihwa Yi; Young, Carolyn A.; Craven, Kelly D.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nu...

  5. Poultry manure enhances grass establishment at a quarry rehabilitation site in subtropical South Africa

    Siebert, Stefan John; Maliba, Bheki G.; Zobolo, Alpheus M

    2011-01-01

    The rehabilitation of a quarry was conducted with selected grass species in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The seed cocktail applied contained Chloris gayana, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis curvula, Panicum maximum and Paspalum distichum. Three treatments used were: No soil enhancement (control), poultry manure application, and commercial fertilizer application. Four months after sowing, the percentage grass cover per 1 m2 of treatment was 33% for the control, 65% whe...

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Anguina sp. from Grass Seed Samples

    Griesbach, J.A.; Chitambar, J. J.; Hamerlynck, M. J.; Duarte, E. O.

    1999-01-01

    Four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of Anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. The procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of Oregon and California, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. Eleven seed lots of Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of Anguina...

  7. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  8. Nutritional Value of Warm- and Cool-Season Grasses for Ruminants

    Mundie, Benjamin Scott

    1999-01-01

    A metabolism trial was conducted to compare the nutritional value of: 1)â Quickstandâ bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], 2)caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubb], 3)tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and 4)orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). The warm-season grasses (bermudagrass and bluestem) were higher (P < .01) in fiber components than the cool-season grasses (tall fescue and orchardgrass). Bluestem was lower (P < .001) in CP, hemicellulose, a...

  9. Are loline alkaloid levels regulated in grass endophytes by gene expression or substrate availability?

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Blankenship, Jimmy D; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    Many cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfam. Pooideae) possess seed-borne fungal symbionts, the epichloae, known for their bioprotective properties and especially for production of anti-insect alkaloids such as lolines. Asexual epichloae (Neotyphodium species) are primarily or entirely transmitted vertically, whereas the sexual structures (stromata) of the related Epichloä species give rise to horizontally transmissible spores (ascospores). In certain grass-Neotyphodium species symbiota, levels...

  10. Spatial patterns of grasses influence soil macrofauna biodiversity in Amazonian pastures

    Mathieu, J.; Grimaldi, Michel; Jouquet, Pascal; Rouland, Corinne; Lavelle, Patrick; Desjardins, Thierry; Rossi, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Grasslands are often characterized by small-scale spatial heterogeneity due to the juxtaposition of grass tufts and bare ground. Although the mechanisms generating plant spatial patterns have been widely studied, few studies concentrated on the consequences of these patterns on belowground macrofauna. Our objective was to analyze the impact of grass tuft (Brachiaria bryzantha cv. marandu) spatial distribution on soil macrofauna diversity in Amazonian pastures, at a small scale (less than 9 m(...

  11. An analysis of grass (Poaceae) pollen seasons in Lublin in 2001-2008

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are a frequent cause of pollen allergy in Poland and other European countries. The research on aeroplankton conducted in Lublin since 2001 allows characterization of the course of grass pollen seasons and estimation of the effect of maximum and minimum temperatures, relative air humidity, precipitation and maximum wind velocity on the taxon's pollen concentration. The gravimetric method was used in the study. During the eight-year research period, the pollen season usua...

  12. Towards a lawn without grass: the journey of the imperfect lawn and its analogues

    Smith, Lionel S.; Fellowes, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In much of the English-speaking world the lawn is the most common of all garden features. For arguably a millennium it has played a significant role in the landscape and during that period it has been inextricably linked with grasses. Nevertheless other plant species have accompanied the grasses and also been used in creating lawns. From medieval wildflowers to Victorian weeds, the plants that challenge the formal concept of the perfect lawn have journeyed with it but have until recently rema...

  13. Variation in the Activity of Some Enzymes of Photorespiratory Metabolism in C4 Grasses

    UENO, OSAMU; YOSHIMURA, YASUYUKI; SENTOKU, NAOKI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Photorespiration occurs in C4 plants, although rates are small compared with C3 plants. The amount of glycine decarboxylase in the bundle sheath (BS) varies among C4 grasses and is positively correlated with the granal index (ratio of the length of appressed thylakoid membranes to the total length of all thylakoid membranes) of the BS chloroplasts: C4 grasses with high granal index contained more glycine decarboxylase per unit leaf area than those with low granal index, ...

  14. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation), brome grass (Bromus spec.), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L.), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The p...

  15. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  16. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  17. UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?

    Jörg Schaller; Carsten Brackhage; Ernst Bäucker; E Gert Dudel

    2013-06-01

    UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be explained by the UV-screening effect of the silicon double layer. It was shown for seedlings of soybeans (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that enhanced silicon supply reduces stress induced by UV-radiation. Even more important is a direct correlation between silicon content in the epidermis near area (intercellular spaces) and the absorption of UV-radiation in this area shown in other papers. The silicon double layer may act like a glass layer and decreases the transmission of UV-radiation at the epidermis near area. In summary, the absorbance/reflection of ultraviolet radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the epidermis near area of leaves, particularly the occurrence (qualitatively and quantitatively) of phenolic substances and/or a silicon double layer in this area. Consequently, UV-screening by plant silicon double layer should get more attention in future research with emphasis on effects of UV-radiation on plant physiology.

  18. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    Venugopal Shonima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36 and control groups (n=23. BGP (1.2 g/day in the form of capsules (n=4 was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

  19. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Troels

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized by a...

  20. Root proliferation in native perennial grasses of arid Patagonia, Argentina

    Yanina A. TORRES; Mara M. MUJICA; Sandra S. BAIONI; Jos ENTO; Mara N. FIORETTI; Guillermo TUCAT; Carlos A. BUSSO; Oscar A. MONTENEGRO; Leticia ITHURRART; Hugo D. GIORGETTI; Gustavo RODRGUEZ; Diego BENTIVEGNA; Roberto E. BREVEDAN; Osvaldo A. FERNNDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Pappophorum vaginatum is the most abundant C4 perennial grass desirable to livestock in rangelands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. We hypothesized that (1) defoliation reduce net primary productivity, and root length density and weight in the native species, and (2) root net primary productivity, and root length density and weight, are greater in P. vaginatum than in the other, less desirable, native species (i.e., Aristida spegazzinii, A. subulata and Sporobolus cryptandrus). Plants of all species were either exposed or not to a severe defoliation twice a year during two growing seasons. Root proliferation was measured using the cylinder method. Cylindrical, iron structures, wrapped up using nylon mesh, were buried diagonally from the periphery to the center on individual plants. These structures, initially filled with soil without any organic residue, were dug up from the soil on 25 April 2008, after two successive defoliations in mid-spring 2007. During the second growing season (2008-2009), cylinders were destructively harvested on 4 April 2009, after one or two defoliations in mid-and/or late-spring, respectively. Roots grown into the cylinders were obtained after washing the soil manually. Defoliation during two successive years did reduce the study variables only after plants of all species were defoliated twice, which supported the first hypothesis. The greater root net primary productivity, root length den-sity and weight in P. vaginatum than in the other native species, in support of the second hypothesis, could help to explain its greater abundance in rangelands of Argentina.

  1. Extreme genetic diversity in asexual grass thrips populations.

    Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, A; Dumas, Z; Schwander, T

    2016-05-01

    The continuous generation of genetic variation has been proposed as one of the main factors explaining the maintenance of sexual reproduction in nature. However, populations of asexual individuals may attain high levels of genetic diversity through within-lineage diversification, replicate transitions to asexuality from sexual ancestors and migration. How these mechanisms affect genetic variation in populations of closely related sexual and asexual taxa can therefore provide insights into the role of genetic diversity for the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Here, we evaluate patterns of intra- and interpopulation genetic diversity in sexual and asexual populations of Aptinothrips rufus grass thrips. Asexual A. rufus populations are found throughout the world, whereas sexual populations appear to be confined to few locations in the Mediterranean region. We found that asexual A. rufus populations are characterized by extremely high levels of genetic diversity, both in comparison with their sexual relatives and in comparison with other asexual species. Migration is extensive among asexual populations over large geographic distances, whereas close sexual populations are strongly isolated from each other. The combination of extensive migration with replicate evolution of asexual lineages, and a past demographic expansion in at least one of them, generated high local clone diversities in A. rufus. These high clone diversities in asexual populations may mimic certain benefits conferred by sex via genetic diversity and could help explain the extreme success of asexual A. rufus populations. PMID:26864612

  2. Storage of carbon in natural grasses high andean

    Raúl Marino Yaranga Cano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the capacity of storage of carbon in species of grasses natural of high andean, between January of 2012 and March of 2013. They were defined two sampling areas in the districts of Huasicancha and Chicche of the county of Huancayo, Junín. The first of the areas was located in the place Pumahuasi (18L 466456E 8628580N and the second in Vista Alegre (18L 464886E 8642964N, between 3 845 and 3 870 meters of altitude. 10 plants per species were collected at random, between April and May, considering the moment of maximum growth of the plants. The samples were washed and dried off to the atmosphere during 15 days, being completed the drying in a stove to 60 °C, during 48 hours. The determination of the percentage of dry matter of the samples was carried out by the difference between the initial and final weights. While that the determination of the percentage of carbon was carried out through the method of Walkley-Black. The results of the correlation of weight between air biomass and biomass radicular were highly significant r = 0.9856 ** and b = 3.4507. The percentage of the weight of the root regarding that of the air biomass oscillated between 27.93% and 30.20%, respectively. The content of carbon expressed as percentage varied according to the part of the plant and the origin place.

  3. Infection of Brachypodium distachyon with selected grass rust pathogens.

    Ayliffe, Michael; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert; Moscou, Matthew; Pryor, Tony

    2013-08-01

    The model temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon is considered a nonhost for wheat rust diseases caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. triticina, and P. striiformis. Up to 140 Brachypodium accessions were infected with these three rust species, in addition to P. graminis ff. spp. avena and phalaridis. Related B. distachyon lines showed similar cytological nonhost resistance (NHR) phenotypes, and an inverse relationship between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis growth was observed in many lines, with accessions that allowed the most growth of P. graminis f. sp. tritici showing the least P. striiformis development and vice versa. Callose deposition patterns during infection by all three rust species showed similarity to the wheat basal defense response while cell death that resulted in autofluorescence did not appear to be a major component of the defense response. Infection of B. distachyon with P. graminis f. sp. avena and P. graminis f. sp. phalaridis produced much greater colonization, indicating that P. graminis rusts with Poeae hosts show greater ability to infect B. distachyon than those with Triticeae hosts. P. striiformis infection of progeny from two B. distachyon families demonstrated that these NHR phenotypes are highly heritable and appear to be under relatively simple genetic control, making this species a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular basis of NHR to cereal rust pathogens. PMID:23594350

  4. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. PMID:25981035

  5. Forage production of elephant grass under intermittent stocking

    Carla Silva Chaves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter production of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum genotypes, managed under intermittent stocking. A completely randomized design was used, with two genotypes and three replicates. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations (2x2x2 of genotypes ('BRS Kurumi' and the clone CNPGL 00‑1‑3, two light interception levels (LI at the onset of grazing (90 and 95%, and two post‑grazing canopy heights (30 and 50 cm. A total of 24 Holstein x Zebu crossbred heifers were used. The stocking density varied in order to finish the grazing periods in two days. The interval between the defoliation, based on 95% LI, resulted in a higher leaf mass per grazing cycle. The post‑grazing height of 30 cm did not affect the number of grazing cycles but provided a greater herbage accumulation rate. The cultivar BRS Kurumi has higher pasture growth, lower rest period, and greater number of grazing cycles, which results in increased forage production in the growing season.

  6. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  7. Temperature-gradient and heat flow data, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Koenig, James B.; Gardner, Murray C.

    1979-11-01

    A series of 16 shallow and intermediate-depth temperature-gradient holes were drilled for Sunoco Energy Development Co. in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, on leases held by Aminoil USA, Inc., under the cost-sharing industry-linked program of the Department of Energy. Thirteen shallow (85-152 m) and 3 intermediate-depth (360-457 m) holes were completed and logged during the period June through September, 1979. The locations of these holes and of pre-existing temperature-gradient holes are shown on plate 1. This report constitutes a final data transmittal and disclosure of results. The drilling subcontractor was Southwest Drilling and Exploration, Inc. of Central, Utah. They provided a Gardner-Denver 15W rig, a 3-man crew, and supporting equipment. A l l holes were drilled with mud as the circulating medium. Drilling histories for each hole are summarized in table 1. GeothermEx, Inc. performed on-site geological descriptions of the cuttings; obtained several temperature profiles for each hole, including an equilibrium profile taken 23 days or more after cessation of drilling; selected samples for thermal conductivity measurements; integrated temperature, temperature-gradient, and heat-flow data obtained in this project with published values; and prepared this report.

  8. Testing of models for the grass-cow-milk pathway

    The transfer of radionuclides from grass to milk and meat is one of the most important and best studied pathways of human exposure to radioactivity. For this reason a test scenario on Atmospheric Deposition was formulated in 1985 at an early stage of the BIOMOVS study in order to provide the participants with an opportunity to compare models and model predictions. The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread contamination over the northern hemisphere, and the BIOMOVS group immediately organized the collection of environmental data for a new scenario on iodine-131 and cesium-137 in milk, beef and grain. Data were collected from locations in Europe, India, Japan and the USA. Input data for each location in terms of atmospheric radionuclide concentrations and precipitation were distributed to the scenario participants who received information on the observed levels in pasture vegetation, milk and meat only after submitting their model predictions. The data set has been used for the largest and most comprehensive evaluation of food chain models ever undertaken. The data comprise more than 1500 observed values and more than 25000 predicted values from 25 models. The evaluation of the data has given valuable information on process and parameter values of importance for the assessment of the radiological impact of nuclear reactor accidents. Furthermore, the evaluation provides an illustrative example of the performance of contemporary food chain models. (2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.)

