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Sample records for buffel grass cenchrus

  1. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) grazed by goats and sheep / Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pastejada por ovinos e caprinos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Daiana Araújo da Silva, Formiga; José Morais, Pereira Filho; Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo, Silva; Nadjanara Souza, Oliveira; Diogo da Costa, Soares; Olaf Andreas, Bakke.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de [...] 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD) e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.). A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS) de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel. Abstract in english Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, w [...] as divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD) goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM) availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis) by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

  2. Phosphorus fertilization and growth of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliares L.) cultivars / Adubação fosfatada e crescimento de cultivares de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliares L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanderlise, Giongo; Alessandra M., Salviano; Betina R. C. dos, Santos; Emylly F., Leal.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo (P) desempenha papel importante no crescimento do sistema radicular, quanto no perfilhamento das gramíneas, fundamental para o aumento da produtividade dessas espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de cultivares (cvs.) [...] de capim-buffel e estabelecer os níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação com arranjo experimental em esquema fatorial 4 x 5 (quatro cultivares de Cenchrus ciliaris: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 e Pusa Giant e cinco doses de P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1) além de quatro repetições. Após 90 dias de cultivo foram determinadas a produção de fitomassa seca da parte áerea (MSPA) e a raiz (MSR) tal como o acúmulo de P nesses tecidos. Coletaram-se amostras de solo para determinação do teor de P e do seu nível crítico (NiCri). Em cultivares S Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus apresentaram diferentes níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta obtido na estufa demonstrando que a mesma apresentou exigência diferenciada deste nutriente para seu crescimento. A cultivar CPATSA 7754 demonstrou maior exigência em fósforo não permitindo estabelecer os níveis críticos com as doses utilizadas no presente estudo. Abstract in english Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the growth of root system as well as the tillering grass, being fundamental to increase the productivity of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of buffel grass cultivars and establ [...] ish critical values of P in plant and soil. The experimental set up was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (four Cenchrus ciliaris cvs.: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 and Pusa Giant, and five doses of P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) with four replications. After 90 days of cultivation, dry mass of shoot (DMS) and root (DMR) production and the P accumulation (Pacc) were determined. Soil samples to determine the P content and determination of the critical level (CriLev) were also collected. The cv. Biloela presented lower DMR and DMS production compared to the other cultivars. The cultivares Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus showed different critical levels of P in soil and plant, obtained in the greenhouse showing that they have different requirement of this nutrient for their growth. The cultivar CPATSA 7754 showed higher phosphorus requirement and did not permit to establish critical levels with doses used in the present study.

  3. DO ADDITIONAL BANDS (COASTAL, NIR-2, RED-EDGE AND YELLOW IN WORLDVIEW-2 MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY IMPROVE DISCRIMINATION OF AN INVASIVE TUSSOCK, BUFFEL GRASS (CENCHRUS CILIARIS?

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    V. Marshall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our goals is to determine if Worldview-2 8-band multispectral imagery can be used to discriminate an invasive grass species namely, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris in the subtropical arid parts of central Australia and whether it offers a tangible improvement on 4-band (visible and near infra red multispectral imagery. A Worldview-2 scene was acquired for a 10*10km area just west of Alice Springs in central Australia following heavy rains of early Summer. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to classify the image. Target and background spectra were selected in the field and extracted from the image. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA was used to examine the spectral separability of each group of the target/ background spectra. The importance of the additional spectral bands on the image classification was assessed by running LDA for both 8 and 4 bands (red, green, blue and NIR. LDA did not indicate improved separability between groups when additional spectral bands were applied. Preliminary classification results indicate that Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris is detected with an omission error 44%, commission error of 11.8% and overall accuracy of 59.5%. We were surprised that the additional spectral bands did not improve spectral separability and in part attribute this to the high degree of variance we observed within groups of spectra, which was particularly observable in the NIR2 and Yellow bands. The analyses may be significantly improved by acquiring imagery following the first big rains at the end of the dry season. At this time, phonological differences between our focal species and the surrounding native vegetation should be maximised. We suspect that Worldview-2 will offer even greater potential for the discrimination of Buffel grass under these conditions, being able to fully utilise the yellow-band in particular.

  4. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

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    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda.

  5. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Márquez; T, Córdova; L, Castejón; A, Higuera.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  6. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, R.; T Córdova; L Castejón; A. Higuera

    2003-01-01

    A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos...

  7. Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida / Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter Alves de, Vasconcelos; Albericio Pereira de, Andrade; Edson Mauro, Santos; Ricardo Loiola, Edvan; Divan Soares, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta áre [...] a destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusi [...] vely for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of the experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

  8. AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.

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    Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

  9. Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel Use of leucaena and Cajanus cajan as protein supplements for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures

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    Antônio Alves de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena, com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha. As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan as protein sources, during the dry season for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures. Nine experimental treatments resulting from the combination among three types of pasture (buffel grass, buffel grass+Cajanus cajan, and buffel grass+leucaena and three stocking rates (4, 6 and 10 lambs/ ha were tested. Eighteen paddocks (two replicates of pastures per treatment of 0.5 ha were used. Sixty lambs with 19.4 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment were allocated to pastures with water and mineral supplement offered ad libitum. Animal liveweight was recorded at 14 day-intervals after 16 hours of fasting. Lambs on the pasture of buffel grass+leucaena showed good performance with no variation in daily liveweight gain rate, when the stocking rate increased from 4 to 6 animals/ha. Buffel grass+Cajanus cajan pasture did not improve animal performance as compared to buffel grass pasture. It was concluded that leucaena, used as protein supplement, can improve the quality of buffel grass pastures.

  10. Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel / Use of leucaena and Cajanus cajan as protein supplements for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Alves de, Souza; Gastão Barreto, Espíndola.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buff [...] el, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena), com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha). As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan as protein sources, during the dry season for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures. Nine experimental treatments resulting from the combination among three types of pasture (buffel grass, buffel grass+Caj [...] anus cajan, and buffel grass+leucaena) and three stocking rates (4, 6 and 10 lambs/ ha) were tested. Eighteen paddocks (two replicates of pastures per treatment) of 0.5 ha were used. Sixty lambs with 19.4 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment were allocated to pastures with water and mineral supplement offered ad libitum. Animal liveweight was recorded at 14 day-intervals after 16 hours of fasting. Lambs on the pasture of buffel grass+leucaena showed good performance with no variation in daily liveweight gain rate, when the stocking rate increased from 4 to 6 animals/ha. Buffel grass+Cajanus cajan pasture did not improve animal performance as compared to buffel grass pasture. It was concluded that leucaena, used as protein supplement, can improve the quality of buffel grass pastures.

  11. Características de produção do capim-buffel submetido a intensidades e freqüências de corte / Characteristics of production of buffel grass as function of cutting intensity and frequency

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    R.L., Edvan; E.M., Santos; D.S., Da Silva; A.P., De Andrade; R.G., Costa; W.A., Vasconcelos.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas, estruturais e a produção de biomassa do capim-buffel sob intensidades e freqüências de corte. Utilizou-se um pasto já implantado de capimbuffel, cultivar Molopo. A área total utilizada foi dividida em 20 parcelas de 8 m² cada com linha de bordadura [...] de 1 m entre as parcelas. Foi utilizado um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, tendo nas parcelas um arranjo fatorial 2x2 referente a combinações entre duas alturas de corte (60 e 80 cm) e duas alturas de resíduo (20 e 40 cm), em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais, que receberam as denominações 20-60, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. Houve efeito (p0,05), entre os tratamentos. A freqüência e a intensidade de corte influenciaram o perfilhamento, relação lâmina/colmo e a produção de matéria seca do capim-buffel tanto para o corte como para a produção total. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics and biomass production of buffel grass as a function of cut intensities and frequencies. A previously established pasture of buffel grass cultivar Molopo was used. Total area was splited in twenty 8 m² expe [...] rimental unities with 1 m border lines. A split plot scheme was used with plot in factorial scheme 2x2 to combination of two height of cut (60 and 80 cm) and two height post cut (20 and 40 cm). The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with five replicates named 2060, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. There (p0.05) between treatments. Cutting frequency and intensities influenced tillering, leaf/ stem ratio and dry matter production for both the cut as to the total.

  12. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

  13. Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

  14. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, V. M.; Lewis, M. M.; Ostendorf, B

    2013-01-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (2...

  15. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus) and evaluation of their bioactivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Premlata, Singariya; Padma, Kumar; Krishan Kumar, Mourya.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids) of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and [...] carotenoids) of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E)-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%), ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one) (4.31%), fagarsterol (lupeol) (1.25%) and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%). Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  16. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus and evaluation of their bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%, ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.31%, fagarsterol (lupeol (1.25% and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%. Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  17. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS) AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY)

    OpenAIRE

    Singariya P.; Kumar P.; Mourya K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (root, stem, leaf and flower) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene) using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens) and ...

