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Sample records for buffel grass cenchrus

  1. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) grazed by goats and sheep / Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pastejada por ovinos e caprinos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Daiana Araújo da Silva, Formiga; José Morais, Pereira Filho; Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo, Silva; Nadjanara Souza, Oliveira; Diogo da Costa, Soares; Olaf Andreas, Bakke.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de [...] 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD) e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.). A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS) de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel. Abstract in english Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, w [...] as divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD) goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM) availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis) by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

  2. Phosphorus fertilization and growth of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliares L.) cultivars / Adubação fosfatada e crescimento de cultivares de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliares L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanderlise, Giongo; Alessandra M., Salviano; Betina R. C. dos, Santos; Emylly F., Leal.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo (P) desempenha papel importante no crescimento do sistema radicular, quanto no perfilhamento das gramíneas, fundamental para o aumento da produtividade dessas espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de cultivares (cvs.) [...] de capim-buffel e estabelecer os níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação com arranjo experimental em esquema fatorial 4 x 5 (quatro cultivares de Cenchrus ciliaris: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 e Pusa Giant e cinco doses de P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1) além de quatro repetições. Após 90 dias de cultivo foram determinadas a produção de fitomassa seca da parte áerea (MSPA) e a raiz (MSR) tal como o acúmulo de P nesses tecidos. Coletaram-se amostras de solo para determinação do teor de P e do seu nível crítico (NiCri). Em cultivares S Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus apresentaram diferentes níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta obtido na estufa demonstrando que a mesma apresentou exigência diferenciada deste nutriente para seu crescimento. A cultivar CPATSA 7754 demonstrou maior exigência em fósforo não permitindo estabelecer os níveis críticos com as doses utilizadas no presente estudo. Abstract in english Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the growth of root system as well as the tillering grass, being fundamental to increase the productivity of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of buffel grass cultivars and establ [...] ish critical values of P in plant and soil. The experimental set up was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (four Cenchrus ciliaris cvs.: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 and Pusa Giant, and five doses of P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) with four replications. After 90 days of cultivation, dry mass of shoot (DMS) and root (DMR) production and the P accumulation (Pacc) were determined. Soil samples to determine the P content and determination of the critical level (CriLev) were also collected. The cv. Biloela presented lower DMR and DMS production compared to the other cultivars. The cultivares Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus showed different critical levels of P in soil and plant, obtained in the greenhouse showing that they have different requirement of this nutrient for their growth. The cultivar CPATSA 7754 showed higher phosphorus requirement and did not permit to establish critical levels with doses used in the present study.

  3. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert / Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erick, De la Barrera.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura [...] de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda. Abstract in english The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activ [...] ity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.

  4. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

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    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda.

  5. Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Conde-Lozano; Abelardo José, Saldívar-Fitzmaurice; Florencio, Briones-Encinia; Juan Carlos, Martínez-González.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria [...] Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC) en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable) las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto). Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil) y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54), pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P Abstract in english Self-pollination in the production of seed of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). The objective of this study was to compare different forms of pollination on the characteristics of seed of four varieties of Buffel grass. The study was carried out in the greenhouse and in the field of UAM Agronomia [...] y Ciencias in the Municipa ity of Victoria, Tamaulipas. We used four varieties of Buffel grass (Comun, Nueces, T-1754 and Formidable) which were subjected to two types of pollination (free and self-pollination). The design used was a completely randomized blocks design. Day at flowering of male and female organs was measured. In addition, pollen was classified (fertile, intermediate and infertile), and the effects of self-pollination and free pollination free on the characteristics of seed were recorded. No effects were observed on days at flowering of female organs (P = 0.54), but the male organs were affected (P = 0.03), so that Formidable variety plants required 2.3 days to mature. The number of fertile, intermediate and infertile pollen grains was not affected by pollination or variety. All seed components were affected (P

  6. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds

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    R Márquez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6, en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor, tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1, el mejor control de malezas (72,1% y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%. Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela using cowpea mutant ON-30(6 and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor, weeds control every 15 days (three times using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1. A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1, the best weed control (72,1% and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22% were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  7. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Márquez; T, Córdova; L, Castejón; A, Higuera.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  8. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, R.; T Córdova; L Castejón; A. Higuera

    2003-01-01

    A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos...

  9. Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida / Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter Alves de, Vasconcelos; Albericio Pereira de, Andrade; Edson Mauro, Santos; Ricardo Loiola, Edvan; Divan Soares, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta áre [...] a destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusi [...] vely for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of the experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

  10. AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.

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    Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

  11. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Machado, Santos; Tadeu Vinhas, Voltolini; Francislene, Angelotti; Saulo de Tarso, Aidar; Agnaldo Rodrigues de Melo, Chaves.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian) were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth cham [...] bers at three temperatures (day/night): 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER), leaf appearance rate (LAR), leaf lifespan (LL) and senescence rate (SR), whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM), root mass (RM), shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

  12. Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel Use of leucaena and Cajanus cajan as protein supplements for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures

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    Antônio Alves de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena, com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha. As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan as protein sources, during the dry season for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures. Nine experimental treatments resulting from the combination among three types of pasture (buffel grass, buffel grass+Cajanus cajan, and buffel grass+leucaena and three stocking rates (4, 6 and 10 lambs/ ha were tested. Eighteen paddocks (two replicates of pastures per treatment of 0.5 ha were used. Sixty lambs with 19.4 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment were allocated to pastures with water and mineral supplement offered ad libitum. Animal liveweight was recorded at 14 day-intervals after 16 hours of fasting. Lambs on the pasture of buffel grass+leucaena showed good performance with no variation in daily liveweight gain rate, when the stocking rate increased from 4 to 6 animals/ha. Buffel grass+Cajanus cajan pasture did not improve animal performance as compared to buffel grass pasture. It was concluded that leucaena, used as protein supplement, can improve the quality of buffel grass pastures.

  13. Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel / Use of leucaena and Cajanus cajan as protein supplements for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Alves de, Souza; Gastão Barreto, Espíndola.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buff [...] el, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena), com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha). As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan as protein sources, during the dry season for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures. Nine experimental treatments resulting from the combination among three types of pasture (buffel grass, buffel grass+Caj [...] anus cajan, and buffel grass+leucaena) and three stocking rates (4, 6 and 10 lambs/ ha) were tested. Eighteen paddocks (two replicates of pastures per treatment) of 0.5 ha were used. Sixty lambs with 19.4 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment were allocated to pastures with water and mineral supplement offered ad libitum. Animal liveweight was recorded at 14 day-intervals after 16 hours of fasting. Lambs on the pasture of buffel grass+leucaena showed good performance with no variation in daily liveweight gain rate, when the stocking rate increased from 4 to 6 animals/ha. Buffel grass+Cajanus cajan pasture did not improve animal performance as compared to buffel grass pasture. It was concluded that leucaena, used as protein supplement, can improve the quality of buffel grass pastures.

  14. Características de produção do capim-buffel submetido a intensidades e freqüências de corte / Characteristics of production of buffel grass as function of cutting intensity and frequency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Edvan; E.M., Santos; D.S., Da Silva; A.P., De Andrade; R.G., Costa; W.A., Vasconcelos.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas, estruturais e a produção de biomassa do capim-buffel sob intensidades e freqüências de corte. Utilizou-se um pasto já implantado de capimbuffel, cultivar Molopo. A área total utilizada foi dividida em 20 parcelas de 8 m² cada com linha de bordadura [...] de 1 m entre as parcelas. Foi utilizado um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, tendo nas parcelas um arranjo fatorial 2x2 referente a combinações entre duas alturas de corte (60 e 80 cm) e duas alturas de resíduo (20 e 40 cm), em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais, que receberam as denominações 20-60, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. Houve efeito (p0,05), entre os tratamentos. A freqüência e a intensidade de corte influenciaram o perfilhamento, relação lâmina/colmo e a produção de matéria seca do capim-buffel tanto para o corte como para a produção total. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics and biomass production of buffel grass as a function of cut intensities and frequencies. A previously established pasture of buffel grass cultivar Molopo was used. Total area was splited in twenty 8 m² expe [...] rimental unities with 1 m border lines. A split plot scheme was used with plot in factorial scheme 2x2 to combination of two height of cut (60 and 80 cm) and two height post cut (20 and 40 cm). The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with five replicates named 2060, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. There (p0.05) between treatments. Cutting frequency and intensities influenced tillering, leaf/ stem ratio and dry matter production for both the cut as to the total.

  15. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

  16. Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

  17. Microbial and fermentation profiles, losses and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass harvested at different cutting heights

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Edson Mauro, Santos; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Ana Paula Gomes da, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva; Fleming Sena, Campos; Carlos Henrique Oliveira, Macedo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the microbial population, fermentation profile, losses and dry matter recovery, and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass at different cutting heights. To evaluate the microbial fermentation dynamics, the treatments resulted from?a 4 × 5 factorial combination co [...] nsisting of 4 cutting heights and 5 fermentation periods, in a completely randomized design with three replications. The fermentation was evaluated at the end of 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. The other characteristics of silages with 30 days were evaluated following a completely randomized design with four treatments, consisting of 4 cutting heights (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm), and five replications. Fermentation period and cutting height effects and interaction between both factors were observed on the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterobacteria and molds and yeasts. The peak of development of LAB populations was observed on the seventh day of fermentation for the heights of 40 and 50 cm, with 8.25 and 8.30 log cfu/g, respectively. The pH values of silages ranged with different cutting heights, in which at the height of 50 cm the decrease was most pronounced. However, the pH values were similar between the cutting heights at the end of 30 days of fermentation. Quadratic relationship was observed between lactic acid concentrations and cutting heights. The crude protein content behaved linearly, initially showing 128.5 g/kg DM at 30 cm, decreasing as the cutting heights increased. The neutral detergent fiber and ether extract contents increased linearly with the cutting heights. Based on microbial populations, fermentation, losses and chemical composition, it is recommended to harvest buffel grass for silage from 50 cm on.

  18. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, V. M.; Lewis, M. M.; Ostendorf, B

    2013-01-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (2...

  19. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus and evaluation of their bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%, ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.31%, fagarsterol (lupeol (1.25% and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%. Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  20. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus) and evaluation of their bioactivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Premlata, Singariya; Padma, Kumar; Krishan Kumar, Mourya.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids) of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and [...] carotenoids) of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E)-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%), ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one) (4.31%), fagarsterol (lupeol) (1.25%) and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%). Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  1. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS) AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY)

    OpenAIRE

    Singariya P.; Kumar P.; Mourya K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (root, stem, leaf and flower) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene) using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens) and ...

  2. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

  3. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel / Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.A., Souza; T.V., Voltolini; G.G.L., Araújo; L.G.R., Pereira; S.A., Moraes; C., Mistura; K.V.J., Belem; G.M.B., Moreno.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN) e hídrico (BH), de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. [...] Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2) e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9). De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia) e Biloela (3,9g/dia), e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia) e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia). Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal. Abstract in english The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB) and water balances (WB) of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred San [...] ta Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2) and % of body weight (2.9). In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day) and Biloela (3.9g/day) and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day) and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day). All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela) presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

  4. Hyperspectral band depth analysis for a better estimation of grass biomass (Cenchrus ciliaris) measured under controlled laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    O. Mutanga; A.K Skidmore

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of grass quantity is important for providing information about the productivity and functioning of rangelands. Existing indices used to estimate grass quantity, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are of limited value due to the saturation problem, especially in dense vegetation with 100% leaf area cover. Therefore, there is need to explore new techniques to resolve the saturation problem. In this study we tested the utility of band depth analysis to estimate ...

  5. Nutrient Balance of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Aganga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  6. Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman) Under Barani Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Umar Farooq; Rashid Saleem; Abdul Razzaq

    2003-01-01

    Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/de...

  7. Tizón foliar del pasto buffel: su presencia en Tamaulipas, México / Buffelgrass leaf blight: its precence in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Díaz Franco; Asunción, Méndez Rodríguez; Rubén, Garza Cedillo.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región semiárida del norte de Tamaulipas México, el pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), var. Común, predomina en un área de 260 000 ha y existen otras 302 000 con potencial para ser aprovechadas con este pasto. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución, severidad de ataque y [...] pérdidas en la producción que ocasiona el tizón foliar (Pyricularia grisea) sobre el pasto buffel. Se realizaron muestreos en praderas del norte de Tamaulipas del 13 al 18 de octubre en 15 sitios en 2002 y 12 en 2003. En cada sitio se determinó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque del tizón foliar. La pérdida de rendimiento se estimó en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2004 y otoño-invierno de 2005, mediante la comparación de plantas con y sin la protección de fungicidas. Además, se evaluó la reacción al tizón foliar en 16 cultivares de buffel introducidos. La presencia del tizón se observó en todos los sitios muestreados con una severidad promedio de 5.3 en una escala de 0-9. La mayor severidad de ataque se asoció a plantas estresadas por sequía o condiciones edáficas adversas, mientras que lamenor se observó en sitios que presentaron condiciones favorables para el desarrollo de la planta o cuando el pasto se encontró en la etapa de prefloración. La mayor severidad de Pyricularia grisea se observó en el ciclo primavera-verano (2004), comparado con el ciclo otoño-invierno (2005), debido a las condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa favorable s para el patógeno. Las pérdidas en el ciclo primavera-verano fueron de 11% en clorofila, 20-26% en biomasa y 13% en proteína; por el contrario, no se registraron pérdidas significativas en otoño-invierno. Los 16 cultivares introducidos mostraron resistencia a Pyricularia grisea. Los resultados indicaron que el tizón del pasto buffel es una enfermedad epifítica en la var. Común, en Tamaulipas, con mayor prevalencia en el ciclo primavera-verano y resistencia en cultivares introducidos. Abstract in english In the semiarid region of northern Tamaulipas, Mexico, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) var, Comun predominate in 260 000 ha and there are 360 000 additional suitable to be sown with this grass. The objective of this study was to determinate the distribution, severity and production loss caused by [...] the leaf blight (Piricularia grisea) on buffelgrass. Samples were taken from northern Tamaulipas range lands at 15 sites on 2002 and 12 sites on 2003. The incidence and severity of leaf blight was registered for every site with three replications from 8/13 to 8/18 for both years. Yield loss was determinate at spring-summer season 2004 and fall-winter 2005 by means of comparison between fungicide protected and unprotected plants. The reaction of buffelgrass to foliar blight was determinated on 16 introduced cultivars. Leaf blight presence was detected at all sites with an average severity of 5.3 in a scale from 0 to 9 .The highest attack severity was observed on plants stressed by drought or adverse edafic conditions; while the lower severity was observed on sites where favorable conditions occurred or when the grass was at the preflowering stage. At the spring-summer 2004 season losses were 11% in chlorophyll content, 20-26% in biomass and 13% in protein content; on the contrary, no significant reduction of these parameters was observed at the fall-winter season 2005. The 16 introduced cultivars showed resistance to Pyricularia gricea. Results demonstrated that buffelgrass leaf blight is an epidemic disease in the Comun var., in Tamaulipas, with high prevalence at the spring-summer season and there is resistance to the disease in introduced cultivars.

  8. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel / Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E, SILVA; DERMEVAL ARAÚJO, FURTADO; JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE, MATOS.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pel [...] o sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simula [...] ted by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

  9. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

  10. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

  11. Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection / Obtención de nuevo germoplasma en Cenchrus ciliaris L. a través de mutaciones inducidas y selección in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, López Colomba; A, Prina; S, Griffa; AN, Ribotta; E, Carloni; E, Tommasino; C, Luna; E, Biderbost; K, Grunberg.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris L., una forrajera subtropical de amplia distribución en la zona noroeste de Argentina, es un especie tetraploide (4x = 36) y apomíctica obligada. Una forma de obtener nuevo germoplasma es mediante mutaciones inducidas. En este trabajo, mutaciones físicas y químicas se combinaron co [...] n técnicas de selección in vitro a fin de obtener nuevo germoplama, con énfasis en tolerancia a salinidad y sequía. Semillas maduras de Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela fueron tratadas con rayos X (400 Gray) y con una solución de etil metano sulfonato (5,5 mM EMS durante 24 h). Para realizar la selección in vitro, las plántulas que germinaron 7 días después de los tratamientos mutagénicos fueron transferidas a tubos que contenían medio basal Murashige y Skoog, suplementado con NaCl o manitol para simular condiciones de salinidad y sequía, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron cincuenta y cuatro plantas selectas que toleraron 200 mM NaCl y 100 mM de manitol. Ambos agentes mutagénicos exhibieron similares porcentajes de variación genética medida a través de RAPDs. Este trabajo demostró que es posible generar variabilidad genética en Cenchrus ciliaris L. mediante el uso de agentes mutagénicos y selección in vitro. Abstract in english Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedu [...] res seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays treatments, germinated seeds were transferred to tubes containing Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with NaCl or mannitol to simulate salinity and drought conditions, respectively. Fifty-four selected plants were isolated which tolerated 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM mannitol. Both mutagenic agents exhibited similar percentages of induced genetic variation measured through RAPD polymorphisms. This work demonstrated that genetic variability can be generated in Cenchrus ciliaris L. using mutagenic agents and in vitro selection.

  12. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

  13. Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm, number of tillers per plant (96, dry matter yield (22 t ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forage yield and crude protein content in the Pothwar plateau conditions.

  14. EL ZACATE BUFFEL COMO UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA INCREMENTAR LA RENTABILIDAD DE LOS RANCHOS EN LA ZONA SERRANA DE SONORA

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    Fernando Ibarra Flores

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis económico comparativo para evaluar la rentabilidad actual en producción de carne de un rancho con agostaderos deteriorados y poco productivos en la zona serrana de Sonora, comparado con dos opciones que incluyen la siembra del zacate buffel [Cenchrus ciliaris (L. Link], como una alternativa para incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne. Se consideraron tres ranchos de 1,000 ha, similares en cuanto a manejo de ganado e índices reproductivos, uno de los cuales trabaja de acuerdo a su capacidad actual de producción, sin planes de mejoras a futuro. En las otras dos opciones se mejora el agostadero anualmente mediante la intersiembra de 200 ha de zacate buffel, con la variante que el primero trabaja con recursos propios y el segundo con financiamiento externo y apoyo gubernamental. Se utilizó un programa financiero con una proyección a 14 años para determinar la rentabilidad en los diversos escenarios. En todos los casos se calcularon costos reales, incluyendo los costos fijos y los de manejo, medicinas, suplementación, inversión para la siembra y compra de animales; así como las ganancias generadas por venta de crías y desechos. Los resultados muestran que el rancho deteriorado presenta una capacidad de mantenimiento constante anual de 40 Unidades Animal (U.A., mientras que el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios y financiamiento externo alcanzan una capacidad de mantenimiento máxima anual de 333 U.A. a partir del sexto año, respectivamente. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en el rancho con pastizal deteriorado varió de $ 10.85 a 22.19 por hectárea y se mantuvo relativamente estable durante los catorce años proyectados. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios fue negativa durante los primeros cinco años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el onceavo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con financiamiento fue negativa durante los primeros seis años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el décimo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en los ranchos rehabilitados al punto de estabilidad fluctuó de $ 435.09 a 449.03 por hectárea y resultó 25.7 veces superior en comparación con el rancho deteriorado sin rehabilitación. Se concluye que los productores en ranchos con pastizales en condición pobre deben de incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne para hacer la actividad ganadera más rentable. El mejoramiento de agostaderos mediante la siembra de zacate buffel es una buena alternativa para rehabilitar agostaderos deteriorados en ranchos con poca capacidad de producción en la Sierra de Sonora. Los apoyos externos vía financiamiento o programas de gobierno juegan un papel muy importante en la aplicación de prácticas de rehabilitación de agostaderos y pudiera ser la única opción para la mayoría de los productores.

  15. Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mganga, K.Z.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyariki, D.M.; M.M. Nyangito; Mwangombe, A.W.; W.N. Ekaya; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; von Kaufmann, R.; Verhagen, J.; Muiri, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall ...

  16. Ruminal digestion and chemical composition of new genotypes of buffelgrass (cenchrus ciliaris l.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Juan, García Dessommes; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Rahim, Foroughbackhch P.; Rocío, Morales Rodríguez; Graciela, García Díaz.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia e compara a produção de matéria seca (MST), conteúdo nutricional e capacidade de degradação efetiva da matéria seca (DEMS), proteína crua (DEPC) e parede celular (DEFDN) de cinco novas líneas e um híbrido de pasto buffel no nordeste do México. O consumo potencial de minerais con [...] tidos nos novos genótipos por bovinos também foi estimado. Todos os pastos se estabeleceram sob condições de temporal usando um desenho completamente ao azar com três repetições. A colheita manual de plantas foi levada adiante em 14 nov., 2000, em Nuevo León, México. A produção de MST não foi significativamente diferente entre pastos. No entanto, a proteína crua, parede celular e seus componentes (celulosa, hemi-celulosa e lignina) foram significativamente diferentes entre os pastos avaliados. Assim mesmo, DEMS, DEPC e DEFDN foram significativamente diferentes entre pastos. A híbrida "Nozes" teve os valores mais altos para degrabilidade, enquanto que a línea PI 2 teve os valores mais baixos. Ao parecer o alto conteúdo de lignina nos novos genótipos pode ter influído na baixa degradação dos nutrientes no rúmen dos borregos. Só K, Fe e Co, em todos os pastos, tiveram concentrações suficientes para satisfazer os requerimentos de gado de carne. Os resultados de produção de matéria seca e dinâmica nutricional sugerem que as novas líneas PI 1 e PI 4 podem ser consideradas como bons substitutos do híbrido Nozes para ruminantes em pastoreio no nordeste do México. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo evalúa y compara la producción de materia seca (MST), el contenido nutrimental y degradabilidad efectiva de la materia seca (DEMS), proteína cruda (DEPC) y pared celular (DEFDN) de cinco nuevas líneas y un híbrido de pasto buffel en el noreste de México. El consumo potencial de minerale [...] s contenidos en los nuevos genotipos por bovinos también fue estimado. Todos los pastos se establecieron bajo condiciones de temporal usando un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. La colecta manual de plantas fue llevada a cabo el 14 nov., 2000, en Nuevo León, México. La producción de MST no fue significativamente diferente entre zacates. Sin embargo, la proteína cruda, pared celular y sus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los pastos evaluados. Asimismo, DEMS, DEPC y DEFDN fueron significativamente diferentes entre pastos. El híbrido Nueces tuvo los valores más altos para degrabilidad, mientras la línea PI 2 tuvo los valores más bajos. Al parecer el alto contenido de lignina en los nuevos genotipos pudo haber influido en la baja degradación de los nutrientes en el rumen de los borregos. Solo K, Fe y Co, en todos los zacates, tuvieron concentraciones suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos de ganado de carne. Los resultados de producción de materia seca y dinámica nutricional sugieren que las nuevas líneas PI 1 y PI 4 pueden ser consideradas como buenos substitutos del híbrido Nueces para rumiantes en pastoreo en el noreste de México. Abstract in english This study evaluates and compares the dry matter production (TDM), chemical composition and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), crude protein (EDCP) and neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF) of the Nueces hybrid and five new genotypes of buffelgrass growing in Northeastern Mexico. Potential inta [...] ke of minerals by cattle consuming the new genotypes was also estimated. All grasses were established in a completely randomized design with three replicates in a rain fed experiment. Plants were hand harvested on Nov. 14, 2000 at Nuevo Leon, Mexico. TDM was not significantly different among genotypes. Crude protein content and cell wall and its components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were significantly different among grasses. Also, EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF were significantly different among the buffelgrass genotypes. The Nueces hybrid had the highest degradability values; in contrast, PI 2 had the lowest values. It seems that hig

  17. Water use of perennial summer grasses in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Five subtropical perennial grass species, Cenchrus ciliaris, a Cynodon hybrid, Digitaria eriantha subsp. eriantha, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum clandestinum, were subjected to four levels of water availability in a small plot trial under a rainshelter during the summer growing seasons of 1996/97 and 1997/98. This work was carried out on the Hatfield Experimental Farm of the University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. The average yields for the tufted species (C. ciliaris...

  18. Aboveground Biomass Production of Cenchrus ciliaris in Tunisian Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idi Abdelkader

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish a non destructive method for estimating the aboveground biomass of a plant species in the Tunisian arid area. We attempted to establish some models that could be used to predict the species biomass production. Field experiments were carried out on a Poaceae of a high range value Cenchrus ciliaris. The allometric relationships between the plant volume and aerial biomass were studied in autumn 2005 and spring 2006 seasons in southern Tunisia. Linear and nonlinear regressions were tested to establish the best correlations between individual aboveground biomass and plant volume parameters. Measured parameters were the plant height (H and canopy diameters. Firstly, a model of volume (canopy elliptical cylinder was tested as a predictor of plant biomass using nonlinear regression. Secondly, It was tested various relationships between the plant biomass and the mean canopy diameter (as the average of the longest canopy diameters maintained perpendicular to each other. Correlations between the aerial biomass production of individuals and their volumes produced a relatively high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.68. Also, correlations between the mean canopy diameter and the biomass production of individuals produced the best significant relationships with the highest R2. The use of the mean canopy diameter seems to be more practical for the plant biomass prediction.

  19. Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia / Levels of nitrates in a urea fertilized Kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) pasture on the high plains of Antioquia, Colombia / Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jhon Didier, Ruiz Buitrago; David, Villar Argaiz; Héctor Jairo, Correa; Manuela, Roldán; Juan Camilo, Ríos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A adubação é um dos fatores que contribuem na acumulação de nitratos da pastagem kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) do trópico. Este estudo foi realizado entre dezembro de 2012 e junho de 2013 na fazenda Paysandu da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia, localizada no corregimento Santa Elena da cida [...] de de Medellín, Antioquia. Avaliou-se a influência da adubação com nitrogênio sobre a produção e as concentrações de nitratos. O desenho experimental foi de blocos de 4 x 4 com quatro repetições nas parcelas da monocultura de pastagem kikuyo. Os tratamentos foram quatro níveis de nitrogênio aplicado como grânulos de uréia sobre a superfície (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg/ha por safra). As amostras da pastagem completa (folhas e talhos) coletaram-se aos 42 dias após adubação, com o intuito de simular a exposição ao pastoreio com gado. A biomassa mediou-se com a produção de matéria seca por hectare; os nitratos mediram-se por cromatografia iônica, expressada em partes por milhão (ppm) sobre o conteúdo de matéria seca. Não houve diferença significativa na produção de biomassa entre as diferentes taxas de aplicação de uréia; embora, todas as parcelas experimentais produziram maior biomassa comparada com as parcelas não tratadas (media 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in spanish Resumen La fertilización es uno de los factores que contribuye a la acumulación de nitratos en el pasto kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) en el trópico. Este estudio, realizado entre diciembre de 2012 y junio de 2013 en la Hacienda Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional, ubicada en Santa Elena-Medellín (A [...] ntioquia), evaluó la influencia de la fertilización con nitrógeno sobre la producción y las concentraciones de nitratos. El diseño experimental fue en bloques de 4 x 4 con cuatro repeticiones de parcelas monocultivo de pasto kikuyo. Los tratamientos fueron cuatro niveles de nitrógeno aplicado como gránulos de urea sobre la superficie (0, 50, 100 y 200 kg/ha por corte). Las muestras de pasto completo (hojas y tallos) se colectaron a los 42 días posfertilización, con el fin de simular la exposición al pastoreo con ganado. La biomasa se midió como la producción de materia seca por hectárea; los nitratos se midieron por cromatografía iónica, expresada en partes por millón (ppm) sobre el contenido de materia seca. No hubo diferencia significativa en la producción de biomasa entre las diferentes tasas de aplicación de urea; sin embargo todas las parcelas tratadas produjeron más biomasa comparadas con las parcelas no tratadas (promedio 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in english Abstract Fertilization is one of the factors that can contribute to build-up of nitrates in kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus) pastures of the tropics. Field studies to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrate concentrations were conducted between December 2012 and June 2013 [...] at the Agricultural Station of the National University at Santa Elena (Antioquia). The experimental design was a 4 x 4 block design with four replications in a monoculture paddock of kikuyu grass. Treatments were four levels of nitrogen applied as topdressing urea granules (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg/ha per plot). Whole grass samples (blades and stems) were collected at 42 days post-fertilization to mimic cattle grazing exposure. Biomass was estimated as dry matter yield per hectare and nitrates were measured by ion chromatography and expressed as parts per million (ppm) on dry matter content. No significant difference in biomass was observed between urea application rates; however, all treated plots produced more biomass than non-treated plots (mean 2.14 vs 1.12 Tons/ha, p

  20. DIE BUFFEL STRUIKEL: ’N STORIE VAN 32 BATALJON EN SY MENSE/L.J. BOTHMA

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Esterhuyse

    2011-01-01

    “Die Buffel Struikel: ’n Storie van 32 Bataljon en Sy Mense” (The Buffalo Stumbles: A Story of 32 Battalion and Its People) was written originally in Afrikaans. The author is an Afrikaans-speaking white South African who, as a member of the well-known South African 32 “foreign legion” Battalion, participated in the Namibian Border War in the 1970s and 1980s. The war was fought by an army whose operational language for the major part was Afrikaans. However, two reasons call for a review of thi...

  1. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required. PMID:21506487

  2. DIE BUFFEL STRUIKEL: ’N STORIE VAN 32 BATALJON EN SY MENSE/L.J. BOTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Esterhuyse

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available “Die Buffel Struikel: ’n Storie van 32 Bataljon en Sy Mense” (The Buffalo Stumbles: A Story of 32 Battalion and Its People was written originally in Afrikaans. The author is an Afrikaans-speaking white South African who, as a member of the well-known South African 32 “foreign legion” Battalion, participated in the Namibian Border War in the 1970s and 1980s. The war was fought by an army whose operational language for the major part was Afrikaans. However, two reasons call for a review of this book in English. Firstly, with the Western powers facing a serious insurgency threat in Iraq and elsewhere, the world has an urgent need for a new understanding, thinking and perspectives about counter-insurgency. Secondly, the book can be seen as a watershed contribution to the so-called Border War literature that, until now, has been dominated by contributions of journalists and writers with questionable motives.

  3. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) in pots / Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) en macetas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Vera; C, Medrano; A, del Villar; V, Paz; A, Páez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimenta [...] l de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta), y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta), en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta), revelando diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very [...] Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (P

  4. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae in pots Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae en macetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (PSe evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimental de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta, y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta, en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta, revelando diferencias significativas (P<0,01 entre ambos grupos poblacionales. El número de hojas fue relativamente mayor a baja densidad de plantas, y la floración se presentó en la cosecha de los 30 días. El valor del coeficiente reveló una limitada capacidad competitiva para la cosecha de los 15 días, mientras que para el segundo periodo de evaluación resultó una interacción más intensa. Se concluye que existe una fuerte competencia intraespecífica a medida que incrementa la densidad poblacional y la relación de los coeficientes (A1/Ao corroboran la presencia de esta interacción ecológica. Se recomienda continuar los estudios de competencia vegetal con otras especies de malezas de importancia agroecológica en la Planicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela.

  5. Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Dan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicações em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1, combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas.Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. This work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 , combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers. Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

  6. Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine / Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.A., Dan; L.G.M., Dan; A.L.L., Barroso; R.S., Oliveira JR.; D.G., Alonso; T.R., Finotti.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicaçõ [...] es em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1), combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos) por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas. Abstract in english Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. Thi [...] s work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 ), combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers). Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

  7. The presence of synaptic and chromosome disjunction mutants in Cenchrus ciliaris (Poaceae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Visser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic mutants are present in  Cenchrus ciliaris L This species, due to the presence of linear bivalents and occasion­al trivalents and quadrivalents, is an intermediate desynaptic species. In addition, geographical distribution and environmental factors, such as high temperatures and low humidity, could also have had an influence on the desynapsis observed.The disjunction of chromosomes during anaphase I was mostly abnormal in this desynaptic species. Precocious disjunction of chromosomes into chromatids occurred during anaphase I Due to the high incidence of this chromosome abnormality, a mutant gene,  'pc'  responsible for the disjunction of chromosomes, must be present. The absence of cytokinesis in one specimen indicates a recessive mutant gene,  'va' to be active in this species.

  8. Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladston Rafael de Arruda Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibras em detergente neutro (FDN e ácido (FDA, material mineral (MM, carboidratos totais (CHOT e não-fibrosos (CNF, respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, respectivamente.The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determination. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth., ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, ashes (ASH, total carbohydrates (TCH and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC, respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

  9. Moringa oleifera leaf extract: An innovative priming tool for rangeland grasses

    OpenAIRE

    NOUMAN, Wasif; SIDDIQUI, Muhammad Tahir; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in amino acids, ascorbate, zeatin, minerals, and many other compounds known for their growth-promoting potential. This study was planned to explore the potential of MLE as a seed priming agent to increase the germination rate and plant vigor of 3 range grasses, i.e. Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale, and Echinochloa crusgalli. The priming strategies used were hydropriming, CaCl2, PEG-8000 (-1.1 M Pa), MLE (concentrate; 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40...

  10. Grass Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  11. Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco / Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladston Rafael de Arruda, Santos; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos, Santos; Marcelo de Andrade, Ferreira; Mário de Andrade, Lira; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Júnior; Maria José da, Silva.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de [...] amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS)/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), fibras em detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), material mineral (MM), carboidratos totais (CHOT) e não-fibrosos (CNF), respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), respectivamente. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determinati [...] on. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth.), ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ashes (ASH), total carbohydrates (TCH) and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC), respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

  12. Herbicidal Control of Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of the herbicidal application for controlling undesirable grasses, by the Defence Services, Military farms and Inter Service Organisations is highlighted. Control of grasses by herbicidal chemicals, registered under the Insecticides Act 1968 in this country, is reviewed apart from a mention of non-chemical methods.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Goh, C L; Tan, H T; Ng, S K; Wong, W K

    1997-07-01

    This study attempts to demonstrate the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from grass, and to develop a patch test series to screen patients with grass intolerance. 6 common grass species from lawns and military training areas were collected. Solvent extracts of polar, non-polar and volatile fractions were prepared and used for patch testing in 20 control subjects and 46 patients with a history of grass intolerance. The 20 controls had negative responses to patch testing. 5 out of 46 patients had positive patch tests to Axonopus compressus (carpet grass), Ischaemum muticum (seashore centipede grass), Imperata cylindrica (lalang), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass). Reactions to the non-polar fraction for all 5 species were noted. This study demonstrates the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from various common species of grass. In our series, this is seen in 11% of those with a history of grass intolerance. PMID:9255483

  14. Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramíneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto / Effect of polycropping on the establishment of three tropical grasses, on a Vertisol soil of the Cauto Valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I, Gómez; J. L, Fernández; L. L, Estrada; Yuseika, Olivera; A, Botello.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramíneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramíneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide) y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino [...] ; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz) en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro réplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interacción altamente significativa (p Abstract in english In order to evaluate the influence of polycropping on the establishment of grasses, on a Vertisol soil, three tropical grasses (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela and Chloris gayana cv. Callide) and five legumes (Vigna radiata, variety mung bean; and Vigna unguiculata, varieti [...] es: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 and IITA precoz) were sown in polycrop and monocrop systems. The design was split plots, with four replications and 18 treatments. The crop combinations did not affect the pasture establishment. There was highly significant interaction (p

  15. Prairies of marine grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine grasses are aquatic plants with flowers that they live and they complete their cycles of life completely submerged in saline or brackish means, the paper also speaks about their distribution and extension

  16. Modelling grass digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental characteristics of plants and their organs and the effects of environmental factors and management practices. The main objective of this study was a thorough analysis of changes in composition and digestibility of plant ...