  9. Evolution of herbicide resistance mechanisms in grass weeds.

    Matzrafi, Maor; Gadri, Yaron; Frenkel, Eyal; Rubin, Baruch; Peleg, Zvi

    2014-12-01

    Herbicide resistant weeds are becoming increasingly common, threatening global food security. Here, we present BrIFAR: a new model system for the functional study of mechanisms of herbicide resistance in grass weeds. We have developed a large collection of Brachypodium accessions, the BrI collection, representing a wide range of habitats. Wide screening of the responses of the accessions to four major herbicide groups (PSII, ACCase, ALS/AHAS and EPSPS inhibitors) identified 28 herbicide-resistance candidate accessions. Target-site resistance to PSII inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a known history of herbicide applications. An amino acid substitution in the psbA gene (serine264 to glycine) conferred resistance and also significantly affected the flowering and shoot dry weight of the resistant accession, as compared to the sensitive accession. Non-target site resistance to ACCase inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a history of herbicide application and from a nature reserve. In-vitro enzyme activity tests and responses following pre-treatment with malathion (a cytochrome-P450 inhibitor) indicated sensitivity at the enzyme level, and give strong support to diclofop-methyl and pinoxaden enhanced detoxification as NTS resistance mechanism. BrIFAR can promote better understanding of the evolution of mechanisms of herbicide resistance and aid the implementation of integrative management approaches for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25443832

  10. The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TFU, kg kg-1 ). It was found that the TFU values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

  11. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  12. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  13. Morphogenetic characteristics in Tanzania grass conhsorted with Stylosanthes Campo Grande or fertilized with nitrogen under grazing

    Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida Lins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study morphogenic and structural characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania intercropped with Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala or fertilized with nitrogen. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Were used a randomized complete blocks with split plots and three replications. The treatments were: Tanzania grass + Stylosanthes; Tanzania grass + 75 Kg N.ha. year-1; Tanzania grass + 150Kg N.ha.year-1; Tanzania grass + 225 Kg N.ha.year-1. Were used urea and ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source. The morphogenetic evaluations were conducted in the spring and summer. Were evaluated 15 tillers per paddock, twice a week for four weeks per season in study. The morphogenic characteristics were not affected by nitrogen fertilization or consortium, except the leaf elongation rate (LER. The highest values for this variable were observed in the spring in the fertilized pastures. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen fertilization influences the leaf elongation rate (LER of Tanzania grass, and this one when is intercropped with Stylosanthes Campo Grande show morphogenic characteristics similar when fertilized with nitrogen, except for rate leaf elongation.

  14. Chemical composition of herbaceous grass and legume species grown for maximum biomass production

    Cherney, J.H.; Johnson, K.D.; Volenec, J.J.; Anliker, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical composition varies among herbaceous biomass species. As conversion processes are refined, it may be advantageous to select feedstocks based on compositional differences between or within species. Our objective was to characterize chemical composition in a range of herbaceous crops evaluated for biomass potential in the upper midwest region of the United States. Two legume and six grass species were evaluated under maximum economic yield management conditions. Although neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration ranged from 480 g kg/sup -1/ in the legumes to 740 g kg/sup -1/ in the grasses, year, site, harvest, or nitrogen (N) fertilization did not have a large effect on NDF. Lignin concentration was as low as 38 g kg/sup -1/ in the six grasses, and as high as 102 g kg/sup -1/ in the two legumes. Xylose concentration reflected differences in total hemicellulose for grasses and legumes, with a range of 55 g kg/sup -1/ in legumes to 200 g kg/sup -1/ in grasses. Concentrations of the alkali-labile phenolic monomer, p-coumaric acid, ranged from 0.2 g kg/sup -1/ in legumes to 11 g kg/sup -1/ in grasses. Species differences were more important than year, site, harvest, or N fertilization in determining composition of these herbaceous crops.

  15. Comparison of phytoremediation potential of three grass species in soil contaminated with cadmium

    Gołda Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the toleration of Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne and Festuca rubra to cadmium contamination as well as the phytoremediation potential of these three species of grass. The pot experiment was conducted in four replications in pots containing 2.0 kg of soil. The soil was contaminated with three doses of Cd – 30, 60 and 120 mg·kg−1. After two months, the aerial parts of plants were harvested. The roots were dug up, brushed off from the remaining soil and washed with water. The biomass was defined and the cadmium concentration was determined in aerial parts and roots. The phytoremediation potential of grasses was evaluated using biomass of grasses, bioaccumulation factor (BF and translocation factor (TF. All three tested species of grasses had TF 1. It indicates their suitability for phytostabilisation and makes them unsuitable for phytoextraction of Cd from the soil. Comparing the usefulness of the tested grasses for phytoremediation has shown that the phytostabilisation potential of P. pratensis was lower than that of L. perenne and F. rubra. P. pratensis was distinguished by higher TF, smaller root biomass and lower tolerance for Cd excess in the soil in comparison with the two other test grasses. At the same time, L. perenne was characterised by the smallest decrease in biomass and the largest Cd accumulation in roots at the lowest dose of Cd. It indicates good usefulness for phytostabilisation of soils characterised by a relatively small pollution by cadmium.

  16. Deriving Hydrological Response Units (HRUs using a Web Processing Service implementation based on GRASS GIS

    Christian Schwartze

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available QGIS releases equal to or newer than 0.7 can easily connected to GRASS GIS by means of a toolbox that provides a wide range of standard GRASS modules you can launch – albeit only on data coming from GRASS. This QGIS plugin is expandable through XML configurations describing the assignment of options and inputs for a certain module. But how about embedding a precise workflow where the several processes don’t consist of a single GRASS module by force? Especially for a sequence of dependent tasks it makes sense to merge relevant GRASS functionality into an own and encapsulated QGIS extension. Its architecture and development is tested and combined with the Web Processing Service (WPS for remote execution using the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs as an example. The results of this assay may be suitable for discussing and planning other wizard-like geoprocessing plugins in QGIS that also should make use of an additional GRASS server.

  17. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

  18. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  19. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Swigoňová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially

  20. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  1. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  2. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

  3. Modelling Water Uptake Provides a New Perspective on Grass and Tree Coexistence.

    Michael G Mazzacavallo

    Full Text Available Root biomass distributions have long been used to infer patterns of resource uptake. These patterns are used to understand plant growth, plant coexistence and water budgets. Root biomass, however, may be a poor indicator of resource uptake because large roots typically do not absorb water, fine roots do not absorb water from dry soils and roots of different species can be difficult to differentiate. In a sub-tropical savanna, Kruger Park, South Africa, we used a hydrologic tracer experiment to describe the abundance of active grass and tree roots across the soil profile. We then used this tracer data to parameterize a water movement model (Hydrus 1D. The model accounted for water availability and estimated grass and tree water uptake by depth over a growing season. Most root biomass was found in shallow soils (0-20 cm and tracer data revealed that, within these shallow depths, half of active grass roots were in the top 12 cm while half of active tree roots were in the top 21 cm. However, because shallow soils provided roots with less water than deep soils (20-90 cm, the water movement model indicated that grass and tree water uptake was twice as deep as would be predicted from root biomass or tracer data alone: half of grass and tree water uptake occurred in the top 23 and 43 cm, respectively. Niche partitioning was also greater when estimated from water uptake rather than tracer uptake. Contrary to long-standing assumptions, shallow grass root distributions absorbed 32% less water than slightly deeper tree root distributions when grasses and trees were assumed to have equal water demands. Quantifying water uptake revealed deeper soil water uptake, greater niche partitioning and greater benefits of deep roots than would be estimated from root biomass or tracer uptake data alone.

  4. Modelling Water Uptake Provides a New Perspective on Grass and Tree Coexistence.

    Mazzacavallo, Michael G; Kulmatiski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Root biomass distributions have long been used to infer patterns of resource uptake. These patterns are used to understand plant growth, plant coexistence and water budgets. Root biomass, however, may be a poor indicator of resource uptake because large roots typically do not absorb water, fine roots do not absorb water from dry soils and roots of different species can be difficult to differentiate. In a sub-tropical savanna, Kruger Park, South Africa, we used a hydrologic tracer experiment to describe the abundance of active grass and tree roots across the soil profile. We then used this tracer data to parameterize a water movement model (Hydrus 1D). The model accounted for water availability and estimated grass and tree water uptake by depth over a growing season. Most root biomass was found in shallow soils (0-20 cm) and tracer data revealed that, within these shallow depths, half of active grass roots were in the top 12 cm while half of active tree roots were in the top 21 cm. However, because shallow soils provided roots with less water than deep soils (20-90 cm), the water movement model indicated that grass and tree water uptake was twice as deep as would be predicted from root biomass or tracer data alone: half of grass and tree water uptake occurred in the top 23 and 43 cm, respectively. Niche partitioning was also greater when estimated from water uptake rather than tracer uptake. Contrary to long-standing assumptions, shallow grass root distributions absorbed 32% less water than slightly deeper tree root distributions when grasses and trees were assumed to have equal water demands. Quantifying water uptake revealed deeper soil water uptake, greater niche partitioning and greater benefits of deep roots than would be estimated from root biomass or tracer uptake data alone. PMID:26633177

  5. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality

  6. Divergent evolutionary histories of C4 grasses shape global grassland ecology

    Lehmann, C.; Griffith, D.; Osborne, C.

    2014-12-01

    C4 photosynthesis has evolved in more than 23 independent lineages of grasses as an adaptation to hot, sunny conditions. Geological records demonstrate that C4 grasses abruptly became ecologically dominant during the late Cenozoic across the tropical and temperate regions, transforming the Earth System and facilitating major faunal and floral radiations. However, although each C4 grass lineage originated and specialised in different environments, the importance of these divergent evolutionary histories for global ecology remains largely unknown. Here, we address this problem by compiling the first global map of grassy biomes based entirely upon ground-based vegetation surveys of dominant species. Our analysis shows that grasses dominate the ground layer across 40% of the vegetated land surface, with C4 grasses accounting for 60% of this area, and grassy biomes occurring under almost all climatic conditions. More than 98% of C3 grassy vegetation is dominated by the cold tolerant Pooideae lineage, which is replaced by C4 lineages at mean annual temperatures exceeding 15oC. The world's C4 grassy vegetation is largely dominated by only four of the 23 independent C4 grass lineages, and these segregate strongly along global environmental gradients and across continents. The Chloridoideae lineage is globally important in dominating semi-arid environments with a long fire return interval. In contrast, although the Andropogoneae lineage dominates extremely wet regions with frequent fire in the Paleotropics and North America, the same niche space is dominated by Paspaleae in South America. Sorting of lineages along precipitation and fire gradients is strongly predicted by plant height. Our results demonstrate that the divergent histories of independent C4 grass lineages have constrained the assembly and functional traits of grassy biomes, with important implications for understanding how biome boundaries may shift in past and future environments.

  7. Dichotomy in the NRT gene families of dicots and grass species.

    Darren Plett

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the nitrate (NO(3(- acquired by plants from soil is actively transported via members of the NRT families of NO(3(- transporters. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1 family has eight functionally characterised members and predominantly comprises low-affinity transporters; the NRT2 family contains seven members which appear to be high-affinity transporters; and there are two NRT3 (NAR2 family members which are known to participate in high-affinity transport. A modified reciprocal best hit (RBH approach was used to identify putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT genes in the four fully sequenced grass genomes (maize, rice, sorghum, Brachypodium. We also included the poplar genome in our analysis to establish whether differences between Arabidopsis and the grasses may be generally applicable to monocots and dicots. Our analysis reveals fundamental differences between Arabidopsis and the grass species in the gene number and family structure of all three families of NRT transporters. All grass species possessed additional NRT1.1 orthologues and appear to lack NRT1.6/NRT1.7 orthologues. There is significant separation in the NRT2 phylogenetic tree between NRT2 genes from dicots and grass species. This indicates that determination of function of NRT2 genes in grass species will not be possible in cereals based simply on sequence homology to functionally characterised Arabidopsis NRT2 genes and that proper functional analysis will be required. Arabidopsis has a unique NRT3.2 gene which may be a fusion of the NRT3.1 and NRT3.2 genes present in all other species examined here. This work provides a framework for future analysis of NO(3(- transporters and NO(3(- transport in grass crop species.

  8. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  9. Organic dust toxic syndrome at a grass seed plant caused by exposure to high concentrations of bioaerosols

    Madsen, Anne M.; Tendal, Kira; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heltberg, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of sudden health problems in workers at a Danish grass seed plant after exposure to a particularly dusty lot of grass seeds. The seeds are called problematic seeds. The association between development of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and the handling of grass seeds causing exposure was assessed in a four-step model: (i) identification of exposure source, (ii) characterization of the emission of bioaerosols from the problematic and reference seeds, (iii) personal a...

  10. Fire Control – A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats

    S Paulsamy; R. Sivakumar; Balasubramaniam, V.; Arumugasamy, K.; N. Nagarajan

    2001-01-01

    Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emi...

  11. Immunoprophylactic potential of wheat grass extract on benzene-induced leukemia: An in vivo study on murine model

    Neelofar Khan; Aditya Ganeshpurkar; Nazneen Dubey; Divya Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Wheat grass (Triticum aestivum) is a gift of nature given to mankind. A number of scientific research on wheatgrass establishes its anticancer and antioxidant potential. Current work was focused to determine antileukemic effect of wheat grass. Materials and Methods: The commercial wheatgrass powder was extracted with 95% of methanol. Methanol extract of wheat grass was studied for acute oral toxicity as per revised Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guidelin...

  12. Herbicide impacts on exotic grasses and a population of the critically endangered herb "Calystegia affinis" (Convolvulaceae) on Lord Howe Island

    Hutton, Ian; Coenraads, Robert; Auld, Tony D.; Denham, Andrew J.; M. K. J. Ooi; Brown, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Introduced perennial grasses are capable of altering the habitat of native species, causing reductions in population size and vigour, and potentially affecting life-history processes such as survival, pollination and seedling recruitment. We examined the utility of herbicide treatment on two exotic grasses, Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) and Stenotaphrum secundatum (Buffalo grass) to restore the habitat of Calystegia affinis, a critically endangered species endemic to Lord Howe and Norfolk ...