  18. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

  19. Nutrient Balance of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Aganga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  20. Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman) Under Barani Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Umar Farooq; Rashid Saleem; Abdul Razzaq

    2003-01-01

    Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/de...

  1. Tizón foliar del pasto buffel: su presencia en Tamaulipas, México / Buffelgrass leaf blight: its precence in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Díaz Franco; Asunción, Méndez Rodríguez; Rubén, Garza Cedillo.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región semiárida del norte de Tamaulipas México, el pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), var. Común, predomina en un área de 260 000 ha y existen otras 302 000 con potencial para ser aprovechadas con este pasto. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución, severidad de ataque y [...] pérdidas en la producción que ocasiona el tizón foliar (Pyricularia grisea) sobre el pasto buffel. Se realizaron muestreos en praderas del norte de Tamaulipas del 13 al 18 de octubre en 15 sitios en 2002 y 12 en 2003. En cada sitio se determinó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque del tizón foliar. La pérdida de rendimiento se estimó en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2004 y otoño-invierno de 2005, mediante la comparación de plantas con y sin la protección de fungicidas. Además, se evaluó la reacción al tizón foliar en 16 cultivares de buffel introducidos. La presencia del tizón se observó en todos los sitios muestreados con una severidad promedio de 5.3 en una escala de 0-9. La mayor severidad de ataque se asoció a plantas estresadas por sequía o condiciones edáficas adversas, mientras que lamenor se observó en sitios que presentaron condiciones favorables para el desarrollo de la planta o cuando el pasto se encontró en la etapa de prefloración. La mayor severidad de Pyricularia grisea se observó en el ciclo primavera-verano (2004), comparado con el ciclo otoño-invierno (2005), debido a las condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa favorable s para el patógeno. Las pérdidas en el ciclo primavera-verano fueron de 11% en clorofila, 20-26% en biomasa y 13% en proteína; por el contrario, no se registraron pérdidas significativas en otoño-invierno. Los 16 cultivares introducidos mostraron resistencia a Pyricularia grisea. Los resultados indicaron que el tizón del pasto buffel es una enfermedad epifítica en la var. Común, en Tamaulipas, con mayor prevalencia en el ciclo primavera-verano y resistencia en cultivares introducidos. Abstract in english In the semiarid region of northern Tamaulipas, Mexico, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) var, Comun predominate in 260 000 ha and there are 360 000 additional suitable to be sown with this grass. The objective of this study was to determinate the distribution, severity and production loss caused by [...] the leaf blight (Piricularia grisea) on buffelgrass. Samples were taken from northern Tamaulipas range lands at 15 sites on 2002 and 12 sites on 2003. The incidence and severity of leaf blight was registered for every site with three replications from 8/13 to 8/18 for both years. Yield loss was determinate at spring-summer season 2004 and fall-winter 2005 by means of comparison between fungicide protected and unprotected plants. The reaction of buffelgrass to foliar blight was determinated on 16 introduced cultivars. Leaf blight presence was detected at all sites with an average severity of 5.3 in a scale from 0 to 9 .The highest attack severity was observed on plants stressed by drought or adverse edafic conditions; while the lower severity was observed on sites where favorable conditions occurred or when the grass was at the preflowering stage. At the spring-summer 2004 season losses were 11% in chlorophyll content, 20-26% in biomass and 13% in protein content; on the contrary, no significant reduction of these parameters was observed at the fall-winter season 2005. The 16 introduced cultivars showed resistance to Pyricularia gricea. Results demonstrated that buffelgrass leaf blight is an epidemic disease in the Comun var., in Tamaulipas, with high prevalence at the spring-summer season and there is resistance to the disease in introduced cultivars.

  2. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel / Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E, SILVA; DERMEVAL ARAÚJO, FURTADO; JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE, MATOS.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pel [...] o sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simula [...] ted by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

  3. Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman Under Barani Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/determined at the end of spring season. The different growing season (spring summer is lacking. Estimation of shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant in two growing different seasons is essential in grazing management studies. At the beginnings of spring season reserve carbohydrates are used for the production of new shoots. The shoot biomass at the end of spring season is generally less compared to the end of summer season. The shoot and root biomass estimating of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of two different growing season is required to devise the grazing management programme. This study is proposed to quantify the shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of spring and summer growing seasons.

  4. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

  5. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

  6. Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm, number of tillers per plant (96, dry matter yield (22 t ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forage yield and crude protein content in the Pothwar plateau conditions.

  7. EL ZACATE BUFFEL COMO UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA INCREMENTAR LA RENTABILIDAD DE LOS RANCHOS EN LA ZONA SERRANA DE SONORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ibarra Flores

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis económico comparativo para evaluar la rentabilidad actual en producción de carne de un rancho con agostaderos deteriorados y poco productivos en la zona serrana de Sonora, comparado con dos opciones que incluyen la siembra del zacate buffel [Cenchrus ciliaris (L. Link], como una alternativa para incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne. Se consideraron tres ranchos de 1,000 ha, similares en cuanto a manejo de ganado e índices reproductivos, uno de los cuales trabaja de acuerdo a su capacidad actual de producción, sin planes de mejoras a futuro. En las otras dos opciones se mejora el agostadero anualmente mediante la intersiembra de 200 ha de zacate buffel, con la variante que el primero trabaja con recursos propios y el segundo con financiamiento externo y apoyo gubernamental. Se utilizó un programa financiero con una proyección a 14 años para determinar la rentabilidad en los diversos escenarios. En todos los casos se calcularon costos reales, incluyendo los costos fijos y los de manejo, medicinas, suplementación, inversión para la siembra y compra de animales; así como las ganancias generadas por venta de crías y desechos. Los resultados muestran que el rancho deteriorado presenta una capacidad de mantenimiento constante anual de 40 Unidades Animal (U.A., mientras que el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios y financiamiento externo alcanzan una capacidad de mantenimiento máxima anual de 333 U.A. a partir del sexto año, respectivamente. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en el rancho con pastizal deteriorado varió de $ 10.85 a 22.19 por hectárea y se mantuvo relativamente estable durante los catorce años proyectados. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios fue negativa durante los primeros cinco años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el onceavo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con financiamiento fue negativa durante los primeros seis años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el décimo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en los ranchos rehabilitados al punto de estabilidad fluctuó de $ 435.09 a 449.03 por hectárea y resultó 25.7 veces superior en comparación con el rancho deteriorado sin rehabilitación. Se concluye que los productores en ranchos con pastizales en condición pobre deben de incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne para hacer la actividad ganadera más rentable. El mejoramiento de agostaderos mediante la siembra de zacate buffel es una buena alternativa para rehabilitar agostaderos deteriorados en ranchos con poca capacidad de producción en la Sierra de Sonora. Los apoyos externos vía financiamiento o programas de gobierno juegan un papel muy importante en la aplicación de prácticas de rehabilitación de agostaderos y pudiera ser la única opción para la mayoría de los productores.

  8. Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection / Obtención de nuevo germoplasma en Cenchrus ciliaris L. a través de mutaciones inducidas y selección in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, López Colomba; A, Prina; S, Griffa; AN, Ribotta; E, Carloni; E, Tommasino; C, Luna; E, Biderbost; K, Grunberg.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris L., una forrajera subtropical de amplia distribución en la zona noroeste de Argentina, es un especie tetraploide (4x = 36) y apomíctica obligada. Una forma de obtener nuevo germoplasma es mediante mutaciones inducidas. En este trabajo, mutaciones físicas y químicas se combinaron co [...] n técnicas de selección in vitro a fin de obtener nuevo germoplama, con énfasis en tolerancia a salinidad y sequía. Semillas maduras de Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela fueron tratadas con rayos X (400 Gray) y con una solución de etil metano sulfonato (5,5 mM EMS durante 24 h). Para realizar la selección in vitro, las plántulas que germinaron 7 días después de los tratamientos mutagénicos fueron transferidas a tubos que contenían medio basal Murashige y Skoog, suplementado con NaCl o manitol para simular condiciones de salinidad y sequía, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron cincuenta y cuatro plantas selectas que toleraron 200 mM NaCl y 100 mM de manitol. Ambos agentes mutagénicos exhibieron similares porcentajes de variación genética medida a través de RAPDs. Este trabajo demostró que es posible generar variabilidad genética en Cenchrus ciliaris L. mediante el uso de agentes mutagénicos y selección in vitro. Abstract in english Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedu [...] res seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays treatments, germinated seeds were transferred to tubes containing Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with NaCl or mannitol to simulate salinity and drought conditions, respectively. Fifty-four selected plants were isolated which tolerated 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM mannitol. Both mutagenic agents exhibited similar percentages of induced genetic variation measured through RAPD polymorphisms. This work demonstrated that genetic variability can be generated in Cenchrus ciliaris L. using mutagenic agents and in vitro selection.