  17. Germinación de cuatro pastos bajo condiciones de estrés salino / Germination of four grasses under salt stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Ruiz; O, Terenti.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las forrajeras cultivadas son en Argentina el sustento fundamental de los sistemas ganaderos tradicionales. Actualmente, la implantación de pasturas en zonas cada vez más áridas es uno de los principales desafíos para la ganadería. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la germinación de cuatro esp [...] ecies forrajeras: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas y Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino. Se utilizaron soluciones de NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 y Manitol como soluto inerte, obteniéndose potenciales osmóticos (?o) de -0,5, -1, -1,5, -2,0 y -2,5 MPa. Las semillas se sembraron en cajas de Petri sobre papel de germinación, se regaron con 4 mL de solución y se incubaron a 25 °C. El diseño fue al azar con 4 repeticiones. Diariamente, durante 10 días, se contó el número de semillas germinadas y con los datos obtenidos se calculó el porcentaje, la velocidad de germinación (ERI) y el tiempo medio de germinación (MT). Los datos se analizaron con el software estadístico Infostat. A medida que se incrementó la concentración de la solución se observó que la germinación disminuyó en las cuatro especies. En general las sales de SO4-2 resultaron más perjudiciales para la germinación que las de Cl-. Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas resultó la especie más tolerante al estrés hídrico inducido con manitol, registrando porcentajes de germinación cercanos al 50% aún en ?o de -2,5 MPa. En contraste, Panicumcoloratun cv Klein verde fue la especie menos tolerante a condiciones de estrés, presentando bajos porcentajes de germinación a -1 MPa y ninguna respuesta a -1.5 MPa o potenciales hídricos menores, independientemente del soluto utilizado. Abstract in english In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubesce [...] ns, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (?o) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of deionized water and incubated to 25 °C. We used a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. During 10 days, the number of sprouted seeds was counted daily, and the percentage of germination, the speed of germination (ERI) and the mean time to germination (MTG), were calculated. Data were analyzed with the statistical software Infostat. Germination declined with increasing concentration of the solution in the four species. In general, salts of SO4-2 proved more damaging to the germination than those of Cl-.Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas was the most water stress tolerant species, with percentages of germination close to 50% even in ?o of -2.5 MPa. On the contrary, Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde was the less tolerant, with low percentages of germination at -1 MPa, and no response to ?o of -1.5 MPa or lower.

  18. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  19. REPELENCIA DE LOS PASTOS Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha Y Cenchrus ciliaris SOBRE LARVAS DE GARRAPATA Amblyomma cajennense F. (Acari:Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulloa Castañeda RR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trópico y subtropico a nivel mundial, uno de los principales problemas zoosanitarios que afectan la productividad ganadera, principalmente en bovinos es la garrapata, además trasmiten las enfermedades Anaplasmosis y Babesiosis. El establecimiento de pastos repelentes a la garrapata es un control biológico alternativo para solucionar este problema. Por tanto, el objetivo fue determinar la repelencia en Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha y Cenchrus ciliaris sobre larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. La investigación se realizó en la localidad de Mora, municipio de Tepic, Nayarit, México. Se formaron 24 parcelas de 35 m2 a distancia entre ellas de 1 m, con cinco unidades de muestreo cada una (5 x 1 m de ancho y pasillos de 0.5 m entre unidades. Las unidades se infestaron con aproximadamente 5,000 larvas de A. cajenennse, el efecto anti-garrapata de los pastos se evaluó mediante la recuperación de larvas adheridas por método de Franela en los tiempos 7, 14, 21 días de post-infestación. Los tratamientos fueron los cuatro pastos descritos con seis repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados fueron analizados por el procedimiento PROC MIXED de SAS y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p<0.05, donde M. minutiflora presentó el mayor efecto repelente (p<0.05 por la menor cantidad de larvas recuperadas (2.39 ± 0.13 que el resto de los pastos, en C. ciliaris (1,192.04 ± 10.3, A. gayanus (72.48 ± 10.30 y B. brizantha (56.48 ± 11.68, en los dos últimos tratamientos no hubo significación en larvas recolectadas. Para los tres tiempos de colecta también se mostraron diferencias (p<0.05 en la media de larvas recuperadas en los pastos. Se concluye que los zacates Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus y Brachiaria brizantha manifestaron repelencia contra larvas de A. cajennense, sin embargo el que muestra mayor es M. minutiflora.

  20. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  1. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  2. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

  3. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    2012-01-01

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes place after the pupa-ries have obtained 114 ± 21 day-degrees calculated from 1. January, with a biologi-cal development zero at 5 °C. The top of the flying curve achieves after 179 ± 29 day-degrees. With this information, the farmers can fairly accurately spray just before the flight curve has its maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticideapplication in meadow-grass every year.

  4. Desempenho produtivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas à base de feno de gramíneas tropicais Performance of sheep fed tropical grass hay based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguiar Camurça

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo e o consumo de matéria seca e nutrientes em ovinos confinados e alimentados com dietas à base de fenos das gramíneas: capim-elefante, capim-buffel, capim-milhã-roxa e capim-urochloa. Foram utilizados 32 animais da raça Santa Inês (16 machos e 16 femeas com peso médio de 26,5 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por dois animais. Os animais apresentaram respostas semelhantes para todos os parâmetros avaliados. O ganho de peso foi semelhante entre as dietas estudadas, sendo o valor médio para ganho de peso de 95 g/animal/dia. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de matéria seca e fibra detergente neutro entre as várias dietas estudadas. As dietas à base de feno de milhã-roxa permitiram maior consumo de proteína bruta. Concluiu-se que os fenos avaliados podem ser utilizados na alimentação de ovinos.A study was conducted to evaluate the performance and the dry matter and nutrients intake in feedlot sheep fed diets with different levels of hray from tropical grasses: elephantgrass, buffelgrass, "milhã-roxa" and "urochloa"grass. Santa Inês hairy sheep (16 males and 16 females; average weight = 26,5 kg. A completely randomized design, with four replicates and two animals per experimental unit, was used. Males and females showed the same response to all treatments. Weight gain was similar for all diets, with an average of 95 g/animal/day. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake were not different among all treatments. However, diets with "milhã-rôxa" hay were associated to the highest crude protein intake. It was concluded that all types of hay can be used for feedlot sheep.

  5. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion results in the most efficient use of resources to achieve lowest invaded acreage in the long-term.

  6. The Physical Analyze of Local Grass

    OpenAIRE

    FM Suhartati; Wardhana Suryapratama; S Rahayu

    2004-01-01

    A research has been conducted to analyze physical characteristics of local grass. The aimed of this research was to observe grass physical characteristics, which are bulkiness, water regain capacity and water solubility. Also to observe correlation of water regain capacity to dry matter and organic matter digestibility as well as its degradation rate during 0, 12, 18 and 24 h incubation, in sacco, using 2 fistulae cows. Five local grass were tested in this research, which are field grass, el...

  7. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show that the potential annual yield of biomass obtainable from roadside verges varies widely depending on the local conditions. The net energy gain (NEG) from harvest, collection, transport, storage and digestion o...

  8. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green fodder yield (2010, dry matter yield (2009 and 2010, crude protein yield (2011 and crude protein per cent (2010 while Guinea grass CO (GG 3 ranked first at All India level for green fodder yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012, dry matter yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012 and crude protein yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 had recorded significantly higher mean green fodder yield (GFY of 1082 q/ha/year, dry matter yield (DMY of 239.03 q/ha/yr and crude protein yield (CPY of 18.32 q/ha/yr in AICRP on Forage crops trials over the qualifying and national check varieties. Similarly, Guinea grass CO (GG 3 too registered a higher mean GFY, DMY and CPY of 1082.4, 229.3 and 20.5 q/ha/year respectively over the qualifying and national check varieties.

  9. The Physical Analyze of Local Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Suhartati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to analyze physical characteristics of local grass. The aimed of this research was to observe grass physical characteristics, which are bulkiness, water regain capacity and water solubility. Also to observe correlation of water regain capacity to dry matter and organic matter digestibility as well as its degradation rate during 0, 12, 18 and 24 h incubation, in sacco, using 2 fistulae cows. Five local grass were tested in this research, which are field grass, elephant grass, brachiaria grass, king grass and setaria. Fistulae cows consumed forages and concentrates with ratio of 70:30, minimum protein level of 12% and minimum TDN of 60%. Physical characteristics data that obtained then analyzed using analysis of variance. Furthermore, honestly significant different was also performed. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility data that obtained were analyzed with regression of physical characteristics. Result showed that brachiaria grass has poor water regain capacity and water solubility. There are positive linear correlation between water regains capacity with dry matter and organic matter digestibility. (Animal Production 6(1: 37-42 (2004 Key Words: Bulkiness, Water Regain Capacity, Water Solubility, Dry Matter and Organic Matter Digestibility

  10. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    OpenAIRE

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantificationThe potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for characterisation of grass swards was explored with respect to growth monitoring, detection of nitrogen and drought stress, and assessment of dry matter yield, clover content, nutrient content, feeding value, sward...

  11. Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales: Revisión / Apomixis importance for tropical forage grass selection and breeding: Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adrián R., Quero Carrillo; Javier F., Enríquez Quiroz; Carlos R., Morales Nieto; Leonor, Miranda Jiménez.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apomixis es un tipo reproductivo donde la producción de semilla ocurre sin fusión de gametos, resultando por generaciones, en descendencia que genéticamente, es copia fiel del progenitor materno. La apomixis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida entre las gramíneas forrajeras tropicales: Bothriochloa [...] , Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. Las especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México. Abstract in english Apomixis is a reproductive system resulting in seed production without gametes fusion, and produces, through generations, offspring that is a genetic copy from the maternal progenitor. Apomixis importance is widespread among tropical grasses: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchru [...] s, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum, Urochloa, among the most important. Apomictic species contain diploid as well as polyploid individuals conforming "agamic complexes" and reproductive barriers limited both by apomixis as well as ploidy level which has a great impact on apomictic species utilization. Diploid individuals maintain active the sexuality and these are rare out of the center of specie's genetic origin center. Polyploid individuals in nature are apomictic, and sexual individuals may be induced to polyploidy in the laboratory, allowing hybrid descendants production. Genetic richness originated within the specie's center of diversity is the basis to overcome productive challenges and ecological stability: dry season productivity, nitrogen fixation, forage quality, pest and disease resistance, etc.; as it has been shown by successful breeding programs for Brachiaria and Panicum, between the most recognized for Latin America, and Cenchrus in USA. Apomixis research advancements has elucidated the biology for this reproductive process as well as the techniques for its manipulation; however, the impact of this advancements on forage research in México has promoted a critical review on forage genetic resources utilization, resulting in an increased interest on hybrid material production to face the requirements for extensive grazing production systems in Mexico.

  12. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Araújo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus, orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii, feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris; os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1 comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes.Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to fertilization. Cenchrus ciliaris had higher K concentrations and contents than the legumes, indicating a larger K absorption capacity. There was no correspondence between soil analysis and nutrient supplying capacity.

  13. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco / Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo R., Araújo; Tácio O. da, Silva; Rômulo S. C., Menezes; Vânia da S., Fraga; Everardo V. de S. B., Sampaio.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus), orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii), feijão-de- [...] rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides) e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris); os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1) comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes. Abstract in english Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides) and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) [...] ; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to fertilization. Cenchrus ciliaris had higher K concentrations and contents than the legumes, indicating a larger K absorption capacity. There was no correspondence between soil analysis and nutrient supplying capacity.

  14. X meeting utenti GRASS e GFOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 10th meeting of GRASS & GFOSS usersThe 10th Italian Congress of GRASS GIS and Geospatial Free and Open Source Software (GFOSS was held on the26 and 27 Feb in Cagliari. Highlights included updates on major GFOSS projects (GRASS, QGIS, the presentation of new projects (SpatiaLite and the public release of a free 3D visualization application suitable for distribution over the internet (RATMAN. Many users and developers connected to forge new business relationships and share new ideas.

  15. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  16. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  17. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  18. Rendering Grass in Real Time with Dynamic Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bouatouch, Kadi; Boulanger, Kévin; Pattanaik, Sumanta,

    2006-01-01

    Since grass is very abundant on the Earth's surface, it is an important element of natural 3D scenes. Real-time realistic rendering of grass has always been difficult due to the huge number of grass blades. Overcoming this geometric complexity usually requires many coarse approximations to provide interactive frame rates. However, the performance comes at the cost of poor lighting quality and lack of detail of the grass. In this report, we describe a grass rendering technique that allows bett...

  19. Afforestation of degraded grass land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basappa, B.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

  20. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.L. Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1, clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1, tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1, haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones, applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 , clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 , tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 , fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 , haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 and control (no herbicide. In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

  1. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  2. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  3. Elemental analysis of savannah grass' burning ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to quantify the biomass burning emissions, the main atmospheric pollution source of tropical and subtropical regions, we carried out the analysis of ashes that are also formed during these fires. To this end, we developed analytical methods to characterize the composition of savannah grass burning ashes by using X-ray fluorescence for mineral elements and microanalysis for C, H, O and N. Samples used in this work have been collected during laboratory combustion experiments, with chemically well-defined natural savannah grasses from Ivory Coasts and South Africa. The reproducibility and efficiency of different developed procedures have been studies. The analytical relative precision is generally better than 5%. This development has allowed to establish, for the first time, the global mass balance of ashes resulting from savannah grass burning. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species

  5. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.

    2011-01-01

    Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology in agronomy and anaerobic digestion sectors and the need for rural development and sustainable energy production, is an attractive solution that fulfils many legislative, agronomic and environmental requirements.

  6. Project work: »From grass to ice cream«

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen?i?, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis presents the process of the research of a closed-ended problem, namely on the subject of “From Grass to Ice Cream”. The children’s own activity in the research of the “milk path” (grass-cow-milk-dairy-dairy products-ice cream-shop) is presented. The first part of the theoretical part summarises what natural science for children should be like, presents learning according to High/Scoop’s preschool curriculum, and describes the closed-ended research method. The second part...

  7. Technology Optimization of Enzymolysis of Burmuda Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose can be degraded by enzyme to glucose, which provide carbon source for ethanol fermentation. This study, taking Burmuda grass as material, analyzed effects of temperature, time, pH, PBS dosage and ratio of enzyme on reducing sugar. It came to the conclusion that the best conditions of the enzymolysis of Burmuda grass are as follows: 50°C for temperature, 32 h for time, 4.20 for pH, 2 mL for PBS dosage, 4:3 for the ratio of xylanase and cellulase, the yield of reducing sugar reached 78.63%.

  8. Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Qiu; Leiting Chen; Jim X Chen; Yugang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dyn...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

  10. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; T?íska, Jan; Vrchotová, Nad?žda; Kolá?, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 26, ?. 4 (2013), s. 199-203. ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  11. Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy: Not Only Switchgrass!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many crop species will be required to meet goals for energy production from biomass and biofuels. Perennial grasses will be one of the more important categories of crops, partly due to high biomass yield potential, the native status of many species, and their potential to serve multiple functions th...

  12. Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Volaire, Florence; NORTON, MARK

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait.

  13. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  14. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

  15. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  16. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel. 42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively. The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.

  17. A REVIEW ON LEMON GRASS: AGRICULTURAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lemongrass (Cymbopogan flexuosus and Cymbopogan Citraus is regarded as one of the grass which is commonly available in India and abroad. It is widely used in different conditions of pain and discomfort. The oil (Lemongrass oil obtained from the grass has diverse medicinal value. It also produces semi-synthetic Vitamin A that reduces the risk of Xerophthalmia and Night blindness. The grass has great benefits to mankind as it revitalizes the body and mind, helps with infections and act as muscle and skin toner. This review will explore the plant / grass and also suggest for more cultivation of the grass because of its medicinal importance.

  18. Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda / In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Salinas-Chavira; Juan Carlos, Gutiérrez-González; Ramón, García-Castillo; Ramiro, López-Trujillo; Arturo, Duarte-Ortuño.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilid [...] ad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ruminal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag techn [...] ique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

  19. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos, Santos; Mário de Andrade, Lira; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos, Santos; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de, Mello.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pen [...] nisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p

  20. Fused silica 'glass grass': fabrication and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifications of surface morphology significantly improve integration possibilities and properties of materials in NEMS, MEMS and µTAS, especially of fused silica. Self-organized nanostructures in fused silica, termed 'glass grass', produced by plasma dry etching methods are investigated. These structures appear as 'grass', 'needles', 'pillars' or even 'tubes' depending on etching conditions. A comprehensive study of surface morphology modification parameters, regarding reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) (inductive coupled plasma (ICP)), is presented. The nanostructures are described and characterized by shape, geometry and density with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray. The influences of coil/platen power, flow rates, etch gases, pressure and etch time on the geometry are derived. Application experiments, such as bonding technologies, which support integration into hybrid material systems, and cell adhesion investigations, are carried out.

  1. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  2. Investigations on herbicide resistant grass weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Balgheim, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    Weeds are one of the most troublesome threats for farmers, causing high yield losses and serving as hosts for pathogens and insect pests. Since the introduction of chemical weed control agricultural production systems have changed. During the last years the number of herbicide resistant grass weeds is steadily increasing especially in cereal monocultures. These monocultures are characterised by the repeated use of herbicides with the same modes of action and minimum-tillage practices. All the...

  3. Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nagwa R.A. Hussein; Sohir T. Hamed; Muhammed A. Zaki; Osman, Ahmed K.

    2012-01-01

    The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

  4. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants r...

  5. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioener...

  6. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  7. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi? Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  8. Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

  9. Revegetation of coal mine spoil using pasture on the Darling Downs of Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M.J.; Roberts, B.R.

    1986-09-01

    Results are given of a revegetation experiment established on a spoil heap of the exploratory coal open-cut near Millmerran on the Darling Downs of southern Queensland. The experiment tested buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), and the legumes siratro (macroptilium atropurpureum) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). This experiment demonstrates that: (a) persistent pastures can be established on spoil at Millmerran as they have been on coal spoils elsewhere in eastern Australia: (b) a surface covering of 20-30 cm of suitable soil is adequate for good pasture establishment and persistence on spoil even on slopes up to 33%; (c) initial amendments with phosphatic and nitrogenous fertilizers produced a small positive response in cover and yield which went with time, but the pastures continue to persist and flourish; (d) the legumes siratro and lucerne can be established in such pastures. The relevance of these experimental results to post-mining land use are discussed. 16 references.

  10. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Chenyang Zhan; Bingru Huang

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes th...

  11. Study of waving of grass using a soap film model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi; Bandi, Mahesh; Mahadevan, L.; Mahadevan, Amala; Mandre, Shreyas

    2012-02-01

    Wind blowing over a grass field incites synchronized response from the grass blades, which appear as waves. This effect is called Mo-nami in a terrestrial setting, while in an aquatic setting it is termed as Ho-nami. We use a combination of experimental observations, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis to understand this effect. The experiment is conducted in two-dimensional realization of these phenomena in a gravity driven soap film tunnel. Nylon filaments attached to the boundaries of the soap film play the role of the grass. We provide a preliminary characterization of this analog model for the synchronized oscillations of grass.

  12. Study of Waving of grass using soap film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, Amala; Mahadevan, L.; Bandi, Mahesh

    2012-11-01

    Wind blowing over a grass field incites synchronized response from the grass blades, which appear as waves. This effect is called Mo-nami in a terrestrial setting, while in an aquatic setting it is termed as Ho-nami. We use a combination of experimental observations, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis to understand this effect. The experiment is conducted in two-dimensional realization of these phenomenon in a gravity driven soap film tunnel. Nylon filaments attached to the boundaries of the soap film play the role of the grass. We provide a preliminary characterization of this analog model for synchronized oscillations of grass.

  13. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Eduardo R.; Tácio O. da Silva; Rômulo S. C. Menezes; Vânia da S. Fraga; Everardo V. de S. B. Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus), orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii), feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides) e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris); os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg...

  14. Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Aganga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m. They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.

  15. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; SEWARD, H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  16. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  17. Germination of native grasses with potential application in the recovery of degraded areas in Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil / Germinação de gramíneas nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero com potencial aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurílio Assis, Figueiredo; Hudson Eustáquio, Baêta; Alessandra Rodrigues, Kozovits.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As gramíneas nativas apresentam potencial para revegetação de áreas degradadas, no entanto, devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre sua biologia, dá-se preferência ao uso de espécies exóticas, que podem ser invasoras, afetando assim a biodiversidade local. No intuito de ampliar o conhecimento acerca da p [...] ropagação via sementes de espécies nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), e desta forma, indicar possíveis candidatas a aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas da região, este trabalho objetivou avaliar os padrões germinativos das seguintes gramíneas: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.). Chase e Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. As espiguetas (com presença ou não das estruturas que envolviam a cariopse, dependendo da espécie) foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1-controle; T2-umedecimento do substrato com 0,2% de nitrato de potássio, T3-aquecimento a 80 ºC por 2 minutos, T4-escarificação com ácido sulfúrico (exceto gênero Andropogon) e para os gêneros Andropogon e Setaria, T5-armazenamento a temperatura ambiente e T6-armazenamento sob refrigeração. Os tratamentos foram realizados em 4 repetições de 25 cariopses colocadas para germinar a temperatura de 25 ºC e iluminação constante. Variação significativa foi observada quando comparadas as quantidades de germinações ocorridas entre as semanas, entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies. Para o gênero Andropogon o tratamento mais eficiente foi T6, seguido por T2 em A. bicornis e T3 em A. leucostachyus. T6 também foi o tratamento mais eficiente para S. parviflora, seguido por T5 e T2. C. brownii apresentou resultados próximos sob T1, T2 e T3 (média 39%). E. inflexa e A. euprepes apresentaram altos índices de dormência que não foram superadas pelos tratamentos propostos. A. bicornis, A. leucostachyus, S. parviflora e C. brownii apresentaram maiores potenciais de germinação, sendo possíveis candidatas para recuperação de áreas degradas no QF. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos complementares com os tratamentos mais eficientes e testes de germinação e estabelecimento em condições de campo. Abstract in english Native grasses are potential species to be used in land rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of better knowledge of their performance, preference is given to exotic plants, which may be invasive and negatively affect the local biodiversity. In order to better understand the propagation of native [...] species of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using their seeds, and in so doing, indicate possible candidates for land rehabilitation, this study investigated the germination patterns of the following grasses: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen; Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, and Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. The spikelets (depending on the species, removing or not the structures that surround the caryopsis) were treated as follows: T1-Control, T2-moistening with 0.2% potassium nitrate, T3-heating at 80 ºC for 2 minutes, T4-scarification with sulfuric acid (except genus Andropogon) and, for genera Andropogon and Setaria T5-storage at room temperature and T6- refrigerated storage. The treatment was repeated four times for 25 caryopses incubated at 25 ºC and constant light. Significant variation was observed when comparing germination rates from week to week, treatment to treatment and species to species. The most efficient treatment for genus Andropogon was T6, followed by T2 for A. bicornis and T3 for A. leucostachyus. T6 was also the most effective treatment for S. parviflora, followed by T5 and T2. C. brownii showed similar results when applying T1, T2 and T3 (mean 39%). E. inflexa and A. euprepes showed high levels of dormancy that were not overcome by the proposed treatments. A. bicornis, A. leucostach

  18. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  19. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  20. Intercropping of four Leucaena cultivars with three grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relwani, L.L.; Nakat, R.V.; Khandale, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    A table shows the yield of DM in 809 days from each of Leucaena leucocephala varieties K8, Hawaiian common, Peru and Cunningham, interplanted with each of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Hybrid Napier NB 21 (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Total yield was greatest with the Cunningham/Hybrid Napier combination.

  1. Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Qiu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dynamic simulation of grass field swaying in wind. The representation of large-scale grassland relies on three different levels of detail that reduce the rendering cost and still allow high-fidelity rendering of grass close to the viewer. To simulate real-time waggle of grasses, some physically based methods and procedural approaches are put forward according to different levels of detail. Experiments demonstrate that our method not only can realistically render the animated grass scenes in wind, but also can support the variable wind field.

  2. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  3. Grass Lignin Acylation: p-Coumaroyl Transferase Activity and Cell Wall Characteristics of C3 and C4 Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasses have always been a predominate source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Species belonging to the C3 and C4 grass types have recently been championed as feedstock sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermenta...

  4. Production of organic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella and GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Chandra Shaha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the growth and production of grass carp and tilapia cultured organically using napier grass in Bangabanbhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh from March-June, 2013. Three stocking ratios were tested: grass carp at 0.6 fish/m2 with GIFT tilapia at 0.3 fish/m2 (T1, grass carp at 0.6 fish/m2 with GIFT tilapia at 0.6 fish/m2 (T2, grass carp at 0.6 fish/m2 with GIFT tilapia at 0.9 fish/m2 (T3 and grass carp only at 0.6 fish/m2 as control (T4. Chopped fresh napier grass leaf was the sole nutrient input and provided twice daily. The water quality parameters were within suitable ranges for fish culture. Grass carp attained a daily growth increment ranging from 2.80-3.73 g/day and GIFT tilapia from 1.30-1.86 g/day. The combined yields was significantly higher (P<0.05 in stocking ratio of 1:1 (2.72 t/ha/90 days compared to other stocking ratios. The result indicates on the basis of benefit-cost-ratio that the farmer’s income will be around double or more in the combined production of organic grass carp and tilapia with stocking ratio of 1:1 than the other stocking ratios. The density of grass carp should be further studied.

  5. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Moisés; Brandt, Tove

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet) for su...

  6. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF THE EXCLUSION OF JOHNSON GRASS BY TALL GRASS PRAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn A. Semtner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, plant distribution typically has been studied with the purpose of learning why a species grows and survives where it does; but why a species does not survive in a particular habitat has rarely been studied, although it may be just as important. According to the US Department of Agriculture, Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.; formerly Johnson grass] is listed as an agricultural pest in most states south of the 42nd parallel. Control of Johnsongrass inagricultural fields involves various labor intensive cultural, mechanical, and chemical means. Release of a bio-control agent has not been suitable for intensively cropped areas. An agriculturally important weed and prominent member of early stage secondary succession, Johnsongrass is not present in later stages of prairie succession. Various environmental factors (biotic and abiotic that might be involved in restricting Johnsongrass survival were examined in this research. In two sites in Oklahoma, soil conditions were found to be more favorable for survival and growth of Johnsongrass in undisturbed prairie than in the disturbed areas in which Johnsongrass was found vigorously growing. However, even when its rhizomes were introduced into mature prairie, Johnsongrass did not thrive. In laboratory and field trials, presence of the living dominant prairie grasses or leachate from living or dead leaf blades seemed to influence growth and survival of Johnsongrass rhizomes. The prairie grasses, little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx. Nash] and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L. Nash], seem to play a similarallelopathic role in restricting the growth of Johnsongrass to outside of the prairies. Looking at this past study might lead to new methods for the future. (Semtner 2012

  7. Application of image analysis for grass tillering determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G??b, Tomasz; Sadowska, Urszula; ?abi?ski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Tillering is defined as the process of above-ground shoot production by a single plant. The number of grass tillers is one of the most important parameters in ecology and breeding studies. The number of tillers is usually determined by manually counting the separated shoots from a single plant. Unfortunately, this method is too time-consuming. In this study, a new method for counting grass tillers based on image analysis is presented. The usefulness of the method was evaluated for five grass species, Phleum pratense, Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca pratensis and Bromus unioloides. The grass bunches were prepared for analysis by cutting and tip painting. The images obtained were analysed using an automatic procedure with separation of shoots and other objects based on morphological parameters. It was found that image analysis allows for very quick and accurate counting of grass tillers. However, the set of morphological parameters for object recognition must be selected individually for different grass species. This method can be recommended as a replacement for the traditional, time-consuming method in grass breeding. PMID:26446128

  8. Trees improve grass quality for herbivores in African savannas

    OpenAIRE

    Treydte, A.C.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T; Ludwig, F.

    2007-01-01

    The tree-grass interactions of African savannas are mainly determined by varying rainfall patterns and soil fertility. Large savanna trees are known to modify soil nutrient conditions, but whether this has an impact on the quality of herbaceous vegetation is unclear. However, if this were the case, then the removal of trees might also affect the structure and quality of the grass layer. We studied the impact of large nitrogen- and non-nitrogen fixing trees on the sub-canopy (SC) grass layer i...

  9. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  10. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  11. Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

  12. Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (32P, 86Rb and 45Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of 86Rb and 32P

  13. Designing a New Raster Sub-System for GRASS-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hruby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a design of a new raster sub-system intended for modern GIS systems open for client and server operation, database connection and strong application interface (API. Motivation for such a design comes from the current state of API working in GRASS 6. If found attractive, the here presented design and its implementation (referred as RG7 may be integrated to the future new generation of the GRASS Geographical Information System version 7-8. The paper describes in details the concept of raster tiling, computer storage of rasters and basic raster access procedures. Finally, the paper gives a simple benchmarking experiment of random read access to raster files imported from the Spearfish dataset. The experiment compares the early implementation of RG7 with the current implementation of rasters in GRASS 6. As the result, the experiment shows the RG7 to be significantly faster than GRASS in random read access to large raster files.

  14. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. It gives a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  15. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  16. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole; Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have a significant influence on a range of crop and soil parameters (Hamza & Anderson, 2005; Raper, 2005). For grass and especially clover, the yield response is negative as a function of traffic intensity (e.g. Frost, 1988).  During the growing season, conventional grass-clover production for silage experience high traffic intensities due to operations like fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass into t...

  17. Chemical Compositions and Nutrient Degradation of Elephant Grass Silage Ensiled with Black Tea Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, B; MN Lekitoo; Umiyati

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical compositions and nutrient degradation during ensiling of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage with black tea waste (BTW) addition. Four silage treatments were elephant grass (S0); elephant grass + 100 g BTW/ kg fresh matter (S1); elephant grass + 200 g BTW/kg fresh matter (S2); elephant grass + 300 g BTW/kg fresh matter. About 220 g of silage material were ensiled for 30 days at room temperature (approximately 28°C). Three replicates were prepared ...

  18. Rendering Grass in Real-Time with Dynamic Light Sources and Shadows

    OpenAIRE

    Boulanger, Kévin; Pattanaik, Sumanta,; Bouatouch, Kadi

    2006-01-01

    Since grass is very abundant on the Earth's surface, it is an important element of natural 3D scenes. Real-time realistic rendering of grass has always been difficult due to the huge number of grass blades. Overcoming this geometric complexity usually requires many coarse approximations to provide interactive frame rates. However, the performance comes at the cost of poor lighting quality and lack of detail of the grass. In this report, we describe a grass rendering technique that allows bett...

  19. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole; Olesen, Hans Jørgen; Cechetto, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass into trailers with a forage harvester.  Normally, the traffic is spread throughout the whole field area during the growth season. Hence, the tracks formed by the machines will have different impacts on the g...

  20. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  1. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon; Kunn Kangvansaichol; Vorakan Burapatana; Ratanavalee Inochanon; Pakorn Winayanuwattikun; Tikamporn Yongvanich; Warawut Chulalaksananukul

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification....