  13. An Analysis of Perceived Important Challenges Currently Facing the U.S. Grass-fed Beef Industry

    Sitienei, Isaac; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Scaglia, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine U.S. grass-fed beef producer perceptions of important challenges facing the industry. The most important challenges facing grass-fed beef producers were shortage of processors, lack of a clear marketing system, pasture management problems, and the long period of time required to get animals to the desired market weight. Key words: Grass-fed beef, grain-fed beef, challenge, industry

  14. Effect of maize silage supplementation to grass silage harvested at different maturity stages on ad libitum intake

    Marina Vranić; Mladen Knežević; Goran Perčulija; Ivana Matić; Damir Turčin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to determine ad libitum intake of fresh ration, dry matter (DM) and the organic matter (OM) of grass silage from the primary growth harvested at different maturity stages in interaction with maize silage (33 % and 67 %, DM based) in g kg-1 of the metabolic body weight (M0.75). Grass silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) that was dominant grass in the sward (late vegetative, internode elongation, flowering)....

  15. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  16. Retrieval of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infective larvae from grass contaminated in winter and in spring

    Raquel Abdallah da Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of infective larvae (L3 of Trichostrongylus colubriformis was evaluated on Brachiaria, Coast-cross and Aruana forage grasses. Feces of sheep parasitized exclusively by T. colubriformis were deposited in winter and spring on experimental plots whose grasses were cut at two heights: 5 cm and 30 cm. One, two, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks after depositing the feces, fecal and forage samples were collected for the retrieval and quantification of L3. Retrieval of L3 from feces and forage was negligible in winter due to the dry weather, although a few larvae were retrieved in the last larval collections. However, L3 retrieval from fecal samples was greater in spring, especially two weeks after feces were deposited on 30 cm high grasses. At this time, the L3 retrieval rate from the three forage grasses differed significantly (P <0.05, with Aruana grass showing the highest average L3 retrieval rate, followed by Coast-cross and Brachiaria. In conclusion, the winter drought proved very unfavorable for the presence of L3 in the environment, and the microclimate of Aruana pastureland was generally the most favorable for the retrieval of infective larvae.

  17. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  18. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  19. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Koteen, Laura E; Harte, John [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baldocchi, Dennis D, E-mail: lkoteen@berkeley.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 137 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  20. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  1. The Interplay Between Bioenergy Grass Production and Water Resources in the United States of America.

    Song, Yang; Cervarich, Matthew; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Landuyt, William; Cai, Ximing

    2016-03-15

    We apply a land surface model to evaluate the interplay between potential bioenergy grass (Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock, and Alamo) production, water quantity, and nitrogen leaching (NL) in the Central and Eastern U.S. Water use intensity tends to be lower where grass yields are modeled to be high, for example in the Midwest for Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock and the upper southeastern U.S. for Alamo. However, most of these regions are already occupied by crops and forests and substitution of these biome types for ethanol production implies trade-offs. In general, growing Miscanthus consumes more water, Alamo consumes less water, and Cave-in-Rock consumes approximately the same amount of water as existing vegetation. Bioenergy grasses can maintain high productivity over time, even in water limited regions, because their roots can grow deeper and extract the water from the deep, moist soil layers. However, this may not hold where there are frequent and intense drought events, particularly in regions with shallow soil depths. One advantage of bioenergy grasses is that they mitigate nitrogen leaching relative to row crops and herbaceous plants when grown without applying N fertilizer; and bioenergy grasses, especially Miscanthus, generally require less N fertilizer application than row crops and herbaceous plants. PMID:26866460

  2. Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

    Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena. PMID:26542393

  3. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates. PMID:24056433

  4. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of <1 for all the metals. This study revealed the defense mechanisms employed by Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase. PMID:26588814

  5. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Vanessa Soares Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  6. The effect of nitrogen addition on biomass production and competition in three expansive tall grasses

    A large increase of grasses Calamagrostis epigejos, Bromus inermis and Brachypodium pinnatum has often been observed in many regions enriched by higher nitrogen (N) wet deposition inputs. Competitive relationships between these grasses under enhanced N loads have not yet been studied. Therefore an outdoor experiment was established which involved monocultures of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium and their 1:1 mixtures in containers under two N treatments, i.e., unfertilized and fertilized (+50 kg N ha−1). In monocultures, the total aboveground biomass of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium were 1.1, 3.6 and 2.5 times higher respectively due to enhanced N fertilization. Relative crowding and aggressivity coefficients indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate when mixed with Brachypodium at both levels of N availability. When mixed with Bromus, Calamagrostis is the poorer competitor at lower N loads, however, it can be dominating in N fertilized treatments. - Highlights: ► A large increase of tall grasses has often been observed in many ecosystems. ► Data on competitive relationships between grasses were investigated. ► Competition indices indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate in mixtures with Brachypodium. ► Calamagrostis is a better competitor when mixed with Bromus but only at higher N loads. ► N deposition may play a critical role in the expansion and persistence of grasses in the landscape. - Competition abilities of Calamagrostis and Bromus were greater than Brachypodium and the competitive superiority of Calamagrostis to Bromus was in N rich substrate.

  7. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  8. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution.

    Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  9. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Hernán Pablo Burrieza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  10. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  11. Interrelationships Between Fire, Grazing and Grass Cover at the Bontebok National Park

    P. Novellie

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Point surveys of permanently marked plots were conducted with the aim of (i determining the change in grass height, cover and degree of defoliation with increasing time after veld burning and (ii determining which plant species are most intensively defoliated by herbivores (mainly bontebok and grey rhebok. Grass was the most heavily defoliated component of the vegetation, whereas Restionaceae and Cyperaceae were generally avoided. No grass species was consistently avoided by herbivores, and no species was consistently favoured. Instead selection among species varied with growth stage. The tall, coarse species were favoured on new burns when the vegetation was still short. The short species came into favour once the sward had grown taller. Defoliation was heaviest within the first year after burning and thereafter decreased substantially. The introduction of coarse grass grazers such as mountain zebra to the park might lead to greater use of the mature veld. Those grass species that underwent the heaviest defoliation on new burns (over 50 of leaves severed showed three- to seven-fold increases in canopy spread cover over subsequent years. Thus heavy use of recently burnt veld is not necessarily deleterious.

  12. Nitrogen inputs promote the spread of an invasive marsh grass.

    Tyler, Anna Christina; Lambrinos, John G; Grosholz, Edwin D

    2007-10-01

    Excess nutrient loading and large-scale invasion by nonnatives are two of the most pervasive and damaging threats to the biotic and economic integrity of our estuaries. Individually, these are potent forces, but it is important to consider their interactive impacts as well. In this study we investigated the potential limitation of a nonnative intertidal grass, Spartina alterniflora, by nitrogen (N) in estuaries of the western United States. Nitrogen fertilization experiments were conducted in three mud-flat habitats invaded by S. alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA, that differed in sediment N. We carried out parallel experiments in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, in three habitats invaded by hybrid Spartina (S. alterniflora x S. foliosa), in previously unvegetated mud flat, and in native S. foliosa or Salicornia virginica marshes. We found similar aboveground biomass and growth rates between habitats and estuaries, but end-of-season belowground biomass was nearly five times greater in San Francisco Bay than in Willapa Bay. In Willapa Bay, aboveground biomass was significantly correlated with sediment N content. Addition of N significantly increased aboveground biomass, stem density, and the rate of spread into uninvaded habitat (as new stems per day) in virtually all habitats in both estuaries. Belowground biomass increased in Willapa Bay only, suggesting that belowground biomass is not N limited in San Francisco Bay due to species differences, N availability, or a latitudinal difference in the response of Spartina to N additions. The relative impact of added N was greater in Willapa Bay, the estuary with lower N inputs from the watershed, than in San Francisco Bay, a highly eutrophic estuary. Nitrogen fertilization also altered the competitive interaction between hybrid Spartina and Salicornia virginica in San Francisco Bay by increasing the density and biomass of the invader and decreasing the density of the native. There was no significant effect

  13. Uptake Evaluation Of Glass house Grown Grasses In Radio phyto remediation Of Caesium-Contaminated Soil

    A glass house experiment was performed to evaluate the uptake of grasses viz. Napier and Vetiver in radiophytoremediation of caesium-contaminated soil. The glass house radiophytoremediation experiment was designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The grasses were grown in troughs filled with soil mixed with a known specific activity of 134Cs. Initial Cs activity and activity after different cultivation time intervals of 1, 3, 6 and 9 months were analyzed using gamma spectrometer direct measurement. The results showed the uptake of caesium by Napier and Vetiver after 9 months with the transfer factors (TF) were 4.70 and 6.25, respectively. Meanwhile, the remediation of caesium from contaminated soil at the same time was 95.25 % (Napier) and 95.58 % (Vetiver). Both grasses have been found to accumulate caesium, with Vetiver accumulating higher than Napier. Thus, the present study suggests that Vetiver could be used as a potential plant for radiophytoremediation of caesium. (author)

  14. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet, with the...

  15. Phytochemical analysis and estimation of major bioactive compounds from Triticum aestivum L. grass with antimicrobial potential.

    Rajoria, Anand; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Ahirwal, Laxmi; Shukla, Shruti

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate phytochemical analysis, and qualitative and quantitative determination of major bioactive compound present in various organic extracts of T. aestivum L. grass. Soxhlet apparatus was used for the extraction purpose using hexane, chloroform, methanol and distilled water as a solvent system. All the extracts derived from T. aestivum showed qualitative presence of major phytochemicals including alkaloids, steroids and cardiac glycosides tannins, flavonoids carbohydrates. Further, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds such as rutin, chlorogenic acid, tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid in various organic extracts responsible for the reported maximum antimicrobial activity of T. aestivum grass against pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae. These findings confirm that T. aestivum grass containing medicinally important bioactive compounds may have significant potential to be used in traditional medicine system for the treatment of various diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26687741

  16. Characterisation of a Giant Lemon Grass Acclimatised in the Congo-Brazzaville

    Loumouamou Aubin Nestor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the essential oil of the giant variety of lemon grass (Poaceae obtained from farmers in Congo-Kinshasa and tested in Congo-Brazzaville. Chemical analysis, by GC and GCMS, of the essential oil from different parts of the plant, extracted at different stages of growth, revealed the very high stability of the citral chemotype (>80%; giving it the status of interesting species for the production of citral oil. However, it could not be identified to any of the oil-yielding grasses already described in the literature. Like Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf it produces an essential oil containing more than 80% citral, but displays morphological characteristics of vigorous grasses. The botanical description of the plant and the chemical composition of its oil identify it to Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud Stapf.

  17. THE BODIES COALESCED WITH HISTORY IN RUSHDIE'S MIDNIGHT'S CHILDREN AND GRASS' THE TIN DRUM

    Faruk KALAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie and Günter Grass always attract the readers' attention with their fabulous novels. In their novels titled Tin Drum by Günter Grass and Midnight's Children by Salman Rushdie having much importance to irradiate their homeland's history, the authors indicate the most important incidences in their history. While Grass deals with Hitler's period and his aftermath, Rushdie concerns about the birth of independent India. Both writers pen the advantage and disadvantage aspects of the then term in the society. A great number of terms, such as identity, history, postmodernism, intertextuality, histographic metafiction can be easily observed in the novels. In this context, the protagonists of these two novels have the same destiny with their homeland, which is emphasized in this study.

  18. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg-1), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg-1) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  19. Metal pollution determined by pollution indices for sea grass P. oceanica and surface sediments

    Stanković Slavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, As, Co, and Hg in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica and surface sediment samples were determined. Together with P. oceanica, surface sediment samples were collected at eight locations in the major demographic, tourist and port areas along the Montenegrin coast to assess metal pollution. The metal pollution index (MPI and metal enrichment factor (EF were calculated and used to evaluate the impact of heavy metals in the surface sediment on P. oceanica. The sediment MPI and EF values were lower than these values in P. oceanica at the same locations. Since the surface sediment contained lower mean concentrations of Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg, than the sea grass P. oceanic, we concluded that the sea grass absorbed some metals from the seawater column. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  20. A grass molecular identification system for forensic botany: a critical evaluation of the strengths and limitations.

    Ward, Jodie; Gilmore, Simon R; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod

    2009-11-01

    Plant material is frequently encountered in criminal investigations but often overlooked as potential evidence. We designed a DNA-based molecular identification system for 100 Australian grasses that consisted of a series of polymerase chain reaction assays that enabled the progressive identification of grasses to different taxonomic levels. The identification system was based on DNA sequence variation at four chloroplast and two mitochondrial loci. Seventeen informative indels and 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were utilized as molecular markers for subfamily to species-level identification. To identify an unknown sample to subfamily level required a minimum of four markers or nine markers for species identification. The accuracy of the system was confirmed by blind tests. We have demonstrated "proof of concept" of a molecular identification system for trace botanical samples. Our evaluation suggests that the adoption of a system that combines this approach with DNA sequencing could assist the morphological identification of grasses found as forensic evidence. PMID:19818109

  1. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    extensively in vitro, little is known about the evolution of these genes on the molecular level. Results We identified 15 putative novel ice re-crystallisation inhibition (IRI)-like protein coding genes in perennial ryegrass, barley, and wheat. Using synonymous divergence estimates we reconstructed the...... provide evidence for IRI-domain evolution probably occurring through increased copy number of a repeated motif. Finally, we discuss the possibility of parallel evolution of LRR domain containing IRI proteins in carrot and grasses through two completely different molecular adaptations.......Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. Species of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes wheat, barley and important forage grasses, have evolved extreme frost tolerance. A class of ice binding proteins that inhibit ice re-crystallisation, specific to the Pooideae...