  9. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

  10. Ruminal digestion and chemical composition of new genotypes of buffelgrass (cenchrus ciliaris l.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Juan, García Dessommes; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Rahim, Foroughbackhch P.; Rocío, Morales Rodríguez; Graciela, García Díaz.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia e compara a produção de matéria seca (MST), conteúdo nutricional e capacidade de degradação efetiva da matéria seca (DEMS), proteína crua (DEPC) e parede celular (DEFDN) de cinco novas líneas e um híbrido de pasto buffel no nordeste do México. O consumo potencial de minerais con [...] tidos nos novos genótipos por bovinos também foi estimado. Todos os pastos se estabeleceram sob condições de temporal usando um desenho completamente ao azar com três repetições. A colheita manual de plantas foi levada adiante em 14 nov., 2000, em Nuevo León, México. A produção de MST não foi significativamente diferente entre pastos. No entanto, a proteína crua, parede celular e seus componentes (celulosa, hemi-celulosa e lignina) foram significativamente diferentes entre os pastos avaliados. Assim mesmo, DEMS, DEPC e DEFDN foram significativamente diferentes entre pastos. A híbrida "Nozes" teve os valores mais altos para degrabilidade, enquanto que a línea PI 2 teve os valores mais baixos. Ao parecer o alto conteúdo de lignina nos novos genótipos pode ter influído na baixa degradação dos nutrientes no rúmen dos borregos. Só K, Fe e Co, em todos os pastos, tiveram concentrações suficientes para satisfazer os requerimentos de gado de carne. Os resultados de produção de matéria seca e dinâmica nutricional sugerem que as novas líneas PI 1 e PI 4 podem ser consideradas como bons substitutos do híbrido Nozes para ruminantes em pastoreio no nordeste do México. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo evalúa y compara la producción de materia seca (MST), el contenido nutrimental y degradabilidad efectiva de la materia seca (DEMS), proteína cruda (DEPC) y pared celular (DEFDN) de cinco nuevas líneas y un híbrido de pasto buffel en el noreste de México. El consumo potencial de minerale [...] s contenidos en los nuevos genotipos por bovinos también fue estimado. Todos los pastos se establecieron bajo condiciones de temporal usando un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. La colecta manual de plantas fue llevada a cabo el 14 nov., 2000, en Nuevo León, México. La producción de MST no fue significativamente diferente entre zacates. Sin embargo, la proteína cruda, pared celular y sus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los pastos evaluados. Asimismo, DEMS, DEPC y DEFDN fueron significativamente diferentes entre pastos. El híbrido Nueces tuvo los valores más altos para degrabilidad, mientras la línea PI 2 tuvo los valores más bajos. Al parecer el alto contenido de lignina en los nuevos genotipos pudo haber influido en la baja degradación de los nutrientes en el rumen de los borregos. Solo K, Fe y Co, en todos los zacates, tuvieron concentraciones suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos de ganado de carne. Los resultados de producción de materia seca y dinámica nutricional sugieren que las nuevas líneas PI 1 y PI 4 pueden ser consideradas como buenos substitutos del híbrido Nueces para rumiantes en pastoreo en el noreste de México. Abstract in english This study evaluates and compares the dry matter production (TDM), chemical composition and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), crude protein (EDCP) and neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF) of the Nueces hybrid and five new genotypes of buffelgrass growing in Northeastern Mexico. Potential inta [...] ke of minerals by cattle consuming the new genotypes was also estimated. All grasses were established in a completely randomized design with three replicates in a rain fed experiment. Plants were hand harvested on Nov. 14, 2000 at Nuevo Leon, Mexico. TDM was not significantly different among genotypes. Crude protein content and cell wall and its components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were significantly different among grasses. Also, EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF were significantly different among the buffelgrass genotypes. The Nueces hybrid had the highest degradability values; in contrast, PI 2 had the lowest values. It seems that hig

  11. DIE BUFFEL STRUIKEL: ’N STORIE VAN 32 BATALJON EN SY MENSE/L.J. BOTHMA

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Esterhuyse

    2011-01-01

    “Die Buffel Struikel: ’n Storie van 32 Bataljon en Sy Mense” (The Buffalo Stumbles: A Story of 32 Battalion and Its People) was written originally in Afrikaans. The author is an Afrikaans-speaking white South African who, as a member of the well-known South African 32 “foreign legion” Battalion, participated in the Namibian Border War in the 1970s and 1980s. The war was fought by an army whose operational language for the major part was Afrikaans. However, two reasons call for a review of thi...

  12. Water use of perennial summer grasses in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Five subtropical perennial grass species, Cenchrus ciliaris, a Cynodon hybrid, Digitaria eriantha subsp. eriantha, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum clandestinum, were subjected to four levels of water availability in a small plot trial under a rainshelter during the summer growing seasons of 1996/97 and 1997/98. This work was carried out on the Hatfield Experimental Farm of the University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. The average yields for the tufted species (C. ciliaris...

  13. Aboveground Biomass Production of Cenchrus ciliaris in Tunisian Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idi Abdelkader

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish a non destructive method for estimating the aboveground biomass of a plant species in the Tunisian arid area. We attempted to establish some models that could be used to predict the species biomass production. Field experiments were carried out on a Poaceae of a high range value Cenchrus ciliaris. The allometric relationships between the plant volume and aerial biomass were studied in autumn 2005 and spring 2006 seasons in southern Tunisia. Linear and nonlinear regressions were tested to establish the best correlations between individual aboveground biomass and plant volume parameters. Measured parameters were the plant height (H and canopy diameters. Firstly, a model of volume (canopy elliptical cylinder was tested as a predictor of plant biomass using nonlinear regression. Secondly, It was tested various relationships between the plant biomass and the mean canopy diameter (as the average of the longest canopy diameters maintained perpendicular to each other. Correlations between the aerial biomass production of individuals and their volumes produced a relatively high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.68. Also, correlations between the mean canopy diameter and the biomass production of individuals produced the best significant relationships with the highest R2. The use of the mean canopy diameter seems to be more practical for the plant biomass prediction.

  14. Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia / Levels of nitrates in a urea fertilized Kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) pasture on the high plains of Antioquia, Colombia / Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jhon Didier, Ruiz Buitrago; David, Villar Argaiz; Héctor Jairo, Correa; Manuela, Roldán; Juan Camilo, Ríos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A adubação é um dos fatores que contribuem na acumulação de nitratos da pastagem kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) do trópico. Este estudo foi realizado entre dezembro de 2012 e junho de 2013 na fazenda Paysandu da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia, localizada no corregimento Santa Elena da cida [...] de de Medellín, Antioquia. Avaliou-se a influência da adubação com nitrogênio sobre a produção e as concentrações de nitratos. O desenho experimental foi de blocos de 4 x 4 com quatro repetições nas parcelas da monocultura de pastagem kikuyo. Os tratamentos foram quatro níveis de nitrogênio aplicado como grânulos de uréia sobre a superfície (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg/ha por safra). As amostras da pastagem completa (folhas e talhos) coletaram-se aos 42 dias após adubação, com o intuito de simular a exposição ao pastoreio com gado. A biomassa mediou-se com a produção de matéria seca por hectare; os nitratos mediram-se por cromatografia iônica, expressada em partes por milhão (ppm) sobre o conteúdo de matéria seca. Não houve diferença significativa na produção de biomassa entre as diferentes taxas de aplicação de uréia; embora, todas as parcelas experimentais produziram maior biomassa comparada com as parcelas não tratadas (media 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in spanish Resumen La fertilización es uno de los factores que contribuye a la acumulación de nitratos en el pasto kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) en el trópico. Este estudio, realizado entre diciembre de 2012 y junio de 2013 en la Hacienda Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional, ubicada en Santa Elena-Medellín (A [...] ntioquia), evaluó la influencia de la fertilización con nitrógeno sobre la producción y las concentraciones de nitratos. El diseño experimental fue en bloques de 4 x 4 con cuatro repeticiones de parcelas monocultivo de pasto kikuyo. Los tratamientos fueron cuatro niveles de nitrógeno aplicado como gránulos de urea sobre la superficie (0, 50, 100 y 200 kg/ha por corte). Las muestras de pasto completo (hojas y tallos) se colectaron a los 42 días posfertilización, con el fin de simular la exposición al pastoreo con ganado. La biomasa se midió como la producción de materia seca por hectárea; los nitratos se midieron por cromatografía iónica, expresada en partes por millón (ppm) sobre el contenido de materia seca. No hubo diferencia significativa en la producción de biomasa entre las diferentes tasas de aplicación de urea; sin embargo todas las parcelas tratadas produjeron más biomasa comparadas con las parcelas no tratadas (promedio 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in english Abstract Fertilization is one of the factors that can contribute to build-up of nitrates in kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus) pastures of the tropics. Field studies to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrate concentrations were conducted between December 2012 and June 2013 [...] at the Agricultural Station of the National University at Santa Elena (Antioquia). The experimental design was a 4 x 4 block design with four replications in a monoculture paddock of kikuyu grass. Treatments were four levels of nitrogen applied as topdressing urea granules (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg/ha per plot). Whole grass samples (blades and stems) were collected at 42 days post-fertilization to mimic cattle grazing exposure. Biomass was estimated as dry matter yield per hectare and nitrates were measured by ion chromatography and expressed as parts per million (ppm) on dry matter content. No significant difference in biomass was observed between urea application rates; however, all treated plots produced more biomass than non-treated plots (mean 2.14 vs 1.12 Tons/ha, p

  15. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) in pots Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) en macetas

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, A.; Medrano, C.; A del Villar; Paz, V; Páez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass...