  2. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  3. Nitrogen cycle in pure grass and grass/legume pastures. Evaluation of pasture sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact on pasture sustainability of the introduction of a forage legume (Desmodium ovalifolium) into a Brachiaria humidicola pasture, studies of the contribution of legume N2 fixation, litter recycling, the plant material on offer and the animal live weight gain were made on grazed pure grass and mixed pastures at three different grazing pressures at the CEPLAC field station at Itabela in the Atlantic forest region of souther Bahia. The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to D. ovalifolium was estimated to be approximately 50% of plant N in a satellite experiment using the 15N isotope dilution technique. Evaluation of the plant material on offer showed that the proportion of legume in the mixed swards ranged between 39% (at the lowest stocking rate of two animals/ha) and 16 and 2% (three and four animals/ha, respectively). The total contribution of BNF was calculated at 74, 28 and 3 kg N·ha·a-1 for the three stocking rates, respectively. Litter deposition varied little between the different treatments, but the N content of the litter was considerably higher in the mixed sward and was considerably lower at the highest stocking rate in both pastures. Analysis of the 13C isotopic abundance of the soil organic matter showed that 5 years after establishment of the pure B. humidicola pasture, approximately 27% of the soil carbon was derived from grass at a depth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportion (20%) was derived from grass at 5-15 cm. Analysis of the 13C abundance of cattle faeces indicated that the proportion of legume consumed by cattle in the mixed sward was between 10 and 37%. The data indicate that selection of an appropriate grazing pressure can greatly influence recycling. Therefore, presumably pasture sustainability and the introduction of a legume in the pasture are beneficial to both animal production and pasture sustainability. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Comparison of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel L; Hesterberg, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants is a phytoremediation process that depends on interactions among plants, microbes, and soils. Trees and grasses are commonly used for phytoremediation, with trees typically being chosen for remediation of BTEX while grasses are more commonly used for remediation of PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of hydrocarbons and address the advantages of each vegetation type. Grasses were more heavily represented in the literature and therefore demonstrated a wider range of effectiveness. However, the greater biomass and depth of tree roots may have greater potential for promoting environmental conditions that can improve rhizoremediation, such as increased metabolizable organic carbon, oxygen, and water. Overall, we found little difference between grasses and trees with respect to average reduction of hydrocarbons for studies that compared planted treatments with a control. Additional detailed investigations into plant attributes that most influence hydrocarbon degradation rates should provide data needed to determine the potential for rhizoremediation with trees or grasses for a given site and identify which plant characteristics are most important. PMID:23819280

  5. Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Alves de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit, durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan. Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d; e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d. Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B. Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

  6. Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiano Reschke, Lajús; Simone Meredith, Scheffer-Basso; Mario, Miranda; Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso, Denardin; José Francisco Montenegro, Valls.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius) was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale d [...] o Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405) to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405), and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405), G2 (V 14406) and G3 (V 14337, V 14404). Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

  7. Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405 to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405, and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405, G2 (V 14406 and G3 (V 14337, V 14404. Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

  8. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management over temporal aggregation, temporal accumulation, spatio-temporal statistics, spatio-temporal sampling, temporal algebra, temporal topology analysis, time series animation and temporal topology visualization to time series import and export capabilities with support for NetCDF and VTK data formats. We will present several temporal modules that support parallel processing of raster and 3D raster time series. [1] GRASS GIS Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling In Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling, Vol. 2 (2008), pp. 171-199, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74831-19 by M. Neteler, D. Beaudette, P. Cavallini, L. Lami, J. Cepicky edited by G. Brent Hall, Michael G. Leahy [2] Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environ. Model. Softw. 53, 1-12. [3] Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS Intl Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219. [4] Löwe, P., Klump, J., Thaler, J. (2012): The FOSS GIS Workbench on the GFZ Load Sharing Facility compute cluster, (Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-4491, 2012), General Assembly European Geosciences Union (Vienna, Austria 2012). [5] Akhter, S., Aida, K., Chemin, Y., 2010. "GRASS GIS on High Performance Computing with MPI, OpenMP and Ninf-G Programming Framework". ISPRS Conference, Kyoto, 9-12 August 2010

  9. Effect of Morphological Traits on Intake Characteristics of Four Grass Species Found in Temperate Biodiverse Pasture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four grass species (meadow fescue (MF), Festuca pratensis; orchard grass (ORG), Dactylis glomerata, L.; quack grass (QG), Agropyron repens; and reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea) were sown in micro-sward boxes (79 cm x 47 cm x 11.5 cm) to investigate intake characteristics of four grass ...

  10. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  11. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  coordinates, the mean altitude, the mean of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to wood, trees and hedge close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the factors time of: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; 

  12. Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

  13. How much gas can we get from grass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ? The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg?1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ? We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ? A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH4 kg?1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ? A two phase system achieved 341 L CH4 kg?1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg?1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH4 kg?1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH4 kg?1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.

  14. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  15. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combina...

  16. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja / Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L.L., Barroso; H.A., Dan; S.O., Procópio; R.E.B., Toledo; C.R., Sandaniel; G.B.P., Braz; K.L., Cruvinel.

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchr [...] us echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones), applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinat [...] us in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 ), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 ), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 ), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 ), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 ) and control (no herbicide). In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

  17. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Orby, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in Aarhus - a twin peak profile during the early season, a single evening profile during the middle of the season, and a single midday peak during the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that it was driven by a succession of different grass species with different diurnal flowering patterns dominating atmospheric pollen loads as the season progressed. The potential for exposure was found to be significantly greater during the late-season period than during either the early - or mid-season periods.

  18. Intercropping with grasses helps to reduce iron chlorosis in olive

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C, Cañasveras; M. C, del Campillo; V, Barrón; J, Torrent.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are more efficient than dicots in acquiring Fe from calcareous soils. We studied whether intercropping with grasses alleviates Fe chlorosis in olive and whether the effect persists in succeeding dicot crops. Three different pot experiments were conducted. In the first, olive plants were inte [...] rcropped with 6 different grass species (purple false brome, annual ryegrass, compact brome, goatgrass, barley and red fescue); in the second, the two species best performing in the previous experiment were studied in various calcareous soils and; in the third, chickpea and peanut were grown in pots previously used to cultivate the two grasses. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and/or boosted growth of olive trees on three different calcareous soils. Olive growth was adversely affected by intercropping in one soil as a result of competition for water. Intercropping increased Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn leaf contents in olive. Also, grass cropping generally raised available levels of soil Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn; this effect, however, resulted in no substantial alleviation of Fe chlorosis in succeeding chickpea or peanut crops. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley appears to be a promising remedy for Fe chlorosis in olive orchards affected by Fe chlorosis.

  19. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different types of grasses available in Denmark using a GIS (Geographical Information System) based approach and to supplement these with biofuel potential maps based on HtL conversion. Biomass yields (t/ha) and biofuel energy equivalent (GJ/ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost factor and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a high bio-crude yield and a high quality of the bio-crude using grasses as feedstock a series of experiments with meadow grass have been carried out in a batch reactor. Biomass input and liquefaction products are characterized using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, heating values, FTIR, GC/MS. Data is subject to a multivariate analysis based on the different parameters used during the hydrothermal liquefaction process (temperature, heating rate, pressure, composition, bio-crude yield). Keywords: biomass resources, biomass potential, GIS, hydrothermal liquefaction, production potential of biofuels!

  20. The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?kovi? Savo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds. The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

  1. Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

  2. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  3. Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass

    OpenAIRE

    Trache D.; Khimeche K.; Donnot A.; Benelmir R.

    2013-01-01

    Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto), and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis pr...

  4. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as livestock nutritive energy sources and potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass, Brachypodium distanchyon, has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agricultur...

  5. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment method with low cost and low energy requirements, plus brings about multiple advantages with regards to agricultural management. However, the pretreatment effect of ensiling, and the overall effects for further conversion are limited. In this study, ensiling was evaluated as a method of pretreatment for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project was devoted to method development. This resulted in the development of a simple and flexible standard method forlaboratory ensilingwith a high reproducibility,which is well suited for high-throughput experiments.   A comprehensive study on important parameters in ensiling was conducted to find optimal conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however, insignificant. Cellulose conversion was noted to be largely determined by the stage of maturity of the four different cuts of grass. Less mature grass had high convertibility but less amount of cellulose and vice versa. This led to the conclusion that an optimal maturity of grass can be found, which gives an optimal glucose release. However, limitations of the method were also noted. The ensiling of grass came with a considerable loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which was in fact higher than the improved glucose release. Furthermore, the amount of released glucose was not adequate to support an efficient production of ethanol. Lastly, the conversion of xylan was extremely low in both grass and grass silage. Optimization of the enzymatic saccharification of grass was attempted through improvement of the hemicellulase content in the enzyme blend. However, neither additional xylanases (Cellic HTec2® and ß-xylosidase) nor hemicellulose degrading esterases (acetyl xylan esterase and ferulic acid esterase) showed any improvements of xylan or glucan convertibility. Furthermore, hemicellulases were added before ensiling in order to assist and improve the pretreatment effect. This resulted in, however, the undesired effect that additionally released monosaccharides were utilized during storage and had a negative impact on sugar release after enzymatic saccharification. In both of the above mentioned experiments on optimization ofsugar release by means of enzymes, it was noted that the hemicellulose structure of Festulolium Hykor appeared unusually resistant to enzymatic degradation. Due to the low conversion results on Festulolium Hykor, the last part of the project was based on a new tenet: Ensiling can not provide sufficient pretreatment effect to be a stand-alone pretreatment method. Ensiling was therefore combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT), and the pretreatment combination was applied to both grass (Festulolium  Hykor) and whea

  6. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z; SITI NORDAHLIAWATE, M.S; NOR AZLIZA, I; Salleh, B.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum) and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digit...

  7. Effectiveness of tropical grass species as sediment filters in the riparian zone of Lake Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyama, Joshua; Herremans, Kristof; Maetens, Willem; Isabirye, M.; Kahimba, Frederick; Kimaro, Didas; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Seppe

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of tropical grass species in strips of different length in trapping sediment from cropland was assessed, and the influence of filter length was determined. The assessment was made under natural rainfall which induced sheet and rill erosion in run-off plots and then using simulated run-off which caused concentrated erosion. The evaluated grasses were elephant grass, lemon grass, paspalum and sugarcane. Run-off plots were on a 10% slope in a randomized complete blo...

  8. Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I. J.; Poppi, D.P.; ELGERSMA, A.

    2011-01-01

    The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and leaves. This study (i) quantified and compared the tensile fracture properties of stems and leaves of seven tropical grass species and (ii) provided insight into the underlying plant traits that expla...

  9. Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Belo; Dias, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

  10. Grass-roots approach: developing qualified nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees

  11. Translational Biology: From Arabidopsis Flowers to Grass Inflorescence Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the key events in plant development is the initiation of lateral organs from the flanks of the meristem. In grasses, the inflorescence meristem (IM) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates. Our understanding of the genes and networks that regulate g...

  12. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  13. Grass inflorescence mutations and their role in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of natural mutants in the grass family were presented. All appeared as changes in inflorescence structure. In mutated plants chasmogamy was restricted due to anomalous lodicules or compactness of ears. A rare glumeless mutation in Agropyron pectiniforme reduced the level of assimilation in the ear. All mutations appear as unfavorable in natural populations.

  14. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    OpenAIRE

    A. Priolo; Berdagué, J.L; Lanza, M.; N. Kondjoyan; Micol, D.; Krogmann, M.; Cornu, A

    2011-01-01

    Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003) have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole) have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997)...

  15. Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

  16. Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass) in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function

    OpenAIRE

    A. Plascencia; E.G. Alvarez; R.A Zinn

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass) on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB): 1) 49% alfalfa hay; 2) 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3) 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4) 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB). In trial 1, four lactating Holstein co...

  17. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens, and Dactylis glomerata were the only important grass weeds with a declining frequency during the six years. Vulpia spp. has recently become a significant problem in red fescue for seed production, and a significant increased frequency was seen during the study period. However, the study also showed that Vulpia spp. is primarily a problem in red fescue crops established in the autumn, whereas spring establishment of red fescue almost solves the problem with this primarily autumn-germinating grass weed.

  18. Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilane Aparecida da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk, Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu, Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes, Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85. The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE. The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

  19. Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edilane Aparecida da, Silva; Wilson Jesus da, Silva; Antônio Carlos, Barreto; Antonio Barbosa de, Oliveira Junior; José Mauro Valente, Paes; José Reinaldo Mendes, Ruas; Domingos Sávio, Queiroz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu [...] ), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85). The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE). The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

  20. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

  1. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    OpenAIRE

    A.L.L. Barroso; H.A Dan; S. O. Procópio; R.E.B Toledo; C.R. Sandaniel; G.B.P Braz; K.L. Cruvinel

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + ...

  2. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ciolli; Sören Gebbert; Pietro Zambelli

    2013-01-01

    PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS), a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the mo...

  3. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Yee Liong; Rasmina Halis; Oi Ming Lai; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks wit...

  4. Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto, and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with thermogravimetric analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposing patterns of the cellulosic preparations, obtained by hydrochloric hydrolysis gave additional evidence to the relatively higher stability of the more crystalline cellulosic preparations. In the main decomposition stage, the cleavage of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose reduces the polymerization degree leading to the formation of CO2, H2O and other hydrocarbon derivatives.

  5. Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H2SO4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

  6. Genotype × Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Polignano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight grass pea lines grown in three different seasons were evaluated for the stability of seed yield, 100 seeds weight, flowering time, plant height, and biomass. Significant differences existed among years, lines, and lines × years interaction for all traits except for 100 seeds weight. Two methods of multivariate analysis cluster and principal components were utilized to determine: firstly, whether a pattern existed among lines in their response across years and secondly to examine the relationships among them. In both analyses, each line was presented as a vector whose elements were given by the performance of lines in each year. The analyses used arranged the lines into groups that were differentiable in terms of performances and stability. Our results provide useful information to aid the choice of grass pea lines in the Mediterranean marginal areas.

  7. The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

  8. Study of "napier grass" delignification for production of cellulosic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Morandim-Giannetti, Andreia; Albuquerque, Tiago Santos; de Carvalho, Renata Kobal Campos; Araújo, Ramires Menezes Silva; Magnabosco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-30

    Recently, much research on the evaluation of new cellulose sources has been developed. In this context, a promising source is "napier grass", which contains 30.40% lignin, 36.34% cellulose, and 34.12% hemicellulose. In this work, conditions for the delignification of "napier grass" in the laboratory were studied by using calcium oxide (CaO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The best pulping conditions were 9.00% CaO for a period of 2.73 h, which resulted in 74.99% delignification and 66.58% cellulose. The best conditions for the bleaching process were pH 12 and hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 4.2% for 6h, at a temperature of 40 °C, which gave 90.98% delignification and 99.21% cellulose. The analyses were performed by using weight percent. PMID:23218375

  9. Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Medianeira, Machado; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de, Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato, Confortin; Aline Bosak dos, Santos; Maria José de Oliveira, Sichonany; Laila Arruda, Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da, Rosa.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrog [...] en (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

  10. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

  11. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   ...

  12. Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria del Mar

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

  13. Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, ...

  14. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  15. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal Shonima; Iyer Uma

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP) supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36) and control gro...

  16. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    van Vuuren, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

  17. Genotype × Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Lines

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Polignano; V. Bisignano; V. Tomaselli; P. Uggenti; Alba, V; C. Della Gatta

    2009-01-01

    Eight grass pea lines grown in three different seasons were evaluated for the stability of seed yield, 100 seeds weight, flowering time, plant height, and biomass. Significant differences existed among years, lines, and lines × years interaction for all traits except for 100 seeds weight. Two methods of multivariate analysis cluster and principal components were utilized to determine: firstly, whether a pattern existed among lines in their response across years and secondly to examine ...

  18. The epichloae: alkaloid diversity and roles in symbiosis with grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Florea, Simona; Pan, Juan; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Bec, Sladana; Calie, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species; Clavicipitaceae) are fungi that live in systemic symbioses with cool-season grasses, and many produce alkaloids that are deterrent or toxic to herbivores. The epichloae colonize much of the aerial plant tissues, and most benignly colonize host seeds to transmit vertically. Of their four chemical classes of alkaloids, the ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes are active against mammals and insects, whereas peramine and lolines specifically affect i...

  19. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygrothermal performance in the field, four test walls have been built. The relative humidity and temperature in the constructions have been measured during a winter period and are presented in this paper.

  20. Study of some biochemical parameters in the grass carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina-Ioana Cojocaru

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigations were devoted to some biochemical parameters (glycogen, catalase, alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferase in three summer-old representatives of grass carp, at the level of the hepatic and muscular tissue. The results obtained evidenced significant differences between the tissues under analysis, both in the concentration of the main reserve polyglucides, as a supplier of circulating glucose, and in the enzymatic activity, in close correlation with the physiological and biochemical role of each tissue in part.

  1. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  2. Effect of mixing low palatable grasses and ipil ipil leaves on forage quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan to investigate the impact of mixing low palatable grasses namely Heteropogon contortus, Desmostachya bipinnata, Sorghum halepense and Chrysopogon aucheri with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and for grass 25% + Ipil ipil 75%, it was 55%. The CP value of the treatments showed significant variation ranging from less than 10% in grasses to almost 30% in pure Ipil ipil leaves. The mixtures had CP content corresponding to proportions of grasses and legume tree leaves. The CF values also varied significantly among the treatments. Grasses had in general higher CF content than legume leaves. It can be concluded that addition of Ipil ipil leaves to grasses improved overall nutrition especially CP of the feed. (author)

  3. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a 'water-spending' behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a 'water-saving' nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  4. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  5. Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

  6. Nanostructured platinum grass enables superior impedance reduction for neural microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, C; Stieglitz, T; Asplund, M

    2015-10-01

    Micro-sized electrodes are essential for highly sensitive communication at the neural interface with superior spatial resolution. However, such small electrodes inevitably suffer from high electrical impedance and thus high levels of thermal noise deteriorating the signal to noise ratio. In order to overcome this problem, a nanostructured Pt-coating was introduced as add-on functionalization for impedance reduction of small electrodes. In comparison to platinum black deposition, all used chemicals in the deposition process are free from cytotoxic components. The grass-like nanostructure was found to reduce the impedance by almost two orders of magnitude compared to untreated samples which was lower than what could be achieved with conventional electrode coatings like IrOx or PEDOT. The realization of the Pt-grass coating is performed via a simple electrochemical process which can be applied to virtually any possible electrode type and accordingly shows potential as a universal impedance reduction strategy. Elution tests revealed non-toxicity of the Pt-grass and the coating was found to exhibit strong adhesion to the metallized substrate. PMID:26232883

  7. Radioactive isotope uptake in a grass-legume association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive uptake of Medicago sativa and Rye grass in a pasture exposed to the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, was determined in four consecutive harvests covering a period of one year after the accident. In plants of Medicago sativa, inoculated with an effective Rhizobia meliloti strain isolated from Greek soils, a high degree of biological nitrogen fixation was observed at all harvests using N-15 techniques. At the second and third harvests, the percentage nitrogen derived from fixation (%NdfF), the percentage nitrogen derived from soil (%NdfS), as well as the radioactive uptake from the soil remained stable. At the fourth harvest, however, the %NdfF decreased while the %NdfS and the radioactive uptake from soil significantly increased. At the first harvest the radioactivity in both plants, caused mainly by direct fallout contamination, was considerably higher than that observed at the later harvests. Medicago sativa contained significantly less radioactivity than the grass at all harvests, although both plants were grown under the same environmental conditions. Even at the fourth harvest, almost one year after the initial contamination, the radioactivity of grass remained at high levels (20 Bq g-1 of protein) while in Medicago sativa it assumed considerably lower values (3.6 Bq g-1 of protein). A possible involvement of biological nitrogen fixation in the reduction of radioactive uptake is discussed. Finally, certain practical conclusions are drawn with respect to a safer management of pastures exposed to radioactivity. (author)

  8. Comparative growth analysis of cool- and warm-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using both cool-season (C3) and warm-season (C4) species is a viable means of optimizing herbage productivity over varying climatic conditions in temperate environments. Despite well-documented differences in water, N, and radiation use, no consistent evidence demonstrates productivity differences among C3 and C4 perennial grass species under identical management. A field study was conducted to determine relative growth rates (RGR), nitrogen productivity (NP), and mean radiation productivity (RP) (dry matter production as a function of incident radiation) of cool- and warm-season grasses managed identically. Results were used to identify management practices thd could lead to optimal productivity in combinations or mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses. Dry matter yields of warm-season grasses equaled or surpassed those of cool-season grasses, despite a 40% shorter growth interval. Certain cool- and warm-season grasses appear to be suitable for use in mixtures, based on distribution of herbage production; however, actual compatibility may be altered by defoliation management. Relative growth rates varied among years and were about 40% lower for canopies clipped to a 10-cm residue height each time 20-cm of growth accumulated compared with other treatments. The RGR of warm-season grasses was twice that of cool-season grasses Nitrogen productivity (g DM g-1 N d -1) and mean radiation productivity (g DM MJ-1) for warm-season grasses was also more than twice that of cool-season grasses. Radiation productivity of cool-season grasses was dependent on N, while this was not always the case for warm-season grasses. The superior production capability of certain warm-season compared with cool-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment can be sustained under a range of defoliation treatments and demonstrates suitability for use in frequently defoliated situations

  9. Spatiotemporal Variation in the Environmental Controls of C4-Grass Origin and Ecology: Insights from Grass-Pollen ?13C Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. M.; Urban, M.; Hu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the environmental factors controlling the origin and shifting abundance of C4 grasses in Earth's history is useful for projecting the response of C4-grass dominated grasslands to future environmental change. Unfortunately, grass pollen is typically morphologically indistinct, making palynological analysis a blunt tool for studying C4-grasses in the paleorecord. ?13C of individual grass-pollen grains using a spooling wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis, SPIRAL) overcomes this challenge and the potential biases of ?13C data from other substrates (e.g. leaf waxes). To assess the presence and relative abundance of C3- and C4-grass pollen in samples of unknown composition, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model, trained with ~1,900 ?13C values from pollen grains of 31 grass species. Surface-sediment data from Africa, Australia, and North America demonstrate the reliability of this technique for quantifying C4-grass abundance on the landscape. To investigate the timing and control of the origin of C4-grasses we analyzed samples from the Oligocene-Miocene from Europe and from the Eocene from North America. Results indicate that C4 grasses appeared on the landscape of southwest Europe no later than the early Oligocene, implying that low atmospheric pCO2 may not have been the main driver and/or precondition for the development of C4 photosynthesis in the grass family. In contrast, we found no evidence for C4 grasses in the southeast United States before pCO2 fell. In application of SPIRAL to the late Quaternary, we found that shifts in pCO2 and moisture balance exerted key controls on the relative abundance of C3 and C4 grasses in Africa and Australia. Overall, our results imply that as in the past, future changes in the C3/C4 composition of grass-dominated ecosystems will likely exhibit striking spatiotemporal variability as a result of differing combinations of environmental controls.

  10. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affect...

  11. Structure-Function Analysis of Grass Clip Serine Protease Involved in Drosophila Toll Pathway Activation*

    OpenAIRE

    Kellenberger, Christine; Leone, Philippe; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Grass is a clip domain serine protease (SP) involved in a proteolytic cascade triggering the Toll pathway activation of Drosophila during an immune response. Epistasic studies position it downstream of the apical protease ModSP and upstream of the terminal protease Spaetzle-processing enzyme. Here, we report the crystal structure of Grass zymogen. We found that Grass displays a rather deep active site cleft comparable with that of proteases of coagulation and complement cascades. A key distin...

  12. Calcium Accumulation in Grasses in Relation to their Root Cation Exchange Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    K.J. George; Ray, J G

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the role of root CEC on the accumulation of Calcium in roots or shoots, pot-culture experiments with wild grasses was carried out. The seven species of grasses used were Sporobolus diander (L.), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. Ex Roem and Schult, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Panicum repens Jacq, Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongn. and Chloris barbeta Sw. These grasses were significantly different in their root cation exchange capac...

  13. A grass–fire cycle eliminates an obligate-seeding tree in a tropical savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, David M.J.S.; MacDermott, Harry J; Nichols, Scott C; Murphy, Brett P.

    2014-01-01

    A grass–fire cycle in Australian tropical savannas has been postulated as driving the regional decline of the obligate-seeding conifer Callitris intratropica and other fire-sensitive components of the regional flora and fauna, due to proliferation of flammable native grasses. We tested the hypothesis that a high-biomass invasive savanna grass drives a positive feedback process where intense fires destroy fire-sensitive trees, and the reduction in canopy cover facilitates further invasion by g...

  14. Mitigating Agricultural Phosphorus Leaching : The Effect of Timing in Grass Harvesting in Mitigating Wintertime Phosphorus Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Yli-Heikkilä, Katariina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study how much the above-ground grass biomass, harvested at different times during the growing season, contains phosphorus at the end of the growing season, and how much of it is leached after freezing and thawing. The study aims to give information about the ideal time for grass harvesting in order to mitigate the wintertime phosphorus leaching. The grass biomass was harvested from managed uncultivated arable field at MTT Agrifood Research Centre experi...

  15. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo M. Sousa; Pâmela S. Silva; Lyderson F. Viccini

    2010-01-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous...

  16. Treatment influence on herbicide resistance level of Belgian Alopecurus myosuroides populations (black-grass)

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal, Pierre-Yves; Henriet, François; Bodson, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. Therefore, farmers started to spray herbicide intensively and soon cases of failure occurred for different molecules and different modes of action. Black-grass populations have been tested in greenhouses to assess the influence of an herbicide treatment as to the resistance level regarding three ...

  17. GRASS: a server for the graphical representation and analysis of structures.

    OpenAIRE

    Nayal, M; Hitz, B. C.; Honig, B

    1999-01-01

    GRASS (Graphical Representation and Analysis of Structures Server), a new web-based server, is described. GRASS exploits many of the features of the GRASP program and is designed to provide interactive molecular graphics and quantitative analysis tools with a simple interface over the World-Wide Web. Using GRASS, it is now possible to view many surface features of biological macromolecules on either standard workstations used in macromolecular analysis or personal computers. The result is a W...

  18. Ergovaline occurrence in grasses infected by fungal endophytes of semi-arid pastures in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez de Aldana, Beatriz R.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; García Ciudad, A.; García Criado, B.

    2003-01-01

    Ergovaline is a mycotoxin produced by fungal endophytes belonging to Neotyphodium and Epichloë spp in several host grass species. Due to the production of this alkaloid, the ingestion of endophyte infected grasses cause toxicosis in grazing animals. The aim of this work was to determine if ergovaline is produced in several grasses (Agrostis castellana Boiss and Reuter, Brachypodium phoenicoides (L) Roemer and Schultes, Dactylis glomerata L, Festuca arundinacea Schreb, Festuca arundinacea Schr...

  19. Occurrence of ergovaline in endophyte infected grasses from mediterranean grasslands.

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez de Aldana, Beatriz R.; García Criado, B.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; García Ciudad, A.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Epichloe systemically infect several grasses. One of the most relevant aspects of the grass-endophyte interaction is the production of secondary compounds (alkaloids) which are toxic to both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. To date, ergovaline is the most abundant ergot alkaloid which has been found in several endophyte infected grasses. This alkaloid seems to be responsible for livestock disorders such as reduced weight gain or re...

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly for the Tropical Grass Panicum maximum Jacq

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Jank, Liana; Souza, Anete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different gen...

  1. Silica accumulation in grasses in response to a large scale herbivore exclosure experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz Jusdado, Juan German

    2011-01-01

    Silica defenses in grasses have been recently proposed to be important for plant-herbivore interactions. High silica levels in grasses have been found to have a negative impact on herbivores performance and act as an herbivory deterrent. Moreover, accumulation of silica has been proposed to be inducible, i.e. highly grazed grasses accumulate silica in their leaves. In order to assess whether silica induction is an important mechanism of plant-herbivore interactions also in sub-arctic ecosyste...

  2. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia grass silage quality on family farms

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vrani?; Mladen Kneževi?; Goran Per?ulija; Josip Leto; Krešimir Bošnjak; Ivana Rupi?

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004) Over last 15 years, grass silage become of the same importance in dairy cows nutrition as other traditionally conserved forage in Croatia. In this paper the nutritive value of grass silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension servi...

  3. Identification of Microdochium bolleyi Associated with Basal Rot of Creeping Bent Grass in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Wan Gyu; Choi, Hyo Weon; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of basal rot occurred sporadically on creeping bent grasses growing at a golf course in Hampyeong, Korea in April 2007. Ten isolates of Microdochium sp. were obtained from leaves and crowns of the diseased bent grasses. All isolates were identified as Microdochium bolleyi based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report on M. bolleyi associated with basal rot on creeping bent grass in Korea.

  4. Fire Control – A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Paulsamy; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramaniam, V; K. Arumugasamy; Nagarajan, N.

    2001-01-01

    Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emi...

  5. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at tem...

  6. Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tandong Yao; Lochan Prasad Devkota; Man Zhang; Chen Zeng; Xuedong Yan; Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Transportation activities can contribute to accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soil and grass, which could potentially compromise public health and the environment if the roadways cross farmland areas. Particularly, heavy metals may enter the food chain as a result of their uptake by roadside edible grasses. This research was conducted to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in roadside farmland soils and corresponding grasses around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors...

  7. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10?2 d L?1 and 4.6 × 10?2 d L?1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10?2 d L?1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10?3 d L?1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of 137Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y?1 and 0.04 ?Sv y?1,while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y?1 and 0.05 ?Sv y?1, respectively. -- Highlights: • This is a detailed study on Fv and Fm for 137Cs and stable Cs around the Kaiga nuclear power plant, India. • The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. • The Fm value for 137Cs for the local breed cows was estimated to be 2.4 × 10?2 d L?1. • The Fm value for dairy farm cows (4.0 × 10?3 d L?1) was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. • The reasons for the higher Fm values for 137Cs for the local breed cows are identified

  8. Molecular characterization of Phl p II, a major timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolecek, C; Vrtala, S.; Laffer, S; Steinberger, P.; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O.; VALENTA, R

    1993-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens belong to the most important and widespread elicitors of pollen allergy. Using serum IgE from a grass pollen allergic patient, a complete cDNA encoding a group II allergen was isolated from a timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen expression library. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Phl p II allergen shows an average sequence identity of 61% with the protein sequences determined for group II/III allergens from rye grass (Lolium perenne) and a sequence identity of ...

  9. Canopy growth and density of Wyoming big sagebrush sown with cool-season perennial grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, A.L.; Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Williams, M.I. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. for Renewable Resources

    2006-07-15

    Post-mining revegetation efforts often require grass seeding and mulch applications to stabilize the soils at the same time as shrub seeding, creating intraspecific competition between seeded shrubs and grasses that is not well understood. In 1999, we initiated a study at the Belle Ayr Coal Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, to evaluate the influence of grass competition on establishment and growth of Wyoming big sagebrush. Combinations of three sagebrush seeding rates (1, 2, and 4 kg pls ha{sup -1}) and seven cool-season perennial grass mixture seeding rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 kg pls ha{sup -1}) were seeded during winter 1998-1999. Shrub density and grass cover were assessed from 1999 to 2004. We monitored sagebrush canopy size in 2001, 2002, and 2004. All sagebrush seeding rates provided shrub densities (>=) 1 shrub m {sup -1} after six growing seasons. Grass production (>=) 75 g m{sup -2} was achieved by seeding grasses at 6 to 8 kg pls ha{sup -1}). Canopy growth of individual sagebrush plants was least in the heaviest grass seeding rate. Reduced grass seeding rates can aid in achieving Wyoming big sagebrush density standards and enhance shrub canopy growth.

  10. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done using a suction sampler worn on the chest or lapel that measures breathing zone concentration; a more useful exposure parameter for pollen allergy sufferers is the amount of pollen inhaled, i.e. the dose. The objective of this study was to investigate how well monitoring station data reflect actual exposure, something that is currently not well understood. Methods: Exposure samples were collected during the 2011 grass pollen season in an area of abundant unmaintained grass coverage close to the centre of Aarhus, Denmark. Sampling was performed at two-hourly intervals between 12:00 and 20:00 on 14 separate days whilst walking a set route. Journey times were in the region of 28 minutes. Nasal Air Samplers (small impaction devices worn inside the nostrils that capture inhaled particles) were used. The number of inhaled grass pollen grains was counted under a light microscope and compared with concurrent concentrations recorded at a nearby roof level pollen monitoring station. The relationship between these two data sets was also compared with local meteorological variables (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). Results: The number of grass pollen grains inhaled during individual exposure episode ranged from 6 -127 (median 34), and inhalation rates were between 0.23 - 4.83 (median 1.20) grains min-1. Corresponding concentrations recorded at the monitoring station lay within the range 0 - 311 (median 56) grains m-3. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the exposure and monitoring station data was 0.65 (p<0.001). Exposure was disproportionately high relative to monitoring station data in 15% of the dataset, with these occurring close to midday (12:00-14:00). On no occasion was exposure disproportionately low. Correlation coefficients for the ‘early’ (12:00-14:00) and ‘late’ (18:00-20:00) periods differ considerably (rs=0.51 and rs=0.82 respectively). The mean profile of monitoring station concentrations shows a persistent increase from 12:00-20:00 whilst for the exposure data the opposite is true. No relationship was observed between the standardised ratio of exposure to monitored data and any of the available weather data. Conclusions: Whilst the monitoring station data is a reasonable proxy for exposure, the quality of the relationship depends upon the time of day. Within the study area the risk of exposure decreases between noon and mid-evening, likely reflecting diurnal variation in the emission of grass pollen. This trend is contrary to what the monitoring station predicts, and this has implications where allergen avoidance is being advocated as a method for controlling symptoms. An exposure model for grass pollen is currently being developed for Aarhus. Model performance will be tested against the empirical exposure data described here, the ultimate aim being to build upon this study by using the model to assess the importance of source proximity to exposure.

  11. Repeated evolution of salt-tolerance in grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, T. H.; Flowers, T. J.; Bromham, L

    2013-01-01

    The amount of salt-affected agricultural land is increasing globally, so new crop varieties are needed that can grow in salt-affected soils. Despite concerted effort to develop salt-tolerant cereal crops, few commercially viable salt-tolerant crops have been released. This is puzzling, given the number of naturally salt-tolerant grass species. To better understand why salt-tolerance occurs naturally but is difficult to breed into crop species, we take a novel, biodiversity-based approach to i...

  12. Torrefaction of pellets from reed canary grass and softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerberg, Haakan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Pommer, Linda; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    In this work an energy crop, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied in comparison with Norway Spruce (NS ) when treated in a torrefaction process. In the torrefaction process biomass is heated in an inert atmosphere (250-340 deg C) and physical and chemical characteristics are then enhanced and the product becomes more similar to coal. Co-firing of torrefied biomass with coal in existing CHP plants, and gasification of torrefied biomass has recently been demonstrated in industrial scale with positive results.

  13. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, V.; Gebbert, S.

    2014-12-01

    GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists directly or through other projects such as R or QGIS to perform geoprocessing tasks. Thus, a large number of scientific geospatial computations depend on quality and correct functionality of GRASS GIS. Automatic functionality testing is therefore necessary to ensure software reliability. Here we present a testing framework for GRASS GIS which addresses different needs of GRASS GIS and geospatial software in general. It allows to test GRASS tools (referred to as GRASS modules) and examine outputs including large raster and vector maps as well as temporal datasets. Furthermore, it enables to test all levels of GRASS GIS architecture including C and Python application programming interface and GRASS modules invoked as subprocesses. Since GRASS GIS is used as a platform for development of geospatial algorithms and models, the testing framework allows not only to test GRASS GIS core functionality but also tools developed by scientists as a part of their research. Using testing framework we can test GRASS GIS and related tools automatically and repetitively and thus detect errors caused by code changes and new developments. Tools and code are then easier to maintain which results in preserving reproducibility of scientific results over time. Similarly to open source code, the test results are publicly accessible, so that all current and potential users can see them. The usage of testing framework will be presented on an example of a test suite for r.slope.aspect module, a tool for computation of terrain slope, aspect, curvatures and other terrain characteristics.