  2. The grasses (Poaceae) of the Colombian Guyana: analyses on their composition, richness, endemism, and invasion

    The checklist of grasses from Colombian Guyana is presented. In all, 152 species, 69 genera, and six subfamilies were recorded. Thus, in the Colombian Guyana is represented the 18.7 and 43.7% of the species and genera of Colombian grasses, respectively. The subfamilies with the highest number of species were Panicoideae (110 species/46 genera), Chloridoideae (21/9), and Bambusoideae (11/9). The most diverse genera were Paspalum (19 species), Panicum (16), Axonopus (14), Eragrostis (9), and Digitaria (8). Nineteen species are introduced and naturalized in the Colombian Guyana, which represent 12.5% of the agrostological flora for the Colombian Guyana. There were 8 endemic species (5.3% of Colombian Guayanan grasses). In addition, some species are reported for the first time for Colombian flora (belonging to Axonopus, Cyphonanthus, Gymnopogon, and Paspalum), and some species are new to science (belonging to Axonopus, Digitaria, Eragrostis, and Sacciolepis). On the other hand, some preliminary biogeographical aspect are analyzed.

  3. A review on biomass production from C4 grasses: yield and quality for end-use.

    Tubeileh, Ashraf; Rennie, Timothy J; Goss, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    With a dry biomass production exceeding 40Mgha(-1) in many environments, Miscanthus spp. is the most productive perennial C4 grass species thanks to five advantages over North American prairie tallgrasses. However, miscanthus has a slower nutrient remobilization system, resulting in higher nutrient concentrations at harvest. Perennial C4 grasses benefit from soil microbial associations, reducing their nutrient needs. For combustion purposes, grasses with low moisture content, high lignin and low nutrients are desired. For ethanol, preferred feedstock will have lower lignin, higher sugars, starch, or cellulose/hemicellulose depending on the conversion method. Species with high stem-to-leaf ratio provide better biofuel conversion efficiency and quality. Recently-developed transgenic switchgrass lines have much higher ethanol yields and lower transformation costs. Further selection and breeding are needed to optimize biomass quality and nutrient cycling. PMID:27258573

  4. Safety of Grass Pollen Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis in Concomitant Asthma.

    Sahadevan, A; Cusack, R; Lane, S J

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) occurs predominantly as a result of grass pollen allergy. Grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been proven effective in treating AR1. SLIT is currently licensed for use in AR with concomitant stable mild asthma. There is evidence that SLIT improves asthma control when primarily used to treat AR2. The aim was to assess the safety of SLIT in patients with severe seasonal allergic rhinitis who have co-existing stable mild asthma. The secondary aim was to determine whether asthma control improved post SLIT. There was no deterioration in asthma control after 6-36 months of SLIT. 27/30 (90%) patients' asthma control remained stable or indeed improved (p < 0.021). Of this 15 (50%) patients' asthma improved. There was no statistically significant change in their asthma pharmacotherapy after SLIT (p = 0.059). In conclusion, grass pollen SLIT is safe and can potentially treat dual allergic rhinitis- mild asthmatic patients. PMID:26817287

  5. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  6. Improving fodder quality of panicum grass through intercropping of legumes and their inoculation

    A protocol was conducted under rainfed conditions for two years at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Treatments comprising intercropping of Panicum grass with legumes (33 percentage, 50 percentage and 67 percentage) with or without inoculation to investigate its fodder quality. The study clearly indicated that quality of fodder increased significantly both with the legumes and inoculation. The intercropping of Panicum grass with 67 percentage inoculation proved the best combination. The 6-7 percentage higher crude protein (CP) of mixed fodder was recorded from 67 percentage intercropping in comparison to grass alone while inoculation increased it by further 1-2 percentage. Results also suggested that total digestible nutrients (TDN) were increased by 2-4 percentage as compared to other treatments. (author)

  7. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity of...... meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy...

  8. Estimating the extent of impervious surfaces and turf grass across large regions

    Claggett, Peter R.; Irani, Frederick M.; Thompson, Renee L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of researchers to accurately assess the extent of impervious and pervious developed surfaces, e.g., turf grass, using land-cover data derived from Landsat satellite imagery in the Chesapeake Bay watershed is limited due to the resolution of the data and systematic discrepancies between developed land-cover classes, surface mines, forests, and farmlands. Estimates of impervious surface and turf grass area in the Mid-Atlantic, United States that were based on 2006 Landsat-derived land-cover data were substantially lower than estimates based on more authoritative and independent sources. New estimates of impervious surfaces and turf grass area derived using land-cover data combined with ancillary information on roads, housing units, surface mines, and sampled estimates of road width and residential impervious area were up to 57 and 45% higher than estimates based strictly on land-cover data. These new estimates closely approximate estimates derived from authoritative and independent sources in developed counties.

  9. Treatment of intrathoracic grass awn migration with video-assisted thoracic surgery in two dogs.

    Shamir, Shelly; Mayhew, Philipp D; Zwingenberger, Allison; Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old sexually intact male Vizsla and a 2-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog were examined because of suspected intrathoracic grass awn migration. CLINICAL FINDINGS Thoracic CT revealed focal areas of pulmonary infiltration in the right caudal lung lobe in one dog and in the left caudal lung lobe in the other. In 1 patient, bronchoscopy revealed 2 grass awns in the bronchi. Results of thoracic radiography and bronchoscopy were unremarkable in the second patient; however, a grass awn was recovered from the tonsillar crypt during oropharyngeal examination. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In both dogs, grass awns were successfully retrieved from the pleural cavity by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery during 1-lung ventilation. In one patient, a grass awn was recovered bronchoscopically from the left caudal lung lobe bronchus and another was visualized distally in an accessory lung lobe bronchus but could not be retrieved. This dog underwent accessory lung lobectomy. The second dog underwent left caudal lung lobectomy. Both patients recovered uneventfully from surgery, were discharged from the hospital, and had no apparent recurrence of clinical signs at telephone follow-up 31 months and 18 months after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE With careful case selection, successful management of intrathoracic grass awn migration in dogs can be achieved by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery. Comprehensive preoperative evaluation including both computed tomography and bronchoscopy is suggested. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate whether treatment of this condition with video-assisted thoracic surgery is as effective as with traditional open thoracotomy. PMID:27379598

  10. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be

  11. Diet Switching by Mammalian Herbivores in Response to Exotic Grass Invasion.

    Bremm, Carolina; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Fonseca, Lidiane; Amaral, Glaucia A; Mezzalira, Jean C; Perez, Naylor B; Nabinger, Carlos; Laca, Emilio A

    2016-01-01

    Invasion by exotic grasses is a severe threat to the integrity of grassland ecosystems all over the world. Because grasslands are typically grazed by livestock and wildlife, the invasion is a community process modulated by herbivory. We hypothesized that the invasion of native South American grasslands by Eragrostis plana Nees, an exotic tussock-forming grass from Africa, could be deterred by grazing if grazers switched dietary preferences and included the invasive grass as a large proportion of their diets. Bos taurus (heifers) and Ovis aries (ewes) grazed plots with varying degrees of invasion by E. plana in a replicated manipulative experiment. Animal positions and species grazed were observed every minute in 45-min grazing session. Proportion of bites and steps in and out of E. plana tussocks were measured and used to calculate several indices of selectivity. Both heifers and ewes exhibited increasing probability of grazing E. plana as the proportion of area covered by tussocks increased, but they behaved differently. In agreement with expectations based on the allometry of dietary preferences and morphology, ewes consumed a low proportion of E. plana, except in areas that had more than 90% E. plana cover. Heifers consumed proportionally more E. plana than ewes. Contrary to our hypothesis, herbivores did not exhibit dietary switching towards the invasive grass. Moreover, they exhibited avoidance of the invasive grass and preference for short-statured native species, both of which should tend to enhance invasion. Unless invasive plants are highly palatable to livestock, the effect of grazing to deter the invasion is limited, due to the inherent avoidance of the invasive grass by the main grazers in the ecosystem, particularly sheep. PMID:26919613

  12. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE NATURAL DRY-GRASS COMMUNITIES ON OAHU, HAWAII

    Kuswata - Kartawinata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Braun-Blanquet and ordination techniques, nine dry-grass community types were recognized on Oahu, seven of which were dominated by exotic grasses and two by native grasses, Hctcrnpogna eontortus and Erarjrostis variabilis. These community types occured in summer-drought, summer-dry and humid climates. The distribution of certain community types could be correlated directly with rainfall and soil pH. In the summer-drought climate the occurrence of the community types was related to topography, wind exposure, rockiness of the land surface and stoniness of the soil. The nine community types were not related to the established soil series, organic matter content and watsr retaining' capacity of the  surface  soils.Three distinct soil-water regimes were recognized in five community types: drought, dry and wet types. Seasonal variations in soil-water content were correlated closely  with   the   rainfall   pattern.The introduction and spread of exotic species resulted in a gradual disappearance of the native grass communities in the summer-drought zone. In the summer-dry zone, Grevillea robiista. trees and Meliiiis minutiflora grass mats were invading the Rhynchelytrum repens community. Artdropogon virginiciis, introduced in 1932, formed a wide spread herbaceous community in the humid zone. In some places, this community was invaded by Dicranopteris linearis fern mats and trees of Acacia, koa or Metrosideros collina. Fire in both the summer-dry and humid zones maintained and extended  the  grass communities.

  13. Diet Switching by Mammalian Herbivores in Response to Exotic Grass Invasion

    Bremm, Carolina; Carvalho, Paulo C. F.; Fonseca, Lidiane; Amaral, Glaucia A.; Mezzalira, Jean C.; Perez, Naylor B.; Nabinger, Carlos; Laca, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    Invasion by exotic grasses is a severe threat to the integrity of grassland ecosystems all over the world. Because grasslands are typically grazed by livestock and wildlife, the invasion is a community process modulated by herbivory. We hypothesized that the invasion of native South American grasslands by Eragrostis plana Nees, an exotic tussock-forming grass from Africa, could be deterred by grazing if grazers switched dietary preferences and included the invasive grass as a large proportion of their diets. Bos taurus (heifers) and Ovis aries (ewes) grazed plots with varying degrees of invasion by E. plana in a replicated manipulative experiment. Animal positions and species grazed were observed every minute in 45-min grazing session. Proportion of bites and steps in and out of E. plana tussocks were measured and used to calculate several indices of selectivity. Both heifers and ewes exhibited increasing probability of grazing E. plana as the proportion of area covered by tussocks increased, but they behaved differently. In agreement with expectations based on the allometry of dietary preferences and morphology, ewes consumed a low proportion of E. plana, except in areas that had more than 90% E. plana cover. Heifers consumed proportionally more E. plana than ewes. Contrary to our hypothesis, herbivores did not exhibit dietary switching towards the invasive grass. Moreover, they exhibited avoidance of the invasive grass and preference for short-statured native species, both of which should tend to enhance invasion. Unless invasive plants are highly palatable to livestock, the effect of grazing to deter the invasion is limited, due to the inherent avoidance of the invasive grass by the main grazers in the ecosystem, particularly sheep. PMID:26919613

  14. 'Bio-energy Schaffhausen': biogas, proteins and fibres, all three from grass

    Bioenergie Schaffhausen Ltd., Switzerland, has commissioned the first industrial bio-refinery for processing grass. This unique grass refinery process provides a new industrial utilisation of grass. The products are green power and technical fibres for heat and sound insulation. The green electricity and green gas are made and sold by Etawatt Ltd. and Schaffhausen City Works, the green heat is used internally as process heat. All plant components are utilised for generation of value-added products, which makes the plant economically profitable even at a relatively small scale. The fully continuous and automated plant includes raw material reception, pre-treatment, fractionation, separation, and drying of fibres; separation of protein; juice treatment and conversion to biogas in a so-called UASB reactor; gas cleaning and conversion to electricity and process heat in a combined heat and power plant. The design capacity of the plant is 20,000 t fresh grass or 5,000 t dry substance input per year in two shifts. The plant supplier is '2B Biorefineries' (www.2bio.ch). The start up was in October 2001. Over 500 tons of grass have been processed. The grass refinery has produced so far 78,000 m3 biogas, 150,000 kWh green electricity and 250,000 kWh green heat. Further, 80 tons of insulation fibres have been produced and sold in the market under the brand name '2B Gratec'. Over 30 buildings have been insulated. The washer and drier have not reached production capacity. The drying is a critical process for fibre quality. The drier is being modified and a new washer is being installed. It is planned to run at design capacity from May 2003. (author)

  15. Comparative study on CO2 emissions from different types of alpine meadows during grass exuberance period

    HUQiwu; CAOGuangmin; WUQin; LIDong; WANGYuesi

    2004-01-01

    Potentilla fruticosa scrub, Kobresia humilis meadow and Kobresia tibetica meadow are widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During the grass exuberance period from 3 July to 4 September, based on close chamber-GC method, a study on CO2 emissions from different treatments was conducted in these meadows at Haibei research station, CAS. Results indicated that mean CO2 emission rates from various treatments were 672.09±152.37 mgm-2h-1 for FC (grass treatment); 425.41±191.99 mgm-2h-1 for FJ (grass exclusion treatment); 280.36±174.83 mgm-2h-1 for FL (grass and roots exclusion treatment); 838.95±237.02 mgm-2h-1 for GG (scrub+grass treatment); 528.48±205.67 mgm-2h-1 for GC (grass treatment); 268.97±99.72 mgm-2h-1 for GL (grass and roots exclusion treatment); and 659.20±94.83 mgm-2h-1 for LC (grass treatment), respectively (FC, FJ, FL, GG, GC, GL, LC were the Chinese abbreviation for various treatments). Furthermore, Kobresia humilis meadow, Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow and Kobresia tibetica meadow differed greatly in average CO2 emission rate of soil-plant system, in the order of GG>FC>LC>GC. Moreover, in Kobresia hurnilis meadow,heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration accounted for 42% and 58% of the total respiration of soil-plant system respectively, whereas, in Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration accounted for 32% and 68% of total system respiration from GG; 49% and 51% from GC. In addition, root respiration from Kobresia humilis meadow approximated 145 mgCO2m-2h-1,contributed 34% to soil respiration. During the experiment period, Kobresia humilis meadow and Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow had a net carbon fixation of 111.11 gm-2 and 243.89 gm-2 respectively. Results also showed that soil temperature was the main factor which influenced CO2 emission from alpine meadow ecosystem, significant correlations were found between soil temperature at 5 cm depth and CO2 emission from GG, GC, FC and FJ treatments

  16. Mill wastewater and olive pomace compost as amendments for rye-grass

    Montemurro, Francesco; Convertini, Grazia; Ferri, Donato

    2004-01-01

    A two-year experiment was carried out to study the effects of applying untreated Olive Wastewater (OWW), treated OWW and olive pomace compost as soil amendments on both rye-grass growth and soil characteristics. We analysed growth parameters (Leaf Area Index, and fresh and dry weight), leaf green colour (SPAD readings), N uptake of the rye-grass and chemical soil characteristics. The results indicate that the highest untreated OWW application increased growth parameters by 18.2% in 2001 and b...