  16. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required. PMID:21506487

  17. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) in pots / Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) en macetas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Vera; C, Medrano; A, del Villar; V, Paz; A, Páez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimenta [...] l de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta), y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta), en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta), revelando diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very [...] Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (P

  18. Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladston Rafael de Arruda Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibras em detergente neutro (FDN e ácido (FDA, material mineral (MM, carboidratos totais (CHOT e não-fibrosos (CNF, respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, respectivamente.The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determination. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth., ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, ashes (ASH, total carbohydrates (TCH and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC, respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

  19. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae in pots Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae en macetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (PSe evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimental de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta, y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta, en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta, revelando diferencias significativas (P<0,01 entre ambos grupos poblacionales. El número de hojas fue relativamente mayor a baja densidad de plantas, y la floración se presentó en la cosecha de los 30 días. El valor del coeficiente reveló una limitada capacidad competitiva para la cosecha de los 15 días, mientras que para el segundo periodo de evaluación resultó una interacción más intensa. Se concluye que existe una fuerte competencia intraespecífica a medida que incrementa la densidad poblacional y la relación de los coeficientes (A1/Ao corroboran la presencia de esta interacción ecológica. Se recomienda continuar los estudios de competencia vegetal con otras especies de malezas de importancia agroecológica en la Planicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela.

  20. Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Dan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicações em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1, combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas.Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. This work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 , combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers. Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

  1. Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine / Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.A., Dan; L.G.M., Dan; A.L.L., Barroso; R.S., Oliveira JR.; D.G., Alonso; T.R., Finotti.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicaçõ [...] es em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1), combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos) por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas. Abstract in english Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. Thi [...] s work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 ), combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers). Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

  2. The presence of synaptic and chromosome disjunction mutants in Cenchrus ciliaris (Poaceae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Visser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic mutants are present in  Cenchrus ciliaris L This species, due to the presence of linear bivalents and occasion­al trivalents and quadrivalents, is an intermediate desynaptic species. In addition, geographical distribution and environmental factors, such as high temperatures and low humidity, could also have had an influence on the desynapsis observed.The disjunction of chromosomes during anaphase I was mostly abnormal in this desynaptic species. Precocious disjunction of chromosomes into chromatids occurred during anaphase I Due to the high incidence of this chromosome abnormality, a mutant gene,  'pc'  responsible for the disjunction of chromosomes, must be present. The absence of cytokinesis in one specimen indicates a recessive mutant gene,  'va' to be active in this species.

  3. Moringa oleifera leaf extract: An innovative priming tool for rangeland grasses

    OpenAIRE

    NOUMAN, Wasif; SIDDIQUI, Muhammad Tahir; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in amino acids, ascorbate, zeatin, minerals, and many other compounds known for their growth-promoting potential. This study was planned to explore the potential of MLE as a seed priming agent to increase the germination rate and plant vigor of 3 range grasses, i.e. Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale, and Echinochloa crusgalli. The priming strategies used were hydropriming, CaCl2, PEG-8000 (-1.1 M Pa), MLE (concentrate; 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40...

  4. Grass Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  5. Herbicidal Control of Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of the herbicidal application for controlling undesirable grasses, by the Defence Services, Military farms and Inter Service Organisations is highlighted. Control of grasses by herbicidal chemicals, registered under the Insecticides Act 1968 in this country, is reviewed apart from a mention of non-chemical methods.

  6. Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramíneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto / Effect of polycropping on the establishment of three tropical grasses, on a Vertisol soil of the Cauto Valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I, Gómez; J. L, Fernández; L. L, Estrada; Yuseika, Olivera; A, Botello.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramíneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramíneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide) y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino [...] ; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz) en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro réplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interacción altamente significativa (p Abstract in english In order to evaluate the influence of polycropping on the establishment of grasses, on a Vertisol soil, three tropical grasses (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela and Chloris gayana cv. Callide) and five legumes (Vigna radiata, variety mung bean; and Vigna unguiculata, varieti [...] es: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 and IITA precoz) were sown in polycrop and monocrop systems. The design was split plots, with four replications and 18 treatments. The crop combinations did not affect the pasture establishment. There was highly significant interaction (p

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Goh, C L; Tan, H T; Ng, S K; Wong, W K

    1997-07-01

    This study attempts to demonstrate the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from grass, and to develop a patch test series to screen patients with grass intolerance. 6 common grass species from lawns and military training areas were collected. Solvent extracts of polar, non-polar and volatile fractions were prepared and used for patch testing in 20 control subjects and 46 patients with a history of grass intolerance. The 20 controls had negative responses to patch testing. 5 out of 46 patients had positive patch tests to Axonopus compressus (carpet grass), Ischaemum muticum (seashore centipede grass), Imperata cylindrica (lalang), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass). Reactions to the non-polar fraction for all 5 species were noted. This study demonstrates the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from various common species of grass. In our series, this is seen in 11% of those with a history of grass intolerance. PMID:9255483

  8. Prairies of marine grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine grasses are aquatic plants with flowers that they live and they complete their cycles of life completely submerged in saline or brackish means, the paper also speaks about their distribution and extension

  9. Modelling grass digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental characteristics of plants and their organs and the effects of environmental factors and management practices. The main objective of this study was a thorough analysis of changes in composition and digestibility of plant ...

  10. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion and water quality for field plots on a range of soil and spoil materials on central Queensland coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, C.; Merton, L.; Burger, P. [Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Emerald, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    In 1993, a field study commenced to determine the impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion, and water quality at 3 open-cut coal mine sites. Runoff, sediment, and water quality were measured on 0.01-ha field plots from 3 slope gradients (10, 20 30%), with pasture and tree treatments imposed on soil and spoil material, and 2 soil and spoil plots left bare. The greatest soil erosion occurred before pasture cover established, when a large surface area of soil ({gt} 0.5 plot area) was exposed to rainfall and overland flow. Once buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) colonised soil plots, there were negligible differences in soil erosion between slope gradients. On spoil, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) reduced in situ soluble salt content, and reduced runoff electrical conductivity to levels measured in surrounding creeks. Where spoil crusted there was poor vegetative growth and unacceptably large runoff and erosion rates throughout the study

  12. Germinación de cuatro pastos bajo condiciones de estrés salino / Germination of four grasses under salt stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Ruiz; O, Terenti.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las forrajeras cultivadas son en Argentina el sustento fundamental de los sistemas ganaderos tradicionales. Actualmente, la implantación de pasturas en zonas cada vez más áridas es uno de los principales desafíos para la ganadería. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la germinación de cuatro esp [...] ecies forrajeras: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas y Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino. Se utilizaron soluciones de NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 y Manitol como soluto inerte, obteniéndose potenciales osmóticos (?o) de -0,5, -1, -1,5, -2,0 y -2,5 MPa. Las semillas se sembraron en cajas de Petri sobre papel de germinación, se regaron con 4 mL de solución y se incubaron a 25 °C. El diseño fue al azar con 4 repeticiones. Diariamente, durante 10 días, se contó el número de semillas germinadas y con los datos obtenidos se calculó el porcentaje, la velocidad de germinación (ERI) y el tiempo medio de germinación (MT). Los datos se analizaron con el software estadístico Infostat. A medida que se incrementó la concentración de la solución se observó que la germinación disminuyó en las cuatro especies. En general las sales de SO4-2 resultaron más perjudiciales para la germinación que las de Cl-. Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas resultó la especie más tolerante al estrés hídrico inducido con manitol, registrando porcentajes de germinación cercanos al 50% aún en ?o de -2,5 MPa. En contraste, Panicumcoloratun cv Klein verde fue la especie menos tolerante a condiciones de estrés, presentando bajos porcentajes de germinación a -1 MPa y ninguna respuesta a -1.5 MPa o potenciales hídricos menores, independientemente del soluto utilizado. Abstract in english In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubesce [...] ns, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (?o) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of deionized water and incubated to 25 °C. We used a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. During 10 days, the number of sprouted seeds was counted daily, and the percentage of germination, the speed of germination (ERI) and the mean time to germination (MTG), were calculated. Data were analyzed with the statistical software Infostat. Germination declined with increasing concentration of the solution in the four species. In general, salts of SO4-2 proved more damaging to the germination than those of Cl-.Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas was the most water stress tolerant species, with percentages of germination close to 50% even in ?o of -2.5 MPa. On the contrary, Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde was the less tolerant, with low percentages of germination at -1 MPa, and no response to ?o of -1.5 MPa or lower.