  14. Effect of grasses on herbicide fate in the soil column: infiltration of runoff, movement, and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jason B; Coats, Joel R

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate if the presence of grass or the type of grass influences the environmental fate of herbicides within a soil column. Intact soil columns were planted with either smooth brome, big bluestem, tall fescue, switchgrass, or a mixture of prairie grasses or were left unvegetated. Artificial runoff containing atrazine, metolachlor, and pendimethalin was applied to the columns and allowed to infiltrate, and the resulting leachate was collected at the bottom of the soil column. This process was repeated on day 7 with herbicide-fortified runoff and on days 14 and 21 with water only. Following the leaching experiments, soil from the columns was fortified with either [14C]atrazine or [14C]metolachlor to measure pesticide degradation potential. The mean time necessary for infiltration of the artificial runoff decreased from 7.5 h for unvegetated to 3.4 h for grassed soil columns, and the type of grass did not have a significant effect. Neither the type of grass nor the presence of grass caused a significant change in the total amount of herbicide that leached through the columns. However, the presence of some grasses did decrease the amount of herbicide that leached in the final two events (i.e., additions not fortified with herbicide). Fescue was the least effective, reducing the amount of leached atrazine and metolachlor by 13% and 33% respectively, and mixed prairie grass was most effective, with reductions of 43% and 44%, respectively. In addition, atrazine and metolachlor degraded more rapidly in soil vegetated by some grasses. Mixed prairie grass had the greatest effect, increasing atrazine mineralization by 260% and formation of metolachlor-bound residue by 760%. PMID:15379004

  15. Pretratamiento Alcalino de Pasto Elefante (Pennisetum sp) y King Grass (Pennisetum hybridum) Cultivados en Colombia para la Producción de Bioetanol / Alkaline Pretreatment of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum Sp) and King Grass (Pennisetum Hybridum) Cultured in Colombia for Ethanol Production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana M, Cardona; Jorge A, Rios; Juan D, Peña; Luis A, Rios.

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes condiciones del pretratamiento con hidróxido de sodio (NaOH) en la recuperación de la fracción celulósica, remoción de lignina y producción de etanol mediante fermentación y sacarificación simultáneas de los pastos elefante y king grass (Pennisetum purpureum [...] and Pennisetum hybridum). Estos pastos son materias primas potenciales para la obtención de bioetanol a partir de la fracción celulósica. Los resultados obtenidos en producción de etanol muestran que bajo condiciones de pretratamiento de 120ºC, 60 minutos, NaOH al 2% (w/w) y una relación líquido a sólido de 20 (w/w) se obtienen las más altas concentraciones de etanol: 27.7 g/L para king grass y 26.1 g/L para pasto elefante en 24 horas de fermentación. Además, bajo las condiciones evaluadas se pudo observar remociones de lignina de 88.4% y 94.0% para pasto elefante y pasto king grass respectivamente. La etapa de desintoxicación permite eliminar inhibidores formados durante el pretratamiento, los cuales afectan la hidrólisis y fermentación. Abstract in english Abstract The effect of different alkaline pretreatment conditions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the recuperation of cellulosic fraction, lignin removal and ethanol production was evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of elephant grass and king grass ((Pennisetum purpureu [...] m and Pennisetum hybridum). These types of grass are potential raw materials for bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction. Results obtained in ethanol production show that under pretreatment conditions of 120ºC, 60 minutes, 2%(w/w) of NaOH and a liquid to solid ratio of 20 (w/w), the highest ethanol concentrations are obtained: 27.7 g/L and 26.1 g/L for king grass and elephant grass respectively, in 24 hours of fermentation. Furthermore, under the evaluated conditions it was observed that lignin removal was 88.4% for elephant grass and 94.0% for king grass. The detoxification stage eliminates inhibitors formed during pretreatment, which affects the hydrolysis and fermentation.

  16. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Gerorge Peel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment

  17. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10-11m-1. The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  18. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  19. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  20. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise Baptaglin, Montagner; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Valéria Pacheco Batista, Euclides; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Marciele Neves, Carloto.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter) when sward light interception reached 95% durin [...] g regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  1. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  2. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR ?) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 ?m) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ? (C/EBP ?) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue. PMID:25893904

  3. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  4. The Use of Internal Nitrogen Stores in the Rhizomatous Grass Calamagrostis epigejos During Regrowth After Defoliation

    OpenAIRE

    KAVANOVÁ, MONIKA; GLOSER, VÍT

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The regrowth dynamics after defoliation of the invasive grass Calamagrostis epigejos were studied. As nitrogen (N) reserves have been shown to play an important role during plant regrowth, the identity, location and relative importance for regrowth of N stores were determined in this rhizomatous grass.

  5. Black grama grass under the microscope; Anatomical features of a native plant from southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) is a perennial desert grass native to the arid Southwestern United States. It is most common in the Chihuahuan Desert, occupying large areas of New Mexico and Arizona, where occurrence of drought conditions are high. Black grama tends to grow in sandy loam soil...

  6. Growth-defence balance in grass biomass production: the role of jasmonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Christine; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Growth-defence balance is the selective partitioning of resources between biomass accumulation and defence responses. Although it is generally postulated that reallocation of limited carbon pools drives the antagonism between growth and defence, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this regulation. Jasmonates (JAs) are a group of oxylipins that are required for a broad range of responses from defence against insects to reproductive growth. Application of JAs to seedlings also leads to inhibited growth and repression of photosynthesis, suggesting a role for JAs in regulating growth-defence balance. The majority of JA research uses dicot models such as Arabidopsis and tomato, while understanding of JA biology in monocot grasses, which comprise most bioenergy feedstocks, food for human consumption, and animal feed, is limited. Interestingly, JA mutants of grasses exhibit unique phenotypes compared with well-studied dicot models. Gene expression analyses in bioenergy grasses also suggest roles for JA in rhizome development, which has not been demonstrated in Arabidopsis. In this review we summarize current knowledge of JA biology in panicoid grasses-the group that consists of the world's emerging bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, sugarcane, Miscanthus, and sorghum. We discuss outstanding questions regarding the role of JAs in panicoid grasses, and highlight the importance of utilizing emerging grass models for molecular studies to provide a basis for engineering bioenergy grasses that can maximize biomass accumulation while efficiently defending against stress. PMID:25711704

  7. What Makes Responses Prepotent for Young Children? Insights from the Grass-Snow Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how responses become prepotent is essential for understanding when inhibitory control is needed in everyday behaviour. We investigated prepotency in the grass-snow task--in which a child points to a green card when the experimenter says "snow" and a white card when the experimenter says "grass". Experiment 1 (n = 548, mean age = 53.5…

  8. Beneficial effects of Neotyphodium tembladerae and Neotyphodium pampeanum on a wild forage grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...

  9. Soil sterilization alters interactions between the native grass Bouteloua gracilis and invasive Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The invasive grass Bromus tectorum negatively impacts grassland communities throughout the western U.S. We asked whether soil biota growing in association with a native grass (Bouteloua gracilis) increase growth and competitive ability of Bromus, and whether responses vary between soils collec...

  10. Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

  11. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  12. Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional ?-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency. PMID:22939601

  13. Long Term Monitoring of Grass Shrimp Palaemonetes spp. Population Metrics at Sites with Agricultural Runoff Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, Andrew K; Scott, Geoffrey I; Fulton, Michael H; Daugomah, James W

    2005-01-01

    Rising concern over pesticide usage near estuarine systems and evidence of physical and physiological impacts on estuarine organisms have strengthened the need to better identify the ecological effects of nonpoint source runoff. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes spp., are ecologically important and abundant marsh inhabitants that may be impacted by anthropogenic contamination. Populations of grass shrimp were sampled monthly, over a period of ten years, at four sites in South Carolina with varying upland land use characteristics. Spatial and temporal trends in grass shrimp densities were noted over time and between sites. Agricultural and golf course land usage corresponded with decreased grass shrimp population levels, overall shrimp size, and percentage of gravid females. Conservation methods, such as the use of best management practices (BMPs) and integrated pesticide management (IPM) at agricultural fields, corresponded with increased grass shrimp population density. PMID:21676755

  14. Immunologic characterization of purified recombinant timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p2, Phl p 5).

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtala, S.; Susani, M.; Sperr, WR; Valent, P.; Laffer, S; Dolecek, C; Kraft, D; VALENTA, R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grass pollen allergens belong to the potent elicitors of type I allergy. Approximately 40% of allergic individuals display IgE reactivity with grass pollen allergens. In previous studies we have reported the complementary DNA cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of three of the most relevant timothy grass pollen allergens: Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5. OBJECTIVE: To achieve high level expression of immunologically active timothy grass pollen allergens in E. coli, the cDNAs ...

  15. Detrimental and Neutral Effects of a Wild Grass-Fungal Endophyte Symbiotum on Insect Preference and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Stephen L.; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass—endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass—endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more...

  16. The interplay between the effectiveness of the grass-endophyte mutualism and the genetic variability of the host plant

    OpenAIRE

    Gundel, Pedro E.; Omacini, Marina; Sadras, Victor O; Ghersa, Claudio M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotyphodium endophytic fungi, the asexual state of Epichloë species, protect cool-season grasses against stresses. The outcomes of Neotyphodium-grass symbioses are agronomically relevant as they may affect the productivity of pastures. It has been suggested that the mutualism is characteristic of agronomic grasses and that differential rates of gene flow between both partners’ populations are expected to disrupt the specificity of the association and, thus, the mutualism in wild grasses. We ...

  17. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  18. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  19. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high initial N2O emission from simulated urine patches. The results are discussed in relation to the national N2O inventory guidelines issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the environmental impact of organic farming practises are also considered. Suggestions for future research are outlined. (au)

  20. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which helps researchers to ensure the robustness of the algorithm, correctness of the results in edge cases as well as the detection of changes in results due to new development. For all modules GRASS GIS automatically creates standardized command line and graphical user interfaces and documentation. Finally, we will show how GRASS GIS can be used together with powerful Python tools such as the NumPy package and the IPython Notebook. References: Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environmental Modelling & Software 53, 1-12. Neteler, M., Bowman, M.H., Landa, M. and Metz, M., 2012. GRASS GIS: a multi-purpose Open Source GIS. Environmental Modelling & Software 31: 124-130. Petras, V., Gebbert, S., 2014. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing. Poster presented at: AGU Fall Meeting, December 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, USA. Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219.

  1. Radiation and temperature influence on forage grasses yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass production has been studied in forage plants, as well as the temperature and radiation effects on plant growth. Four cultivars of grasses: Lolium multiflorum var westerwoldicum cv Promenade, Lolium perenne cvs Combi and Compas and Bromus inermis were growing as microswards in a growth chamber with constant temperature and outdoors. A field assay was done also with the same cultivars. L. multiflorum was the highest productive genotype anywhere showing also more active growth at low temperatures. Total production showed significant differences among genotypes. It was also a clear correspondence among microswards and field productions. Highest efficiency values (in % of PAR accumulated as dry matter) was obtained in 6th cut (April) achieving to 5.18 % in L. multiflorum. Biomass production variations through the growth period show a low correlation with <> and very high correlation with total irradiation received by the sward between consecutive cuts

  2. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  3. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  4. Potential of ozonolysis as a pretreatment for energy grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Anushadevi; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Kolar, Praveen; Ranney, Thomas; Peretti, Steven

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of ozonolysis on Miscanthus × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracillimus', Saccharum arundinaceum and Saccharum ravennae, collectively referred to as 'energy grasses'. Studies were conducted at three different ozone concentrations (40, 50 and 58 mg/l) using two ozone flow configurations - uni-directional and reversed flow. Pretreatment conditions for each variety were optimized based on lignin content and glucan recovery in ozonated solids. Results showed that ozonolysis was effective in removing up to 59.9% lignin without cellulose degradation. However, subsequent hydrolysis of pretreated solids with Cellic® CTec2 at 0.06 g/g raw biomass provided glucan conversion lower than untreated samples suggesting enzyme inhibition by lignin degradation products formed during ozonolysis. Future studies investigating hydrolysis efficiency of washed pretreated solids with higher enzyme loadings are therefore warranted to optimize the hydrolysis process and make it functionally feasible. PMID:24050926

  5. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  6. Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The objective function of the optimisation is the maximisation of the profit which means the maximization of the difference between revenue and cost. The objective function trades off the income of the assigned transportation demands against the logistic costs. The constraints are the followings: (1) the free capacity of the assigned transportation resource is more than the re-quested capacity of the transportation demand; the calculated arrival time of the transportation resource to the harvesting place is not later than the requested arrival time of them; (3) the calculated arrival time of the transportation demand to the processing and production facility is not later than the requested arrival time; (4) one transportation demand is assigned to one transportation resource and one resource is assigned to one transportation resource. The decision variable of the optimisation problem is the set of scheduling variables and the assignment of resources to transportation demands. The evaluation parameters of the optimised system are the followings: total costs of the collection process; utilisation of transportation resources and warehouses; efficiency of production and/or processing facilities. However the multidimensional heuristic optimisation method is based on genetic algorithm, but the routing sequence of the optimisation works on the base of an ant colony algorithm. The optimal routes are calculated by the aid of the ant colony algorithm as a subroutine of the global optimisation method and the optimal assignment is given by the genetic algorithm. One important part of the mathematical method is the sensibility analysis of the objective function, which shows the influence rate of the different input parameters. Acknowledgements This research was implemented within the frame of the project entitled "Development and operation of the Technology and Knowledge Transfer Centre of the University of Miskolc". with support by the European Union and co-funding of the European Social Fund. References [1] P. R. Daniel: The Economics of Harvesting and Transporting Corn St

  7. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  8. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most previous studies of resuspension relate to arid and sparsely vegetated areas, and are not closely relevant in Britain and many other temperate areas. This report describes measurements of resuspension from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds. The measurements were carried out in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air onto 10 m2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of slit, sprayed onto a similar area of grass and allowed to dry, were broadly similar. The resuspension factor, initially 2 x 10-7 to 10-5 m-1, declined as the reciprocal of time of exposure to the wind and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source area give rise to large uncertainties in the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements such as those published here. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10-11 m-1. The fraction of deposited fallout that is resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10%

  9. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  10. Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n< 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  12. MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; No, In Gye; Chin, Seoung Bum; Kim, Joon Sik; Choi, Jae Yeul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears.

  13. Soil phosphorus dynamics as affected by Congo grass and P fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ciro Antonio, Rosolem; Alexandre, Merlin; Júlio Cesar Longo, Bull.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some plant species can change soil phosphorus (P) availability and this may be an important tool in managing tropical high fixing phosphorus soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate phosphorus transformations in the soil and phosphatase activity during periods of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruzizi [...] ensis, Germain et Evrard) growth in two tropical soils receiving 20, 40, 80, 160 mg dm-3 of inorganic P. Plants were grown for 84 days in 8-L pots. Acid phosphatase activity, P in the microbial mass, soil organic and inorganic P and P accumulation by Congo grass were evaluated. Phosphorus fertilization increased soil P availability, Congo grass yields and P accumulation in the plant. On average, less labile P forms in the soil were not changed by Congo grass; however, the P in the soil extracted with HCl (P-Ca - non labil form) decreased. This decrease may have resulted from the combination of the presence of grass and phosphatase capacity to dissolve less available P in the soil. Thus, soil exploration by Congo grass roots and the subsequent extraction of calcium phosphate may have increased the P concentration in the plant tissue. Despite the decrease in the P extracted from the soil with HCl resulting in increased labile P forms in the soil, the effect of Congo grass on the availability of P depends on the soil type.

  14. Complex interactions between a legume and two grasses in a subalpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Charles; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Winterton, Peter; Lamaze, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between plants are a complex combination of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on environmental contexts. The more frequent association of Trifolium alpinum (legume) with Festuca eskia than with Nardus stricta (grasses) in many Pyrenean subalpine meadows suggests a differential ability to use nitrogen (N) derived from N(2) fixation. In the field, we investigated the interactions between the legume and grasses and, in the glasshouse, the transfer of (15)N from the legume to the grasses. In one grass-Trifolium mixture, the legume had a strong positive effect on the biomass and N content of the grass as compared to pure grass stands. When both grasses grew together with the legume, only Festuca benefited from the presence of Trifolium but, surprisingly, the benefit decreased with increasing Trifolium abundance. Leaf labeling experiments with (15)N-NH(4)(+) revealed a higher transfer of (15)N from Trifolium to Festuca than to Nardus, suggesting a more direct N pathway between the two species. This more direct pathway could prevent Nardus from benefiting from the legume N in the three-species mixtures. Thus, the positive interactions between N-fixers and nonfixers appear to be largely species-specific and to depend strongly on the species in the plant assemblage. PMID:21622302

  15. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  16. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  17. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P??0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P?>?0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward. PMID:26003429

  18. Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ?s and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428

  19. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF JUMBO GRASS (SORGHUM BICOLOUR SORGHUM SUDANEFE) SILAGE IN LACTATING NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. TAUQIR, M. SARWAR1, M. A. JABBAR2 AND S. MAHMOOD

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Jambo grass (Sorghum bicolour Sorghum sudanefe) silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (Jambo grass; JG) in the diet of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Jumbo grass was ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM) on large scale in bunker silos for 30 days. Two experimental iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets were formulated with 75:25% of forage to concentrate ratio on DM basis that contained 75% of JG fodde...

  20. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian; Gislum, René; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2010-01-01

    Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the ...

  1. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Arnesson, A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS), medium (MCS) or late (LCS) cut grass silage. The ECS, MCS and LCS silages contained 449, 578, and 634 g NDF kg-1 and 166, 111 and 81 g crude protein kg-1 DM, respectively. The in situ rumen indigestible ND...

  2. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  3. GRASS PEA (Lathyrus sativus L.) AS A FEED CROP IN MIXED FARMING SYSTEMS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    FIRINCIO?LU, Hüseyin Kansur; Ünal, Sabahaddin; ÖZPINAR, Hüseyin

    2004-01-01

    In Turkey the main feed resources are obtained from natural pastures, forage crops and crop residues. The grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L) has a limited sown area with a few provinces. The farmers’ preference for the grass pea can be outlined as follows; (1) its better adaptation to drought and less fertile soil, (2) lower input requirements to grow, and (3) more productive compared to common vetch. The research studies have mainly focused on the comparison of grass pea with feed legumes, in tr...

  4. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased the solubilization of dry matter (DM) during HTT and gave increased glucan content, but lower lignin in the insoluble fiber fraction. Ensiling improved glucose yields in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed solid fiber fraction at the lower HTT temperatures. At 170°C glucose yield improved from 17 to 24 (w/w)% (45 to 57% cellulose convertibility), and at 180°C glucose yield improved from 22 to 29 (w/w)% (54 to 69% cellulose convertibility). Direct HTT of grass at 190°C gave the same high glucose yield as for grass silage (35 (w/w)% (77% cellulose convertibility)) and improved xylan yields (27% xylan convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar for HTT of grass and grass silage at both 170 and 180°C, but at 190°C the overall sugar yield was better for HTT of dry grass. Conclusions: This study unequivocally establishes that ensiling of grass as a biomass pretreatment method comes with a loss of WSC. The loss of WSC by ensiling is not necessarily compensated for by providing a lower temperature requirement for HTT for high enzymatic monosaccharide release. However, ensiling can be an advantageous storage method prior to grass processing. © 2014 Ambye-Jensen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Enumeration of lactic acid bacteria on grass and the effects on silage fermentation of added bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies on the methodology of enumerating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on grass and silage indicated that (a) varying the homogenisation time in a stomacher from 1 to 7 minutes did not effect LAB numbers, (b) MRS and Rogosa media gave similar LAB counts in silage and (c) anaerobic incubation of plates led to higher counts of LAB from silage compared to micro-aerophi1ic incubation, but similar counts from grass. A survey of LAB numbers on grass grown for silage sh...

  6. Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E.M.; Gray, B.R.; Fox, T.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plants are a growing concern worldwide for conservation of native habitats. In endangered wet meadow habitat in the Upper Midwestern United States, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a recognized problem and its prevalence is more widespread than the better-known invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Although resource managers are concerned about the effect of reed canary grass on birds, this is the first study to report how common wet meadow birds use habitat in relation to reed canary grass cover and dominance. We examined three response variables: territory placement, size of territories, and numbers of territories per plot in relation to cover of reed canary grass. Territory locations for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) were positively associated with reed canary grass cover, while those for Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) were not. Only Swamp Sparrow (M. georgiana) territory locations were negatively associated with reed canary grass cover and dominance (which indicated a tendency to place territories where there was no reed canary grass or where many plant species occurred with reed canary grass). Swamp Sparrow territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and litter depth. Common Yellowthroat territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and shrub cover. Song Sparrow territories were negatively associated with litter depth. Reed canary grass cover within territories was not associated with territory size for any of these four bird species. Territory density per plot was not associated with average reed canary grass cover of plots for all four species. Sedge Wrens and Song Sparrows may not respond negatively to reed canary grass because this grass is native to wet meadows of North America, and in the study area it merely replaces other tall lush plants. Avoidance of reed canary grass by Swamp Sparrows may be mediated through their preference for wet areas where reed canary grass typically does not dominate. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  7. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  8. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...communication, the communication will be treated...grass roots lobbying communication except to the extent that the electing public charity demonstrates that the communication was made primarily...E uses office space and...

  9. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight cattle...

  10. Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

  11. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 395...

  12. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 75...

  13. Growth response of some cultivars of bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon L.) to salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turfgrasses range from extremely salt sensitive to highly salt tolerant. Turf grass improvement for salinity tolerance requires reliable assessment for their adaptability to saline conditions, which vary among grasses. In the present study, four Bermuda grass cultivars - Tifway, Tifdwarf, Dacca and Khabbal (local ecotype) were assessed for salinity tolerance using half-strength Hoagland's solution culture system under green house conditions. The cultivars were exposed to five salinity levels viz., 2.4 (control) 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl). Increasing salt concentration in the nutrient media caused: (a) a reduction in number of stolons/plug, number of roots/plug, length of shoot, dry weights of root and shoot, turf quality, and potassium content in stolons, (b) increase in sodium and chloride content in stolons. Overall, cv. Tifway was found to be the most tolerant to salinity while Khabbal the most sensitive, among all four grass cultivars. (author)

  14. Ionomics: Genes and QTLs controlling heavy metal uptake in perennial grasses grown on phytoxic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses occupy diverse soils throughout the world, including many sites contaminated with heavy metals. Uncovering the genetic architecture of QTLs controlling mineral homoeostasis is critical for understanding the biochemical pathways that determine the elemental profiles of perennial pl...

  15. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2004-07-01

    This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

  16. Yield and Chemical Composition of Brachiaria Forage Grasses in the Offseason after Corn Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Gean Alves Maia; Kátia Aparecida de Pinho Costa; Eduardo da Costa Severiano; Patrícia Soares Epifanio; José Flávio Neto; Matheus Gonçalves Ribeiro; Patrick Bezerra Fernandes; José Fausto Guimarães Silva; Wainer Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria ruziziensis, intercropped in oversown corn for implantation of integrated crop-livestock system. The results showed that intercropping corn with Brachiaria grasses favors the production of high-

  17. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight...

  18. [Book Review] Field guide to the common grasses of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, by I. Barnard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Field Guide to the Common Grasses of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. Iralee Barnard. 2014. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA. 264 pages. $24.95 (paper). ISBN: 978-0-7006-1945-0.

  19. Protein contamination on Klason lignin contents in tropical grasses and legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the extent of protein contamination on Klason lignin (KL in tropical grasses and legumes, and to propose an equation to estimate the protein-free content of Klason lignin (KLp. Five grass (30 samples and 12 legume species (31 samples were evaluated. Legumes had higher KL contents. Protein contamination was significant in both grasses and legumes, but greater in legume samples. The model to predict KLp was based on KL and crude protein (CP contents, as follows: KLp = 0.8807KL - 0.0938KL x D - 0.00338CP (R2=0.935, in which D=0, for grasses, and D=1 for legumes.

  20. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly contribute to understanding how different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic grid are regulated. Given the conservation of the selected regulators in other grasses, results derived from this project are likely to provide important tools for the manipulation of phenolic compounds in other emerging biomass producers (e.g., switchgrass or miscanthus), either through conventional breeding techniques (e.g., marker-assisted breeding) or by using transgenic approaches.

  1. Warming and altered precipitation affect litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics in a mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Luo, Y.; Xu, X.; Li, D.; Niu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics are important processes in ecosystems and how they respond to climate changes is a global concern. In order to explore the effects of warming and altered precipitation on litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics, we conducted a field decomposition experiment with warming (+3°C) and altered precipitation (half and double) in a mixed-grass prairie in Oklahoma, USA, using litter bags with dominant C3 and C4 grasses since June, 2012. Litter bags were collected every month in the first six months and subsequently every three month thereafter. Remaining litter biomass as well as element concentration were measured in the lab. Warming significantly decreased the litter decomposition rate (k) by 25.4% for C3 grasses and 25.0% for C4 grasses. Doubled precipitation significantly increased the litter decomposition rate by 23.3% for C3 grasses and 30.1% for C4 grasses while half precipitation showed no significant effects. Soil temperature and soil moisture, controlled by warming and altered precipitation, are found to be the most important factors in regulating litter decomposition rate. Warming also decreased N concentration in C3 grasses while doubled precipitation increased N concentration in C4 grasses after one year of field decomposition. During that time, N concentration showed an average increase of 99.6% in C3 grass while only 68.1% in C4 grass. Other elements such as P and K were not much affected by these treatments although there were significant differences between C3 and C4 grasses. Our results suggest that climate change has significant impact on litter decomposition rate, which could influence the carbon balance of the ecosystem. Nutrient dynamics, especially nitrogen, were shown to be specific to plant types under altered climatic conditions. Our results show that conclusion derived from single-factor climate change experiments should be treated with caution due to interactive effects of warming with altered precipitation and differential responses of C3 and C4 plants.

  2. Pseudo-steppes with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea in Natura 2000 sites

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals includes a variety of xeric, termophilic and mostly open Mediterranean perennial and annual grasslands growing on usually eutrophic, but also oligotrophic, soils. Three major sub-types should be considered: one of perennial basophile rather hard short-grass communities, included in Lygeo-Stipetalia; another one of very dense and short but highly productive perennial summer drying swards, created by intense and continuous livestock activity, included in P...

  3. Evolutionary Relationships between Rhynchosporium lolii sp. nov. and Other Rhynchosporium Species on Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    KING, KEVIN M.; West, Jonathan S.; Brunner, Patrick C.; Dyer, Paul S.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.

    2013-01-01

    The fungal genus Rhynchosporium (causative agent of leaf blotch) contains several host-specialised species, including R. commune (colonising barley and brome-grass), R. agropyri (couch-grass), R. secalis (rye and triticale) and the more distantly related R. orthosporum (cocksfoot). This study used molecular fingerprinting, multilocus DNA sequence data, conidial morphology, host range tests and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the relationship between Rhynchosporium species on ryegr...

  4. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  5. Vegetative Hyphal Fusion and Subsequent Nuclear Behavior in Epichloë Grass Endophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D.; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A.; Craven, Kelly D.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nu...

  6. Effects of feeding salt-tolerant grasses on the reproductive efficiency of dwarf goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity of soil and groundwater is a major agricultural problem facing several countries. Numerous approaches have been made to alleviate this situation. A biological approach has been developed at our Institute whereby salt-tolerant plants that are more suited to the environment have been grown rather than reclamation of land for conventional crops. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) has been grown on such lands using brackish water for irrigation, thus producing large amounts of biomass. Since this biomass is not usually used as forage it was necessary to evaluate its effects on the growth and reproduction of farm animals. Buffalo, cows and goats are important for providing milk and meat in Pakistan. Goats are more important in arid and semi-arid areas. Dwarf goats were selected for the study because of easier handling, a shorter maturity period, better breeding, etc. One group of goats was contained and fed only Kallar grass throughout the year. (This grass is green in summer and, although it is a perennial, it dries in winter). Another group was allowed to free graze an area where, in addition to Kallar grass, some other wild species were also available. The effects of this forage were evaluated by recording the weight of the animals, pregnancies, lamb survival and hormone levels. It was found that when dry grass was the only source of nutrition the animals lost weight and reproduction was also affected; even though conception did take place lactation was reduced, the animals had difficulty in delivery and the lambs were born weak and did not survive. The progesterone and oestradiol levels and patterns were normal. The study concludes that dwarf goats can survive even when fed dry, low protein grass and that their body weight increases when the grass is green. They can, therefore, be raised on Kallar grass if kept for meat purposes; however, if they are to be maintained for breeding some supplementary fodder is desirable. Poor nutrition did not affect the hormone levels and patterns. (author)

  7. Grass-tree interactions and the ecology of African savannas under current and future climates

    OpenAIRE

    Scheiter, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Two important questions in savanna ecology are (1) how do grasses and trees manage to coexist in savannas while excluding each other in grasslands or rainforests and (2) how do savannas respond to anticipated climate change. This thesis presents two different savanna models to explore these questions. It is shown that a heuristic and deterministic model can explain grass-tree coexistence on a rainfall gradient between 200 mm and 1200 mm mean annual precipitation and that vegetation dynamics a...

  8. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two differen...

  9. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poaceae, Poales) and their interspecific hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Vânia Helena Techio; Lisete Chamma Davide; Antônio Vander Pereira

    2006-01-01

    The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28) and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14) can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21). This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their proge...

  10. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jacianelly Karla da, Silva; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de, Medeiros; Edson Mauro, Santos; Tamires da Silva, Magalhães; Alenice Ozino, Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square des [...] ign.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB). There was no difference in dry matter (DM) intake between diets EGS and CS in g d?1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM) intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg?1 d?1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Anguina sp. from Grass Seed Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Griesbach, J.A.; Chitambar, J. J.; Hamerlynck, M. J.; Duarte, E. O.

    1999-01-01

    Four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of Anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. The procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of Oregon and California, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. Eleven seed lots of Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of Anguina...

  12. Novel management to enhance spider biodiversity in existing grass buffer strips

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Robin J.; Woodcock, Ben A.; Westbury, Duncan B.; Sutton, Peter; Potts, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    1. Grass buffer strips have been widely sown to mitigate against intensive agricultural management practices that have negatively impacted on invertebrate and plant biodiversity in arable farming systems. Typically, such strips are floristically species poor and are dominated by grasses. In the present study, we developed management practices to enhance the floristic and structural diversity of these existing strips for the benefit of spiders, a key provider of natural pest control in crops. ...

  13. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: Movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena; Ekblom, Björn; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33...

  14. Interspecific sex in grass smuts and the genetic diversity of their pheromone-receptor system

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner, Ronny; Vollmeister, Evelyn; Feldbrügge, Michael; Begerow, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR) system and he...

  15. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have been employed, and N2-fixation has been demonstrated to occur under controlled conditions, but this is insufficient evidence to prove a significant role for N2-fixation by heterotrophic bacteria in th...

  16. Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Fuller, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare incidences and patterns of injury for female and male elite teams when playing football on artificial turf and grass. Twenty teams (15 male, 5 female) playing home matches on third-generation artificial turf were followed prospectively; their injury risk when playing on artificial turf pitches was compared with the risk when playing on grass. Individual exposure, injuries (time loss) and injury severity were recorded by the team medical staff. In tot...

  17. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2008-01-01

    Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. Species of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes wheat, barley and important forage grasses, have evolved extreme frost tolerance. A class of ice binding proteins that inhibit ice re-crystallisation, specific to the Pooideae subfamily lineage, have been identified in perennial ryegrass and wheat, and these proteins are thought to have evolved from a leucine-rich repeat phytosulfokine receptor kinase (LRR-PSR)-like ancestor g...

  18. PAH contamination of the grass Lolium perenne exposed to vehicular traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Crépineau-Ducoulombier, Cécile; Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; Rychen, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The contamination of pastures by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from vehicular emissions is the first step of the contamination of the food chain including the grazing ruminants producing dairy food. In this study, we measured PAH concentrations in grass exposed for 30 days and for 75 days using a standardised culture of Lolium perenne. This method allowed the comparison of the grass contamination between two sites of different daily traffic (highway and rural road) and two control s...

  19. Relationships among non-Acremonium sp. fungal endophytes in five grass species.

    OpenAIRE

    An, Z Q; Siegel, M. R.; Hollin, W; Tsai, H F; D. Schmidt; Schardl, C L

    1993-01-01

    Many cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae) possess maternally transmitted fungal symbionts which cause no known pathology and often enhance the ecological fitness and biochemical capabilities of the grass hosts. The most commonly described endophytes are the Acremonium section Albo-lanosa spp. (Acremonium endophytes), which are conidial anamorphs (strictly asexual forms) of Epichloë typhina. Other endophytes which have been noted are a Gliocladium-like fungus in perennial ryegrass (Lolium ...

  20. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Alicai, Titus; Otim, Michael; Kabirizi, Jolly; Mukwaya, Anthony; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using u...

  1. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G; Holm, J; Nielsen, N C; Holse, M; Wagtmann, V R; Würtzen, P A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with ...

  2. Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Auraiwan Isuwan; Jeerasak Saelim; Somsak Paothong

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampl...

  3. The Role of Moisture in the Successful Rehabilitation of Denuded Patches of a Semi-Arid Environment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Z. Mganga; Nashon K.R. Musimba; Moses M. Nyangito; Dickson M. Nyariki; Agnes W. Mwangombe; Wellington N. Ekaya; William M. Muiru; Daniele Clavel; Judith Francis; Ralph von Kaufmann; Jan Verhagen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) at three phenological stages (early growth, elongation and reproduction) as pure stands and two-grass mixtures. The grasses were sown on either rainfed (Sites 1 and 2) or simulated ...

  4. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  5. The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TFU, kg kg-1 ). It was found that the TFU values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

  6. A model for backscattering characteristics of tall prairie grass canopies at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a discrete microwave scattering model, describing the radar backscattering coefficient from two treatments (burned and unburned) of tall prairie grass canopies at VV (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals are vertically oriented) and HH (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals and horizontally oriented) polarizations, based on the physical, biophysical, and geometrical characteristics of such canopies. Grass blades are modeled as thin and finite dielectric ellipsoids with arbitrary orientations. Scattering by an individual grass blade is formulated using a generalization of the Rayleigh—Gans approximation with a quasistatic solution for the expansion of the interior field. By associating, with each grass blade, various appropriate distribution functions, the relative orientation, location, height, cross section, and permittivity of each grass blade is taken into account. This makes for a more realistic overall description of the canopy. Kirchhoff's surface scattering is used to model the backscatter from the soil surface. An incoherent summation of the effect of grass blades and soil surface is adopted to obtain the total canopy backscattering coefficient, taking into account the attenuation experienced by the signal as it travels through the canopy. The results of this model are given for 1.5, 5, and 10 GHz (L-, C-, and X-band). Although for the shorter wavelengths (X-band) the Rayleigh—Gans criteria is not totally satisfied, nevertheless, the limited available measured X-band data compare relatively well with the results of this model both quantitatively and qualitatively. (author)

  7. Deriving Hydrological Response Units (HRUs using a Web Processing Service implementation based on GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwartze

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available QGIS releases equal to or newer than 0.7 can easily connected to GRASS GIS by means of a toolbox that provides a wide range of standard GRASS modules you can launch – albeit only on data coming from GRASS. This QGIS plugin is expandable through XML configurations describing the assignment of options and inputs for a certain module. But how about embedding a precise workflow where the several processes don’t consist of a single GRASS module by force? Especially for a sequence of dependent tasks it makes sense to merge relevant GRASS functionality into an own and encapsulated QGIS extension. Its architecture and development is tested and combined with the Web Processing Service (WPS for remote execution using the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs as an example. The results of this assay may be suitable for discussing and planning other wizard-like geoprocessing plugins in QGIS that also should make use of an additional GRASS server.