  17. Assessing veld condition in the Kruger National Park using key grass species

    W.S.W. Trollope

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Veld condition refers to the condition of the vegetation in relation to some functional characteristic. In the Kruger National Park important functional characteristics are the potential of the veld to produce grass forage and fuel and to resist soil erosion. Consequently a simplified technique based on 18 key grass species was developed for assessing veld conditon and monitoring the effects of wild life management practices like veld burning, development of watering points and culling. The technique has been specifically developed for use by wildlife managers and has the ability to indicate the potential of the veld to support bulk grazing animals, to carry a fire and to resist soil erosion.

  18. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  19. Introducing the new GRASS module g.infer for data-driven rule-based applications

    Peter Löwe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the new GRASS GIS add-on module g.infer. The module enables rule-based analysis and workflow management in GRASS GIS, via data-driven inference processes based on the expert system shell CLIPS. The paper discusses the theoretical and developmental background that will help prepare the reader to use the module for Knowledge Engineering applications. In addition, potential application scenarios are sketched out, ranging from the rule-driven formulation of nontrivial GIS-classification tasks and GIS workflows to ontology management and intelligent software agents.

  20. Dynamic modeling of the cesium, strontium, and ruthenium transfer to grass and vegetables

    Renaud, P.; Real, J.; Maubert, H.; Roussel-Debet, S. (CE de Cadarache, Saint-Paul lez Durance (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1999-05-01

    From 1988 to 1993, the Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire -- IPSN) conducted experimental programs focused on transfers to vegetation following accidental localized deposits of radioactive aerosols. In relation to vegetable crops (fruit, leaves, and root vegetables) and meadow grass these experiments have enabled a determination of the factors involved in the transfer of cesium, strontium, and ruthenium at successive harvests, or cuttings, in respect of various time lags after contamination. The dynamic modeling given by these results allows an evaluation of changes in the mass activity of vegetables and grass during the months following deposit. It constitutes part of the ASTRAL post-accident radioecology model.

  1. Prediction of nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations in fresh grass using nutrient composition.

    Stergiadis, S; Allen, M; Chen, X J; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-05-01

    Improved nutrient utilization efficiency is strongly related to enhanced economic performance and reduced environmental footprint of dairy farms. Pasture-based systems are widely used for dairy production in certain areas of the world, but prediction equations of fresh grass nutritive value (nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations) are limited. Equations to predict digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) used for grazing cattle have been either developed with cattle fed conserved forage and concentrate diets or sheep fed previously frozen grass, and the majority of them require measurements less commonly available to producers, such as nutrient digestibility. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop prediction equations more suitable to grazing cattle for nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations, which are routinely available at farm level by using grass nutrient contents as predictors. A study with 33 nonpregnant, nonlactating cows fed solely fresh-cut grass at maintenance energy level for 50 wk was carried out over 3 consecutive grazing seasons. Freshly harvested grass of 3 cuts (primary growth and first and second regrowth), 9 fertilizer input levels, and contrasting stage of maturity (3 to 9 wk after harvest) was used, thus ensuring a wide representation of nutritional quality. As a result, a large variation existed in digestibility of dry matter (0.642-0.900) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (0.636-0.851) and in concentrations of DE (11.8-16.7 MJ/kg of dry matter) and ME (9.0-14.1 MJ/kg of dry matter). Nutrient digestibilities and DE and ME concentrations were negatively related to grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents but positively related to nitrogen (N), gross energy, and ether extract (EE) contents. For each predicted variable (nutrient digestibilities or energy concentrations), different combinations of predictors (grass chemical composition) were found to be

  2. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    Li Muyang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses

  3. Scaling water use of perennial grasses from the plot to Midwestern U.S.

    Bernacchi, C. J.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Hickman, G. C.; Zeri, M.; Twine, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Perennial rhizomatous C4 grasses are currently considered, in many regions, one of the most promising vegetation types to supply biomass for bioenergy production. Because one goal of bioenergy production is to benefit the environment, the potential environmental impacts and services that would be associated with large scale production must be investigated. Of particular interest is the impact that altering the composition of vegetation at the landscape scale would have on regional hydrological cycles driven by higher rates of evapotranspiration (ET). To assess this, we implemented micrometeorological measurements using two independent techniques over multiple growing seasons for replicated plots of two perennial rhizomatous grasses, Miscanthus giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and two traditional crop species, Zea mays (maize) and Glycine Max (soybean), planted throughout Central Illinois. When averaged across the entire growing season, ET for miscanthus was double relative to annual crops, and 140% of P. virgatum ET. The differences between the perennial grasses and annual crops were primarily due to longer growing season associated with the perennial grasses, but Miscanthus also demonstrated higher instantaneous water use. These results, coupled with physiological measurements of these species, were then used to parameterize and validate a dynamic vegetation model, Agro-IBIS, to investigate the large-scale consequences of land-use change on ecosystem hydrology from existing agriculture to various perennial grass production scenarios ranging from 10% to 100%. Results show that uniform production scenarios of less than 25% have little impact on regional hydrology but 'hotspots' with higher percentage land cover devoted to perennial grasses can have important consequences in localized areas. Given the increasing demand on water, we investigated whether the increased carbon gain associated with bioenergy crops was sufficient to offset the

  4. The chemical composition, fermentation profile, and microbial populations in tropical grass silages

    João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Karina Guimarães Ribeiro; Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani; Mariele Cristina Nascimento Agarussi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation profile, chemical composition and microbial population and losses in the silages of signalgrass and Mombasa grass fertilized with the following levels of nitrogen (N): 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha. The grasses were harvested at 70 days of regrowth, chopped and then ensiled in laboratory silos that had 20 kg of capacity and a snap-top cover and were fitted with Bunsen valves. Before ensiling, samples of the plants were used for the isolati...

  5. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grass-clover as cut-and-carry fertilizers in organic agriculture

    Burgt, van der, A.; Eekeren, van, N.J.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    On-farm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grass-clover directly as sources of fertilizer on arable land: cut-and-carry fertilizers. In two arable crops, the use of lucerne and grass-clover as fertilizers was compared with the use of poultry manure and slurry. The nitrogen-use efficiency at crop level was comparable or better for the cut-andcarry fertilizers as comp...

  6. Production of Liquid Chlorophyll from The Leaves of Green Grass Jelly (Premna oblongifolia Merr.)

    Novelina Novelina; Tuty Anggraini; Rudi Hermansyah

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll is known to be used as a natural dye. The last few years it is known that chlorophyll has an important role as a source of antioxidants that are good for health. The availability of sources of chlorophyll in Indonesia is very large, one of which is the green grass jelly leaves (Premna obliongifolia Merr). The research objective is to get grass jelly leaf extract as a source of chlorophyll and know the characteristics of the resulting extract chlorophyll. The process of extraction ...

  7. Project work: »From grass to ice cream«

    Klemenčič, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis presents the process of the research of a closed-ended problem, namely on the subject of “From Grass to Ice Cream”. The children’s own activity in the research of the “milk path” (grass-cow-milk-dairy-dairy products-ice cream-shop) is presented. The first part of the theoretical part summarises what natural science for children should be like, presents learning according to High/Scoop’s preschool curriculum, and describes the closed-ended research method. The second part...

  8. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: Movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions

    Andersson, Helena; Ekblom, Björn; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed...... and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints...

  9. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to...... assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The...

  10. Copper tolerance of the biomass crops Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (Phragmites australis) in soil culture.

    Liu, Xinghua; Shen, Yixing; Lou, Laiqing; Ding, Chenglong; Cai, Qingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Pot trials were conducted to study the influence of copper (Cu) on the growth and biomass of Elephant grass (EG, Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (VG, Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (UR, Phragmites australis). Cu toxicity in EG, VG and UR was positively correlated with the total and bioavailable Cu concentrations in the soil. Based on the EC50, dry weights, Cu contents, chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rates, the Cu tolerance of the three species followed the trend EGNVGNUR. There were no significant differences in the unit calorific values among the different plants, though the total calorific values of EG were higher than those of VG and UR due to its higher biomass. The addition of KH2PO4 to the soil decreased the bioavailability of Cu and the Cu uptake by plants. EG could therefore be a good candidate for growth on Cu-contaminated soils, especially those improved by phosphate. PMID:19393734

  11. Use of Biological Additives with Grass Containing Medium and High Levels of WSC for Effective Conservation and Aerobic Stability

    Judit Peter Szucs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the trials was to determine the effect of two silage inoculant strains Lactobacillus buchneri and Propionibacteria acidipropionici on grass containing medium and high levels of WSC for fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of silages. The basic raw materials originated from second growth cut grasses from 2 different plots of the farm: 1st.grass components were a mixture of grass- and leguminous species, contained medium 1.5-3.0% WSC/FM. The 2nd grass components was mainly grass species; with high>3% WSC/FM content. We stored the filled micro (4.2 litre containers on ambient temperature. It was proven that both inoculant strains significantly decreased lactic acid content (P<0.01 and increased acetic acid content (P<0.001 of silages and significantly increased the aerobic stability as well. The best aerobic stability>240 hours was the Lactobacillus buchneri treated silages originated from medium WSC/FM grass. The main advantage of treatment of L. buchneri on grass compared to P. acidipropionici is the longer aerobic stability of silage (P<0.001.There was no significant differences among the microbiological profile neither of treated nor of control silages.

  12. The effect of tillage prctices on a leek crop's nitrogen utilization from a grass-clover sward

    Willekens, Koen; Van Gils, Bert; De Vliegher, Alex; Delanote, Lieven; Beeckman, Annelies; Vandecasteele, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Adopting conservation agriculture practices in organic agriculture involves some risks and challenges. Nitrogen availability from a grass-clover ley for the subsequent leek crop was clearly affected by mode and timing of destruction of the grass-clover sward. Minor differences were found between a reduced tillage practice and conventional ploughing.

  13. Mixing less palatable grasses with urea, molasses and effective microorganisms and its effect on chemical composition and digestibility in goats

    Abstract:- A study was carried out at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad to find out impacts of supplementation of low palatable grasses with urea, molasses and Effective Microorganisms (EM) on chemical composition and digestibility in goats. Heteropogon contortus (HC), Chrysopogon aucheri(CA), sorghum halpense (SH) and Desmostachya bipinnata (DB) were used and the combinations were grass + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea, grass + 4% urea + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea + 1:100 EM, grass + 1:100 EM + 4% molasses, grass +1:100 EM + 4% molasses + 4% urea. Proximate analysis of samples was carried out. Crude protein content of mixtures improved as compared with sole grasses. Digestibility of HC supplemented with urea, molasses and EM in various combinations was also studied in growing goats. The highest digestibility of DM in goats was recorded in HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses treatment (85.51%) followed by HC + 4% urea (78.57%) and HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses + 1:100 EM (78.00%). (author)

  14. Effect of nitrogen and shading on yield and quality of grasses grown under young slash pines. [Bahiagrass, Bermudagrass, Dallisgrass

    Hart, R.H.; Hughes, R.H.; Lewis, C.E.; Monson, W.G.

    Tifhi-1 bahiagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and prostrate dallisgrass were planted in 1962, under a stand of 5-year-old slash pines spaced 3 m apart and averaging 5.2 m high. The authors applied N at 56, 112, 224, 336, and 448 kg/ha, and enough P and K to give a 2:1:1 ratio of N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/:K/sub 2/O. Grass yields were taken every 6 weeks. In 1963, all grasses responded to N; maximum yields of bahia-, bermuda-, and dallisgrass were produced at 224, 336, and 112 kg/ha of N, respectively. N response was the same in 1964, except that bermudagrass produced maximum yields at only 222 kg/ha. No N response was seen in 1965; bahia- outyielded bermuda- and dallisgrass. In 1966, there were no differences among grasses, and no N response. In 1963, grass yields under the trees were as high as yields in the open. Yield decreased linearly as tree basal area increased. Crude protein content and dry matter digestibility increased with increased N rates; differences among grasses were small. Grass yields were higher than native range yields previously reported, however, the range yields were taken under different conditions of shading and fertilization. Quality of native range herbage and the grasses in this study was about the same, but quality of the improved grasses was depressed by infrequent cutting.