  13. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  14. Allelopathic Effect of Seed and Leaf Aqueous Extracts of Datura stramonium on Leaf Chlorophyll Content, Shoot and Root Elongation of Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii

    OpenAIRE

    Filemon Elisante; Mokiti T. Tarimo; Patrick A. Ndakidemi

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiment was carried out to determine the allelopathic effects of Datura stramonium on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot elongation, fresh and dry weight of two wild plant species: Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii. Different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) from seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium were used to investigate the allelopathic effects of D. stramonium on growth of tested species. The total chlorophyll content of N. wightii was significantly...

  15. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield drastica......The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  16. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  17. REPELENCIA DE LOS PASTOS Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha Y Cenchrus ciliaris SOBRE LARVAS DE GARRAPATA Amblyomma cajennense F. (Acari:Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulloa Castañeda RR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trópico y subtropico a nivel mundial, uno de los principales problemas zoosanitarios que afectan la productividad ganadera, principalmente en bovinos es la garrapata, además trasmiten las enfermedades Anaplasmosis y Babesiosis. El establecimiento de pastos repelentes a la garrapata es un control biológico alternativo para solucionar este problema. Por tanto, el objetivo fue determinar la repelencia en Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha y Cenchrus ciliaris sobre larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. La investigación se realizó en la localidad de Mora, municipio de Tepic, Nayarit, México. Se formaron 24 parcelas de 35 m2 a distancia entre ellas de 1 m, con cinco unidades de muestreo cada una (5 x 1 m de ancho y pasillos de 0.5 m entre unidades. Las unidades se infestaron con aproximadamente 5,000 larvas de A. cajenennse, el efecto anti-garrapata de los pastos se evaluó mediante la recuperación de larvas adheridas por método de Franela en los tiempos 7, 14, 21 días de post-infestación. Los tratamientos fueron los cuatro pastos descritos con seis repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados fueron analizados por el procedimiento PROC MIXED de SAS y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p<0.05, donde M. minutiflora presentó el mayor efecto repelente (p<0.05 por la menor cantidad de larvas recuperadas (2.39 ± 0.13 que el resto de los pastos, en C. ciliaris (1,192.04 ± 10.3, A. gayanus (72.48 ± 10.30 y B. brizantha (56.48 ± 11.68, en los dos últimos tratamientos no hubo significación en larvas recolectadas. Para los tres tiempos de colecta también se mostraron diferencias (p<0.05 en la media de larvas recuperadas en los pastos. Se concluye que los zacates Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus y Brachiaria brizantha manifestaron repelencia contra larvas de A. cajennense, sin embargo el que muestra mayor es M. minutiflora.

  18. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  19. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

  20. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion results in the most efficient use of resources to achieve lowest invaded acreage in the long-term.

  1. The Physical Analyze of Local Grass

    OpenAIRE

    FM Suhartati; Wardhana Suryapratama; S Rahayu

    2004-01-01

    A research has been conducted to analyze physical characteristics of local grass. The aimed of this research was to observe grass physical characteristics, which are bulkiness, water regain capacity and water solubility. Also to observe correlation of water regain capacity to dry matter and organic matter digestibility as well as its degradation rate during 0, 12, 18 and 24 h incubation, in sacco, using 2 fistulae cows. Five local grass were tested in this research, which are field grass, el...

  2. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  3. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both types of subtropical grass pollens to achieve optimal diagnosis and treatment of patients with allergic respiratory disease in subtropical regions of the world. PMID:24684550

  4. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Araújo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus, orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii, feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris; os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1 comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes.Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to fertilization. Cenchrus ciliaris had higher K concentrations and contents than the legumes, indicating a larger K absorption capacity. There was no correspondence between soil analysis and nutrient supplying capacity.

  5. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco / Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo R., Araújo; Tácio O. da, Silva; Rômulo S. C., Menezes; Vânia da S., Fraga; Everardo V. de S. B., Sampaio.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus), orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii), feijão-de- [...] rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides) e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris); os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1) comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes. Abstract in english Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides) and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) [...] ; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to fertilization. Cenchrus ciliaris had higher K concentrations and contents than the legumes, indicating a larger K absorption capacity. There was no correspondence between soil analysis and nutrient supplying capacity.

  6. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green fodder yield (2010, dry matter yield (2009 and 2010, crude protein yield (2011 and crude protein per cent (2010 while Guinea grass CO (GG 3 ranked first at All India level for green fodder yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012, dry matter yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012 and crude protein yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 had recorded significantly higher mean green fodder yield (GFY of 1082 q/ha/year, dry matter yield (DMY of 239.03 q/ha/yr and crude protein yield (CPY of 18.32 q/ha/yr in AICRP on Forage crops trials over the qualifying and national check varieties. Similarly, Guinea grass CO (GG 3 too registered a higher mean GFY, DMY and CPY of 1082.4, 229.3 and 20.5 q/ha/year respectively over the qualifying and national check varieties.

  7. Performance characteristics of common temperate grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal changes in productivity and nutritive value of cool-season grasses influences pasture management and ration balancing decisions by the producer. Grass sward structure also influences intake by grazing animals. We determined seasonal yield and quality changes in the leaf and stem fraction ...

  8. The Physical Analyze of Local Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Suhartati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to analyze physical characteristics of local grass. The aimed of this research was to observe grass physical characteristics, which are bulkiness, water regain capacity and water solubility. Also to observe correlation of water regain capacity to dry matter and organic matter digestibility as well as its degradation rate during 0, 12, 18 and 24 h incubation, in sacco, using 2 fistulae cows. Five local grass were tested in this research, which are field grass, elephant grass, brachiaria grass, king grass and setaria. Fistulae cows consumed forages and concentrates with ratio of 70:30, minimum protein level of 12% and minimum TDN of 60%. Physical characteristics data that obtained then analyzed using analysis of variance. Furthermore, honestly significant different was also performed. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility data that obtained were analyzed with regression of physical characteristics. Result showed that brachiaria grass has poor water regain capacity and water solubility. There are positive linear correlation between water regains capacity with dry matter and organic matter digestibility. (Animal Production 6(1: 37-42 (2004 Key Words: Bulkiness, Water Regain Capacity, Water Solubility, Dry Matter and Organic Matter Digestibility

  9. X meeting utenti GRASS e GFOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 10th meeting of GRASS & GFOSS usersThe 10th Italian Congress of GRASS GIS and Geospatial Free and Open Source Software (GFOSS was held on the26 and 27 Feb in Cagliari. Highlights included updates on major GFOSS projects (GRASS, QGIS, the presentation of new projects (SpatiaLite and the public release of a free 3D visualization application suitable for distribution over the internet (RATMAN. Many users and developers connected to forge new business relationships and share new ideas.

  10. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  11. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  12. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  13. Rendering Grass in Real Time with Dynamic Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bouatouch, Kadi; Boulanger, Kévin; Pattanaik, Sumanta,

    2006-01-01

    Since grass is very abundant on the Earth's surface, it is an important element of natural 3D scenes. Real-time realistic rendering of grass has always been difficult due to the huge number of grass blades. Overcoming this geometric complexity usually requires many coarse approximations to provide interactive frame rates. However, the performance comes at the cost of poor lighting quality and lack of detail of the grass. In this report, we describe a grass rendering technique that allows bett...

  14. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Pawe?; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  15. Afforestation of degraded grass land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basappa, B.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

  16. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.L. Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1, clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1, tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1, haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones, applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 , clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 , tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 , fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 , haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 and control (no herbicide. In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

  17. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species

  18. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122

  19. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  20. Elemental analysis of savannah grass' burning ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to quantify the biomass burning emissions, the main atmospheric pollution source of tropical and subtropical regions, we carried out the analysis of ashes that are also formed during these fires. To this end, we developed analytical methods to characterize the composition of savannah grass burning ashes by using X-ray fluorescence for mineral elements and microanalysis for C, H, O and N. Samples used in this work have been collected during laboratory combustion experiments, with chemically well-defined natural savannah grasses from Ivory Coasts and South Africa. The reproducibility and efficiency of different developed procedures have been studies. The analytical relative precision is generally better than 5%. This development has allowed to establish, for the first time, the global mass balance of ashes resulting from savannah grass burning. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  2. EPICHLOE SPECIES: fungal symbionts of grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, C L

    1996-01-01

    Epichloë species and their asexual descendants (Acremonium endophytes) are fungal symbionts of C3 grasses that span the symbiotic continuum from antagonism to mutualism depending on the relative importance, respectively, of horizontal transmission of sexual spores versus vertical clonal transmission in healthy grass seeds. At least seven sexual Epichloë species are identifiable by mating tests, and many asexual genotypes are interspecific hybrids. Benefits conferred by the symbionts on host plants include protection from biotic factors and abiotic stresses such as drought. Four classes of beneficial alkaloids are associated with the symbionts: ergot alkaloids, indolediterpenes (lolitrems), peramine, and saturated aminopyrrolizidines (lolines). These alkaloids protect host plants from insect and vertebrate herbivores, including livestock. Genetic engineering of the fungal symbionts as more suitable biological protectants for forage grasses requires identification of fungal genes for alkaloid biosynthesis, and DNA-mediated transformation of the fungi. PMID:15012537

  3. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.