  8. Biogas production from boreal herbaceous grasses--specific methane yield and methane yield per hectare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Mari; Paavola, Teija; Lehtomäki, Annimari; Rintala, Jukka

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the specific methane yields of four grass species (cocksfoot, tall fescue, reed canary grass and timothy) cultivated under boreal conditions as well as how harvesting time and year of cultivation affects the specific methane yields per ha. The specific methane yields of all grasses and all harvests varied from 253 to 394 Nl CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) added. The average specific methane yield of the 1st harvest of all grasses was higher than the 2nd harvests. In this study the methane and energy yields from different harvest years were ranged from 1200 to 3600 Nm(3) CH4/ha/a, corresponding from 12 to 36 MWh(CH4)/ha/a. The methane yield per hectare of the 1st harvest was always higher than that of the 2nd harvest per hectare because of the higher dry matter yield and specific methane yield. High biomass yield per hectare, good digestibility and regrowth ability after harvesting are important factors when choosing grass species for biogas production. If 30% of fallow and the second harvest of grassland were cultivated grasses and harvested for biogas production in Finland, the energy produced could be 4.9 TWh(CH4). PMID:19261471

  9. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

  10. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  11. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations. PMID:22251716

  12. Response of itchgrass and johnson grass to asulam/dalapon combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of asumlam [methyl[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]carbamate], dalapon (2,2-dichloropropionic acid) and asulam/dalapon combinations on itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata L.f.) and johnson grass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] were examined. When metabolism of 14C-asulam was monitored, seven days after application, 97-100% of recovered 14C co-chromatographed with 14C-asulam. Itchgrass exhibited rapid uptake of 14C-asulam within 8 hr after application. Asumlam concentrations remained constant in the plant between 8 and 72 hr. Johnson grass plants showed a differential response to asulam and asulam/dalapon treatments. Asulam-treated johnson grass absorbed 26-34% 14C within 2 hr with no future significant increase in absorption in absorption through 72 hr. Treatment of johnson grass with asulam/dalapon enhanced 14C absorption with time. At 24 and 72 hr 14C levels were double that absorbed from treatment of asulam alone. Movement of 14C-asulam in the apoplast and symplast of both itchgrass and johnson grass was noted. The highest radiolabel accumulated in the lower leaves of itchgrass and remained in the treated leaf of johnson grass

  13. Crude Protein and Crude of Fiber Benggala [Panicum Maximum] and Elephant [Pennisetum Purpureum] Grasses on Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ED Purbajanti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of crop response to water is essential for proper irrigation management. Research was conducted at Forage Crop Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Department, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry, Diponegoro University during 9 month trying two type grass that were benggala ( Panicum maximum and elephant ( Pennisetum purpureum with treatment of the following dry stres : S0 = control, without stress; S1 = 1 times drought stress, S2 = 2 times drought stress , and S3 = 3 times drought stress by lay out of complete random design( factorial pattern. Parameter perceived were( 1 forage production , (2 dry matter production, (3 percentage of crude protein, and (4 percentage of crude fibre. Data collected to be analysed by analysis of varians continued with Duncan multiple range test. Result of research indicate that forage production of elephant grass (103,79 g/pot bigger than benggala (53,08 g/pot. Dry matter production of elephant grass was 18,77 g/pot higher than benggala grass( 14,54 g/pot. Drought stres do not affect to forage production also dry matter production : Percentage of crude protein of benggala grass (9,10% higher than elephant grass (7,02%, while percentage crude fibre of benggala grass (35,64% higher than elephant grass (31,67%. Drought stres do not influence percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala and elephant grasses. Conclusion from research were (1 elephant grass have higher forage production and dry matter production than benggala grass (2 percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala grass higher than elephant grass, (3 drought stres do not affect to forage production , dry matter production, percentage of crude protein and crude fibre. (Animal Production 11(2: 109-115 (2009 Key Words : crude protein, fiber, drought stress

  14. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  15. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Shonima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36 and control groups (n=23. BGP (1.2 g/day in the form of capsules (n=4 was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

  16. Analyse chimique immédiate des matières grasses par capteur spectrophotométrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurens Marc

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Les techniques spectrophotométriques permettent de déterminer instantanément la concentration de différentes espèces chimiques sans préparation ni transformation des échantillons. L’application de ces techniques et notamment de la spectroscopie proche infrarouge en contrôle de qualité des industries alimentaires est développée par de nombreux laboratoires et entreprises depuis plus de vingt ans. Les performances analytiques de nouveaux spectrophotomètres en mesure tant d’émission fluorescente et Raman que d’absorption proche infrarouge sont présentées ici, afin de montrer comment ces instruments répondent aux besoins d’analyse rapide et de contrôle de qualité en ligne dans le domaine oléicole. Dotés de fibres optiques et de détecteurs à couplage de charge, les spectrophotomètres de la dernière génération appelés capteurs spectrophotométriques ou spectrocapteurs s’avèrent convenir à l’analyse chimique immédiate et non destructive des matières grasses avec la détermination de paramètres comme les teneurs en lipides totaux et en acides gras libres pour la spectrométrie proche infrarouge, les teneurs en différents polyphénols et en chlorophylle pour la spectrofluorimétrie et les teneurs en acides gras à doubles liaisons en configuration trans pour la spectrométrie Raman.

  17. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  18. Forage production of elephant grass under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva Chaves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter production of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum genotypes, managed under intermittent stocking. A completely randomized design was used, with two genotypes and three replicates. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations (2x2x2 of genotypes ('BRS Kurumi' and the clone CNPGL 00?1?3, two light interception levels (LI at the onset of grazing (90 and 95%, and two post?grazing canopy heights (30 and 50 cm. A total of 24 Holstein x Zebu crossbred heifers were used. The stocking density varied in order to finish the grazing periods in two days. The interval between the defoliation, based on 95% LI, resulted in a higher leaf mass per grazing cycle. The post?grazing height of 30 cm did not affect the number of grazing cycles but provided a greater herbage accumulation rate. The cultivar BRS Kurumi has higher pasture growth, lower rest period, and greater number of grazing cycles, which results in increased forage production in the growing season.

  19. Storage of carbon in natural grasses high andean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Marino Yaranga Cano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the capacity of storage of carbon in species of grasses natural of high andean, between January of 2012 and March of 2013. They were defined two sampling areas in the districts of Huasicancha and Chicche of the county of Huancayo, Junín. The first of the areas was located in the place Pumahuasi (18L 466456E 8628580N and the second in Vista Alegre (18L 464886E 8642964N, between 3 845 and 3 870 meters of altitude. 10 plants per species were collected at random, between April and May, considering the moment of maximum growth of the plants. The samples were washed and dried off to the atmosphere during 15 days, being completed the drying in a stove to 60 °C, during 48 hours. The determination of the percentage of dry matter of the samples was carried out by the difference between the initial and final weights. While that the determination of the percentage of carbon was carried out through the method of Walkley-Black. The results of the correlation of weight between air biomass and biomass radicular were highly significant r = 0.9856 ** and b = 3.4507. The percentage of the weight of the root regarding that of the air biomass oscillated between 27.93% and 30.20%, respectively. The content of carbon expressed as percentage varied according to the part of the plant and the origin place.

  20. Temperature-gradient and heat flow data, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, James B.; Gardner, Murray C.

    1979-11-01

    A series of 16 shallow and intermediate-depth temperature-gradient holes were drilled for Sunoco Energy Development Co. in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, on leases held by Aminoil USA, Inc., under the cost-sharing industry-linked program of the Department of Energy. Thirteen shallow (85-152 m) and 3 intermediate-depth (360-457 m) holes were completed and logged during the period June through September, 1979. The locations of these holes and of pre-existing temperature-gradient holes are shown on plate 1. This report constitutes a final data transmittal and disclosure of results. The drilling subcontractor was Southwest Drilling and Exploration, Inc. of Central, Utah. They provided a Gardner-Denver 15W rig, a 3-man crew, and supporting equipment. A l l holes were drilled with mud as the circulating medium. Drilling histories for each hole are summarized in table 1. GeothermEx, Inc. performed on-site geological descriptions of the cuttings; obtained several temperature profiles for each hole, including an equilibrium profile taken 23 days or more after cessation of drilling; selected samples for thermal conductivity measurements; integrated temperature, temperature-gradient, and heat-flow data obtained in this project with published values; and prepared this report.

  1. Biogenic hydrogen and methane production from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Koskinen, Perttu E.P.; Nevatalo, Laura M.; Kaksonen, Anna H.; Puhakka, Jaakko A. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    The composition, biodegradability, abundance, availability and cost determine the amenability of carbonaceous substrate for fermentative hydrogen and methane production systems. The aim of the present work was to determine suitability of lignocellulosic material, reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea L.), for hydrogen and methane production at 35 C by utilizing solid RCG and acid hydrolyzed soluble RCG. Synthetic cellulose was used as control substrate. Acid hydrolysis released 61.7 mg g{sup -1} (dw) and 115 mg g{sup -1} (dw) of reducing sugars from synthetic cellulose and chopped RCG, respectively. More hydrogen was produced from acid hydrolyzed RCG than from solid RCG, the highest yield being 1.25 mmol H{sub 2} per g (dw) RCG. Methane production from solid RCG resulted in the highest yield of 8.26 mmol CH{sub 4} per g (dw) RCG. In summary hydrogen and methane was produced from RCG, and acid hydrolysis was required for hydrogen, but not for methane production. (author)

  2. Detection and Isolation of Epichloë Species, Fungal Endophytes of Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Simona; Schardl, Christopher L; Hollin, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including former Neotyphodium species) are endophytic fungi that significantly affect fitness of cool-season grass hosts, potentially by increasing nutrient uptake and resistance to drought, parasitism and herbivory. Epichloë species are obligately biotrophic, living in the intercellular spaces of their plant hosts, and spreading systemically throughout host aerial tissues. The reproduction of Epichloë species is versatile; some strains have both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction, but others are restricted to one or the other mode. The reproduction mode determines the dissemination mechanism, and the asexual species most important to agriculture are strictly seed-borne, cause no signs or symptoms, and are undetectable except by specialized microscopic, molecular or antigenic procedures. These procedures can be used to identify endophytes in a variety of plant tissues. Similar protocols can be modified to detect less common symbionts, such as the penicillate "p-endophytes," when they occur by themselves or together with Epichloë species. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26237108

  3. How cereal grass shoots perceive and respond to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Brock, T. G.; Song, I.; Rho, Y. B.; Ghosheh, N. S.

    1987-01-01

    The leaf-sheath pulvinus of grasses presents a unique system for studying gravitropism, primarily because of its differences from other organs. The mature pulvinus is a discrete organ specialized for gravitropism: it is nongrowing in the absence of gravistimulation and capable of displaying a graviresponse independent of the rest of the plant. In this paper we present a model for gravitropism in pulvini based on recent findings from studies on the mechanisms of graviperception and graviresponse. According to this model, amyloplasts play an essential role in perceiving a change in the orientation of the pulvinus. The perception of this reorientation leads to the enhanced synthesis and release from conjugate of the auxin IAA, and the increased conjugation of gibberellin, on a localized basis. Because there is a graded growth promotion across the gravistimulated pulvinus, it is suggested that the observed hormonal asymmetry is actually an indication of a linear gradient of hormone concentration, as well as hormone response, across the pulvinus. It is further suggested that the linear gradient of hormone concentration may be predominantly the result of local changes in hormone level, rather than a product of hormonal movement into or across the pulvinus.

  4. UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jörg Schaller; Carsten Brackhage; Ernst Bäucker; E Gert Dudel

    2013-06-01

    UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be explained by the UV-screening effect of the silicon double layer. It was shown for seedlings of soybeans (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that enhanced silicon supply reduces stress induced by UV-radiation. Even more important is a direct correlation between silicon content in the epidermis near area (intercellular spaces) and the absorption of UV-radiation in this area shown in other papers. The silicon double layer may act like a glass layer and decreases the transmission of UV-radiation at the epidermis near area. In summary, the absorbance/reflection of ultraviolet radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the epidermis near area of leaves, particularly the occurrence (qualitatively and quantitatively) of phenolic substances and/or a silicon double layer in this area. Consequently, UV-screening by plant silicon double layer should get more attention in future research with emphasis on effects of UV-radiation on plant physiology.

  5. Identifying urban sources as cause to elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Skjøth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres from this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflects the source areas identified in the inventory, and that these pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near and within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations, there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution, and is thus a local scale phenomenon. Model simulations aiming at assessment of population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulates pollen release in order to calculate urban scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14 m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are in additional available in tabular form.

  6. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; SkjØth, Carsten Ambelas

    2013-01-01

    We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban-scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflect the source areas identified in the inventory, and that the pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near or within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not to rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local-scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulate pollen release in order to calculate urban-scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are additionally available in tabular form.

  7. Bioenergy production from roadside grass : A case study of the feasibility of using roadside grass for biogas production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show that the potential annual yield of biomass obtainable from roadside verges varies widely depending on the local conditions. The net energy gain (NEG) from harvest, collection, transport, storage and digestion of roadside vegetation was estimated to range from 60,126–121,476 GJ, corresponding to 1.5–3.0% of the present national energy production based on biogas. The estimated values for the energy return on invested energy (EROEI) was found to range from 2.17 to 2.88. The measured contents of heavy metals in the roadside vegetation was seen not to exceed the legislative levels for what can be applied as fertilizer on agricultural land, neither does it reach levels considered as inhibitory for the anaerobic fermentation process. From a practical point of view, few challenges were identified related to the acquisition and processing of the roadside vegetation. Considering the positive net energy gains, further energy investments for management of these challenges can be made. Despite the somewhat low EROEI values, the use of this resource could however result in other positive externalities, such as improved biodiversity of the verges and recycling of nutrients.

  8. Organic dust toxic syndrome at a grass seed plant caused by exposure to high concentrations of bioaerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne M; Tendal, Kira; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heltberg, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of sudden health problems in workers at a Danish grass seed plant after exposure to a particularly dusty lot of grass seeds. The seeds are called problematic seeds. The association between development of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and the handling of grass seeds causing exposure was assessed in a four-step model: (i) identification of exposure source, (ii) characterization of the emission of bioaerosols from the problematic and reference seeds, (iii) personal and ...

  9. Modifications of Phleum pratense grass pollen allergens following artificial exposure to gaseous air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerieux, Françoise; Godfrin, D.; Senechal, Hélène; Motta, Alexandre; Marliere, Maryse; Peltre, Gabriel; Lacroix, Ghislaine

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a potential cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the major gaseous air pollutants on grass pollen allergens. Timothy grass pollen was exposed to ozone (O-3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) alone or in combination. Allergen contents were analysed by 2-dimensional immunoblot using grass pollen-sensitive patient sera. For O-3-treated pollen, immunoblotting ...

  10. Anti-tick repellent effect of Andropogon gayanus grass on plots of different ages experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS CRUZ-VAZQUEZ; MANUEL FERNANDEZ RUVALCABA

    2000-01-01

    The anti-tick repellent effect of Andropogon gayanus grass was evaluated on plots of different ages experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae, using Cenchurus ciliaris as control grass. Four infestations were made, at different plant ages, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. The effect was evaluated by recovery of larvae from the experimental plots by flagging during a four week period after each infestation. The anti-tick repellent effect observed in A. gayanus grass was manifested only...

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Organic Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass) in Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, N.; Verma, P; B. R. Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. (Hindi Name- gehun, kanak, Sanskrit name- godhuma) is called as a wheat grass, belonging to family: Gramineae, which posses high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers. Wheat grass has been shown to posses anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer activity, antioxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, and blood building activity in Thalassemia Major. It has been argued that wheat grass helps blood flow, digest...

  12. Grimms Wörter: Doppelbiografie und Doppelgeschichtsschreibung Grass schreibt eigene Autobiografie anhand Grimms? Autobiografie, Geschichte Deutschlands und des Deutschen.

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Zakaria Mohammed Amer

    2013-01-01

    Grimms Wörter ist ein vielseitiges Buch, denn es behandelt viererlei: Grass, die Grimms, die deutsche Sprache und die Geschichte Deutschlands. Die lebenslange literarische Produktion des deutschen Literaturnobelpreisträgers könnte mit diesem Buch beendet werden, wie Grass selbst behauptet, da er es sein "wahrscheinlich letztes Buch" nennt. Grass entschied sich für eine neue Form der Autobiografie: eigene Autobiografie anhand Autobiografie anderer Personen zu schreiben. Diese indirekte Form is...

  13. Effects of the Epichloë fungal endophyte symbiosis with Schedonorus pratensis on host grass invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kruti; Hager, Heather A; Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2015-07-01

    Initial studies of grass-endophyte mutualisms using Schedonorus arundinaceus cultivar Kentucky-31 infected with the vertically transmitted endophyte Epichloë coenophiala found strong, positive endophyte effects on host-grass invasion success. However, more recent work using different cultivars of S. arundinaceus has cast doubt on the ubiquity of this effect, at least as it pertains to S. arundinaceus-E. coenophiala. We investigated the generality of previous work on vertically transmitted Epichloë-associated grass invasiveness by studying a pair of very closely related species: S. pratensis and E. uncinata. Seven cultivars of S. pratensis and two cultivars of S. arundinaceus that were developed with high- or low-endophyte infection rate were broadcast seeded into 2 × 2-m plots in a tilled, old-field grassland community in a completely randomized block design. Schedonorus abundance, endophyte infection rate, and co-occurring vegetation were sampled 3, 4, 5, and 6 years after establishment, and the aboveground invertebrate community was sampled in S. pratensis plots 3 and 4 years after establishment. Endophyte infection did not enable the host grass to achieve high abundance in the plant community. Contrary to expectations, high-endophyte S. pratensis increased plant richness relative to low-endophyte cultivars. However, as expected, high-endophyte S. pratensis marginally decreased invertebrate taxon richness. Endophyte effects on vegetation and invertebrate community composition were inconsistent among cultivars and were weaker than temporal effects. The effect of the grass-Epichloë symbiosis on diversity is not generalizable, but rather specific to species, cultivar, infection, and potentially site. Examining grass-endophyte systems using multiple cultivars and species replicated among sites will be important to determine the range of conditions in which endophyte associations benefit host grass performance and have subsequent effects on co-occurring biotic communities. PMID:26257873

  14. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality programmes to identify any exceedances of European feeding stuff standards in the vicinity of large emitters.

  15. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  16. Filterability of Monosodium Titanate Supplied by Blue Grass Chemical Specialties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design specification for monosodium titanate (MST) requires that less than 1 per cent of the particles are larger than 35 micron and that less than 1 per cent of the particles are smaller than 1 micron. Blue Grass Chemical Specialties produced two batches of MST for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) that do not meet the particle size specification. The material has more than 1 per cent of the particles smaller than 1 micron. This increase in the fraction of particles less than 1 micron could adversely affect filtration within the Actinide Removal Project (ARP). The authors conducted dead-end filtration testing with 0.45 micron polymeric filter media, 0.5 micron Mott sintered stainless steel filter media, and 0.1 micron Mott sintered stainless steel filter media. The authors make the following recommendations for MST particle size. If a 0.5 micron Mott filter is used for the ARP process, the existing particle size specification (less than 1 per cent of particles less than 1 micron and less than 1 per cent of particles greater than 35 micron) should be maintained. If a 0.1 micron Mott filter is used for the ARP process and the existing particle size specification is not met, DWPF personnel should arrange for filter tests, such as those described in this report, to be performed to evaluate the filterability of the MST. DWPF personnel should consider revising the particle size specification, because technology improvements allow better resolution of particles less than 1 micron. The limited data collected during this testing is not sufficient to change the particle size specification. Limited additional testing similar to that performed here would provide sufficient technical bases

  17. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

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    Swigo?ová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially providing an important role for retrotransposons in the evolution of gene function.

  18. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within...

  19. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

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    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  20. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Soares, Miranda; Karina Guimarães, Ribeiro; Alexandre Christófaro, Silva; Rosana Cristina, Pereira; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Pablo Vidal, Torrado; José Sebastião Cunha, Fernandes; Maxwel Coura, Oliveira.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral con [...] tent and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  1. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  2. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

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    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm from February through May 2009 (experiment one and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment two. In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  3. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

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    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p? Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  4. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass ensiled with old man saltbush

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Otanael Oliveira dos, Santos; Gherman Garcia Leal de, Araújo; Claudio, Mistura; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro, Pereira; Tadeu Vinhas, Voltolini; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos, Santos; Josivânia Rodrigues de, Araújo.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of saltbush on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silages of elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum Schum.) were studied through a completely randomized design with six old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind) levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 %) in [...] substitution of the grass natural matter, with six replicates. Elephant grass presented 18.9% dry matter (DM) and silages were produced in experimental PVC silos, which were open at 70 days after ensilage. The increasing old man saltbush levels had increasing linear effect on the DM content of silages. There was quadratic effect for the contents of lactic and acetic acids and in vitro DM digestibility. Contents of butyric acid were negligible. Values pH of and N-NH3 contents had increasing linear effect. Linear effect of the increasing levels of old man saltbush was verified on the CP contents. Neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and ether extract were not affected, whilst acid detergent fiber content showed decreasing linear effect. The addition of old man saltbush in the ensilage of elephant grass favored the fermentation process, promoting good lactic acid contents and reducing acetic acid, pH, dry matter loss and ammoniacal nitrogen, in addition to improving the nutritional quality of the elephant grass silages.

  5. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Hélida Christhine de Freitas, Monteiro; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Carlindo Santos, Rodrigues; André Fischer, Sbrissia.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm) from February through May 2009 (experiment one) and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment [...] two). In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  6. Spittle protein profile of Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) fed various elephant grass genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auad, A M; Martins, M F; Fonseca, I; Paula-Moraes, S V; Kopp, M M; Cordeiro, M C

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the interaction between spittlebugs and forage grasses is essential for establishing factors that favor productive pastures. In the present study, we evaluated the protein profiles of the spittle of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) fed various elephant grass genotypes. Each plant was infested with a single fifth-instar M. spectabilis. After 24 h, samples of the spittle produced by each nymph were collected and stored at -20°C, after which their protein profiles were analyzed. The exclusivity or interactions of the proteins present in the spittle produced by the insects revealed the susceptibility of the tested genotypes. The results indicate that groups of genotypes show identical spittle protein profiles when subjected to attack by spittlebugs. Resistant and susceptible elephant grass genotypes exhibited high similarity indices within each group. The similarity index was low for the resistance control species (Brachiaria brizantha) compared with that of the tested elephant grass genotypes. Qualitative and quantitative studies of the proteins expressed in the most promising materials will be performed in an ongoing genetic improvement program seeking to develop genotypes resistant to spittlebugs, which are the main biotic pests of elephant grasses. PMID:23096685

  7. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clair Jorge, Olivo; Carlos Alberto, Agnolin; Priscila Flôres, Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de, Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de, Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg, Diehl; Gilmar Roberto, Meinerz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season r [...] yegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems) two replications (paddocks) and independent evaluations (grazing cycles). The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  8. Cyathostomin larvae: presence on Brachiaria humidicola grass during the rainy and dry seasons of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Claudia Navarro; de Souza, Luciene Soares; Vieira, Vivian Suane de Freitas; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    The presence of cyathostomin larvae is directly associated to climatic conditions of each region. This study aimed to evaluate the ecology of infective larvae on Brachiaria humidicola during the dry and rainy seasons from October 2007 to September 2008 in a tropical region, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. Stools were collected from the rectum of horses naturally infected with cyathostomins at the beginning of the rainy season (October to March) and dry season (April to September). They were divided into four samples of 500 g and deposited on a grass patch of B. humidicola. Seven days later and every 15 days thereafter samples of feces and grass were collected and processed by the Baermann technique. The mean number of larvae recovered from the grass varied according to the season, with greater recovery of larvae during the peak of the dry season (14,700 L3.kg-¹ DM). There was a statistically significant difference between L3 recovered from feces and grass, but not between L3 recovered from the grass base and apex. These results show that the region's climate favors the development and survival of infective cyathostomin larvae throughout the year, with a greater number of larvae during the dry season. PMID:22534941

  9. Testing the recoverability of grass DNA transferred to textiles for forensic purpose

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    Francesc Francès

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Botanical evidence such as grass stains on textiles is sometimes present in the crime scene and can allow investigators to establish an association between persons linked to the criminal event and the crime scene. In this study, extraction of grass DNA from stains on textiles was undertaken. DNA extraction was performed on four grass species conserved both indoors and outdoors for 7, 14 and 30 days after staining. Once the extracted DNA was quantified, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplifying a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer was performed.DNA extraction was successful in 97.5% of samples. No significant differences in the amount of extracted DNA were detected among species or stain ages. However, one grass species (Cynodon dactylon showed a significant diminution in the mean DNA concentration between indoor and outdoor samples (439.9±137 ng/µL vs. 318.9±177 ng/µL respectively; p=0.041. PCR was successful in 89.2% of samples. This study has thus demonstrated the recoverability of grass DNA from stains on cloths and its stability in the first month after staining in both outdoor and indoor environments, as well as its suitability for PCR amplification that could allow correct species identification.

  10. Socioeconomic Study of Grasses and Legumes in Baria and Godhra Forest Division, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara J. GANDHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The cultural diversity in the Indian society reflects close relationship between the existence of human life and nature including all other living creatures and non-living creatures. The present paper deals with the traditional knowledge of villagers in 10 villages nearby the grasslands in Panchmahal and Dahod districts of Gujarat, India, regarding the multipurpose use of grasses and associated legumes prevailing in these grasslands. A survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic status. 69 grass species and 34 legumes could be identified growing in these grasslands of which 92 were used for livestocks. Among these grasses the most preferred grass species were Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum because of its high palatability. Three grasses and 8 legume species were used for food and medicine. The study emphasizes the use of plant wealth to human needs of the regions and assist in appraisal of various anthropogenic interventions accountable for loss of prevailing biodiversity of the region.

  11. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  12. Measurement of key compositional parameters in two species of energy grass by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Gordon G; Morris, Catherine; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, Jenny; Kubacki, Michal; Barraclough, Tim; Yates, Nicola; Shield, Ian; Bridgwater, Anthony V; Donnison, Iain S

    2009-12-01

    Two energy grass species, switch grass, a North American tuft grass, and reed canary grass, a European native, are likely to be important sources of biomass in Western Europe for the production of biorenewable energy. Matching chemical composition to conversion efficiency is a primary goal for improvement programmes and for determining the quality of biomass feed-stocks prior to use and there is a need for methods which allow cost effective characterisation of chemical composition at high rates of sample through-put. In this paper we demonstrate that nitrogen content and alkali index, parameters greatly influencing thermal conversion efficiency, can be accurately predicted in dried samples of these species grown under a range of agronomic conditions by partial least square regression of Fourier transform infrared spectra (R(2) values for plots of predicted vs. measured values of 0.938 and 0.937, respectively). We also discuss the prediction of carbon and ash content in these samples and the application of infrared based predictive methods for the breeding improvement of energy grasses. PMID:19660936

  13. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  14. N resource of grasses and N2-fixation of alfalfa in mono-culture and mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N behavior in alfalfa and gramineous forage grasses, tall fescue, siberian wild rye, wheat grass and awnless brome were studied in potting and pasture experiments in 1986-1988 by using 15N isotope dilution technique. Comparison was made between the mixed culture and mono-culture. The % Ndff and %Ndfs of grasses were decreased by 14.19% and 20.76% respectively, while %Ndfa of alfalfa was increased by 20.22% in mixed culture as compared with mono-culture. The 15N and soil N uptake data revealed that this enhancement was largely due to a lower competitive ability for soil N by alfalfa than by grass in mixed stands, causing the alfalfa to depend more on atmospheric N2 fixation. 20.62%of N of grasses in mixed culture was from the N2-fixation by alfalfa, causing N level in root-sphere of alfalfa decreasing, which was considered to be one of the reasons that %Ndfa increased in mixed culture. N transfer may be carried out by the decomposition of roots and nodules of alfalfa plants

  15. The Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility of Some Tropical Grasses at Different Stage of Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyuddin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD was determined by Telly and Terry methods in vitro on 5 tropical grasses species, Sorghum, Themeda, Iseilema, Brachyacne and Dicanthium. Stem and leaf samples were harvested at different maturity stages, started from early flowering stage to the stage when the grasses were dried. In general, IVNDFD ranged from 22% to 41%. Stages of maturity affected IVNDFD in 4 species; IVNDFD was higher in the stems than in the leaves for 2 species out of 5 species of grasses; the rest was similar. There was no correlation between NDF and IVNDFD, showing that NDF degradability in the rumen was vary. Digestibility potential of NDF (PDNDF varied from 21% to 44% and has negative correlation with IVNDFD (r=0.75. Growth affected PDNDF in 2 species; and 3 out 5 species observed showed PDNDF in the leaves was higher than that in the stems. Negative correlation was exist between dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, water soluble extract (WSE and protein with PDNDF. Grasses with stated PDNDF values have relatively high NDF retention in the rumen, which will cause low NDF or dry matter consumption. (Animal Production 11(3: 189-195 (2009Key Words: NDF digestibility, tropical grasses, stem, leaves, maturity stage

  16. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto Magno, Fernandes; Fermino, Deresz; Douglas Sampaio, Henrique; Fernando César Ferraz, Lopes; Leonardo Siqueira, Glória.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area [...] divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa) samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.

  17. Dynamic response of grass cover to rainfall variability: implications for the function and persistence of savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Todd M.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Manfreda, Salvatore; Levin, Simon A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2005-03-01

    Savanna grass cover is dynamic and its annual extent resonates with wet season rainfall, as shown by satellite observations of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series for the Kalahari Transect (KT) in southern Africa. We explore the hydrological significance of the dynamic grass cover by applying a soil moisture model to the water-limited portion of the KT, which spans a north-south gradient in mean wet season rainfall, r¯, from approximately 700 to 300 mm. Satellite-derived tree fractional cover, xt, is shown to be highly correlated with ground meteorological measurements of r¯(R2=0.94) in this region. By implementing a simple expression for grass growth and decay in the model that factored in only xt and near-surface soil moisture, we were able to effectively reproduce the satellite-derived fractional grass cover, xg, along the transect over a 16-year period (1983-1998). We compared the results from dynamic grass model with those yielded by a static grass cover model in which xg was set to its 16-year average for each simulation. The dynamic quality of the grass was found to be important for reducing tree stress during dry years and for reducing the amount of water that is lost from the overall root zone during the wet years, relative to the static grass case. We find that the dynamic grass cover acts as a buffer against variability in wet season precipitation, and in doing so helps to maximize ecosystem water use. The model results indicate that mixed tree/grass savanna ecosystems are ideally suited to reach a dynamic equilibrium with respect to the use of a fluctuating limiting resource (water) by having functional components that respond to variability in rainfall over long timescales (trees) and short timescales (grasses).

  18. Intermittent wind close to the ground within a grass canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylor, Donald E.; Wang, Yansen; Miller, David R.

    1993-12-01

    Wind speed was measured at a height of 1 cm above the ground and at several other heights in and above a canopy of tall fescue grass ( Festuca arundinacea) using single hot-wire and triple hot-film anemometers. The plant area density in the canopy was concentrated close to the ground, with ˜75% of the plant area standing below z=15 cm, where z is height above the ground. The frequency distributions of horizontal wind speeds, s, were sharply skewed towards positive values at all measurement heights, but were most highly skewed near the ground where the coefficient of skewness ranged from 1.6 to 2.9. Above mid-canopy height, the frequency distribution of s was described reasonably well by a Gumbel extreme value distribution. Average wind speed, S, decreased exponentially with depth into the canopy with an exponential scale length of about h/2.8, where h is the height of the canopy. At z=1 cm, the value of S was about 11% of the surface-layer u *. The standard deviation of the fluctuations of the vertical and horizontal components of the wind speed also decreased exponentially with depth inside the canopy with a scale length of about h/2.5. Inside the canopy, the Eulerian integral time scales for the vertical (? w ) and horizontal (? u ) components of wind speed were about 0.1 s and 1.0 s, respectively, and were approximately constant with height. Above the canopy, these time scales increased sharply and, at z=2.25 h, ? w and ? u were approximately 1.0 and 3.0s, respectively. Turbulence length scales in the vertical and downwind directions, ? u and ? w · U, respectively, were approximately 1 cm for heights between 1 to 10 cm above the ground inside the canopy, while at z=2.25 h, they were about 55 cm and 277 cm. Relatively quiescent periods (lulls) in the air close to the ground were interrupted frequently by gusts. The frequency of occurrence of gusts appears to be correlated with the value of the local shear near the top of the canopy.

  19. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhaichi, Mounir

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of yield for comparison was an effective method of avoiding autocorrelation of data while better representing impacts within a field. Occasional yield increases, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, were recorded following goose grazing. Goose grazing generally resulted in seed yield reductions, ranging up to 20 percent. Later and more intensive grazing tended to increase yield reductions. Newly seeded tall fescue tended to be the most sensitive to grazing. Established perennial ryegrass tended to be more resilient.

  20. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium to grass. The implementation of the metabolism of the lamb includes an assumption of a biological halflife of three weeks for radiocaesium.