  15. A study of the wet deposit and foliar uptake of iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover

    Foliar uptake of iodine and strontium by rye-grass and clover was studied as a function of aspersion intensities. At the same time, the contribution of root sorption to foliar uptake was measured. The effective half-lives of radionuclides of standing and harvested grass were also determined together with their uptake under the action of demineralized water aspersion

  16. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. PMID:25280042

  17. Determination of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs in grass and cheese after Chernobyl accident in Austria

    Various samples from Styria (grass) and Salzburg (cheese) were analyzed for 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs concentration during April - July 1986 by γ-ray spectroscopy. The concentrations are reported in nCi kg-1 wet weight. The values found for 131I were 0.2-17.2 (grass), 0.1-0.5 (cheese), for 134Cs 1.1-6.2 (grass), 0.2-1.3 (cheese), for 137Cs 1.6-15.7 (grass), 0.3-2.2 (cheese). While radioactivity of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs in cheese samples increased from May to June, it decreased in grass samples from May to July. (author) 5 refs

  18. Long term effects of ash fertilization of reed canary grass; Laangtidseffekter av askgoedsling vid roerflensodling

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva

    2011-03-15

    Reed canary grass (RCG) is a bio-energy crop with large potential. It is a 1.5 . 2.5 m tall grass that is harvested in spring when it is grown as a fuel. At spring harvest it yields 3 . 10 ton field dried material per ha and year. One disadvantage when reed canary grass is used as a fuel is the high ash content, 5-10 %. This means that large quantities of ash have to be deposited which is expensive, about 1000 SEK/ton. However, since reed canary grass ash contains reasonable amounts of plant nutrients like phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) it could be recycled as fertilizer in agriculture. The ash can be used without any pretreatment since, in agriculture, plant availability is desirable. The aim of this project, was to evaluate a field experiment, where ash was used as a fertilizer in reed canary grass. The experiment was established at the SLU research station in Umea, Sweden in the spring 2002. Three different fertilizer treatments were applied: Treatment A was fertilized with an ash produced by combustion of RCG together with municipal wastes (paper, plastic, leather), treatment B, an ash from combustion of RCG, and for treatment C commercial fertilizers were used. In total, 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (N), 15 kg ha-1 of phosphorous (P) and 80 kg ha-1 of potassium (K), were applied each year in all treatments. The amount of ash in treatment A and B was calculated from the chemical analysis of the ashes to be equal to the required amount of P, while K and N were supplied also by commercial fertilizers. [Table 1. Composition of the ashes] Literature study: There is a lack of knowledge about fertilization with reed canary grass ash, since few experiments have been conducted. The composition of reed canary grass is dependent of harvest date and the soil substrate. The amount of ash and the amount of harmful substances such as potassium and chloride generally decreases over winter, giving an increased fuel quality from spring harvest compared to autumn

  19. Digestion, rumen fermentation and circulating concentrations of insulin, growth hormone and IGF-1 in steers fed diets based on different proportions of maize silage and grass silage

    Juniper, Darren Thomas; Browne, Elizabeth Mary; Bryant, Michael John; Beever, David

    2008-01-01

    Replacing grass silage with maize silage results in a fundamental change in the ratio of structural to non-structural carbohydrates with commensurate changes in rumen fermentation patterns and nutrient utilisation. This study investigated the effects of feeding four forage mixtures, namely grass silage (G); 67 g/100 g grass silage133 g/100 g maize silage (GGM); 67 g/100 g maize silage133/100 g grass silage (MMG); maize silage (M) to four ruminally and duodenally canulated Holstein Friesian st...

  20. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    Nader Glenn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (C18:2 isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA (C18:1 t11, a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3 FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0, and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0 and palmitic (C16:0 FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A. It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.

  1. Effect of maize silage supplementation to grass silage harvested at different maturity stages on ad libitum intake

    Marina Vranić

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to determine ad libitum intake of fresh ration, dry matter (DM and the organic matter (OM of grass silage from the primary growth harvested at different maturity stages in interaction with maize silage (33 % and 67 %, DM based in g kg-1 of the metabolic body weight (M0.75. Grass silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was dominant grass in the sward (late vegetative, internode elongation, flowering. The study consisted of ten feeding treatments with 10 whether Charolais sheep in incomplete changeover design. Dry matter content of I, II and III cutting term was 396, 408 i 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 119.6, 98.0 and 93.0 g kg-1 of DM respectively. Dry mater and starch concentration in maize silage was 264 g kg-1 of fresh sample and 211 g kg-1 of DM respectively. Inclusion of 67 % of maize silage in the grass silage of the and grass silage of the II cutting term based ration significantely increased (P<0.05 fresh ration ad libitum intake, while with the III cutting term of grass silage both levels of the maize silage (33 % vs. 67 % significantely increased (P<0.05 fresh ration ad libitum intake. Inclusion of maize silage to grass silage of the I, II or III cutting term based ration (33 % vs. 67 % did not have a significant influence on DM or OM ad libitum intake. It was concluded that a positive response of maize silage inclusion in the grass silage based diet is dependent on the quality of both, the maize silage (DM and starch concentration and the grass silage (maturity stage at harvesting. The maize silage was probably of lower quailty then required for improved ad libitum DM and OM intake of the grass silage based ration.

  2. Positive and negative effects of grass, cattle, and wild herbivores on Acacia saplings in an East African savanna.

    Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2007-10-01

    Plant-plant interactions can be a complex mixture of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on abiotic and community contexts. In savanna systems, the effects of large herbivores on tree-grass interactions have rarely been studied experimentally, though these herbivores are major players in these systems. In African savannas, trees often become more abundant under heavy cattle grazing but less abundant in wildlife preserves. Woody encroachment where cattle have replaced wild herbivores may be caused by a shift in the competitive balance between trees and grasses. Here we report the results of an experiment designed to quantify the positive, negative, and net effects of grasses, wild herbivores, and cattle on Acacia saplings in a Kenyan savanna. Acacia drepanolobium saplings under four long-term herbivore regimes (wild herbivores, cattle, cattle + wild herbivores, and no large herbivores) were cleared of surrounding grass or left with the surrounding grass intact. After two years, grass-removal saplings exhibited 86% more browse damage than control saplings, suggesting that grass benefited saplings by protecting them from herbivory. However, the negative effect of grass on saplings was far greater; grass-removal trees accrued more than twice the total stem length of control trees. Where wild herbivores were present, saplings were browsed more and produced more new stem growth. Thus, the net effect of wild herbivores was positive, possibly due to the indirect effects of lower competitor tree density in areas accessible to elephants. Additionally, colonization of saplings by symbiotic ants tracked growth patterns, and colonized saplings experienced lower rates of browse damage. These results suggest that savanna tree growth and woody encroachment cannot be predicted by grass cover or herbivore type alone. Rather, tree growth appears to depend on a variety of factors that may be acting together or antagonistically at different stages of the

  3. Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: effects of soil moisture variability

    Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to varying numbers of days between watering were studied in two grass and six forb species native to the U.S. Central Plains grasslands. Our object was to assess the potential role of germination and seedling g...

  4. Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop

    Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

    2013-02-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

  5. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  6. Evolutionary relationships between Rhynchosporium lolii sp. nov. and other Rhynchosporium species on grasses.

    Kevin M King

    Full Text Available The fungal genus Rhynchosporium (causative agent of leaf blotch contains several host-specialised species, including R. commune (colonising barley and brome-grass, R. agropyri (couch-grass, R. secalis (rye and triticale and the more distantly related R. orthosporum (cocksfoot. This study used molecular fingerprinting, multilocus DNA sequence data, conidial morphology, host range tests and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the relationship between Rhynchosporium species on ryegrasses, both economically important forage grasses and common wild grasses in many cereal growing areas, and other plant species. Two different types of Rhynchosporium were found on ryegrasses in the UK. Firstly, there were isolates of R. commune that were pathogenic to both barley and Italian ryegrass. Secondly, there were isolates of a new species, here named R. lolii, that were pathogenic only to ryegrass species. R. lolii was most closely related to R. orthosporum, but exhibited clear molecular, morphological and host range differences. The species was estimated to have diverged from R. orthosporum ca. 5735 years before the present. The colonisation strategy of all of the different Rhynchosporium species involved extensive hyphal growth in the sub-cuticular regions of the leaves. Finally, new species-specific PCR diagnostic tests were developed that could distinguish between these five closely related Rhynchosporium species.

  7. Evaluation of anti-depressant effect of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus in albino mice

    Sujata Dudhgaonkar

    2014-08-01

    Results: Lemon grass at the above doses significantly reduced the immobility time in both the tests compared with the control (C. citratus has significant anti-depressant activity comparable to imipramine. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 656-660

  8. Intake characteristics of grass species from semi-natural pastures in the United Kingdom

    Four grass species (Lolium perenne L., Holcus lanatus L. cv Glen, Agrostis stolonifera L. cv Kromi, and Poa trivialis L.) commonly found in mesotropic lowland semi-natural grassland communities in the UK were sown in boxes (85 x 44 x 14 cm) to create micro-swards. Once established, the micro-sward...

  9. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total of...

  10. The use of alarm pheromones to enhance bait harvest by grass-cutting ants.

    Hughes, W O H; Goulson, D

    2002-06-01

    The enhancement of bait for the control of grass-cutting ants was investigated using two species of grass-cutting ant, Atta bisphaerica (Forel) and Atta capiguara (Gonçalves) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bait was applied in loose piles to obtain a direct relationship between ant attraction and bait harvest. Enhancement with alarm pheromone compounds significantly increased the attractiveness and harvest of bait under certain conditions. A large proportion of the ants attracted to the enhanced bait were minor workers. These ants rarely transport bait because of their small size, and so it may be possible to increase the effect of bait enhancement by using smaller bait granules. Foragers of A. capiguara were less inclined to transport citrus-pulp bait than were those of Atta laevigata (Fr. Smith), a species that also harvests dicotyledonous plants. This emphasizes the importance of developing a bait matrix that is more acceptable to grass-cutting species. Nevertheless, the results suggest that alarm pheromone compounds have significant potential to improve the efficacy of baits for the control of grass-cutting ants. PMID:12088538

  11. Nutritional value of grass silage of mombasa associated with additives agroindustrial

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of grass silage-mombasa associated with different additives in four times of opening the silo. The experiment was conducted in UFGD. After harvesting the forage, biomass in natura crushed, was taken to the lab, homogenized and enriched on the basis of natural mass, with the following additives: 5% wheat bran, 5% of waste (broken grain and soy ice cream cone of soybean, 5% urea in natural matter and the witness (without additive.The silos were opened after (unprocessed material, 15, 30 and 45 days, for the analysis of chemical composition. The data obtained were analyzed through the statistical programme SISVAR and averages were compared to 5% of probability, by Skott-Knot. The grass silage- mombasa without additive presented major (P0.05 of grass silage- mombasa associated with 5 of urea in 15 days and 45 of silage. The grass silage-mombasa with 5% urea showed the highest crude protein content at time 0 and differed from other treatments. The silage of mombasa associated with 5% urea provided greater in vitro digestibility of dry matter to 15 days of silage.

  12. Seasonal and laboratory variations in the health of grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio: dodecyl sodium sulfate bioassay

    Tatem, H.E. (Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS); Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.

    1976-09-01

    The reported study involved numerous static toxicity tests with DSS (synthetic anionic detergent of the linear alkylate sulphonate type) on groups of grass shrimp, primarily Palaemonetes pugio (Holthius), collected from June 1972 through April 1974 from the same area of Galveston Bay, Texas. An attempt was made to determine the seasonal variation in the resistance of these crustaceans to DSS and the response of the organisms to DSS after time in the laboratory. The data indicate that grass shrimp tolerated substantial concentrations of DSS in comparison to marine fish and crustaceans. Grass shrimp are most tolerant to DDS during spring and summer and least tolerant during the winter months. The data demonstrated that organism health declined with increasing time in the laboratory. Although the grass shrimp exhibited 100% survival and behaved in a normal fashion during a holding period of months they were less resistant to DSS after being held only two weeks. The results suggest that the best procedures to follow regarding toxicity testing of aquatic organisms would be to begin experiments as soon as possible after collection. Ideally, the testing would be performed under temperature and salinity parameters similar to field conditions so that acclimation times could be as short as possible.

  13. Aphids and their parasitoids on the Canary grass, Phalaris canariensis in Malta (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Stankovic, Sasa; Stary, Petr; Mifsud, David

    2013-01-01

    Adialytus ambiguus and Diaeretiella rapae were reared from Rhopalosiphum padi on the Canary grass, Phalaris canariensis in Malta. The identity to species level of the Adialytus required confirmation via DNA analysis of the respective species group. Some ecosystem interrelationships derived from the determined food webs are discussed.

  14. Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil

    Several grasses in the Panicum genus have been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in animals throughout the world. In the United States, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs and horses. In Brazil, cultivars of Panicum ...

  15. Simulated distribution of an invasive grass, Lehmann lovegrass, in the Chihuahuan Desert under future climate scenarios

    Background/Question/Methods Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), a perennial grass introduced to the Southwest US in the 1930s from South Africa, has had a limited distribution in the Chihuahuan Desert while it has dominated many grassland sites in the Sonoran Desert.  Previous observational ...

  16. Grass snake populations’ features of the forest biogeocoenoses in the Samara river area

    V. Y. Gasso

    2011-01-01

    Results of 7-years research of the grass snake population in forest ecosystems of the Samara River area (Dnipropetrovsk province, Ukraine) are presented. The population is of high abundance but have a tendency to decrease. Population’s sex ratio, spatial structure, snakes’ morphometric parameters and pholidosis are described. Those characteristics reflect the population specificity, which was formed by microevolutional processes.

  17. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  18. Isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from grasses on the Oregon coast

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to improve abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. Grasses growing along the Oregon coast are exposed to harsh conditions and may harbor endophytes that enable them to survive and grow under these conditions. Endophytic fungi were isolated from thirty-four gra...

  19. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  20. Attenuation of foot pressure during running on four different surfaces: asphalt, concrete, rubber, and natural grass.