    2011-01-01

    Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology in agronomy and anaerobic digestion sectors and the need for rural development and sustainable energy production, is an attractive solution that fulfils many legislative, agronomic and environmental requirements.

  4. Project work: »From grass to ice cream«

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen?i?, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis presents the process of the research of a closed-ended problem, namely on the subject of “From Grass to Ice Cream”. The children’s own activity in the research of the “milk path” (grass-cow-milk-dairy-dairy products-ice cream-shop) is presented. The first part of the theoretical part summarises what natural science for children should be like, presents learning according to High/Scoop’s preschool curriculum, and describes the closed-ended research method. The second part...

  5. Technology Optimization of Enzymolysis of Burmuda Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose can be degraded by enzyme to glucose, which provide carbon source for ethanol fermentation. This study, taking Burmuda grass as material, analyzed effects of temperature, time, pH, PBS dosage and ratio of enzyme on reducing sugar. It came to the conclusion that the best conditions of the enzymolysis of Burmuda grass are as follows: 50°C for temperature, 32 h for time, 4.20 for pH, 2 mL for PBS dosage, 4:3 for the ratio of xylanase and cellulase, the yield of reducing sugar reached 78.63%.

  6. Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using panicum maximum forage grass

    OpenAIRE

    B. L. Chavan; V. P. Dhulap

    2012-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq (Guinea grass) is an important multicut forage grass with ease of propagation, fast growth available at local level and high quality forage for livestock. This grass is a biotic resource, due to its several properties grass. It is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone) technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Panicum maximum was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. D...

  7. Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Qiu; Leiting Chen; Jim X Chen; Yugang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dyn...

  8. Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda / In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Salinas-Chavira; Juan Carlos, Gutiérrez-González; Ramón, García-Castillo; Ramiro, López-Trujillo; Arturo, Duarte-Ortuño.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilid [...] ad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ruminal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag techn [...] ique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

  9. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  10. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  11. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

  12. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  13. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  14. Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy: Not Only Switchgrass!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many crop species will be required to meet goals for energy production from biomass and biofuels. Perennial grasses will be one of the more important categories of crops, partly due to high biomass yield potential, the native status of many species, and their potential to serve multiple functions th...

  15. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; T?íska, Jan; Vrchotová, Nad?žda; Kolá?, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 26, ?. 4 (2013), s. 199-203. ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  16. MoDest GrassUp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    The Technology The technology is one of a kind, as there is no such mathematical model estimating animal feed uptake available today. The estimation of grass uptake, is based on real time wireless sensor data, cow merit and climate data. Relevant cow behaviour data (such as location, movement vel...

  17. Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration grass species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese toxicity thresholds for restoration plants have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments rely on toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide Mn toxicity thresholds for grasses commonly used in restoration. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of redtop, slender wheatgrass, tufted hairgrass, big bluegrass, basin wildrye, and common wheat were grown in sand culture and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn. The LC50, EC50-plant, EC50-shoot, EC50-root, PT50-shoot, and the PT50-root were then determined. Phytotoxicity thresholds and effective concentrations for the restoration species were generally higher than values reported for agronomic species. Our estimates of PT50-shoot for the five restoration grasses range from 41,528 to 120,082 mg Mn kg-1. Measures of EC50-plant for these restoration grasses ranged from 877 to >6,000 mg Mn l-1. These thresholds might be more useful for risk assessors than those based on crop plants that are widely used. - Mn phytotoxicity thresholds for restoration grasses should be useful for risk assessments of metal-contaminated lands

  18. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  19. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

  20. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  1. A REVIEW ON LEMON GRASS: AGRICULTURAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lemongrass (Cymbopogan flexuosus and Cymbopogan Citraus is regarded as one of the grass which is commonly available in India and abroad. It is widely used in different conditions of pain and discomfort. The oil (Lemongrass oil obtained from the grass has diverse medicinal value. It also produces semi-synthetic Vitamin A that reduces the risk of Xerophthalmia and Night blindness. The grass has great benefits to mankind as it revitalizes the body and mind, helps with infections and act as muscle and skin toner. This review will explore the plant / grass and also suggest for more cultivation of the grass because of its medicinal importance.

  2. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Eduardo R.; Tácio O. da Silva; Rômulo S. C. Menezes; Vânia da S. Fraga; Everardo V. de S. B. Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus), orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii), feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides) e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris); os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg...

  3. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass and grass-surface minima yielded increased RMSEs compared to those for air temperature at 2 m. The sufficiently small RMSEs using the 2-h ahead nowcasts of the air temperature minimum, for the exponential model, demonstrate that the methodology used may be applied operationally but with increased errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  4. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after...... the second flaming treatments that were implemented at different time intervals. Flaming treatments decreased plant biomass of both species and also the ratio of flowering annual bluegrass plants. However, few plants were killed. The first flaming treatment affected aboveground biomass more than the...

  5. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos, Santos; Mário de Andrade, Lira; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos, Santos; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de, Mello.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pen [...] nisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p

  6. Fused silica 'glass grass': fabrication and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifications of surface morphology significantly improve integration possibilities and properties of materials in NEMS, MEMS and µTAS, especially of fused silica. Self-organized nanostructures in fused silica, termed 'glass grass', produced by plasma dry etching methods are investigated. These structures appear as 'grass', 'needles', 'pillars' or even 'tubes' depending on etching conditions. A comprehensive study of surface morphology modification parameters, regarding reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) (inductive coupled plasma (ICP)), is presented. The nanostructures are described and characterized by shape, geometry and density with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray. The influences of coil/platen power, flow rates, etch gases, pressure and etch time on the geometry are derived. Application experiments, such as bonding technologies, which support integration into hybrid material systems, and cell adhesion investigations, are carried out.

  7. Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nagwa R.A. Hussein; Sohir T. Hamed; Muhammed A. Zaki; Osman, Ahmed K.

    2012-01-01

    The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

  8. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants r...

  9. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioener...

  10. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  11. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

  12. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi? Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  13. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Chenyang Zhan; Bingru Huang

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes th...

  14. Utilization of extraspecific and extragenus hybrids in grass breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Galajdová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to grass and its importance of breeding. Grass is widespread throughout the world. This cultural plant serves as the source for livestock, plays economically important role in sport industry and provide valuable source of genetic diversity. The aim of this thesis is to summarize the information about methods of grass breeding and describe the morphology of Red fescue in the early stages of development. This may contribute to the selection of suitable phenotypes for fu...

  15. Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Aganga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m. They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.

  16. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K; SEWARD, H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  17. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.; Nizami, A.S.; Singh, Anoop; Murphy, J.D.

    Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union...... have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... agronomy and anaerobic digestion sectors and the need for rural development and sustainable energy production, is an attractive solution that fulfils many legislative, agronomic and environmental requirements....

  18. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  19. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Calderón

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 µg major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhinoconjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment of rhino-conjunctivitis due to grass pollen allergy.Keywords: sublingual immonotherapy, grass pollen allergy, rhinoconjunctivitis, immunotherapy, tablet