  1. X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry to characterise the chemical composition of ashes by the savannah grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to quantity the biomass burning emissions, the main atmospheric pollution source of the tropical and subtropical regions, we carried out the analysis of ashes that are also formed during these fires. When this aim, analytical methods to characterize the composition of Savannah grass burning ashes by using x-ray fluorescence for mineral elements and classical microanalysis for C,H,N and organic O have been developed. Samples used in this work have been collected during laboratory combustion experiments with chemically well-defined natural Savannah grasses from ivory Coast and South Africa. The reproducibility and efficiency of different procedures have been studied. The analytical relative precision is generally better than 5%. This development has allowed to establish for the first time, the global mass balance of ashes resulting from the burning of Savannah grasses. (author) 6 tabs

  2. Uptake Evaluation Of Glass house Grown Grasses In Radio phyto remediation Of Caesium-Contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glass house experiment was performed to evaluate the uptake of grasses viz. Napier and Vetiver in radiophytoremediation of caesium-contaminated soil. The glass house radiophytoremediation experiment was designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The grasses were grown in troughs filled with soil mixed with a known specific activity of 134Cs. Initial Cs activity and activity after different cultivation time intervals of 1, 3, 6 and 9 months were analyzed using gamma spectrometer direct measurement. The results showed the uptake of caesium by Napier and Vetiver after 9 months with the transfer factors (TF) were 4.70 and 6.25, respectively. Meanwhile, the remediation of caesium from contaminated soil at the same time was 95.25 % (Napier) and 95.58 % (Vetiver). Both grasses have been found to accumulate caesium, with Vetiver accumulating higher than Napier. Thus, the present study suggests that Vetiver could be used as a potential plant for radiophytoremediation of caesium. (author)

  3. Nutrient leaching from e peat soil under reed canary grass and Timothey ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat soils comprise about 10% (200 000 ha) of the field area in Finland. In addition, 1000-2000 ha of peat soils is annually released from peat production to other purposes. Biomass production is one possibility to utilize the areas. Owing to decomposition of organic N and the low binding capacity for P, N and P losses from peat soils tend to be high. However, cultivation of perennial grass leys decreases N leaching risk due to less frequent soil tillage. In case of reed canary grass, the ten-year growing period may further reduce nutrient leaching compared to other field crops. The aim of this study is to compare nutrient leaching from perennial, rhizomous reed canary grass ley under delayed spring harvesting to timothy/meadow fescue ley under normal cultivation with two cuts each year. (au)

  4. A theoretical framework of ecological phase transitions for characterizing tree-grass dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai-Lian

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical framework of ecological phase transitions for modeling tree-grass dynamics and analyzing the shifts or phase transitions from one vegetation structure to another in the southern Texas landscape. This framework implements the integration of percolation theory, fractal geometry and phase transition theory as a method for modeling the spatial patterns of tree-grass dynamics, and nonlinear Markov non-equilibrium thermodynamic stability theory as a method for characterizing temporal tree-grass dynamics and phase transition. An historical sequence of aerial photographs at a Prosopis-thornscrub savanna parkland site in southern Texas was used to determine the parameters of the models. The preliminary analytical result accords well with current understanding and field survey of vegetation dynamics in the southern Texas landscape. The potential of such approaches and other relevant theories such as self-organized criticality and synergetics to vegetation dynamics is also discussed. PMID:12211328

  5. Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L. In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Al-Khalifah

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro conditions were investigated. The grass has performed excellent growth through out the year producing seed heads, elongating and producing lateral shoots with slow growth during winter and hot summer, yellowing leafs under shaded greenhouse and short stems in small pots. Plants were affected by salinity levels of in vitro treatments as there was high significant difference in their response to different salinity concentrations, this response was increasing with the time.

  6. Nitrogen removal and water microbiota in grass carp culture following supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lee, Khui Hung; Wang, Yibing; Yu, Kan; Shen, Wenying; Fu, Luoqin; Shu, Miaoan; Li, Weifen

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. The selected strain Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 significantly decreased nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended, whereas increased ammonia level. Pyrosequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in grass carp culture water. Compared with the control group, the number of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were increased, while Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased in treatment group. At the genus level, some genera, such as Bacillus, Prosthecobacter, Enterococcus, etc., appear only in the treatment, while many other genera exist only in the control group; Lactobacillus, Luteolibacter, Phenylobacterium, etc. were increased in treatment group compared to those in control group. As above, the results suggested that supplementation with B. licheniformis BSK-4 could remove some nitrogen and cause alterations of the microbial composition in grass carp water. PMID:26385546

  7. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy gain (NEG) was estimated to more than 600.000 GJ corresponding to ?15% of the total Danish biogas production in 2012.

  8. Zur Erinnerung an deutsche Opfer: Geschichte, Zeugnis und Fiktion in Grass’ Novelle Im Krebsgang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Galle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa, por meio de uma novela de G. Grass, uma tendência atual da literatura alemã sobre a II Guerra. Nesta nova literatura já não é mais a culpa, mas o sofrimento da população que se focaliza. O texto de Grass apresenta um cuidado particular nos fatos históricos, facilitando aos leitores distinguir entre elementos factuais e ficcionais. No âmbito da ação ficcional, o autor imita o gênero do testemunho, fato que contribui para qualificar sua novela como meio da memória colectiva. A ação ficcional desenvolve, além disso, uma argumentação política que explica a necessidade de comemorar também as vítimas alemães: para fazer jus à verdade, ao equilíbrio emocional e para encontrar uma saída do circuito da violência, perpetuada através das gerações. A novela de Grass encontra-se, por conseguinte, na tradição da representação de eventos históricos, a serviço de uma memória colectiva humanista e iluminada que, na Alemanha, remete à obra dramática de Schiller.

  9. Metal pollution determined by pollution indices for sea grass P. oceanica and surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Slavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, As, Co, and Hg in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica and surface sediment samples were determined. Together with P. oceanica, surface sediment samples were collected at eight locations in the major demographic, tourist and port areas along the Montenegrin coast to assess metal pollution. The metal pollution index (MPI and metal enrichment factor (EF were calculated and used to evaluate the impact of heavy metals in the surface sediment on P. oceanica. The sediment MPI and EF values were lower than these values in P. oceanica at the same locations. Since the surface sediment contained lower mean concentrations of Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg, than the sea grass P. oceanic, we concluded that the sea grass absorbed some metals from the seawater column. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  10. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  11. The grasses (Poaceae) of the Colombian Guyana: analyses on their composition, richness, endemism, and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The checklist of grasses from Colombian Guyana is presented. In all, 152 species, 69 genera, and six subfamilies were recorded. Thus, in the Colombian Guyana is represented the 18.7 and 43.7% of the species and genera of Colombian grasses, respectively. The subfamilies with the highest number of species were Panicoideae (110 species/46 genera), Chloridoideae (21/9), and Bambusoideae (11/9). The most diverse genera were Paspalum (19 species), Panicum (16), Axonopus (14), Eragrostis (9), and Digitaria (8). Nineteen species are introduced and naturalized in the Colombian Guyana, which represent 12.5% of the agrostological flora for the Colombian Guyana. There were 8 endemic species (5.3% of Colombian Guayanan grasses). In addition, some species are reported for the first time for Colombian flora (belonging to Axonopus, Cyphonanthus, Gymnopogon, and Paspalum), and some species are new to science (belonging to Axonopus, Digitaria, Eragrostis, and Sacciolepis). On the other hand, some preliminary biogeographical aspect are analyzed.

  12. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the 300-index of reactivity (IR) dose of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes, Antony, France) have been demonstrated for the treatment of hay fever in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of this tablet in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 278 children (5-17 years of age) with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis (confirmed by means of a positive grass pollen skin prick test response and serum-specific IgE measurement) received once-daily SLIT tablets or placebo. Treatment was initiated 4 months before the estimated pollen season and continued throughout the season. The primary outcome was the rhinoconjunctivitis total symptom score (RTSS), a sum of 6 individual symptom scores: sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, nasal congestion, watery eyes, and itchy eyes. Secondary end points included rescue medication intake, individual scores, and safety. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 266 children (mean age, 10.9 +/- 3.22 years). The RTSS for the 300-IR group was highly significantly different from that of the placebo group (P = .001). The 300-IR group showed a mean improvement for the RTSS of 28.0% over that seen with placebo and a median improvement of 39.3%. Significant differences between the 300-IR and placebo groups were also observed regarding rescue medication score and proportion of days using rescue medication during the pollen season (P = .0064 and P = .0146, respectively). Adverse events were generally mild or moderate in intensity and expected. No serious side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: Five-grass-pollen SLIT tablets (300 IR) reduce both symptom scores and rescue medication use in children and adolescents with grass pollen-related rhinoconjunctivitis.

  13. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cunilio, T.V. [Center of Sustainable Argoforesty, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  14. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals' growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher's exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. PMID:26090810

  15. 'Bio-energy Schaffhausen': biogas, proteins and fibres, all three from grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergie Schaffhausen Ltd., Switzerland, has commissioned the first industrial bio-refinery for processing grass. This unique grass refinery process provides a new industrial utilisation of grass. The products are green power and technical fibres for heat and sound insulation. The green electricity and green gas are made and sold by Etawatt Ltd. and Schaffhausen City Works, the green heat is used internally as process heat. All plant components are utilised for generation of value-added products, which makes the plant economically profitable even at a relatively small scale. The fully continuous and automated plant includes raw material reception, pre-treatment, fractionation, separation, and drying of fibres; separation of protein; juice treatment and conversion to biogas in a so-called UASB reactor; gas cleaning and conversion to electricity and process heat in a combined heat and power plant. The design capacity of the plant is 20,000 t fresh grass or 5,000 t dry substance input per year in two shifts. The plant supplier is '2B Biorefineries' (www.2bio.ch). The start up was in October 2001. Over 500 tons of grass have been processed. The grass refinery has produced so far 78,000 m3 biogas, 150,000 kWh green electricity and 250,000 kWh green heat. Further, 80 tons of insulation fibres have been produced and sold in the market under the brand name '2B Gratec'. Over 30 buildings have been insulated. The washer and drier have not reached production capacity. The drying is a critical process for fibre quality. The drier is being modified and a new washer is being installed. It is planned to run at design capacity from May 2003. (author)

  16. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with ?-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494?g/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226?g/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of ?-tocopherol supplementation was observed on milk concentrations of any of the measured phytoestrogens. Variations were observed in milk concentrations of phytoestrogens, especially of equol, among cows, which could not be explained by variations in diet composition or phytoestrogen intake. The results show that milk phytoestrogen concentration is strongly influenced by silage botanical composition, but questions regarding phytoestrogen metabolism remain to be answered.

  17. Mill wastewater and olive pomace compost as amendments for rye-grass

    OpenAIRE

    Montemurro, Francesco; Convertini, Grazia; Ferri, Donato

    2004-01-01

    A two-year experiment was carried out to study the effects of applying untreated Olive Wastewater (OWW), treated OWW and olive pomace compost as soil amendments on both rye-grass growth and soil characteristics. We analysed growth parameters (Leaf Area Index, and fresh and dry weight), leaf green colour (SPAD readings), N uptake of the rye-grass and chemical soil characteristics. The results indicate that the highest untreated OWW application increased growth parameters by 18.2% in 2001 and b...

  18. The irrigation and different rates of nitrogen and potassium in elephant grass production

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Miranda de Oliveira; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Rubens Alves de Oliveira; Antônio Carlos Cóser; Ednaldo Miranda de Oliveira; Jair da Costa Oliveira Filho

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of application of different irrigation and nitrogen (N), and potassium (K) in Xaraes grass yield in southern Tocantins. We used a mixture of fertilizer, so that combinations of N and K2O relationship of 1 N:0.8 K2O. To assess the effect of different depths of irrigation water and combinations of the concentrations of N and K2O Xaraes the grass was determined during the experiment the dry matter yield. The lowest yield in the dry season w...

  19. Ensilage of elephant grass containing cassava meal Ensilagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Bianca Damasceno Pinho; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate gases and effluent losses, pH and chemical composition of elephant grass ensilage with different cassava meal (CM) levels. A completely randomized design, as 2 x 4 (elephant grass without and with wilting and four levels of cassava meal: 0, 4, 8 and 12%, as-fed basis) factorial arrangement, with four replicates, was used. PVC silos with packing density of 600 kg green matter/m3 were used. The gases and effluent losses decreased as CM levels increased,...

  20. 14C of grasses as an indicator of fossil fuel CO2 pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Kashgarian, Michaele; Bol, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the amount of fossil fuel carbon stored in the vegetation is now crucial to understand the mechanisms ruling climate changes. In this respect, highly polluted areas such as major towns represent "natural" laboratories because fossil fuel CO2 (14C-free) is isotopically distinct from mean atmospheric CO2 (14C-labeled). Here, a 14C study of urban grasses near a major highway in Paris, France, shows that plants store up to 13% of fossil fuel carbon. 14C composition of urban grasses is t...

  1. Prediction of nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations in fresh grass using nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Allen, M; Chen, X J; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-05-01

    Improved nutrient utilization efficiency is strongly related to enhanced economic performance and reduced environmental footprint of dairy farms. Pasture-based systems are widely used for dairy production in certain areas of the world, but prediction equations of fresh grass nutritive value (nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations) are limited. Equations to predict digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) used for grazing cattle have been either developed with cattle fed conserved forage and concentrate diets or sheep fed previously frozen grass, and the majority of them require measurements less commonly available to producers, such as nutrient digestibility. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop prediction equations more suitable to grazing cattle for nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations, which are routinely available at farm level by using grass nutrient contents as predictors. A study with 33 nonpregnant, nonlactating cows fed solely fresh-cut grass at maintenance energy level for 50 wk was carried out over 3 consecutive grazing seasons. Freshly harvested grass of 3 cuts (primary growth and first and second regrowth), 9 fertilizer input levels, and contrasting stage of maturity (3 to 9 wk after harvest) was used, thus ensuring a wide representation of nutritional quality. As a result, a large variation existed in digestibility of dry matter (0.642-0.900) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (0.636-0.851) and in concentrations of DE (11.8-16.7 MJ/kg of dry matter) and ME (9.0-14.1 MJ/kg of dry matter). Nutrient digestibilities and DE and ME concentrations were negatively related to grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents but positively related to nitrogen (N), gross energy, and ether extract (EE) contents. For each predicted variable (nutrient digestibilities or energy concentrations), different combinations of predictors (grass chemical composition) were found to be significant and increase the explained variation. For example, relatively higher R(2) values were found for prediction of N digestibility using N and EE as predictors; gross-energy digestibility using EE, NDF, ADF, and ash; NDF, ADF, and organic matter digestibilities using N, water-soluble carbohydrates, EE, and NDF; digestible organic matter in dry matter using water-soluble carbohydrates, EE, NDF, and ADF; DE concentration using gross energy, EE, NDF, ADF, and ash; and ME concentration using N, EE, ADF, and ash. Equations presented may allow a relatively quick and easy prediction of grass quality and, hence, better grazing utilization on commercial and research farms, where nutrient composition falls within the range assessed in the current study. PMID:25747838

  2. Food-aid cereals to reduce neurolathyrism related to grass-pea preparations during famine

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, H.; Lambein, F.; Vanhoorne, M.; Van der Stuyft, P.

    2003-01-01

    Neurolathyrism is a spastic paraparesis that can be caused by excessive consumption of the drought-resistant grass pea (Lathyrus sativus). Devastating neurolathyrism epidemics have occurred during major famine crises in various parts of the world. We investigated in a case-control study the effects of food aid on risk of paralysis. Risk increased with consumption of boiled grass pea (adjusted odds ratio 2.78, 95% CI 1.09-7.13 with cereals; 5.22, 2.01-13.55 without cereal) and raw unripe green...

  3. The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level

    OpenAIRE

    Xu QINXIAN; Zhang JIAN

    2009-01-01

    The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel don’t think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak...

  4. Comparing Time Course Profiles of Immediate Acetylene Reduction by Grasses and Legumes †

    OpenAIRE

    van Berkum, Peter; Sloger, Charles

    1981-01-01

    The time course profiles of C2H2 reduction by intact Scirpus olneyi (bulrush), Oryza sativa (rice) and Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) with roots in atmospheres of N2 and 30-day-old Glycine max (soybean) in air were all immediately linear. This is the first report of immediately linear rates of C2H2 reduction by grass roots removed from soil. The immediately linear profile of C2H2 reduction by soil-free grass roots was achieved by preventing contact between the roots and air. Roots of soybe...

  5. Economic evaluation of SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (Grazax® in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldson S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Ronaldson,1 Matthew Taylor,1 Peter G Bech,2 Ruth Shenton,1 Albrecht Bufe3 1York Health Economics Consortium, York, UK; 2ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark; 3Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany Background: Grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis is a common allergic respiratory disorder affecting over 20% of the UK population in terms of quality of life and sleep, work, and school patterns. The SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT has been demonstrated as a disease-modifying treatment which gives a sustained effect even after completion of a treatment course. The objective of this study was to provide an economic assessment of whether treatment with the SQ-standardized grass AIT, Grazax® (Phleum pratense in combination with symptomatic medications is preferable to the standard of care using symptomatic medications only. The analysis was performed for children with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis, with or without concomitant asthma, in the UK. Methods: The model evaluated the two treatment regimens in a cohort of 1,000 children from a payer’s perspective. Treatment was modeled in terms of management of symptoms, impact on resource use, and development of allergic asthma. The analysis modeled the use of SQ-standardized grass AIT and the sustained effects of treatment over a 9-year time horizon (ie, 3 years of treatment, with modeled long-term benefits. Data inputs were drawn from a recent clinical trial, published studies, and databases. Results: SQ-standardized grass AIT improves patient outcomes, generating an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of £12,168. This is below commonly accepted thresholds in the UK. Conclusion: The resulting incremental cost per QALY falls below commonly accepted willingness to pay thresholds. Therefore, the SQ-standardized grass AIT is a cost-effective option for the treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis in the UK pediatric population. Keywords: cost-effectiveness, cost, quality of life, cost-benefit, United Kingdom, rhinoconjunctivitis, infant

  6. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Muyang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of ?-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses exhibiting a diversity of lignin structures and compositions could be linked to quantifiable changes in the composition of the cell wall and properties of the lignin including apparent content of the p-hydroxycinnamates while the limitations of S/G estimation in grasses is highlighted.

  7. A study of the wet deposit and foliar uptake of iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foliar uptake of iodine and strontium by rye-grass and clover was studied as a function of aspersion intensities. At the same time, the contribution of root sorption to foliar uptake was measured. The effective half-lives of radionuclides of standing and harvested grass were also determined together with their uptake under the action of demineralized water aspersion

  8. Estimates of kinetic degradability parameters and passage of materials originated from intercropping of brachiaria grass and corn and soybean crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; José Carlos, Pereira; Ricardo Augusto Mendonça, Vieira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Marcelo Teixeira, Rodrigues.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the kinetic parameters of in situ DM and NDF and the passage of particles of forages produced from the intercropping of brachiaria grass with corn and soybean crops. Three experiments were performed, as follows: Experiment 1 - Brachiaria grass intercropped with c [...] orn at different plant ages; Experiment 2 - Cultivation of brachiaria grass intercropped with corn set in different sowing arrangements; and Experiment 3 - Intercropping of brachiaria grass and soybean. Passage kinetic of particles was determined by the recovery of markers in feces. In order to obtain the ruminal degradation of DM and NDF, nylon bags were used at zero time, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. The particles' passage kinetic of corn with brachiaria grass silage and brachiaria grass silage presented 3%/h and 2.3%/h, respectively; and for soybean and brachiaria grass silage, it was 1.8%/h, which can be explained in part by the mixture of materials ensiled. The materials originated from the intercropping caused rumen fill. Degradation rates were lower when compared with literature data. The brachiaria grass silage obtained from corn and/or soybean crop-pasture integrated system is a feed with low nutritive value due to its low NDF degradation rate and low passage rate, causing rumen fill and, thus, possibly resulting in low intake and poor animal performance.

  9. Evolutionary divergence of ?-expansin structure and function in grasses parallels emergence of distinctive primary cell wall traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Javier; Guttman, Mara; Li, Lian-Chao; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Expansins are wall-loosening proteins that promote the extension of primary cell walls without the hydrolysis of major structural components. Previously, proteins from the EXPA (?-expansin) family were found to loosen eudicot cell walls but to be less effective on grass cell walls, whereas the reverse pattern was found for EXPB (?-expansin) proteins obtained from grass pollen. To understand the evolutionary and structural bases for the selectivity of EXPB action, we assessed the extension (creep) response of cell walls from diverse monocot families to EXPA and EXPB treatments. Cell walls from Cyperaceae and Juncaceae (families closely related to grasses) displayed a typical grass response ('?-response'). Walls from more distant monocots, including some species that share with grasses high levels of arabinoxylan, responded preferentially to ?-expansins ('?-response'), behaving in this regard like eudicots. An expansin with selective activity for grass cell walls was detected in Cyperaceae pollen, coinciding with the expression of genes from the divergent EXPB-I branch that includes grass pollen ?-expansins. The evolutionary origin of this branch was located within Poales on the basis of phylogenetic analyses and its association with the 'sigma' whole-genome duplication. Accelerated evolution in this branch has remodeled the protein surface in contact with the substrate, potentially for binding highly substituted arabinoxylan. We propose that the evolution of the divergent EXPB-I group made a fundamental change in the target and mechanism of wall loosening in the grass lineage possible, involving a new structural role for xylans and the expansins that target them. PMID:25353668

  10. Copper tolerance of the biomass crops Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (Phragmites australis) in soil culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Shen, Yixing; Lou, Laiqing; Ding, Chenglong; Cai, Qingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Pot trials were conducted to study the influence of copper (Cu) on the growth and biomass of Elephant grass (EG, Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (VG, Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (UR, Phragmites australis). Cu toxicity in EG, VG and UR was positively correlated with the total and bioavailable Cu concentrations in the soil. Based on the EC50, dry weights, Cu contents, chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rates, the Cu tolerance of the three species followed the trend EGNVGNUR. There were no significant differences in the unit calorific values among the different plants, though the total calorific values of EG were higher than those of VG and UR due to its higher biomass. The addition of KH2PO4 to the soil decreased the bioavailability of Cu and the Cu uptake by plants. EG could therefore be a good candidate for growth on Cu-contaminated soils, especially those improved by phosphate. PMID:19393734

  11. Verification of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic farming by cows farm milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Edoardo; van der Veer, Grishja; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Elgersma, Anjo; Rademaker, Jan; Sterian, Adriana; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the use of fatty acid (FA) profiling in combination with chemometric modelling to verify claims for cow milk in terms of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic/biodynamic farming. The FA profile was determined for 113 tank milk samples collected in the Netherlands from 30 farms over four different months, and used to develop classification models based on the PLS-DA algorithm. Milk from cows with daily rations of fresh grass could be successfully distinguished from milk from cows with no fresh grass in their diet. Milk from cows at pasture could easily be distinguished from milk from stabled cows without fresh grass in the diet, but the correct prediction of milk from stabled cows fed fresh grass indoors proved difficult. The FA profile of organic/biodynamic milk was different compared to conventional milk but an unequivocal discrimination was not possible either in summer or in winter. PMID:24996329

  12. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; SØrensen, Claus GrØn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have a significant influence on a range of crop and soil parameters (Hamza & Anderson, 2005; Raper, 2005). For grass and especially clover, the yield response is negative as a function of traffic intensity (e.g. Frost, 1988).  During the growing season, conventional grass-clover production for silage experience high traffic intensities due to operations like fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass into trailers with a forage harvester.  Normally, the traffic is distributed all over the field area during the growth season. In this way, the track impacts formed by the machines will influence the grass and clover growth and yield differently.  As clover is known to have a higher feed value[1], the evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative affects on the combined clover-grass entity, the individual components must be determined.   The objective of this paper was to measure yield affects on clover-grass as a consequence of different traffic intensities. The experiments were carried out in the context of a full scale field trial. A 14 hectare full scale grass-clover field trial with 24 different traffic intensities and 35 replicates was established. Each net parcel measured 9 x 1.3 m and the 24 treatments were randomized onto the 840 net parcels. The grass clover was established in spring 2007 using RTK-GPS auto steered tractors and implements. A Claas Axion tractor equipped with AutoFarm RTK AutoSteer and a 15 m3 Kimadan slurry tanker on two axels, was used to perform the simulated traffic treatment on the parcels. The different traffic intensities are combinations of different tire pressure (1,0 and 2,5 bar), tire load (3000 and 6000 kg), time of year and number of passes (variating from 0 to 8). The harvesting procedure was preformed with a Haldrup plot harvester modified with RTK-GPS. This paper shows the initial results from measuring the yield affects References M.A. Hamza, M.A.; Anderson, W.K 2005. Soil compaction in cropping systems: A review of the nature, causes and possible solutionsRaper , R.L. 2005. Agricultural traffic impacts on soil. Journal of Terramechanics, Volume 42, Issues 3-4, July-October 2005, Pages 259-280 Frost, J.P. 1988. Effects on crop yield of machinery traffic and soil loosening. 1. Effects on grass yield of      traffic frequency and date of loosening. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 39 (4): 301-31. Soil and Tillage Research, Volume 82, Issue 2, June 2005, Pages 121-145   [1] http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm

  13. Positive and negative effects of grass, cattle, and wild herbivores on Acacia saplings in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2007-10-01

    Plant-plant interactions can be a complex mixture of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on abiotic and community contexts. In savanna systems, the effects of large herbivores on tree-grass interactions have rarely been studied experimentally, though these herbivores are major players in these systems. In African savannas, trees often become more abundant under heavy cattle grazing but less abundant in wildlife preserves. Woody encroachment where cattle have replaced wild herbivores may be caused by a shift in the competitive balance between trees and grasses. Here we report the results of an experiment designed to quantify the positive, negative, and net effects of grasses, wild herbivores, and cattle on Acacia saplings in a Kenyan savanna. Acacia drepanolobium saplings under four long-term herbivore regimes (wild herbivores, cattle, cattle + wild herbivores, and no large herbivores) were cleared of surrounding grass or left with the surrounding grass intact. After two years, grass-removal saplings exhibited 86% more browse damage than control saplings, suggesting that grass benefited saplings by protecting them from herbivory. However, the negative effect of grass on saplings was far greater; grass-removal trees accrued more than twice the total stem length of control trees. Where wild herbivores were present, saplings were browsed more and produced more new stem growth. Thus, the net effect of wild herbivores was positive, possibly due to the indirect effects of lower competitor tree density in areas accessible to elephants. Additionally, colonization of saplings by symbiotic ants tracked growth patterns, and colonized saplings experienced lower rates of browse damage. These results suggest that savanna tree growth and woody encroachment cannot be predicted by grass cover or herbivore type alone. Rather, tree growth appears to depend on a variety of factors that may be acting together or antagonistically at different stages of the tree's life cycle. PMID:17661089

  14. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Glenn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (C18:2 isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA (C18:1 t11, a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3 FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0, and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0 and palmitic (C16:0 FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A. It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.

  15. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass.

  16. Prairie grasses as hosts of the northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated 27 prairie grass species thought to be among those domi-nant 200 years ago in the northern Midwest as larval hosts of the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence. Maize (Zea mays L.), spring wheat (Tritcum aestivum L.), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were includ...

  17. Native Grass Canopy Management and Species Mixture Effects on Soil C and N

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 2.9 million conservation reserve program (CRP) acres in South Dakota and Minnesota. This region is also slated to provide cellulosic feedstocks for biofuels. Thus, scientific inquiry on the effect of CRP/grass management on soil condition is an important priority. Experiment objectives ...

  18. Preferences of Rusa timorensis to Grasses and Their Body Morphometry and Velvet Antler Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sudibyo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a wild native animal to Indonesia. The stags produce a high economic value of velvet antler (VA. This study was designed to evaluate the feed preference, nutrient consumption, age and morphometric of deer in relation to their velvet antler product (weigth and length and quality (mineral and amino acids. Five stags with three ages classes were offered 3 combinations of 4 grasses in a captive area. Grasses were offered for 3 periods of 12 consecutive days during velvet antler growth period. Velvet antlers were harvested at 36 days old and analysed for their chemical content. The result showed that Timor deer had different preference to the grasses offered. Deer had a high preference on the combination of Pennisetum purpureum, Commelina benghalensis, Hierochloe horsfieldii, and Sorghum caudatum. High intake of grasses increased body weight. The regresion equation between the weight or length of velvet antler withage (year and girth size (cm were: Y (velvet antler weight= 0.43 + 0.03 (age, r2= 0.99, P<0.05, and Y (length of velvet antler = 5.7 + 0.31 (girth size, r2= 0.99, P<0.05. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and proline content of velvel antler were high in the older deer. The older deer having high girth size had the higher quality of velvet antler.

  19. Prospect of Chinese Bio-energy Grasses to Produce Fuel Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.Z.; Xu, L.J. (Grassland Research Inst. of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Hohhot 010010 (China)). E-mail:sunqz@126.com; Yu, Z. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100094 (China))

    2008-10-15

    The current energy shortage is seriously restricting the economic development of countries around the world. To seek bio-energy resources to replace liquid fossil fuels is inevitable. In China, energy grasses, Medicago sativa, Panicum virgatum, Astragalus adsurgens, Sorghum sudanense, Caragana Korshinskii and Lespedeza hedysaroides play more important role in development and utilization of fuel ethanol, and have a board application prospect

  20. Grass mulching effect on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soils in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekalu, K O; Olorunfemi, I A; Osunbitan, J A

    2007-03-01

    Mulching the soil surface with a layer of plant residue is an effective method of conserving water and soil because it reduces surface runoff, increases infiltration of water into the soil and retard soil erosion. The effectiveness of using elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as mulching material was evaluated in the laboratory using a rainfall simulator set at rainfall intensities typical of the tropics. Six soil samples, two from each of the three major soil series representing the main agricultural soils in South Western Nigeria were collected, placed on three different slopes, and mulched with different rates of the grass. The surface runoff, soil loss, and apparent cumulative infiltration were then measured under each condition. The results with elephant grass compared favorably with results from previous experiments using rice straw. Runoff and soil loss decreased with the amount of mulch used and increased with slope. Surface runoff, infiltration and soil loss had high correlations (R = 0.90, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively) with slope and mulch cover using surface response analysis. The mean surface runoff was correlated negatively with sand content, while mean soil loss was correlated positively with colloidal content (clay and organic matter) of the soil. Infiltration was increased and soil loss was reduced greatly with the highest cover. Mulching the soils with elephant grass residue may benefit late cropping (second cropping) by increasing stored soil water for use during dry weather and help to reduce erosion on sloping land. PMID:16678407

  1. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  2. BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF ELEPHANT GRASS UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) is a new fast-growing alternative forage crop. However, salinity is a major concern for its production in the arid southwestern United States. This study was conducted in the arid Imperial Valley of S. California to evaluate salt tolerance of elephant gra...

  3. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance. PMID:23413007

  4. Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

    2013-02-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

  5. Production cost of biomasses from eucalyptus and elefant grass for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marie Roger Quéno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work established the unit energy cost generated from biomass of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp. and elephant grass (Pennisetum sp. and applied a sensitivity analysis to verify the influences of factors such as the silviculture of eucalyptus, production volume of each species, the cost of land and the interest rate. It was shown that the treatment of eucalyptus in very short rotation of 2 years with reform of stand every 6 years has a average cost of production higher than the traditional treatment of short rotation of 6 years with reform only at the age of 18. It was also observed that eucalyptus has a Production Cost on average of R$ 4,41 /Gj, lower than the elephant grass which is on average of R$ 5,44/Gj, which however has a higher annual capacity of dry matter production. The elephant grass has the possibility to compete with eucalyptus when a set of conditions is met: discount rate higher than or equal to 8%, High price of land, and elephant grass high volume production, greater than or equal to 35 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and year.

  6. Analysis of pendimethalin residues in fruit, nuts, vegetables, grass, and mint by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, J; Hall, G; Hengel, M; Shibamoto, T

    2001-05-01

    Pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine], in the formulation of Prowl (a commercial herbicide), was applied to various crops. Analysis of pendimethalin and its metabolite [4(1-ethylpropyl)amino-2-methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzyl alcohol] was accomplished by utilizing liquid-liquid partitioning, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for nuts and mint, solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, and gas chromatography (GC) with a nitrogen--phosphorus detector (NPD). Method validation recoveries for fruits, nuts, vegetables, grass, and mint are given for both compounds. Pendimethalin average recoveries ranged from 71% to 126% over two levels of fortification. Pendimethalin metabolite average recoveries ranged from 69% to 123% over two levels of fortification. The quantitation limit for all crops except mint was 0.050 ppm. The quantitation limit for mint and mint oil was 0.10 ppm. Residues greater than the limit of quantitation were found for pendimethalin in apple pomace, fresh and dry fig, grass screenings, mint oil, almond hulls, green onion, and tomato pomace (wet and dry). Residues greater than the limit of quantitation were found for pendimethalin metabolite in grass screenings, grass straw, and almond hulls. All other crop analyses for pendimethalin and its metabolite were below the limit of quantitation. PMID:11368577

  7. Desiccation, postharvest maturity and seed aging of tall oat-grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanisavljevi?

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine whether and at which seed physiological maturity stage the diquat desiccant affects the tall oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius seed quality and yield, as well as the proper storage period between harvest and sowing. Diquat desiccation was evaluated in applications during milk or dough seed maturation stages. Seeds conventionally produced and stored under traditional storage conditions were used for the analyses. Seed samples were drawn every 30th day after harvest (DAH. After the 240th DAH, samples were drawn every 90th day up the to 690th DAH. The highest yield were obtained by desiccation applied at the beginning of the seed dough stage, with a satisfactory seed quality. Both final germination and seedling growth parameters achieved their maximum values between 180th and 240th DAH. Oat-grass seeds preserved satisfactory level of final germination (75% up to 420th DAH. The application of diquat desiccant at the beginning of seed dough maturity stage can be a good solution for seed production of tall oat-grass. Early spring is the best sowing period for freshly harvested seeds of tall oat-grass regarding germination and seedling growth.

  8. Grass snake populations’ features of the forest biogeocoenoses in the Samara river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gasso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of 7-years research of the grass snake population in forest ecosystems of the Samara River area (Dnipropetrovsk province, Ukraine are presented. The population is of high abundance but have a tendency to decrease. Population’s sex ratio, spatial structure, snakes’ morphometric parameters and pholidosis are described. Those characteristics reflect the population specificity, which was formed by microevolutional processes.