    Tessutti, Vitor; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Trombini-Souza, Francis; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2012-01-01

    The practice of running has consistently increased worldwide, and with it, related lower limb injuries. The type of running surface has been associated with running injury etiology, in addition other factors, such as the relationship between the amount and intensity of training. There is still controversy in the literature regarding the biomechanical effects of different types of running surfaces on foot-floor interaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of running on asphalt, concrete, natural grass, and rubber on in-shoe pressure patterns in adult recreational runners. Forty-seven adult recreational runners ran twice for 40 m on all four different surfaces at 12 ± 5% km · h(-1). Peak pressure, pressure-time integral, and contact time were recorded by Pedar X insoles. Asphalt and concrete were similar for all plantar variables and pressure zones. Running on grass produced peak pressures 9.3% to 16.6% lower (P rubber was greater than on concrete for the rearfoot and midfoot. The behaviour of rubber was similar to that obtained for the rigid surfaces - concrete and asphalt - possibly because of its time of usage (five years). Running on natural grass attenuates in-shoe plantar pressures in recreational runners. If a runner controls the amount and intensity of practice, running on grass may reduce the total stress on the musculoskeletal system compared with the total musculoskeletal stress when running on more rigid surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. PMID:22897427

  1. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    intensities and 35 replicates was established. Each net parcel measured 9 x 1.3 m and the 24 treatments were randomized onto the 840 net parcels. The grass clover was established in spring 2007 using RTK-GPS auto steered tractors and implements. A Claas Axion tractor equipped with AutoFarm RTK Auto...

  2. Use of napier grass to improve smallholder milk production in Kenya

    Muia, J.

    2000-01-01

    In Kenya, dairy production is mainly in the medium and high potential agricultural areas, which occupy about 17 % of the country's land. Due to high population pressure in these areas, smallholders (2-3 ha) form 80 % of the population. Napier grass (NG) has been identified to be a suitable fodder fo

  3. Automated conserved noncoding sequence (CNS discovery reveals differences in gene content and promoter evolution among grasses

    Gina eTurco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conserved noncoding sequences (CNS are islands of noncoding sequence that, like protein coding exons, show less divergence in sequence between related species than functionless DNA. Several of CNSs have been demonstrated experimentally to function as cis-regulatory regions. However, the specific functions of most CNSs remain unknown. Previous searchers for CNS in plants have either anchored on exons and only identified nearby sequences or required years of painstaking manual annotation. Here we present an open source tool that can accurately identify CNSs between any two related species with sequenced genomes, including both those immediately adjacent to exons and distal sequences separated by >12 KB of noncoding sequence. We have used this tool to characterize new motifs, associate CNSs with additional functions and identify previously undetected genes encoding RNA and protein in the genomes of five grass species. We provide a list of 15,363 orthologous CNSs conserved across all grasses tested. We were also able to identify regulatory sequences present in the common ancestor of grasses that have been lost in one or more extant grass lineages. Lists of orthologous gene pairs and associated CNSs are provided for reference inbred lines of arabidopsis, Japonica rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, brachypodium and maize.

  4. Production and nutrition of irrigated Tanzania guinea grass in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Maria Celuta Machado Viana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N fertilization in the four seasons of the year on forage production, nitrate (NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index (SPAD reading in the leaves of irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania grass, establishing their critical ranges. In addition, we evaluated the ability to predict forage production based on NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index. The soil in the experimental area was classified as an Oxisol (Red-Yellow Latosol with a clayey texture. Annual rates of N (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 in the form of urea were the treatments tested. Irrigation was performed through a conventional spray system. The NO3 content in the sap and the relative chlorophyll index were measured in leaves using a portable meter with NO3 selective electrode and the SPAD-502 portable chlorophyll meter device, respectively. Tanzania guinea grass was very responsive to N fertilization, except in the winter. The critical ranges of the SPAD reading proved to be more adequate for monitoring the nutritional state of N of Tanzania guinea grass in the different seasons of the year than the NO3content in the sap and the total N content in the dry matter. Use of the chlorophyll meter is more advantageous than the use of the portable meter with an nitrate selective electrode for predicting the nutritional status of Tanzania guinea grass.

  5. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  6. Grass allometry and estimation of above-ground biomass in tropical alpine tussock grasslands

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Eynden, van der M.; Malhi, Y.; Cahuana, N.; Menor, C.; Zamora, F.; Haugaasen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The puna/páramo grasslands span across the highest altitudes of the tropical Andes, and their ecosystem dynamics are still poorly understood. In this study we examined the above-ground biomass and developed species specific and multispecies power-law allometric equations for four tussock grass speci

  7. Systems study of fuels from grains and grasses. Quarterly progress report, July--October 1976

    Benson, W.; Allen, A.; Athey, R.; McElroy, A.

    1976-11-15

    The specific objectives of the project are to determine on a geographic basis the current and potential USA production capability for grain and grass crops, to perform a preliminary screening of conversion processes, and to perform preliminary technical and economic feasibility analyses. The results obtained to date on biomass production, conversion processes, and data management are reported. (JSR)

  8. Intravascular haemolysis during prolonged running on asphalt and natural grass in long and middle distance runners.

    Janakiraman, Kamal; Shenoy, Shweta; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2011-09-01

    Surface features such as uneven playing surfaces, low impact absorption capacity and inappropriate friction/traction characteristics are connected with injury prevalence whereas force impact during foot strike has been suggested to be an important mechanism of intravascular haemolysis during running. We aimed to evaluate intravascular haemolysis during running and compare the effect of running on two different types of surfaces on haemolysis. We selected two surfaces (asphalt and grass) on which these athletes usually run. Participants were randomly assigned to group A (asphalt) or group B (grass) with 10 athletes in each group. Each athlete completed one hour of running at the calculated target heart rate (60-70%). Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after running. We measured unconjugated bilirubin (UBR) (mg · dl(-1)), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (μ · ml(-1)), haemoglobin (g · l(-1)) and serum ferritin (ng · ml(-1)) as indicators of haemolysis. Athletes who ran on grass demonstrated an increase in the haematological parameters (UBR: P running. Furthermore, we conclude that uneven grass surface results in greater haemolysis compared to asphalt road. PMID:21751854

  9. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture) is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG) can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG cultiv...

  10. The potential of improving napier grass under smallholder farmers' conditions in Kenya

    Kariuki, J.

    1998-01-01

    Dairy farming is the main livestock enterprise in the mixed crop/livestock farming system in the high rainfall areas of Kenya. These areas are characterised by a high human population density and very small farms. As a consequence, napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum ) has been widely adopted becaus

  11. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to g

  12. Harvesting management options for legumes intercropped in napier grass in the central highlands of Kenya

    Mwangi, D.M.; Cadisch, G.; Thorpe, W.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ways of promoting integration of herbaceous forage legumes into a napier grass fodder system were evaluated with the aim of increasing forage quantity and quality on smallholder dairy farms in central Kenya. The herbaceous legumes Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf (ILRI 104), Macrotyloma axillare cv.

  13. Divergent utilization patterns of grass fructan, inulin, and other nonfiber carbohydrates by ruminal microbes

    Fructans are an important nonfiber carbohydrate in cool-season grasses. Their fermentation by ruminal microbes is not well described, though such information is needed to understand their nutritional value to ruminants. Our objective was to compare kinetics and product formation of orchardgrass fruc...

  14. Sustainability of perennial grass yields as bioenergy feedstock for the southeast

    Warm-season perennial grasses will be part of the biomass production system in the Southeast for the emerging bioenergy industry. Among the candidates for dedicated feedstocks are energy cane (Sacchurum sp.), Miscanthus x gigantius, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and napiergrass (Pennistem purpure...

  15. Low atmospheric nitrogen loads lead to grass encroachment in coastal dunes, but only on acid soils

    E. Remke; E. Brouwer; A. Kooijman; I. Blindow; J.G.M. Roelofs

    2009-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric N-deposition on succession from open sand to dry, lichen-rich, short grassland, and tall grass vegetation dominated by Carex arenaria was surveyed in 19 coastal dune sites along the Baltic Sea. Coastal dunes with acid or slightly calcareous sand reacted differently to atmos

  16. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in the United States

    Mosaic symptoms in sorghum can be caused by several potyviruses [family Potyviridae], including Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). SrMV and SCMV are responsible for global economic losses in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane. Ten plants of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum) exhib...

  17. Sediment Trapping from Hyperconcentrated Flow as Affected by Grass Filter Strips

    ZHOU Zheng-Chao; GAN Zhuo-Ting; SHANGGUAN Zhou-Ping

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of vegetative filter strips on sediment trapping,the spatial distribution of deposited sediment,and the size distribution of deposited particles from hyperconcentrated flows,a simulated grass filter strip experiment was conducted with plastic grass using an adjustable slope steel flume.The simulated vegetation cover was 36%,and the inflow sediment concentrations applied were 147,238,320,and 429 kg m-3.The sediment concentration in the outflow,and the sediment particle size were determined.The results showed that the grass filter strips trapped most of the sediment from inflow at low sediment concentration.The deposition efficiency decreased with increasing sediment concentration,being 55.2% and 15.7% in the 147 and 429 kg m-3 sediment treatments,respectively.Most of the deposited sediments were distributed in the upper flume.In addition,the grass filter strips mainly trapped the coarse sediment (particle size > 10 μm).

  18. Continuous growth of the giant grass Zizaniopsis bonariensis in subtropical wetlands

    Finkler Ferreira, T.; Nes, van E.H.; Motta Marques, da D.

    2009-01-01

    1. Zizaniopsis bonariensis (giant grass) is an emergent macrophyte species endemic to subtropical wetlands in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. In this study, we show the effects of its continuous clonal reproduction and its 'phalanx' growth strategy in the Taim Wetland (southern Brazil). 2.

  19. What type of digester configurations should be employed to produce biomethane from grass silage?

    Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    Grass is an excellent energy crop; it may be classified as a high yielding, low energy input, perennial crop. Over 90% of Irish agricultural land is under grass; thus farmers are familiar with, and comfortable with, this crop as opposed to a ''new energy crop'' such as Miscanthus. Of issue therefore is not the crop, but the methodology of generating energy from the crop. Numerous farmers across Europe (in particular Germany and Austria) use grass silage as a feedstock for biogas production; in a number of cases the produced biogas is scrubbed to biomethane and used as a transport fuel or injected into the natural gas grid. Many Irish farmers are considering converting from conventional farming such as beef production to grass biomethane production. Numerous technologies and combinations of such technologies are available; from one-stage batch dry systems to two-stage wet continuous systems; from one-stage continuous wet systems to two-stage systems incorporating a batch dry reactor coupled with a second stage high-rate reactor. This paper reviews work carried out both in the scientific literature and in practice at commercial scale. (author)

  20. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance. PMID:23413007

  1. Invertebrate populations in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Llysdinam Field Centre, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Monitoring of invertebrates at four field sites in Herefordshire, England, growing miscanthus and reed canary-grass was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of these crops on ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping; and arboreal invertebrates by sweep netting and stem beating. The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Butterflies Monitoring Scheme methodology was used to record butterflies. The effects of the biomass crops on invertebrates were indirect, through the use of weeds as food resources and habitat. The greater diversity of weed flora within miscanthus fields than within reed canary-grass fields had a greater positive effect on invertebrates. Ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates were more abundant and diverse in the most floristically diverse miscanthus fields. The difference in crop architecture and development between miscanthus and reed canary-grass was reflected in their differences in crop height and ground cover early on in the season. However, most of the difference in arthropod abundance between the two crops was attributed to the difference in the agronomic practice of growing the crops such as plant density, and the effect of this on weed growth. Since perennial rhizomatous grasses require a single initial planting and related tillage, and also no major chemical inputs; and because the crops are harvested in the spring and the land is not disturbed by cultivation every year, the fields were used as over-wintering sites for invertebrates suggesting immediate benefits to biodiversity. (author)

  2. Quantification of fructan concentration in grasses using NIR spectroscopy and PLSR

    Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to quantify fructan concentration in samples from seven grass species. Savitzky-Golay first derivative with filter width 7 and polynomial order 2 with mean centering was applied as a spectral pre-treatment method to...

  3. Contour hedgerows and grass strips in erosion and runoff control in semi-arid Kenya

    Kinama, J.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Ong, C.K.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.; Gichuki, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    Most early alley cropping studies in semi-arid Kenya were on fairly flat land while there is an increase in cultivated sloping land. The effectiveness of aging contour hedgerows and grass strips for erosion control on an about 15% slope of an Alfisol was compared. The five treatments were Senna siam

  4. Streamflow and Soil Moisture of Agroforestry and Grass Watersheds in Hilly Area

    LIU Gang-Cai; TIAN Guang-Long; SHU Dong-Cai; LIN San-Yi; LIU Shu-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted in a hilly area of Sichuan Province,Southwestern China, to compare the streamflow and soil moisture in two upland watersheds with different land use patterns. One was an agroforestry watershed, which consisted mainly of trees with alder (Alnus cremastogyne Burkill) and cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl.) planted in belts or strips with a coverage of about 46%, and the other was a grassland primarily composed of lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) C. E. Hubb.), filamentary clematis (Clematis filamentosa Dunn) and common eulaliopsis (Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C. E. Hubb) with a coverage of about 44%. Streamflow measurement with a hydrograph established at the watershed outlet showed that the average annual streamflow per 100 mm rainfall from 1983 to 1992 was 0.36 and 1.08 L s-1 km-2 for the agroforestry watershed and the grass watershed, respectively. This showed that the streamflow of the agroforestry watershed was reduced by 67% when compared to that of the grass watershed. The peak average monthly streamflow in the agroforestry watershed was over 5 times lower than that of the grass watershed and lagged by one month. In addition, the peak streamflow during a typical rainfall event of 38.3 mm in August 1986 was 37% lower in the agroforestry watershed than in the grass watershed. Results of the moisture contents of the soil samples from 3 slope locations (upper, middle and lower slopes) indicated that the agroforestry watershed maintained generally higher soil moisture contents than the grass watershed within 0-20 and 20-80 cm soil depths for the upper slope, especially for the period from May through July. For the other (middle and lower) slopes, soil moisture contents within 20-80 cm depth in the agroforestry watershed was generally lower than those in the grass watershed, particularly in September, revealing that water consumption by trees took place mainly below the plow layer. Therefore, agroforestry land use types might

  5. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    Jennifer Firn

    Full Text Available In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4 perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA, leaf dry matter content (LDMC, leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P, assimilation rates (Amax and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE. In the control treatment (grazed only, trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to