  20. Germination of native grasses with potential application in the recovery of degraded areas in Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil / Germinação de gramíneas nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero com potencial aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurílio Assis, Figueiredo; Hudson Eustáquio, Baêta; Alessandra Rodrigues, Kozovits.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As gramíneas nativas apresentam potencial para revegetação de áreas degradadas, no entanto, devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre sua biologia, dá-se preferência ao uso de espécies exóticas, que podem ser invasoras, afetando assim a biodiversidade local. No intuito de ampliar o conhecimento acerca da p [...] ropagação via sementes de espécies nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), e desta forma, indicar possíveis candidatas a aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas da região, este trabalho objetivou avaliar os padrões germinativos das seguintes gramíneas: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.). Chase e Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. As espiguetas (com presença ou não das estruturas que envolviam a cariopse, dependendo da espécie) foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1-controle; T2-umedecimento do substrato com 0,2% de nitrato de potássio, T3-aquecimento a 80 ºC por 2 minutos, T4-escarificação com ácido sulfúrico (exceto gênero Andropogon) e para os gêneros Andropogon e Setaria, T5-armazenamento a temperatura ambiente e T6-armazenamento sob refrigeração. Os tratamentos foram realizados em 4 repetições de 25 cariopses colocadas para germinar a temperatura de 25 ºC e iluminação constante. Variação significativa foi observada quando comparadas as quantidades de germinações ocorridas entre as semanas, entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies. Para o gênero Andropogon o tratamento mais eficiente foi T6, seguido por T2 em A. bicornis e T3 em A. leucostachyus. T6 também foi o tratamento mais eficiente para S. parviflora, seguido por T5 e T2. C. brownii apresentou resultados próximos sob T1, T2 e T3 (média 39%). E. inflexa e A. euprepes apresentaram altos índices de dormência que não foram superadas pelos tratamentos propostos. A. bicornis, A. leucostachyus, S. parviflora e C. brownii apresentaram maiores potenciais de germinação, sendo possíveis candidatas para recuperação de áreas degradas no QF. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos complementares com os tratamentos mais eficientes e testes de germinação e estabelecimento em condições de campo. Abstract in english Native grasses are potential species to be used in land rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of better knowledge of their performance, preference is given to exotic plants, which may be invasive and negatively affect the local biodiversity. In order to better understand the propagation of native [...] species of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using their seeds, and in so doing, indicate possible candidates for land rehabilitation, this study investigated the germination patterns of the following grasses: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen; Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, and Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. The spikelets (depending on the species, removing or not the structures that surround the caryopsis) were treated as follows: T1-Control, T2-moistening with 0.2% potassium nitrate, T3-heating at 80 ºC for 2 minutes, T4-scarification with sulfuric acid (except genus Andropogon) and, for genera Andropogon and Setaria T5-storage at room temperature and T6- refrigerated storage. The treatment was repeated four times for 25 caryopses incubated at 25 ºC and constant light. Significant variation was observed when comparing germination rates from week to week, treatment to treatment and species to species. The most efficient treatment for genus Andropogon was T6, followed by T2 for A. bicornis and T3 for A. leucostachyus. T6 was also the most effective treatment for S. parviflora, followed by T5 and T2. C. brownii showed similar results when applying T1, T2 and T3 (mean 39%). E. inflexa and A. euprepes showed high levels of dormancy that were not overcome by the proposed treatments. A. bicornis, A. leucostach

  1. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  2. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  3. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  4. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  5. Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Alves de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit, durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan. Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d; e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d. Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B. Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

  6. Intercropping of four Leucaena cultivars with three grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relwani, L.L.; Nakat, R.V.; Khandale, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    A table shows the yield of DM in 809 days from each of Leucaena leucocephala varieties K8, Hawaiian common, Peru and Cunningham, interplanted with each of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Hybrid Napier NB 21 (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Total yield was greatest with the Cunningham/Hybrid Napier combination.

  7. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome...

  8. Harvesting and Storing of Two Perennial Grasses as Biomass Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some perennial grasses, such as reed canarygrass (RCG) and switchgrass (SWG), have prolific yield and low inputs, making them attractive as biomass feedstocks. When harvested as biomass, these grasses are more mature and have much greater yield than when harvested as animal forage. Much is unknow...

  9. Regional collaborative research on cold tolerance of exotic biofuel grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold tolerance is a selectable trait for many exotic grasses, even those of tropical or subtropical origin. We are conducting cold tolerance assessments on an array of perennial biofuel grasses at Booneville, AR. In study one (published), we reported that two sugarcane clones (US84-1028 and US84-1...

  10. A Note on Chemical Composition of Some Uttarakhand Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of 30 local grasses of Uttarakhand were determined. The maximum crude protein, mineral contents and lower value of crude fibre content was recorded from Dactylis glosmerata, Arundo donax, Apluda mutica and Poa pratensis in comparison to other grasses.

  11. Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Qiu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dynamic simulation of grass field swaying in wind. The representation of large-scale grassland relies on three different levels of detail that reduce the rendering cost and still allow high-fidelity rendering of grass close to the viewer. To simulate real-time waggle of grasses, some physically based methods and procedural approaches are put forward according to different levels of detail. Experiments demonstrate that our method not only can realistically render the animated grass scenes in wind, but also can support the variable wind field.

  12. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  13. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  14. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  15. Grass Lignin Acylation: p-Coumaroyl Transferase Activity and Cell Wall Characteristics of C3 and C4 Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasses have always been a predominate source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Species belonging to the C3 and C4 grass types have recently been championed as feedstock sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermenta...

  16. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF THE EXCLUSION OF JOHNSON GRASS BY TALL GRASS PRAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn A. Semtner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, plant distribution typically has been studied with the purpose of learning why a species grows and survives where it does; but why a species does not survive in a particular habitat has rarely been studied, although it may be just as important. According to the US Department of Agriculture, Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.; formerly Johnson grass] is listed as an agricultural pest in most states south of the 42nd parallel. Control of Johnsongrass inagricultural fields involves various labor intensive cultural, mechanical, and chemical means. Release of a bio-control agent has not been suitable for intensively cropped areas. An agriculturally important weed and prominent member of early stage secondary succession, Johnsongrass is not present in later stages of prairie succession. Various environmental factors (biotic and abiotic that might be involved in restricting Johnsongrass survival were examined in this research. In two sites in Oklahoma, soil conditions were found to be more favorable for survival and growth of Johnsongrass in undisturbed prairie than in the disturbed areas in which Johnsongrass was found vigorously growing. However, even when its rhizomes were introduced into mature prairie, Johnsongrass did not thrive. In laboratory and field trials, presence of the living dominant prairie grasses or leachate from living or dead leaf blades seemed to influence growth and survival of Johnsongrass rhizomes. The prairie grasses, little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx. Nash] and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L. Nash], seem to play a similarallelopathic role in restricting the growth of Johnsongrass to outside of the prairies. Looking at this past study might lead to new methods for the future. (Semtner 2012

  17. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Moisés; Brandt, Tove

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet) for su...

  18. Production of organic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella and GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Chandra Shaha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the growth and production of grass carp and tilapia cultured organically using napier grass in Bangabanbhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh from March-June, 2013. Three stocking ratios were tested: grass carp at 0.6 fish/m2 with GIFT tilapia at 0.3 fish/m2 (T1, grass carp at 0.6 fish/m2 with GIFT tilapia at 0.6 fish/m2 (T2, grass carp at 0.6 fish/m2 with GIFT tilapia at 0.9 fish/m2 (T3 and grass carp only at 0.6 fish/m2 as control (T4. Chopped fresh napier grass leaf was the sole nutrient input and provided twice daily. The water quality parameters were within suitable ranges for fish culture. Grass carp attained a daily growth increment ranging from 2.80-3.73 g/day and GIFT tilapia from 1.30-1.86 g/day. The combined yields was significantly higher (P<0.05 in stocking ratio of 1:1 (2.72 t/ha/90 days compared to other stocking ratios. The result indicates on the basis of benefit-cost-ratio that the farmer’s income will be around double or more in the combined production of organic grass carp and tilapia with stocking ratio of 1:1 than the other stocking ratios. The density of grass carp should be further studied.

  19. Trees improve grass quality for herbivores in African savannas

    OpenAIRE

    Treydte, A.C.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T; Ludwig, F.

    2007-01-01

    The tree-grass interactions of African savannas are mainly determined by varying rainfall patterns and soil fertility. Large savanna trees are known to modify soil nutrient conditions, but whether this has an impact on the quality of herbaceous vegetation is unclear. However, if this were the case, then the removal of trees might also affect the structure and quality of the grass layer. We studied the impact of large nitrogen- and non-nitrogen fixing trees on the sub-canopy (SC) grass layer i...

  20. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  1. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  2. Effect of level of lactic acid bacteria inoculant from fermented grass extract on fermentation quality of king grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Antaribaba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling is a method of preserving moist forage based on natural fermentation where lactic acid bacteria (LAB ferment water soluble carbohydrate into organic acids mainly lactic acid under anaerobic condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides ensiled with addition of LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (LBFG. Four treatment were (G0 king grass without additive; (G1 king grass with 2% (v/w of LBFG; (G2 king grass with 3% (v/w of LBFG; (G3 king grass with 4% (v/w of LBFG. Ensiling was conducted in bottle silos of 225 g capacity at room temperatures (27.0 ± 0.20C for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in silage G1, G2 and G3 were relatively higher than that in silage G0. The pH value, butyric acid, total VFA and NH3-N concentrations decreased linearly with increasing level of LBFG addition, while lactic acid concentration increased linearly with LBFG addition. It was concluded that addition of 3% (v/w of LBFG resulting a better fermentation quality of king grass silage than 2% and 4% (v/w of LBFG.

  3. Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

  4. Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (32P, 86Rb and 45Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of 86Rb and 32P

  5. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  6. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. It gives a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  7. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  8. Prescribed Burn Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1998 Switch Grass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fire management plan is for Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge on a 3.5 acre segment of the refuge that is almost entirely switch grass. The plan specifies the...

  9. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  10. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon; Kunn Kangvansaichol; Vorakan Burapatana; Ratanavalee Inochanon; Pakorn Winayanuwattikun; Tikamporn Yongvanich; Warawut Chulalaksananukul

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification....