  9. Long term effects of ash fertilization of reed canary grass; Laangtidseffekter av askgoedsling vid roerflensodling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva

    2011-03-15

    Reed canary grass (RCG) is a bio-energy crop with large potential. It is a 1.5 . 2.5 m tall grass that is harvested in spring when it is grown as a fuel. At spring harvest it yields 3 . 10 ton field dried material per ha and year. One disadvantage when reed canary grass is used as a fuel is the high ash content, 5-10 %. This means that large quantities of ash have to be deposited which is expensive, about 1000 SEK/ton. However, since reed canary grass ash contains reasonable amounts of plant nutrients like phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) it could be recycled as fertilizer in agriculture. The ash can be used without any pretreatment since, in agriculture, plant availability is desirable. The aim of this project, was to evaluate a field experiment, where ash was used as a fertilizer in reed canary grass. The experiment was established at the SLU research station in Umea, Sweden in the spring 2002. Three different fertilizer treatments were applied: Treatment A was fertilized with an ash produced by combustion of RCG together with municipal wastes (paper, plastic, leather), treatment B, an ash from combustion of RCG, and for treatment C commercial fertilizers were used. In total, 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (N), 15 kg ha-1 of phosphorous (P) and 80 kg ha-1 of potassium (K), were applied each year in all treatments. The amount of ash in treatment A and B was calculated from the chemical analysis of the ashes to be equal to the required amount of P, while K and N were supplied also by commercial fertilizers. [Table 1. Composition of the ashes] Literature study: There is a lack of knowledge about fertilization with reed canary grass ash, since few experiments have been conducted. The composition of reed canary grass is dependent of harvest date and the soil substrate. The amount of ash and the amount of harmful substances such as potassium and chloride generally decreases over winter, giving an increased fuel quality from spring harvest compared to autumn harvest. The main component of the ash is silica and silica concentrations are higher when reed canary grass is grown on clay soil than on peat soil. In an earlier project within the department of agricultural research for northern Sweden, SLU Umea, reed canary grass growing on peat soil was fertilized with ash from cocombustion of reed canary grass and sorted municipal waste. This ash was beneficial for the growth of the grass and did not give increased heavy metal contents. However the experiment only lasted two years so no conclusions could be drawn about long-term effects. Crop yields and elemental composition of the crop: The yields varied very much from year to year. The first two production years, 2004 and 2005 the yield was at expected levels, 6000-7000 kg dry matter per ha and year. After that, 2006-2009 the yields have been lower than expected, 1500 - 4000 kg dry matter per ha and year. The reason for this is not known, but it could be related to climate or pests. There were no significant differences in yield between the treatments. Samples from each plot from the last harvest and stored samples from 2004 were analyzed for nutrient and heavy metal content. There were only minor significant differences between the treatments: The ash and the potassium and calcium concentrations 2009 in grass from treatment A, ash from co-combustion of reed canary grass and waste, was slightly higher than in the NPK fertilized control. The magnesium concentration in 2009 was slightly higher in grass fertilized with reed canary grass ash than in the control grass. Element balances and soil concentrations of elements: Because of the low yield levels the amounts of P and K applied were much higher than the removal with harvests (Table 2). This resulted in an increase in plant available P and K in the top soil between 2003 and 2008 (Table 3). However, in the subsoil there was a decrease especially in plant available P. The only significant differences in soil nutrients between the treatments 2008 were for Ca, where treatment A had higher concentrations and Mg where treatmen

  10. Nitrogen washing from C3 and C4 cover grasses residues by rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop species with the C4 photosynthetic pathway are more efficient in assimilating N than C3 plants, which results in different N amounts prone to be washed from its straw by rain water. Such differences may affect N recycling in agricultural systems where these species are grown as cover crops. In this experiment, phytomass production and N leaching from the straw of grasses with different photosynthetic pathways were studied in response to N application. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum and congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis with the C4 photosynthetic pathway, and black oat (Avena Strigosa and triticale (X Triticosecale, with the C3 photosynthetic pathway, were grown for 47 days. After determining dry matter yields and N and C contents, a 30 mm rainfall was simulated over 8 t ha-1 of dry matter of each plant residue and the leached amounts of ammonium and nitrate were determined. C4 grasses responded to higher fertilizer rates, whereas N contents in plant tissue were lower. The amount of N leached from C4 grass residues was lower, probably because the C/N ratio is higher and N is more tightly bound to organic compounds. When planning a crop rotation system it is important to take into account the difference in N release of different plant residues which may affect N nutrition of the subsequent crop.

  11. Sustainability of perennial grass yields as bioenergy feedstock for the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm-season perennial grasses will be part of the biomass production system in the Southeast for the emerging bioenergy industry. Among the candidates for dedicated feedstocks are energy cane (Sacchurum sp.), Miscanthus x gigantius, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and napiergrass (Pennistem purpure...

  12. Utilization of grasses for potential biofuel production and phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ronald A; Kelly, William J; Satrio, Justinus A; Ruiz-Felix, M Nydia; Fetterman, Marisa; Wynn, Rodd; Hagel, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on investigating the use of common biofuel grasses to assess their potential as agents of long-term remediation of contaminated soils using lead as a model heavy metal ion. We present evidence demonstrating that switch grass and Timothy grass may be potentially useful for long-term phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and describe novel techniques to track and remove contaminants from inception to useful product. Enzymatic digestion and thermochemical approaches are being used to convert this lignocellulosic feedstock into useful product (sugars, ethanol, biocrude oil+biochar). Preliminary studies on enzymatic hydrolysis and fast pyrolysis of the Switchgrass materials that were grown in heavy metal contaminated soil and non-contaminated soils show that the presence of lead in the Switchgrass material feedstock does not adversely affect the outcomes of the conversion processes. These results indicate that the modest levels of contaminant uptake allow these grass species to serve as phytoremediation agents as well as feedstocks for biofuel production in areas degraded by industrial pollution. PMID:25495935

  13. Production of ethanol from hemicellulose fraction of cocksfoot grass using pichia stipitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Iversen, Jens Asmus; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata), an abundant lignocellulosic biomass was pretreated using different operational parameters using wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment for accessing the bioethanol potential of the hemicellulose fraction. Utilization of the hemicellulose liquid hydrolysate to ethanol is essential for economically feasible cellulosic ethanol processes. Fermentation of the separated hemicellulose liquid hydrolysates obtained after the WEx pretreatment was ...

  14. Growth Regulator Herbicides Prevent Invasive Annual grass Seed Production Under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth regulator herbicides, such as 2,4-D, dicamba, picloram, and aminopyralid, are commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in grasslands, non-croplands and cereal crops (e.g. wheat, barley). If applied to cereals at late growth stages, while the grasses are developing reproductive parts, the her...

  15. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  16. Fungi isolated from the initial industrial soil planted with a mixture of alfalfa and grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kowalik

    1994-01-01

    Research were conducted during the years 1988-1990 on the "Machów" industrial waste dump. It was determined, that a mixture of alfalfa with grasses. introduced as first culture on the raw substrate of industrial wastes. was helpful for the development of soil fungi communities.

  17. CHANGES IN BASOPHIL ACTIVITY IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN DURING UPDOSING OF SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald

    Jump to…Top of page POS-FU-15 Top of page CHANGES IN BASOPHIL ACTIVITY IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN DURING UPDOSING OF SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, Hans Juergen Hoffmann Department of Respiratory Medicine, Århus University Hospital, AARHUS, Denmark Background: Subcutaneous Immunotherapy changes the immune response in allergic patients and results in an inhibition of the specific type

  18. Nutrients uptakes and losses during grass stand formation on deforested areas under impact of acid depositions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Petr; T?ma, Ivan; Fiala, Karel; Jandák, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 17, - (2004), s. 53-60. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK6005114; GA ?R GA526/97/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : clear-cut grasses * lysimetric water * soil amelioration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  19. Earthworm species and burrows related to agricultural management of grass-clover in rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Grass-clover is an important element in crop rotations due to its beneficial agronomic properties including nitrogen build-up, biodiversity stimulation and maintenance of soil macropores and it produces very high levels of earthworm biomass. We studied the relationship between crucial elements of grass-clover management in a crop rotation and earthworm diversity and macropore depth distribution. The dominance of anecics increased from an annual crop to the perennial grass-clover. Aporrectodea tuberculata decreased significantly from annuals to 3 year grass-clover. Cattle grazing favours the occurrence of coarse macropores (>5 mm ?) made by anecics, Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus terrestris, while otherwise decreasing the number of fine-medium macropores (<5 mm ?) below the topsoil. Our study stresses the importance of considering subsoil macropores to complete the picture of earthworm influence on soil hydrology. The anecics are responsible for coarse macropores, while the smaller endogeic A. tuberculata isless important for coarse macropores and even negatively correlated with the abundant anecics and sensitive to the presence of grazing cattle compacting the topsoil. The detailed species-specific functional properties are crucial for successfully predicting the contribution to soil ecosystem services by earthworms.

  20. The influence of water on the migration of infective trichostrongyloid larvae onto grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, J; Morgan, E R

    2011-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the effects of water on the migration of infective larvae of economically important trichostrongyloid species is urgently needed to feed into prediction models of future epidemiology. The influence of water on the migration of the parasitic nematodes Nematodirus battus, Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta from sheep dung onto grass was examined in a series of laboratory experiments. Turf plots were seeded with larvae, which were recovered from grass clippings by serial sampling. Free water was necessary for larvae to escape from dung, but not for vertical migration onto grass. When temperature and relative humidity were held constant, the proportion of a population of live larvae present on herbage reached a plateau of around 2 (1-10)% after 24 h, and then changed little over time. Larvae in soil and dung formed a reservoir, such that a similar proportion of the larval population was maintained on grass after clipping. These findings suggest continuing random movement of free larvae. Implications for the epidemiology of trichostrongyloid species are discussed in the context of trade-offs faced by the parasites. PMID:24650934

  1. Nutritional value of grass silage of mombasa associated with additives agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of grass silage-mombasa associated with different additives in four times of opening the silo. The experiment was conducted in UFGD. After harvesting the forage, biomass in natura crushed, was taken to the lab, homogenized and enriched on the basis of natural mass, with the following additives: 5% wheat bran, 5% of waste (broken grain and soy ice cream cone of soybean, 5% urea in natural matter and the witness (without additive.The silos were opened after (unprocessed material, 15, 30 and 45 days, for the analysis of chemical composition. The data obtained were analyzed through the statistical programme SISVAR and averages were compared to 5% of probability, by Skott-Knot. The grass silage- mombasa without additive presented major (P0.05 of grass silage- mombasa associated with 5 of urea in 15 days and 45 of silage. The grass silage-mombasa with 5% urea showed the highest crude protein content at time 0 and differed from other treatments. The silage of mombasa associated with 5% urea provided greater in vitro digestibility of dry matter to 15 days of silage.

  2. STUDY OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FORTIFIED WHEAT GRASS WITH COW URINE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED PARKINSONISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Sandhya* and GV Sampath Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta which innervates the dorsal striatum. Since the existing anti Parkinson’s drugs encountered many side effects and need for prolonged treatment including questionable efficacy in the treatment, may cause Parkinson related movement problems, hallucinations and orthostatic hypotension. These reasons force the area of research to find improved treatments which will counteract the side effects and the draw backs of the existing treatment. Herbal drugs having diversified uses are always an alternative option to the synthetic drugs which are well known for their side and adverse effects. Using haloperidol induced catalepsy and muscle rigidity in rats the effects of Fortified Wheat grass (FWG were studied. Haloperidol was administered at a dose of 1mg/kg; Fortified wheat grass with cow urine was administered at doses 150mg/kg & 300mg/kg. In conclusion fortified wheat grass with cow urine at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg exhibited significant anti cataleptic activity, significantly reversed the haloperidol inhibited locomotor activity, restored the changes in behavioral assessment like akinesia, immobility in haloperidol administered rats, reduced the haloperidol induced rigidity. The possibility of pharmacological interactions between haloperidol and fortified wheat grass with cow urine should be further investigated in my research work.

  3. Systems study of fuels from grains and grasses. Quarterly progress report, July--October 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, W.; Allen, A.; Athey, R.; McElroy, A.

    1976-11-15

    The specific objectives of the project are to determine on a geographic basis the current and potential USA production capability for grain and grass crops, to perform a preliminary screening of conversion processes, and to perform preliminary technical and economic feasibility analyses. The results obtained to date on biomass production, conversion processes, and data management are reported. (JSR)

  4. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  5. The potential utilisation of indigenous South African grasses for acid mine drainage remediation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Binita, Ramla; Craig, Sheridan.

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a significant threat to the environment in South Africa and needs to be remedied. Although active treatment methods have been and are being implemented in industry, passive treatment systems involving bioremediation have the potential to be a more cost-effective and envir [...] onmentally sustainable solution. Biological treatment of AMD involves the reduction of sulphate to sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria in the presence of a suitable organic substrate. This study tested the potential for indigenous grasses to be used as a carbon source in the bioremediation of AMD. Bioreactor experiments were conducted over a 70-day period to investigate whether indigenous grasses can be used to effectively reduce sulphate and iron concentrations, and increase the pH of an AMD solution. The results indicated that indigenous grasses hold promise for remediating AMD, as a maximum of 99% iron removal, 80% sulphate removal, and a final pH of 8.5 was achieved from initial conditions of 2 000 mg/? iron, 6 000 mg/? sulphate, and a pH of 3. Optimal results occurred in the bioreactor with Hyparrhenia hirta grass amended with soil containing microbes, although all bioreactors effected some form of remediation compared to the control.

  6. Pedogenesis-Terrain Links in Zero-Order Watersheds after Chaparral to Grass Vegetation Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four decades after a vegetation conversion from chaparral to grass, zero-order watersheds were compared in order to identify differences in topography and its relation to soil characteristics. Three watersheds of each vegetation type were topographically mapped and sampled at random points for dept...

  7. Production and nutrition of irrigated Tanzania guinea grass in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Celuta Machado, Viana; Inêz Pereira da, Silva; Francisco Morel, Freire; Mozart Martins, Ferreira; Édio Luiz da, Costa; Maria Helena Tabim, Mascarenhas; Matheus Ferreira França, Teixeira.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization in the four seasons of the year on forage production, nitrate (NO3) in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index (SPAD reading) in the leaves of irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania grass, est [...] ablishing their critical ranges. In addition, we evaluated the ability to predict forage production based on NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index. The soil in the experimental area was classified as an Oxisol (Red-Yellow Latosol) with a clayey texture. Annual rates of N (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1) in the form of urea were the treatments tested. Irrigation was performed through a conventional spray system. The NO3 content in the sap and the relative chlorophyll index were measured in leaves using a portable meter with NO3 selective electrode and the SPAD-502 portable chlorophyll meter device, respectively. Tanzania guinea grass was very responsive to N fertilization, except in the winter. The critical ranges of the SPAD reading proved to be more adequate for monitoring the nutritional state of N of Tanzania guinea grass in the different seasons of the year than the NO3 content in the sap and the total N content in the dry matter. Use of the chlorophyll meter is more advantageous than the use of the portable meter with an nitrate selective electrode for predicting the nutritional status of Tanzania guinea grass.

  8. In situ Shear Tests of Soil Samples with Grass Roots in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Comino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The presence of vegetation increases the soil burden stability along slopes and reduces soil erosion. Its contribution is due to mechanical (reinforcing soil shear resistance and hydrologic controls on streambank and superficial landslides. This study presented the results carried out from experimental in situ test focused to study the increased shear resistance of soil blocks due to root-reinforcement. A shear apparatus was set up in order to realize the measure. Approach: In this research the researchers tested the capacity root reinforcement of Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis (Poaceae families, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratensis and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae families grass species widespread in the Alpine environment. Results: In situ shear tests results revealed that grass roots fail progressively and their tendency were to slip, without failing. Shear-strengths calculated for root-reinforced soil with Fabaceae, yielded values between 19 and 166% higher than directly measured shear-strengths in soil with no roots. The shear displacement had an increase included between 493 and 1.900%. The shear time was always superior. The clod with roots, after the trials, were always packed together. Conclusion: These data were lower than those obtained with Poaceae tests (from 50-318%, but the two grass families were functional for a grass mix useful in technical seeding.

  9. Combining ability of binary mixtures of introduced, cool- and warm-season grasses and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    When two forage species are grown together they can be compatible, compete, or interact with each other. We estimated the combining ability effects for introduced, cool- and warm-season grasses and legumes grown in binary mixtures in NW Oklahoma. Six pure stands and 15 mixtures were transplanted int...

  10. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF JUMBO GRASS (SORGHUM BICOLOUR SORGHUM SUDANEFE SILAGE IN LACTATING NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. TAUQIR, M. SARWAR1, M. A. JABBAR2 AND S. MAHMOOD

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Jambo grass (Sorghum bicolour Sorghum sudanefe silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (Jambo grass; JG in the diet of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis. Jumbo grass was ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM on large scale in bunker silos for 30 days. Two experimental iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets were formulated with 75:25% of forage to concentrate ratio on DM basis that contained 75% of JG fodder or silage and 25% concentrate. Twenty early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups and fed experimental diets for 60 days at ad libitum. First 10 days were given for adaptation to new diets and the rest 50 days for sample collection. Daily feed intake and milk yield were recorded for each animal. Milk samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP, fat, solids not fat, total solids and non-protein nitrogen. During last week of the study, a digestibility trial was conducted. The acid insoluble ash was used as digestibility marker. Intakes of dry matter (DMI, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher in animals fed control diet than those fed Jambo grass silage (JGS diet. A significant difference among experimental diets for DMI may be due to the presence of fermentation products in ensiled material that might have depressed the intake in silage based diets. The apparent DM, CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were non-significantly different between both experimental diets, showing a trivial loss of nutrients during silage making. Milk yield (4% FCM and its composition did not show any treatment effect. The present results indicated that JG ensiled with 2% molasses for 30 days could safely replace the conventional fresh Jumbo grass fodder in the diet of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes without affecting their milk yield.

  11. A GRASS GIS application for vertical sorting of sediments analysis in River Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Minelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The extreme versatility in different research fields of GRASS GIS is well known. A tool for the vertical sorting of sediments in river dynamics analysis is illustrated in this work.In particular, a GRASS GIS python module has been written which implements a forecasting sorting model by Blom&Parker (2006 to analyze river bed composition’s evolution in depth in terms of grainsize.The module takes a DEM and information relative to the bed load transport composition as input. It works in two different and consecutive phases: the first one uses the GRASS capabilities in analyzing geometrical features of the river bed along a chosen river reach, the second phase is the "numerical" one and implements the forecasting model itself, then executes statistical analyses and draws graphs, by the means of matplotlib library.Moreover, a specific procedure for the import of a laser scanner cloud of points is implemented, in case the raster DEM map is not available.At the moment, the module has been applied using flumes data from Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (Minneapolis, MN and some first results have been obtained, but the "testing" phase on other flume’s data is still in progress. Moreover the module has been written for GRASS 65 on a Ubuntu Linux machine, even if the debugging of a GRASS 64, Windowsversion, is also in progress.The final aim of this work is the application of the model on natural rivers, but there are still some drawbacks. First of all the need of a high resolution DEM in input, secondly the number and type of data in input (for example the bed load composition in volume fraction per each size considered which is not easily obtainable, so the best solution is represented by testing the model on a well instrumented river reach to export in future the forecasting method to un-instrumented reaches.

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop sequences of grass-clover and wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuß, Roland; Blank, Britta; Christen, Olaf; Munch, Jean Charles; Neuhoff, Daniel; Schmid, Harald; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Organic farming is based on the principle of farm internal nitrogen cycling. Soil N input is managed by fertilization with manure if there is animal stock at the farm. Stockless farms use so called Green Manure, i.e., leguminous crops integrated in a crop sequence of cash crops. A mix of grass and clover is commonly used for this. The crop is either harvested and residues incorporated or whole plants are mulched and incorporated. In order to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from organic farming and derive management recommendations, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission data from cultivation of leguminous crops is needed. Currently there is a deficit of published data, in particular for Germany. Hence, N2O fluxes from grass-clover and subsequent wheat cultivation were studied over two years at four sites, which are distributed evenly over Germany. Treatments were (i) harvest of grass-clover and incorporation of residues in fall followed by cultivation of winter wheat, (ii) incorporation of residues in spring followed by summer wheat, (iii) mulching of grass-clover and incorporation in fall followed by winter wheat, (iv) conventional winter wheat with mineral fertilizer. Treatment effects on N2O emissions were marginal compared to site effects such as soil and climate. Overall, direct emissions from the organic treatments were remarkably similar to those from conventional winter wheat with best practice application of mineral fertilizer. Incorporation in spring resulted in higher emissions than incorporation in fall, but there was no consistent difference between incorporation of residues and mulching. Based on the present study regional emission factors for crop sequences of grass-clover and wheat in Germany can be derived.

  13. Protein supplementation reduces non-grass foraging by a primary grazer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odadi, Wilfred O; Karachi, Moses K; Abdulrazak, Shaukat A; Young, Truman P

    2013-03-01

    It is believed that wildlife and livestock can coexist in semiarid savanna rangelands. However, this coexistence is threatened by intense competition for scarce, but nutritionally vital, forage resources. Specifically, there is evidence that grazing livestock seasonally compete for protein-rich forbs (non-grasses) with browsing and mixed-feeding wildlife. While this has been attributed to protein needs, there are no experimental tests of whether grazers in such a context alter their diet selection when supplemented with protein. We compared forage selection between cattle supplemented with protein (cotton seedcake) and those not supplemented during dry and wet periods, in a semiarid African savanna rangeland where they have been demonstrated to compete with wildlife for forage. We further evaluated whether such dietary alteration affected the overall biting and movement behavior, nutrition, and performance of cattle, by comparing bite and step rates, diet quality (crude protein and digestible organic matter), forage intake, and live mass change between these treatment groups. During the dry period, relative consumption of forbs was 76% lower in supplemented cattle than in non-supplemented cattle. Notably, supplemented cattle significantly avoided forbs relative to their abundance in the environment, while non-supplemented cattle over-sampled this herbage type. Conversely, selection and relative use of Brachiaria lachnantha, the most abundant grass species, and Bothriochloa insculpta, a grass species otherwise avoided, increased following protein supplementation. These patterns were similar but nonsignificant during the wet period. Bite and step rates, diet quality, forage intake, and performance were not significantly affected by protein supplementation in either period. Our study shows that foraging cattle partially trade off protein-rich forbs for protein-poor grasses when supplemented with protein, without suffering detrimental behavioral, nutritional, or performance consequences. These results broaden our understanding of the role of non-grasses in the diets of "grazers" and suggest protein supplementation as a potential tool in managing coexistence between grazing livestock and browsing (forb-consuming) wildlife. PMID:23634594

  14. The investigation of growing and using of tall perennial grasses as energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper provides the results of tests on tall-growing perennial grass biomass suitability for use as fuel, as well as findings on the energy potential of swards and energy efficiency of biofuel production from herbaceous plants. The tests were carried out for 3 years. Eight swards differing in species composition were grown. Two of them consisted of pure rhizomatous grasses-reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and awnless bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyser.)-treated with mineral fertilisers, applying N60 split in two applications. The other swards consisted of the above-mentioned grass mixtures with legumes-sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.), perennial lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) and goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.). The mixtures did not receive nitrogen fertilisers. The soil of the experimental site is light loam with a humus content of 1.5-1.9%. The productivity of swards under good weather conditions ranged between 6.3 and 8.8 t DM ha-1, while under adverse conditions between 2.8 and 6.5 t ha-1. The net calorific value of dry biomass ranged from 17.1 to 18.5 MJ kg-1 and depended on sward composition, growing conditions and cutting time. Combustion temperature ranged from 770 to 955 deg. C. In Lithuanian climatic conditions, the energy potential of tall-growing grass swards cultivated on light soils low in humus content was 115-153 GJ ha-1, and energy input for biofuel production amounted to 8.0-19.2 GJ ha-1

  15. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety ‘BioR-231’ and ‘Hooghly Local’, respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  16. Piata palisade grass deferred with two distinct initial heights: luminous environment and tillering dynamics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Manoel Eduardo Rozalino, Santos; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Gabriel de Oliveira, Rocha; Cássia Aparecida Soares, Freitas; Natascha Almeida Marques da, Silva; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out between March 1st and July 1st, 2011, in order to evaluate the tillering pattern of the deferred Piata palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata). Three sward heights were evaluated in the beginning of the period of deferment: lower (20 cm), medium (30 cm) and higher ( [...] 40 cm). The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with three replications. The Piata palisade grass deferred with low initial height presented lower leaf area index, lower light interception and higher leaf angle in relation to the ones deferred with medium and high heights. The advance in the period of deferment increased the leaf area index and the light interception by the sward, in a way that the highest values were recorded in the periods from 91 and 120 days. The leaf angle reduced linearly with the advance in the period of deferment. For basal and aerial tillers, the rates of appearance, mortality and survival of tillers, as well as the balance between appearance and mortality, and the tiller density stability index were not affected by the initial height of the sward. The stability index of the tiller density was lower in the period from 1 to 30 days of deferment in relation to the periods from 31 to 60, from 61 to 90 and from 91 to 120 days. The variation of the initial height of the Piata palisade grass does not influence the tiller density dynamics during the period of deferment. The reduction of the initial height of the Piata palisade grass improves the luminous environment inside the sward, but it does not stimulate the grass tillering during the period of deferment.

  17. Intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and leguminous plants: productivity, quality and composition of silages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Monteiro, Costa; Severino Delmar Junqueira, Villela; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Saulo Alberto do Carmo, Araújo; Karoline Guedes, Araújo; José Reinaldo Mendes, Ruas; Felipe Soares, Coelho; Vinícius Raimundi, Andrade.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of forages produced in systems of intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and different leguminous plants. Productivity, bromatological composition and the fermentative profile of the sila [...] ges from the following treatments were evaluated: corn in exclusive cultivation (CEC); intercropping of corn with brachiaria grass (CB); intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Calopogonium mucunoides (CBCal); intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Macrotyloma axillare (CBMac); and intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Stylozanthes capitata (CBSty). The experimental design utilized was completely randomized. For each type of cultivation, five plots or replications of three linear meters were harvested, and the material was separated. The variables assessed were: dry matter productivity per area; dry matter productivity of corn per area; crude protein production per area and productivity of total digestible nutrients per area. The material originated from the cultures was ensiled, with dry matter between 28 and 32%. After, the material was placed and compacted appropriately in bucket silos. A sample was collected from each replication for determination of the contents of DM, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), lignin, neutral and acid detergent fibers (NDF and ADF) and TDN. A fraction of the sample of silages from each treatment was compressed for extraction of the juice and determination of the silage quality. There was difference between the forms of cultivation for the dry matter production per hectare. The CEC with production of 11920.1 kg DM/ha did not differ from CB (8997.41 kg DM/ha) or CBCal (10452.10 kg DM/ha); however, it was superior to CBMac (8429.75 kg DM/ha) and to CBSty (8164.83 kg DM/ha). The contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, lignin and TDN did not differ between the silages from the different treatments. All the silages presented good quality with good fermentation patterns.

  18. Intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and leguminous plants: productivity, quality and composition of silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Monteiro Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of forages produced in systems of intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and different leguminous plants. Productivity, bromatological composition and the fermentative profile of the silages from the following treatments were evaluated: corn in exclusive cultivation (CEC; intercropping of corn with brachiaria grass (CB; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Calopogonium mucunoides (CBCal; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Macrotyloma axillare (CBMac; and intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Stylozanthes capitata (CBSty. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized. For each type of cultivation, five plots or replications of three linear meters were harvested, and the material was separated. The variables assessed were: dry matter productivity per area; dry matter productivity of corn per area; crude protein production per area and productivity of total digestible nutrients per area. The material originated from the cultures was ensiled, with dry matter between 28 and 32%. After, the material was placed and compacted appropriately in bucket silos. A sample was collected from each replication for determination of the contents of DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, lignin, neutral and acid detergent fibers (NDF and ADF and TDN. A fraction of the sample of silages from each treatment was compressed for extraction of the juice and determination of the silage quality. There was difference between the forms of cultivation for the dry matter production per hectare. The CEC with production of 11920.1 kg DM/ha did not differ from CB (8997.41 kg DM/ha or CBCal (10452.10 kg DM/ha; however, it was superior to CBMac (8429.75 kg DM/ha and to CBSty (8164.83 kg DM/ha. The contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, lignin and TDN did not differ between the silages from the different treatments. All the silages presented good quality with good fermentation patterns.

  19. Collaboration between grass seedlings and rhizobacteria to scavenge organic nitrogen in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Chen, Qiang; Torres, Mónica S; Mattera, Robert; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Tadych, Mariusz; Bergen, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Plants require nitrogen (N) to make proteins, nucleic acids and other biological molecules. It is widely accepted that plants absorb inorganic forms of N to fill their needs. However, recently it has become clear that plants also have the capacity to absorb organic N from soils. In this paper we describe a new kind of symbiosis involving seed-vectored rhizobacteria and grasses that is targeted at enhancing acquisition of organic N from soils. Our proposal is based on results of experiments on seedlings of grass species Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Lolium perenne L. and Poa annua L. that suggest: (i) seed-vectored rhizobacteria colonize seedling roots and influence their development; (ii) reactive oxygen secretion by seedling roots plays a role in organic N procurement by denaturing microbial proteins in the vicinity of roots (daytime activity); and (iii) plant root and microbial proteases degrade denatured proteins prior to absorption by roots (night-time activity). This research involved the following types of studies: (i) seedling root development experiments with and without rhizobacteria on a variety of substrates in agarose media and (ii) isotopic N-tracking experiments to evaluate the absorption into seedlings of N obtained from degradation of proteins. We hypothesize that grasses, in particular, are adapted to scavenge organic N from soils through application of this 'oxidative nitrogen scavenging' symbiosis with rhizobacteria, and their soil-permeating root systems. This newly discovered symbiosis in grass species could lead to new ways to cultivate and manage grasses to enhance efficiency of N utilization and reduce applications of inorganic fertilizers. PMID:25564515

  20. Changing the energy climate: clean and green heat from grass biofuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertain energy supplies and international agreements to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have created unique opportunities for biofuel development. Pelleted fuels from warm season grasses such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can be grown for $3-4/GigaJoule (GJ) with only minor emissions of CO2. Using close-coupled gasifer combustion technology, switchgrass fuel pellets emit 86%, 91%, 71% and 89% less CO2 than electricity, heating oil, natural gas and propane, respectively. Every 100 ha of switchgrass converted into pellet form and used to displace fossil fuel for space-heating prevents the emission of 1000 tonnes of CO2. Heating an average Ontario house with a 90GJ heat demand costs $1213 with switchgrass pellets compared to $2234, $1664, $882 and $3251 with electricity, heating oil, natural gas and propane, respectively. An estimated 23.4 million acres of agricultural land in Canada could potentially be converted to perennial grass biofuel production. The depressed farm sector would benefit economically from energy farming. Low-grade heat energy derived from grass pellets could displace some of the 30,000 GigaWatt Hours of electricity currently used for home heating in Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. Surplus electricity could be exported or used to replace nuclear or coal burning plants. Contrary to prevailing beliefs that reducing GHG emissions will raise societal energy costs, pelletized grass biofuels could provide consumers with less expensive and more GHG-friendly heating options than most fossil energy sources. If the political support and direction exist to implement the Kyoto Protocol as intended, grass pellets could well become a heating fuel of choice in North America. (author)

  1. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel?×?Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4?×?4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P?grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P?grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P?grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P?grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P?grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake. PMID:24788311

  2. Factors that influence in the technology adoption in the production system: Potato - grasses - milk in the east of Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of knowing the factors that influence in the technology adoption in the system of production potato-grass-milk in the east of Antioquia, it was carried out a study with producing of this system. The study is exploratory, of descriptive type. As study population they took 4.119 producers, of which a sample of 249 producers was selected, using sampling for conglomerates. By means of visits to properties, they were applied a questionnaire, which contained information related with the main variable that is production potato-grass-milk and their different components. Statistical analysis was used as tests of Z for averages and percentages. In accordance with the obtained results, it could settle down that the producers manage 2 very defined systems of production of milk: potato-grass-milk with 45 percent of the producers; alone potato, they exploit it 1 percent of the producers. The producers were changed to the system potato-grass-milk, in the study area for more profitability and with the purpose of improving the herdsmen; on the contrary, those that left the system and they spent to the system grass-milk, they made it for the high costs of potato production and the manpower shortage required for the handling of the system; also, the search of more revenues. The readiness of the manpower is lower for those who manage the system grass-milk that for those of the system potato-grass-milk

  3. Cooling and Warming Effects of a Grass Covered Area and Adjacent Asphalt Area in a Hot Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARAMARZ MADJIDI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Knowledge of the warming or cooling effects induced by asphalt or grass covered areas, may improve our understanding of how thermal stress or thermal comfort is created for workers who have to work outdoors for long hours in warm seasons. For this purpose a field measurements were carried out to know the cooling and warming effects of two adjacent areas, one covered with grass and the other with asphalt. These two adjacent coverages were located in an open area, in Zanjan, a city in the north west of Iran. A calm and sunny day in June was selected to perform measurements. The temperature and relative humidity, on the grass and asphalt surfaces and also at a heights of 1.2 m above them were measured at 2 hours interval from 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. Results showed that in the measurement day, the grass surface temperature was less than asphalt surface temperature in the afternoon and in the before noon there was no significant difference between temperatures. Whereas, the temperature measurements at the height of 1.2 m above asphalt and grass, showed that the air temperature above grass was less than the air above asphalt during the measurements period, but in the afternoon, the difference between these temperatures was less than that of before noon. Both grass and asphalt surfaces, showed the cooling and warming effects, which are impressed on the air above them, due to thermal convection.

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Organic Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass in Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. (Hindi Name- gehun, kanak, Sanskrit name- godhuma is called as a wheat grass, belonging to family: Gramineae, which posses high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers. Wheat grass has been shown to posses anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer activity, antioxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, and blood building activity in Thalassemia Major. It has been argued that wheat grass helps blood flow, digestion and general detoxification of the body. The major clinical utility of wheat grass in diseased conditions might be due to the presence of biologically active compounds and minerals in it and due to its antioxidant potential which is derived from its high content of bioflavonoids such as apigenin, quercitin, luteoline. Furthermore, indole compounds namely choline and laetrile present in it might be also responsible for its therapeutic potential. The presence of 70% chlorophyll, which is almost chemically identical to hemoglobin, in wheat grass makes it more useful in various clinical conditions involving hemoglobin deficiency and other chronic disorders. The present review article focuses onto various studies conducted on the use of wheatgrass in various disease conditions. Since very little clinical studies have been made on this very promising herbal drug, efforts are needed to conduct extensive studies on the wheat grass both in experimental models and human subjects to develop wheat grass therapy with no side effects in prevention, cure and management of chronic diseases for which our modern systems have lost their hopes.