  6. The negative effects of cadmium on Bermuda grass growth might be offset by submergence.

    Tan, Shuduan; Huang, Huang; Zhu, Mingyong; Zhang, Kerong; Xu, Huaqin; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-10-01

    Revegetation in the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) could stabilize riverbanks, maintain local biodiversity, and improve reservoir water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). However, submergence and cadmium (Cd) may seriously affect the survival of transplantations. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is a stoloniferous and rhizomatous prostrate weed displaying high growth rate. A previous study has demonstrated that Bermuda grass can tolerate deep submergence and Cd stress, respectively. In the present study, we further analyzed physiological responses of Bermuda grass induced by Cd-and-submergence stress. The ultimate goal was to explore the possibility of using Bermuda grass for revegetation in the WLFZ of China's TGRR and other riparian areas. The Cd-and-submergence-treated plants had higher malondialdehyde contents and peroxidase than control, and both increased with the Cd concentration increase. All treated plants catalase activity increased with the experimental duration increases, and their superoxide dismutase also gradually increased with the Cd concentration from 1 day to 15 days. Total biomass of the same Cd-and-submergence plants increased along the experimental duration as well. Plants exposed to Cd-and-submergence stress showed shoot elongation. The heights of all treated plants were taller than those of the control. Leaf chlorophyll contents, maximum leaf length, and soluble sugars contents of all the Cd-and-submergence-treated plants were more than those of the untreated control. Although Cd inhibits plants growth, decreases chlorophyll and biomass content, and with the submergence induced the leaf and shoot elongation, more part of the Cd-and-submergence stress plants appeared in the air, exhibited fast growth with maintenance of leaf color, which guaranteed the plants' photosynthesis, and ensured the total biomass and carbohydrate sustainability, further promoting Cd-and-submergence tolerance. The results imply that the negative

  7. The investigation of growing and using of tall perennial grasses as energy crops

    The present paper provides the results of tests on tall-growing perennial grass biomass suitability for use as fuel, as well as findings on the energy potential of swards and energy efficiency of biofuel production from herbaceous plants. The tests were carried out for 3 years. Eight swards differing in species composition were grown. Two of them consisted of pure rhizomatous grasses-reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and awnless bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyser.)-treated with mineral fertilisers, applying N60 split in two applications. The other swards consisted of the above-mentioned grass mixtures with legumes-sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.), perennial lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) and goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.). The mixtures did not receive nitrogen fertilisers. The soil of the experimental site is light loam with a humus content of 1.5-1.9%. The productivity of swards under good weather conditions ranged between 6.3 and 8.8 t DM ha-1, while under adverse conditions between 2.8 and 6.5 t ha-1. The net calorific value of dry biomass ranged from 17.1 to 18.5 MJ kg-1 and depended on sward composition, growing conditions and cutting time. Combustion temperature ranged from 770 to 955 deg. C. In Lithuanian climatic conditions, the energy potential of tall-growing grass swards cultivated on light soils low in humus content was 115-153 GJ ha-1, and energy input for biofuel production amounted to 8.0-19.2 GJ ha-1

  8. Pangola grass colonized with Scytalidium thermophilum for production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Sanchez, Jose E; Mejia, Laura; Royse, Daniel J

    2008-02-01

    This work had the dual objective of selecting a substrate for rapid mycelial growth of Scytalidium thermophilum and then comparing the growth and production of a brown variety of Agaricus bisporus on substrate non-colonized and colonized with S. thermophilum. Mycelial growth of S. thermophilum at 45 degrees C was significantly greater on potato dextrose yeast extract agar (0.58 mm/h) as compared to malt extract glucose agar (0.24 mm/h) and yeast extract glucose agar (0.44 mm/h). On cereal grain, S. thermophilum grew significantly faster on rice (0.31 mm/h) compared to sorghum (0.22 mm/h) and millet (0.18 mm/h). It also grew faster on Pangola grass (0.49 mm/h) compared to corncobs (0.30 mm/h) and sawdust (0.18 mm/h). Colonization of Pangola grass with S. thermophilum was influenced by the addition of calcium salts in the form of gypsum, hydrated lime and ground limestone. For production of A. bisporus, biological efficiency (BE) on pasteurized Pangola grass pre-colonized by S. thermophilum for 4 days at 45 degrees C was more than twice (26.4%) that on grass non-colonized by S. thermophilum (11.0%). The addition of 2% hydrated lime to Pangola grass prior to colonization by S. thermophilum resulted in an additional doubling of BE of mushroom production (48.1%). These results show the possibility of developing a non-composted substrate method for producing A. bisporus without autoclaving the substrate. PMID:17331714

  9. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings. PMID:27071248

  10. Changing the energy climate: clean and green heat from grass biofuel pellets

    Uncertain energy supplies and international agreements to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have created unique opportunities for biofuel development. Pelleted fuels from warm season grasses such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can be grown for $3-4/GigaJoule (GJ) with only minor emissions of CO2. Using close-coupled gasifer combustion technology, switchgrass fuel pellets emit 86%, 91%, 71% and 89% less CO2 than electricity, heating oil, natural gas and propane, respectively. Every 100 ha of switchgrass converted into pellet form and used to displace fossil fuel for space-heating prevents the emission of 1000 tonnes of CO2. Heating an average Ontario house with a 90GJ heat demand costs $1213 with switchgrass pellets compared to $2234, $1664, $882 and $3251 with electricity, heating oil, natural gas and propane, respectively. An estimated 23.4 million acres of agricultural land in Canada could potentially be converted to perennial grass biofuel production. The depressed farm sector would benefit economically from energy farming. Low-grade heat energy derived from grass pellets could displace some of the 30,000 GigaWatt Hours of electricity currently used for home heating in Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. Surplus electricity could be exported or used to replace nuclear or coal burning plants. Contrary to prevailing beliefs that reducing GHG emissions will raise societal energy costs, pelletized grass biofuels could provide consumers with less expensive and more GHG-friendly heating options than most fossil energy sources. If the political support and direction exist to implement the Kyoto Protocol as intended, grass pellets could well become a heating fuel of choice in North America. (author)

  11. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4) perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to disadvantage

  12. A GRASS GIS application for vertical sorting of sediments analysis in River Dynamics

    Annalisa Minelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The extreme versatility in different research fields of GRASS GIS is well known. A tool for the vertical sorting of sediments in river dynamics analysis is illustrated in this work.In particular, a GRASS GIS python module has been written which implements a forecasting sorting model by Blom&Parker (2006 to analyze river bed composition’s evolution in depth in terms of grainsize.The module takes a DEM and information relative to the bed load transport composition as input. It works in two different and consecutive phases: the first one uses the GRASS capabilities in analyzing geometrical features of the river bed along a chosen river reach, the second phase is the "numerical" one and implements the forecasting model itself, then executes statistical analyses and draws graphs, by the means of matplotlib library.Moreover, a specific procedure for the import of a laser scanner cloud of points is implemented, in case the raster DEM map is not available.At the moment, the module has been applied using flumes data from Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (Minneapolis, MN and some first results have been obtained, but the "testing" phase on other flume’s data is still in progress. Moreover the module has been written for GRASS 65 on a Ubuntu Linux machine, even if the debugging of a GRASS 64, Windowsversion, is also in progress.The final aim of this work is the application of the model on natural rivers, but there are still some drawbacks. First of all the need of a high resolution DEM in input, secondly the number and type of data in input (for example the bed load composition in volume fraction per each size considered which is not easily obtainable, so the best solution is represented by testing the model on a well instrumented river reach to export in future the forecasting method to un-instrumented reaches.

  13. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety ‘BioR-231’ and ‘Hooghly Local’, respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  14. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    Jennifer M Albertine

    Full Text Available One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2, a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3, a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.. We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  15. Grass to cow milk transfer coefficient (Fm) of iodine for equilibrium and emergency situations

    Radioiodine (131I) is one of the radionuclides likely to get released into the atmosphere in case of a reactor accident, though chances of such an accident are very remote due to stringent engineering safety features. If released to the environment during an accident, 131I may enter the grass→cow→cow milk pathway, leading to increased thyroid dose to those consuming milk, especially infants and children. The estimation of site-specific grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for iodine is essential for an accurate assessment of the radiological hazard to the population in the region surrounding a nuclear power plant. In this study, a method based on the chemical separation of iodine present in grass and cow milk, and subsequent neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been optimized for the determination of stable iodine concentration in grass and cow milk. The method involves preconcentration of iodine from the sample matrix, and determination of iodine by NAA. The detection limit of stable iodine in milk was found to be 1 ng/mL. For the validation of the result, iodine concentration in NIST reference materials was determined simultaneously. The present study has yielded a Fm value of 5.6 x 10-3 d/L for dairy farm cows and 6.3 x 10-3 d/L for local breed cows under equilibrium conditions. These results are similar to the values given in International Atomic Energy Agency report (TRS-472). To simulate a rapid deposition of iodine on grass and for the estimation of Fm value for an emergency situation, grass grown in the experimental field was sprayed with stable potassium iodide solution and fed to the adopted cows, and the milk samples were collected regularly and analyzed. The Fm value for the simulated accidental situation was found to be 3.9 x 10-3 d/L. (author)

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly for the tropical grass Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Guilherme Toledo-Silva

    Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.

  17. Study on the Method of Grass Yield Model in the Source Region of Three Rivers with Multivariate Data

    This paper uses remote sensing and GIS technology to analyse the Source Region of Three Rivers (SRTR) to establish a grass yield estimation model during 2010 with remote sensing data, meteorological data, grassland type data and ground measured data. Analysis of the correlation between ground measured data, vegetation index based HJ-1A/B satellite data, meteorological data and grassland type data were used to establish the grass yield model. The grass yield model was studied by several statistical methods, such as multiple linear regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). The model's precision was validated. Finally, the best model to estimate the grass yield of Maduo County in SRTR was contrasted with the TM degraded grassland interpretation image of Maduo County from 2009. The result shows that: (1) Comparing with the multiple linear regression model, the GWR model gave a much better fitting result with the quality of fit increasing significantly from less than 0.3 to more than 0.8; (2) The most sensitive factors affecting the grass yield in SRTR were precipitation from May to August and drought index from May to August. From calculation of the five vegetation indices, MSAVI fitted the best; (3) The Maduo County grass yield estimated by the optimal model was consistent with the TM degraded grassland interpretation image, the spatial distribution of grass yield in Maduo County for 2010 showed a ''high south and low north'' pattern

  18. Factors that influence in the technology adoption in the production system: Potato - grasses - milk in the east of Antioquia

    With the purpose of knowing the factors that influence in the technology adoption in the system of production potato-grass-milk in the east of Antioquia, it was carried out a study with producing of this system. The study is exploratory, of descriptive type. As study population they took 4.119 producers, of which a sample of 249 producers was selected, using sampling for conglomerates. By means of visits to properties, they were applied a questionnaire, which contained information related with the main variable that is production potato-grass-milk and their different components. Statistical analysis was used as tests of Z for averages and percentages. In accordance with the obtained results, it could settle down that the producers manage 2 very defined systems of production of milk: potato-grass-milk with 45 percent of the producers; alone potato, they exploit it 1 percent of the producers. The producers were changed to the system potato-grass-milk, in the study area for more profitability and with the purpose of improving the herdsmen; on the contrary, those that left the system and they spent to the system grass-milk, they made it for the high costs of potato production and the manpower shortage required for the handling of the system; also, the search of more revenues. The readiness of the manpower is lower for those who manage the system grass-milk that for those of the system potato-grass-milk

  19. When did C4 Photosynthesis originate: New evidence from δ13C analysis of single grass-pollen grains

    Urban, M. A.; Nelson, D. M.; Pearson, A.; Hu, F.

    2009-12-01

    C4 grasses account for >20% of global primary productivity and dominate tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate grassland ecosystems. Thus it is vital to understand when and why C4 photosynthesis first evolved in the grass family (Poaceae). However, because of limitations of most proxies, the origin of C4 grasses remains ambiguous. Grass pollen is morphologically indistinct below the family level, making pollen analysis a crude instrument for studying C4-grass evolution. Previous studies have investigated the timing of C4 evolution using molecular tools and δ13C records from n-alkanes, ungulate teeth, and paleosols, but they yield disparate results. Molecular clocks suggest that C4 grasses first evolved between 27 and 36 Ma (million years before present), coincident with the Oligocene decline in pCO2 from >1000 to herbarium specimens. New results should help pinpoint the timing of C4 evolution. Comparison of the timing of C4 evolution with independent pCO2, paleoclimate and paleoecological records will be used to assess the factor(s) that drove the evolution and eventual dominance of C4 grasses.

  20. The effect of soybean curd waste supplementation on water buffalo ration offered local grass a basal diet

    A trial has been conducted to determine the optimal level of soybean curd waste supplementation on growing water buffalo offered local grass as a basal diet. Four ration given to water buffalo were assigned in 4 x 4 latin square design consisting of local grass +0.25% soybean curd waste (A), local grass +0.50% soybean curd waste (B), local grass + 0% soybean curd waste (C), and local grass +0.75% soybean curd waste (D). The result indicated that total intake (P<0.01), dry matter digestibility (P<0.01) and liveweight gain (P<0.025) were significantly increased by the supplementation. However, the grass intake were relatively constant for all rations. N-amonia concentration and volatile fatty acids production in the rumen liquor were significantly increased (P<0.01). Total protozol counts and rumen pH were not significantly different among the four rations, however there was a strong tendency (P<0.1) that protozol counts will be decreased due to soybean curd waste supplementation. Estimation of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen by radiophosphorous (32-P) assay indicated that soybean curd waste supplementation significantly influeced (P<0.05) the protein synthesis in the rumen. This experiment concluded that : a). soybean curd waste could stimulate he growing water buffaloes offered local grass and b). the optimal level of soybean curd waste supplementation were ranged between 0.50 - 0.75% of body weight. (authors). 15 refs, 3 tabs