  5. Study on the Method of Grass Yield Model in the Source Region of Three Rivers with Multivariate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Haoyan; Luo, Chengfeng; Liu, Zhengjun; Wang, Jiao

    2014-03-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and GIS technology to analyse the Source Region of Three Rivers (SRTR) to establish a grass yield estimation model during 2010 with remote sensing data, meteorological data, grassland type data and ground measured data. Analysis of the correlation between ground measured data, vegetation index based HJ-1A/B satellite data, meteorological data and grassland type data were used to establish the grass yield model. The grass yield model was studied by several statistical methods, such as multiple linear regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). The model's precision was validated. Finally, the best model to estimate the grass yield of Maduo County in SRTR was contrasted with the TM degraded grassland interpretation image of Maduo County from 2009. The result shows that: (1) Comparing with the multiple linear regression model, the GWR model gave a much better fitting result with the quality of fit increasing significantly from less than 0.3 to more than 0.8; (2) The most sensitive factors affecting the grass yield in SRTR were precipitation from May to August and drought index from May to August. From calculation of the five vegetation indices, MSAVI fitted the best; (3) The Maduo County grass yield estimated by the optimal model was consistent with the TM degraded grassland interpretation image, the spatial distribution of grass yield in Maduo County for 2010 showed a "high south and low north" pattern.

  6. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of plants to accumulate low level radioactive waste from soil, followed by incineration of plant material to concentrate radionuclides may prove to be a viable and economical method of remediating contaminated areas. We tested the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on 137Cs and 90Sr uptake by bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), johnson grass (Sorghum halpense) and switchgrass (Panicum virginatum) for the effectiveness on three different contaminated soil types. Exposure to 137Cs or 90Sr over the course of the experiment did not affect above ground biomass of the three grasses. The above ground biomass of bahia, johnson and switchgrass plants accumulated from 26.3 to 71.7% of the total amount of the 137Cs and from 23.8 to 88.7% of the total amount of the 90Sr added to the soil after three harvests. In each of the three grass species tested, plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices had greater aboveground plant biomass, higher concentrations of 137Cs or 90Sr in plant tissue, % accumulation of 137Cs or 90Sr from soil and plant bioconcentration ratios at each harvest than those that did not receive mycorrhizal inoculation. Johnson grass had greater aboveground plant biomass, greater accumulation of 137Cs or 90Sr from soil and plant higher bioconcentration ratios with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than bahia grass and switchgrass. The greatest accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr was observed in johnson grass inoculated with G. mosseae. Grasses can grow in wide geographical ranges that include a broad variety of edaphic conditions. The highly efficient removal of these radionuclides by these grass species after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae supports the concept that remediation of radionuclide contaminated soils using mycorrhizal plants may present a viable strategy to remediate and reclaim sites contaminated with radionuclides

  7. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora) or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Gomes, César; Pedro Henrique Santin, Brancalion; Ricardo Ribeiro, Rodrigues; Aretha Medina dos Santos, Oliveira; Marcelo Corrêa, Alves.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC) or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschat [...] a Duschene ex. Poir) with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1) control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf.) Webster) with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3) glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2) or pumpkin (3), and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5) mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4) or pumpkin (5), and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  8. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban

    OpenAIRE

    Tibebu, M.; Tollera, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~ 18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole Napier grass (control) and four Napier grass-Sesbania mixtures consisting of 100, 200, 300, and 400 g/kg of Sesbania on dry matter (DM) basis. The ratio of mixing the two feeds was adjusted every ...

  9. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, D; Hatew, B; Podesta, S C; Klop, G; van Gastelen, S; van Laar, H; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH4) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high fertilisation (HF), 150 kg of N/ha) and of three stages of maturity of grass at cutting: early maturity (EM; 28 days of regrowth), mid maturity (MM; 41 days of regrowth) and late maturity (LM; 62 days of regrowth) on CH4 production by lactating dairy cows. In a randomised block design, 54 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (168±11 days in milk; mean±standard error of mean) received grass silage (mainly ryegrass) and compound feed at 80 : 20 on dry matter basis. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 days and CH4 production was measured in climate respiration chambers for 5 days. Dry matter intake (DMI; 14.9±0.56 kg/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation and grass maturity. Production of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM; 24.0±1.57 kg/day) decreased with advancing grass maturity but was not affected by N fertilisation. Apparent total-tract feed digestibility decreased with advancing grass maturity but was unaffected by N fertilisation except for an increase and decrease in N and fat digestibility with increasing N fertilisation, respectively. Total CH4 production per cow (347±13.6 g/day) decreased with increasing N fertilisation by 4% and grass maturity by 6%. The smaller CH4 production with advancing grass maturity was offset by a smaller FPCM and lower feed digestibility. As a result, with advancing grass maturity CH4 emission intensity increased per units of FPCM (15.0±1.00 g CH4/kg) by 31% and digestible organic matter intake (33.1±0.78 g CH4/kg) by 15%. In addition, emission intensity increased per units of DMI (23.5±0.43 g CH4/kg) by 7% and gross energy intake (7.0±0.14% CH4) by 9%, implying an increased loss of dietary energy with advancing grass maturity. Rate of N fertilisation had no effect on CH4 emissions per units of FPCM, DMI and gross energy intake. These results suggest that despite a lower absolute daily CH4 production with a higher N fertilisation rate, CH4 emission intensity remains unchanged. A significant reduction of CH4 emission intensity can be achieved by feeding dairy cows silage of grass harvested at an earlier stage of maturity. PMID:26264354

  10. The Soil-Plant-Animal Phenomena: Serum Mineral Status of Fiji Fantastic Sheep Grazing Batiki Grass (Ischaemum aristatum Var. indicum and Pangola Grass (Digitaria decumbens in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mose T. Mautoatasi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out during the dry season period to determine the mineral status of soil/forages (batiki and pangola grasses grazed by the Fiji Fantastic Sheep (FFS at four government owned livestock farms located at Avele, Togitogiga, Lemafa and Tanumalala within Upolu Island, Samoa. Also blood serum mineral content was examined. Soils and forages were sampled in June and August from the four farms. Among the four farms, soil at Togitogiga was comparatively low in Ca, Mg, K and Zn; while P and K were deficient in the soil at Avele. Ca content in the batiki grass at Avele was 2.7 g kg 1 DM while at Togitogiga and Lemafa it ranged between 1.8-2.1 g kg 1 DM. Ca content in the pangola grass (Tanumalala farm ranged between 1.7-2.3 g kg 1 DM. Phosphorus (P, Mg, Na and K contents in the forages were 2.1 g kg 1 DM; 2.5 g kg 1 DM, 0.5 g kg 1 DM and 8.5 g kg 1 DM, respectively. Ca;P ratio in the forages was 1:1. Na content in batiki and pangola grasses was below the critical level an indication of deficiency. The content of micro-minerals in the forages was Fe (97.9 mg kg 1 DM, Mn (172.9 mg kg 1 DM; Cu (3.3 mg kg 1 DM and Zn (36.9 mg kg 1 DM. Micro-minerals were adequate in the forages and above the requirements of an adult sheep. Mean concentration of serum macro-minerals was Ca (25.2 mg 100 mL 1; P (3.2 mg 100 mL 1; Mg (0.9 mg 100 mL 1: Na 51.9 mg 100 mL 1 and K (2.4 mg 100 mL 1, while serum micro minerals were Fe (372.4 mg 100 mL 1; Mn (1.1 mg 100 mL 1; Cu 3.3 mg 100 mL 1 and Zn (7.6 mg 100 mL 1. Except for Ca and Fe, the serum content of other macro and micro minerals were below the ovine reference range. In this report we tested the soil, forage and carried out direct veterinary evidence for deficiency through blood analysis to validate the mineral status of the Fiji Fantastic sheep grazing batiki and pangola grasses in Samoa and compared the values obtained with appropriate standards of adequacy or safety. In conclusion, it appears that the critical levels proposed for most macro and micro minerals elements are higher than may apply to the FFS grazing low potential grasses in the dry season in Samoa. Supplementation of the sheep with mineral lick block during grazing would alleviate the problems of the deficiencies of some of the macro and micro minerals observed in the forages and in the serum of the sheep.

  11. Modelling the transfer of 14C from the atmosphere to grass: a case study in a grass field near AREVA-NC La Hague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulagnier, C; Le Dizès, S; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Lardy, R; Martin, R; Gonze, M-A

    2012-10-01

    Radioactive (14)C is formed as a by-product of nuclear power generation and from operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants like AREVA-NC La Hague (North France), which releases about 15 TBq per year of (14)C into the atmosphere. Since the autumn of 2006, (14)C activity concentrations in samples from the terrestrial environment (air, grass and soil) have been monitored monthly on grassland 2 km downwind of the reprocessing plant. The monitoring data provides an opportunity to validate radioecology models used to assess (14)C transfer to grassland ecosystems. This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass (14)C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague. These two models are the TOCATTA model which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of (14)C and tritium in the terrestrial environment, and PaSim, a pasture model for simulating grassland carbon and nitrogen cycling. Both TOCATTA and PaSim tend to under-estimate the magnitude of observed peaks in grass (14)C activity, although they reproduce the general trends. PaSim simulates (14)C activities in substrate and structural pools of the plant. We define a mean turn-over time for (14)C within the plant, which is based on both experimental data and the frequency of cuts. An adapted PaSim result is presented using the 15 and 20 day moving average results for the (14)C activity in the substrate pool, which shows a good match to the observations. This model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by nearly 40% in comparison to TOCATTA. PMID:22537618

  12. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por Brachiaria radicans (tanner-grass em bovinos Natural and experimental poisoning by Brachiaria radicans (tanner grass in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria radicans (tanner-grass, cresce bem em solos úmidos. Em Santa Catarina é encontrada principalmente nas regiões dos vales dos rios Tubarão e Itajaí. Quando ingerida em grandes quantidades pelos bovinos induz anemia hemolítica, hemoglobinúria, diarreia e pode evoluir para a morte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os dados epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos causados por B. radicans em bovinos. A planta foi administrada a 12 bovinos em doses de 50-100% da dieta. Os animais que receberam uma dieta que consistia de 100% da planta, originária de solos turfosos, mostraram hemoglobinúria, diarreia, mucosas vermelho-escuras e recuperação após suspensão da ingestão da planta. Exames de sangue e urina revelaram anemia, hemoglobinúria e proteinúria. A histopatologia de material coletado de bovinos que morreram pela doença espontânea, revelou necrose hepática coagulativa e paracentral e nefrose hemoglobinúrica. B. radicans mostrou ser tóxica para bovinos somente quando cresce em solos férteis e se consistir de 100% da dieta.Brachiaria radicans is a grass that grows well on humid soils. In Santa Catarina, it is found mainly in the valleys of the Tubarão and Itajaí rivers. When eaten by cattle in large amounts induces hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, diarrhea and even death. The objective of this study was to evaluate epidemiologic, clinical and pathological data of the intoxication caused by B. radicans in cattle. The plant was administered to 12 cattle in doses of 50-100% of the diet. The animals that received 100% of B. radicans, grown on peaty soils, showed hemoglobinuria, diarrhea and dark red mucous membranes; they recovered when ingestion of the grass was discontinued. Blood and urine tests revealed anemia, hemoglobinuria and proteinuria. Histopathology of organs collected from cattle that died from spontaneous poisoning revealed hepatic centrolobular and paracentralr coagulative necrosis and hemoglobinuric nephrosis. B. radicans proved toxic for cattle only when it grows on fertile soils and is ingested as 100% of the diet.

  13. Modelling the transfer of 14C from the atmosphere to grass: A case study in a grass field near AREVA-NC La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive 14C is formed as a by-product of nuclear power generation and from operation of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants like AREVA-NC La Hague (North France), which releases about 15 TBq per year of 14C into the atmosphere. Since the autumn of 2006, 14C activity concentrations in samples from the terrestrial environment (air, grass and soil) have been monitored monthly on grassland 2 km downwind of the reprocessing plant. The monitoring data provides an opportunity to validate radioecology models used to assess 14C transfer to grassland ecosystems. This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass 14C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague. These two models are the TOCATTA model which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of 14C and tritium in the terrestrial environment, and PaSim, a pasture model for simulating grassland carbon and nitrogen cycling. Both TOCATTA and PaSim tend to under-estimate the magnitude of observed peaks in grass 14C activity, although they reproduce the general trends. PaSim simulates 14C activities in substrate and structural pools of the plant. We define a mean turn-over time for 14C within the plant, which is based on both experimental data and the frequency of cuts. An adapted PaSim result is presented using the 15 and 20 day moving average results for the 14C activity in the substrate pool, which shows a good match to the observations. This model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by nearly 40% in comparison to TOCATTA. - Highlights: ? We model 14C transfer from the atmosphere to grass near AREVA-NC reprocessing plant. ? Both models considered under-estimate the observed variability and highest peaks. ? A model based solely on the sap 14C activity and mean turn-over time is considered. ? It performs well and could be applied to case studies around nuclear facilities.

  14. Influence of grass maturity and diet on ruminal dry matter and neutral detergent fibre digestion kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Jaakkola, S

    1994-01-01

    The effects of, and interactions between, the diet and maturity of grass were studied in cattle in a 6 x 6 Latin square experiment with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barn-dried grass or direct-cut silage from the same sward were fed together with 250 (L), 500 (M) or 750 (H) g concentrate dry matter (DM) kg-1 total DM. Six timothy-meadow fescue grasses, cut at 7 d intervals, were incubated in nylon bags in the rumen for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and the kinetics parameters for DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestion were estimated. Ruminal NDF digestibility was calculated using a value of 0.02 for the rate of passage. With increasing maturity of grass, crude protein content and in vitro digestibility decreased with associated increases in the contents of cell wall constituents. Both the rate and extent of DM and NDF digestion decreased with maturity. The changes were curvilinear with an increasing depression in the extent of digestion and a decreasing depression in the rate of digestion with maturity. Ruminal NDF digestibility averaged over the diets decreased from 61.2 to 39.7% with the maturity. DM and NDF disappearance and calculated NDF digestibility decreased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This adverse effect of concentrate increased more rapidly as the proportion of concentrate increased from M to H and rumen pH dropped from 6.2 to 6.0 than as the proportion of concentrate increased from L to M with a consequent reduction in rumen pH from 6.4 to 6.2. The minimum rumen pH explained more of the variation in NDF digestibility than mean pH, duration or summation (pH x time) of the pH depression below 6.2, 6.0 or 5.8. Predicted NDF digestibility was higher in cattle given the dried grass diets than in those given the silage diets. The adverse effect of the concentrate level on NDF digestibility increased with the maturity of the grass. The decrease was 0.54, 0.59, 0.72% units per one day delay in cutting for low, medium and high levels of concentrate, respectively. PMID:7668977

  15. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. Species of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes wheat, barley and important forage grasses, have evolved extreme frost tolerance. A class of ice binding proteins that inhibit ice re-crystallisation, specific to the Pooideae subfamily lineage, have been identified in perennial ryegrass and wheat, and these proteins are thought to have evolved from a leucine-rich repeat phytosulfokine receptor kinase (LRR-PSR)-like ancestor gene. Even though the ice re-crystallisation inhibition function of these proteins has been studied extensively in vitro, little is known about the evolution of these genes on the molecular level. Results We identified 15 putative novel ice re-crystallisation inhibition (IRI)-like protein coding genes in perennial ryegrass, barley, and wheat. Using synonymous divergence estimates we reconstructed the evolution of the IRI-like gene family. We also explored the hypothesis that the IRI-domain has evolved through repeated motif expansion and investigated the evolutionary relationship between a LRR-domain containing IRI coding gene in carrot and the Pooideae IRI-like genes. Our analysis showed that the main expansion of the IRI-gene family happened ~36 million years ago (Mya). In addition to IRI-like paralogs, wheat contained several sequences that likely were products of polyploidisation events (homoeologs). Through sequence analysis we identified two short motifs in the rice LRR-PSR gene highly similar to the repeat motifs of the IRI-domain in cold tolerant grasses. Finally we show that the LRR-domain of carrot and grass IRI proteins both share homology to an Arabidopsis thaliana LRR-trans membrane protein kinase (LRR-TPK). Conclusion The diverse IRI-like genes identified in this study tell a tale of a complex evolutionary history including birth of an ice binding domain, a burst of gene duplication events after cold tolerant grasses radiated from rice, protein domain structure differentiation between paralogs, and sub- and/or neofunctionalisation of IRI-like proteins. From our sequence analysis we provide evidence for IRI-domain evolution probably occurring through increased copy number of a repeated motif. Finally, we discuss the possibility of parallel evolution of LRR domain containing IRI proteins in carrot and grasses through two completely different molecular adaptations. Udgivelsesdato: 5 September 2008

  16. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses, the assessment of their genetic and cytogenetic effects and biomass production from grass. Annual progress report, November 1, 1979 to October 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New techniques are described for using irradiation and chemical mutagens in the genetic improvement of several warm season grasses. Genetic and cytogenetic effects of these treatments are also being studied

  17. The conditions for use of reed canary grass briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in small heating plants; Foerutsaettningar foer anvaendning av roerflensbriketter och hackad roerflen i mindre vaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Davidsson, Kent; Holmgren, Magnus A. (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Rikard; Leffler, Joel (ETC, Piteaa (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to test fuel blends of briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in three existing heating plants (50 kW - 500 kW) and elucidate the requirements for good performance and low emissions. In addition, the study investigated production of reed canary grass briquettes using a Polish screw press developed for straw. Some tests with a bale shredder were also undertaken. The screw press technique is of interest for reed canary grass because it is a simple technique, easy to handle, developed for small scale production, and for straw. The test with reed canary grass in this study showed that the technique worked well but that further adjustments and a longer test period are needed in order to achieve higher bulk density and mechanical strength. The test with chopped reed canary grass shows that a system with a forage harvester is slightly more effective than baling and cutting in a bale shredder. The study concluded that few existing heating plants of size 50 kW-1 MW that currently use wood fuels will be able to use reed canary grass without adjustment, conversion or replacement of the combustion equipment. Reed canary grass has 15-20 times higher ash content than wood briquettes and 2-3 times higher ash content than forest residue; the combustion equipment must be able to handle these properties. The boiler must be equipped with a continuously operating ashing system and it must be possible to move the ash bed mechanically. There is a risk of high content of unburned matter if the residence time in the boiler is too short, due to the structure and low bulk density of the reed canary grass ash. Using a blend of wood briquettes and reed canary briquettes results in lower ash content, but also affects the ash chemistry and tends to lower the initial ash fusion temperature compared to using 100 % reed canary grass. Blending chopped reed canary grass and wood chips in an existing small scale heating plant also requires measures to achieve an even fuel blend and uniform feed to the boiler. To facilitate the development of reed canary grass as an energy crop, it is important that potential users have access to an overview and assessment of appropriate combustion techniques on the European market today. More demonstration projects are also needed, as well as practical development of fuel handling systems, combustion systems, flue gas cleaning and combustion control systems

  18. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within the state of...

  19. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltus Frank

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities.

  20. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Second quarterly report; year 2, 1978-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.; Garcia, M.; Gonzalex-Molina, C.; Ortez-Velez, J.

    1979-01-01

    Research centered on greenhouse screening of candidate grasses coupled with field-plot studies on varieties, optimal nitrogen and seeding rates, variable row spacing, and frequency of harvest. Candidate grasses were identified for short-rotation crops having potentially greater versatility than Sordan 70A (earlier maturatoon greater tolerance to moisture stress). Field-plot studies were performed on the optimization of N-fertilization and seeding rates for Sordan 70A. Field-plot data were recorded on sugarcane and napier grass responses to harvest frequency and row spacing. These results underscore a superiority of first-ratoon yields over plant-crop yields, of napier grass over sugarcane (up to 4 months), and delayed harvests over frequent harvests. Breeding tests were successful in producing F/sub 1/ seedlings from crosses between an unknown and early-tasseling wild S. spontaneum hybrid and late-tasseling commercial sugarcane hybrids.

  1. Effects of mineral fertilizers on Cs137 and Sr90 radionuclide transfer to perennial grasses on peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field experiment was aimed at studying the influence of mineral fertilizers in their different quantities and ratios on transfer of Cs137 and Sr90 radionuclides from peat soils to perennial grass yield. (authors)

  2. GRASS SPECIES FROM C-4 CARBON FIXATION GROUP: POLISH EXPERIMENT WITH A NOVEL ENERGY AND FORAGE PURPOSES CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W?odzimierz Majtkowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during four years 2003-2006. Materials used were three genus grass species of C-4 photosynthesis: Andropogon gerardi Vitman, Panicum virgatum L. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim. Hack. Plants were planted at spring 1998. Agrotechnical part of experiment was conducted in Botanical Garden of Plant Breeding Acclimatization Institute in Bydgoszcz and analytical part in Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Management, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology of University of Technology and Life Science in Bydgoszcz. Forage from grass C-4 photosynthesis were material of good ensilage suitability. High structural carbohydrates (NDF, ADF contents in tested forage dry matter suggest ensilage at early phases of plant development. Above results suggest to possibility of usage of forage from grass C-4 carbon fixation group for animal feeding purposes. C-4 grass forage should be recognized as a supplementary source of green matter in periods of insufficient access to traditional silage sources.

  3. Globes from global data: Charting international research networks with the GRASS GIS r.out.polycones add-on module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Many Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) tools have been created for the various application fields within geoscience. While FOSS allows re-implementation of functionalities in new environments by access to the original codebase, the easiest approach to build new software solutions for new problems is the combination or merging of existing software tools. Such mash-ups are implemented by embedding and encapsulating FOSS tools within each another, effectively focusing the use of the embedded software to the specific role it needs to perform in the given scenario, while ignoring all its other capabilities. GRASS GIS is a powerful and established FOSS GIS for raster, vector and volume data processing while the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) are a suite of powerful Open Source mapping tools, which exceed the mapping capabilities of GRASS GIS. This poster reports on the new GRASS GIS add-on module r.out.polycones. It enables users to utilize non-continuous projections for map production within the GRASS production environment. This is implemented on the software level by encapsulating a subset of GMT mapping capabilities into a GRASS GIS (Version 6.x) add-on module. The module was developed at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) to provide custom global maps of scientific collaboration networks, such as the DataCite consortium, the registration agency for Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for research data. The GRASS GIS add-on module can be used for global mapping of raster data into a variety of non continuous sinosoidal projections, allowing the creation of printable biangles (gores) to be used for globe making. Due to the well structured modular nature of GRASS modules, technical follow-up work will focus on API-level Python-based integration in GRASS 7 [1]. Based on this, GMT based mapping capabilities in GRASS will be extended beyond non-continuous sinosoidal maps and advanced from raster-layers to content GRASS display monitors. References: [1] Petras, V., Petrasova, A., Chemin, Y., Zambelli, P., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Neteler, N., Löwe, P.: Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 17, EGU2015-8142, 2015 (in preparation)

  4. Chemical composition, losses and fermentation profile of elephant grass silage with jack fruit levels Composição bromatológica, perdas e perfil fermentativo de silagens de capim-elefante com níveis de jaca

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Carvalho da Silva; João Ricardo Rebouças Dórea; Paulo Alfredo Santana; Anderson de Moura Zanine4; Edson Mauro Santos; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Rogério de Paula Lana

    2008-01-01

    The objective with this experiment was to evaluate the effects of dehydrated jack fruit addition on the gases and effluent losses, dry matter recovery, pH, N-NH3, volatile fatty acids and chemical composition of elephant grass silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: elephant grass silage; elephant grass silage plus 5% of jack fruit; elephant grass silage plus 10% of jack fruit and elephant grass silage plus 15%...

  5. Testing the ''A value'' method for measuring N2-fixation in Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted to test the 15N tracer technique (A value approach) and to quantify N2 fixation in Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) grown in a saline soil without bacteria inoculation. In order to select an appropriate reference treatment for measuring N2 fixation, and to determine the optimal rate which inhibits N2 fixation, plants received increasing amounts of 15N labeled fertilizer (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ha). Results obtained from this experiment showed the possibility of using the 15N technique (A value approach) for estimating N2 fixation in Kallar grass by employing the same plant species received 150 kg N/ha of N fertilizer as a reference treatment. Such an amount was found to be sufficient in obtaining inhibition of N2 fixation.

  6. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu; Cheng, Shifeng; Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Xie, Min; Zeng, Peng; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Wenliang; Tao, Ye; Bian, Chao; Han, Changlei; Xia, Qiuju; Peng, Xiaohua; Cao, Rui; Yang, Xinhua; Zhan, Dongliang; Hu, Jingchu; Zhang, Yinxin; Li, Henan; Li, Hua; Li, Ning; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Chanchan; Wang, Renyi; Guo, Tao; Cai, Yanjie; Liu, Chengzhang; Xiang, Haitao; Shi, Qiuxiang; Huang, Ping; Chen, Qingchun; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Zhihai; Wang, Jian

    2012-06-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (?423 Mb) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C(4) photosynthesis pathway were also identified. PMID:22580950

  7. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 in grass carp (Ctenopharynogodon idella): Expression and response to cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanying; Li, Ruiwen; Lin, Yaqiu

    2015-11-01

    Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 (AIF-1) is an inflammation responsive protein that is mainly produced by immunocytes. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, AIF-1 is a key moderator in host immune defense reaction. However, the inflammatory properties of AIF-1 in freshwater fish still hasn't been clearly elucidated. In the present study, AIF-1 was identified from grass carp (Ctenopharynogodon idella). It's transcript was found in all examined tissues including brain, spleen, kidney, liver, heart, while a relative low level in red muscle, gill, thymus, white muscle, intestine and fin. Furthermore, AIF-1 transcription and expression level decreased in spleen and didn't change a lot in kidney with cadmium induction, respectively. The result indicated that grass carp AIF-1 might be involved in cadmium-induced stress. PMID:26334790

  8. Screening of forage grasses on biomass production and nutrition under rainfed conditions at Pothowar Plateau, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term field research study was carried out to determine the most suitable forage grass under rainfed condition at research area, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, during 2004-2007. Four forage grasses, i.e. Bothriochloa pertusa, Chloris gayana, Setaria anceps and Vetiveria zizynoides were used for comparison on plant height, number of tillers, fresh biomass dry-matter yield and quality. Vetiveria zizynoides had gained maximum plant height (227 cm) followed by Setaria anceps (190 cm). Number of tillers plant-I was the highest in Setaria anceps. Sctaria anceps had gained the top position in fresh biomass (25.67 t. ha/sup -1/) and also in dry-matter yield (8.45 t. ha/sup -1/). Crude protein percentage (6.61) was higher in Chloris gayana along with the highest total digestible nutrients (56.84). (author)

  9. Efficacy of Biosolids in Assisted Phytostabilization of Metalliferous Acidic Sandy Soils with Five Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Malgorzata; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Prasad, M. N. V.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high. PMID:24912245

  10. Evaluation of growing and flowering of five species of ornamental grasses in the region of Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The great decorative diversity (shape and size of inflorescences, colouring and texture of leaves, varied intensity of growth as well as big tolerance to habitat conditions, relatively small susceptibility to diseases and small sensitivity to 'ornamental grasses' pests favour their popularization in different gardens and urban areas. The examined species all may be recommended to plant in cooler east regions of Poland. Species which begin the earliest vegetation and flowering were Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster' and Deschampsia caespitosa 'Goldtau'. These species, best planted separately or in small groups, can be also recommended in small garden compositions. For large areas, naturalistic gardens as well as structural plants of flowerbeds the best are Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster', Deschampsia caespitosa 'Goldtau' and Miscanthus sacchariflorus 'Robusta'. Phalaris arundinacea L. is a typical ground covering grass with decorative leaves.

  11. Characterization of ashes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for potential added in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is in characterizing ash from biomass grass (Pennisetum purpureums) for incorporation into red ceramic masses. The ashes of elephant grass were generated from burning this dry biomass in an industrial furnace of red ceramic. The morphology of the material generated was observed by an optical microscope. The chemical composition was determined by fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, and the identification of phases by X-ray diffraction. The particle size distribution was obtained by sieving. Thermogravimetric analyzes were also conducted. The results indicate that these ashes are constituted of high quantities of SiO2, MgO, CaO and K2O, totaling approximately 75% of composition of matter. They have a particle size of 0.7 to 2.2mm featuring. The residue as a kind of coarse particles. Therefore, the results of this study can support future research to the addition of this residue in structural ceramics products (red ceramic)

  12. Seasonal dynamics of cyathostomin (Nematoda - Cyathostominae) infective larvae in Brachiaria humidicola grass in tropical southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Claudia N; de Souza, Luciene S; Quinelato, Simone B; do Couto, Melissa C M; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, M Lurdes de A

    2011-08-25

    The ecology of cyathostomin larvae was evaluated in different seasons, from July 2007 to June 2008, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. Samples of feces and grass were collected every 15 days at 8 AM and 5 PM and the infective larvae were recovered by the Baermann technique. Leaves of the grass Brachiaria humidicola were cut to 20 cm, which is the length containing most of the larvae. The highest number of larvae was recorded at 8 AM the winter (8300 L(3)kg(-1)dm) and spring (5300 L(3)kg(-1)dm). These results demonstrate that climate conditions can affect the recovery of larvae and that rain and temperature contributed to the migration and survival of the larvae, which were available throughout the year in the study area. PMID:21489693

  13. Photosynthetic light response of the C4 grasses Brachiaria brizantha and B. humidicola under shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Filho Moacyr Bernardino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forage grasses in tropical pastures can be subjected to considerable diurnal and seasonal reductions in available light. To evaluate the physiological behavior of the tropical forage grasses Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and B. humidicola to low light, the photosynthetic light response and chlorophyll contents of these species were compared for plants grown outdoors, on natural soil, in pots, in full sunlight and those shaded to 30 % of full sunlight, over a 30-day period. Both species showed the ability to adjust their photosynthetic behavior in response to shade. Photosynthetic capacity and light compensation point were lower for shade plants of both species, while apparent quantum yield was unaffected by the light regime. Dark respiration and chlorophyll a:b ratio were significantly reduced by shading only in B. humidicola. B. humidicola could be relatively more adapted to succeed, at least temporarily, in light-limited environments.

  14. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  15. Calculation of hydraulic transients in SRP reactors by the GRASS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four types of postulated hydraulic transients were calculated for Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactors. The GRASS computer code was used, which calculates a three-dimensional reactor model with fully coupled neutronics and engineering feedback. The four types of transients calculated were: (1) a primary coolant pump shaft break, (2) loss of ac power to primary coolant pumps, (3) loss of power to secondary coolant pumps, and (4) closure of main coolant isolation valves. Nine cases of the four types of transients were calculated; calculations were continued beyond primary scram action until the backup shutdown system acted. The serices of GRASS calculations verified that the safety systems would terminate the transients before any steaming or assmbly damage occurred, indicate good agreement between calculated and experimentally measured flow in all cases where data were available, and verified analyses of some cases that were previously calculated by simpler codes

  16. A novel test for host-symbiont codivergence indicates ancient origin of fungal endophytes in grasses

    CERN Document Server

    Schardl, Chris L; Lindstrom, Adam; Speakman, Skyler; Stromberg, Arnold; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    Significant phylogenetic codivergence between plant or animal hosts ($H$) and their symbionts or parasites ($P$) indicate the importance of their interactions on evolutionary time scales. However, valid and realistic methods to test for codivergence are not fully developed. One of the systems where possible codivergence has been of interest involves the large subfamily of temperate grasses (Pooideae) and their endophytic fungi (epichloae). These widespread symbioses often help protect host plants from herbivory and stresses, and affect species diversity and food web structures. Here we introduce the MRCALink (most-recent-common-ancestor link) method and use it to investigate the possibility of grass-epichlo\\"e codivergence. MRCALink applied to ultrametric $H$ and $P$ trees identifies all corresponding nodes for pairwise comparisons of MRCA ages. The result is compared to the space of random $H$ and $P$ tree pairs estimated by a Monte Carlo method.

  17. Leucaena and cassava tops as supplements for buffaloes fed local grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted using fistulated female buffaloes to determine the effect of increasing levels of high-protein forage (leucaena and cassava tops) on the intake of grass and its digestibility, and to study the mechanisms of action of such supplements based on measurements of a number of parameters of rumen function. Marked increases in intake were observed and these were associated with increases in the digestibility of diets supplemented with these forages. These responses were accompanied by increased rumen fermentation as indicated by ammonia-N and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and rates of microbial protein synthesis. The results suggest that local grass requires supplementation with fermentable N and bypass protein for efficient use by ruminants. (author)

  18. Protective effect of Klebsiella bacteria on lawn grasses under conditions of soil salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtsev, V. T.; Sokolova, A. Ya.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2010-07-01

    The protective effect of the inoculation of lawn grasses grown under conditions of soil salinization with bacteria of the Klebsiella genus ( K. planticola and K. pneumoniae) was demonstrated. It was found that K. pneumoniae improves the plant growth under conditions of a high concentration of sodium chloride. It was also shown that the inoculation of lawn grasses with these bacteria optimizes the morphophysiological parameters of the plants and increases the number of mitoses in the apical parts of the roots, which leads to a less significant decrease in the mitotic index under the impact of salinization. The capacity of K. planticola to penetrate into the plants may favor the activation of protective mechanisms improving the immunological status of the plants and, hence, their tolerance to salinization.

  19. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  20. The use of RAPD fingerprinting to detect genetic variation of a selected signal grass mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) has been used for many years as grazing pasture for ruminants but it may know to be toxic to small ruminants. Mutagenesis provides an alternative approach to create phenotypic variability in the grass that might be free from toxicity and allow greater selection potential for desired characteristics. The mutant of Brachiara decumbens, which was obtained through induced mutation by gamma irradiation at dose 900 Gh showed phenotypic changes in term of tiller number, leaf to stem ratio and internode length. The variations caused by irradiation were detected by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Decamer oligonucleotide primers were used to generate DNA profiles. 575 bp polymorphic DNA band was observed between control and the mutant. RAPD has been proven to be useful to detect polymorphism between mutants and the control. (Author)