  11. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Yang; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Xiujia Huan; Linda Perry; Quan Li; Zhao Li; Jianping Zhang; Zhikun Ma; Yijie Zhuang; Leping Jiang; Yong Ge; Houyuan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) w...

  12. Rendering Grass in Real-Time with Dynamic Light Sources and Shadows

    OpenAIRE

    Boulanger, Kévin; Pattanaik, Sumanta,; Bouatouch, Kadi

    2006-01-01

    Since grass is very abundant on the Earth's surface, it is an important element of natural 3D scenes. Real-time realistic rendering of grass has always been difficult due to the huge number of grass blades. Overcoming this geometric complexity usually requires many coarse approximations to provide interactive frame rates. However, the performance comes at the cost of poor lighting quality and lack of detail of the grass. In this report, we describe a grass rendering technique that allows bett...

  13. Nitrogen cycle in pure grass and grass/legume pastures. Evaluation of pasture sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact on pasture sustainability of the introduction of a forage legume (Desmodium ovalifolium) into a Brachiaria humidicola pasture, studies of the contribution of legume N2 fixation, litter recycling, the plant material on offer and the animal live weight gain were made on grazed pure grass and mixed pastures at three different grazing pressures at the CEPLAC field station at Itabela in the Atlantic forest region of souther Bahia. The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to D. ovalifolium was estimated to be approximately 50% of plant N in a satellite experiment using the 15N isotope dilution technique. Evaluation of the plant material on offer showed that the proportion of legume in the mixed swards ranged between 39% (at the lowest stocking rate of two animals/ha) and 16 and 2% (three and four animals/ha, respectively). The total contribution of BNF was calculated at 74, 28 and 3 kg N·ha·a-1 for the three stocking rates, respectively. Litter deposition varied little between the different treatments, but the N content of the litter was considerably higher in the mixed sward and was considerably lower at the highest stocking rate in both pastures. Analysis of the 13C isotopic abundance of the soil organic matter showed that 5 years after establishment of the pure B. humidicola pasture, approximately 27% of the soil carbon was derived from grass at a depth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportion (20%) was derived from grass at 5-15 cm. Analysis of the 13C abundance of cattle faeces indicated that the proportion of legume consumed by cattle in the mixed sward was between 10 and 37%. The data indicate that selection of an appropriate grazing pressure can greatly influence recycling. Therefore, presumably pasture sustainability and the introduction of a legume in the pasture are beneficial to both animal production and pasture sustainability. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  15. Comparison of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel L; Hesterberg, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants is a phytoremediation process that depends on interactions among plants, microbes, and soils. Trees and grasses are commonly used for phytoremediation, with trees typically being chosen for remediation of BTEX while grasses are more commonly used for remediation of PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of hydrocarbons and address the advantages of each vegetation type. Grasses were more heavily represented in the literature and therefore demonstrated a wider range of effectiveness. However, the greater biomass and depth of tree roots may have greater potential for promoting environmental conditions that can improve rhizoremediation, such as increased metabolizable organic carbon, oxygen, and water. Overall, we found little difference between grasses and trees with respect to average reduction of hydrocarbons for studies that compared planted treatments with a control. Additional detailed investigations into plant attributes that most influence hydrocarbon degradation rates should provide data needed to determine the potential for rhizoremediation with trees or grasses for a given site and identify which plant characteristics are most important. PMID:23819280

  16. Fungal endophyte-infected grasses: Alkaloid accumulation and aphid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M R; Latch, G C; Bush, L P; Fannin, F F; Rowan, D D; Tapper, B A; Bacon, C W; Johnson, M C

    1990-12-01

    The occurrence of the alkaloidsN-formyl andN-acetyl loline, peramine, lolitrem B, and ergovaline and the response of aphids to plants containing these compounds were determined in species and cultivars ofFestuca,Lolium, and other grass genera infected with fungal endophytes (Acremonium spp., andEpichloe typhina). Twenty-nine of 34 host-fungus associations produced one or more of the alkaloids, most frequently peramine or ergovaline. Three alkaloids (lolines, peramine, and ergovaline) were found in tall fescue and in perennial ryegrass infected withA. coenophialum, while peramine, lolitrem B, and ergovaline were present in perennial ryegrass and in tall fescue infected withA. lolii and inF. longifolia infected withE. typhina. WhileA. coenophialum andA. lolii produced similar patterns of alkaloids regardless of the species or cultivar of grass they infected, isolates ofE. typhina produced either no alkaloids or only one or two different alkaloids in the grasses tested. Aphid bioassays indicated thatRhopalosiphum padi andSchizaphis graminum did not survive on grasses containing loline alkaloids and thatS. graminum did not survive on peramine-containing grasses. Ergovaline-containing grasses did not affect either aphid. PMID:24263431

  17. Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiano Reschke, Lajús; Simone Meredith, Scheffer-Basso; Mario, Miranda; Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso, Denardin; José Francisco Montenegro, Valls.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius) was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale d [...] o Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405) to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405), and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405), G2 (V 14406) and G3 (V 14337, V 14404). Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

  18. Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405 to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405, and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405, G2 (V 14406 and G3 (V 14337, V 14404. Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

  19. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  20. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management over temporal aggregation, temporal accumulation, spatio-temporal statistics, spatio-temporal sampling, temporal algebra, temporal topology analysis, time series animation and temporal topology visualization to time series import and export capabilities with support for NetCDF and VTK data formats. We will present several temporal modules that support parallel processing of raster and 3D raster time series. [1] GRASS GIS Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling In Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling, Vol. 2 (2008), pp. 171-199, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74831-19 by M. Neteler, D. Beaudette, P. Cavallini, L. Lami, J. Cepicky edited by G. Brent Hall, Michael G. Leahy [2] Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environ. Model. Softw. 53, 1-12. [3] Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS Intl Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219. [4] Löwe, P., Klump, J., Thaler, J. (2012): The FOSS GIS Workbench on the GFZ Load Sharing Facility compute cluster, (Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-4491, 2012), General Assembly European Geosciences Union (Vienna, Austria 2012). [5] Akhter, S., Aida, K., Chemin, Y., 2010. "GRASS GIS on High Performance Computing with MPI, OpenMP and Ninf-G Programming Framework". ISPRS Conference, Kyoto, 9-12 August 2010

  1. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  2. Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

  3. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of Bermuda grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L.; Ghosh, S.

    1981-01-01

    Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of the high-yield warm-season grasses that has been suggested as a promising raw material for conversion to methane. Experimental work performed with laboratory digesters to study the anaerobic digestion of Coastal Bermuda grass harvested in Louisiana and having a C/N ratio of 24 is described. Methane yields of about 1.9 SCF/lb of volatile solids (VS) added were observed under conventional mesophilic high-rate conditions. When supplemental nitrogen additions were made, the methane yields increased. This observation along with the compositional data compiled on the grass used in this work indicated that the nitrogen content of the unsupplemented grass was insufficient to sustain high-rate digestion at the higher yield level. However, as the C/N ratio was reduced by addition of ammonium chloride, the methane yield continually increased up to 3.5 SCF/lb added at the lowest C/N ratio examined (6.3) even after relatively high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen were measured in the effluent. It appears that the added nutrient had a stimulatory effect on methane production above the point where nitrogen was not limiting. Thermophilic digestion with supplemental nitrogen additions afforded methane yields of about 2.7 SCF/lb VS added. Carbon and energy balances were calculated and the relative biodegradabilities of the organics were estimated. It was concluded from this work that Coastal Bermuda grass can be converted to high-methane gas under conventional anaerobic digestion conditions. The performance of the particular lot of grass studied was substantially improved by supplemental nitrogen additions. (Refs. 12).

  4. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  5. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combina...

  6. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja / Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L.L., Barroso; H.A., Dan; S.O., Procópio; R.E.B., Toledo; C.R., Sandaniel; G.B.P., Braz; K.L., Cruvinel.

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchr [...] us echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones), applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinat [...] us in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 ), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 ), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 ), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 ), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 ) and control (no herbicide). In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

  7. Performance of West African dwarf goats fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture, N-fertilized and unfertilized Guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamikole, M A.; Ezenwa, I; Akinsoyinu, A O.; Arigbede, M O.; Babayemi, O J.

    2001-02-01

    The supplementary values of Verano stylo in a mixed Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Ntchisi)-Verano stylo (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) diet from a sown grass-legume mixture and N fertilized grass were compared in West African dwarf (WAD) goats. Liveweight (LW) gain, feed intake, digestibility and N utilization were determined using 15 goats in two trials lasting for 98 days. Goats were fed Guinea grass-Verano stylo mixture (GSM), N-fertilized (NFG) and unfertilized grass (UFG). The goats were divided into three groups of five animals each and randomly allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Total DM and OM intakes of the goats did not vary significantly among the forage diets and averaged 55.1 and 50.4gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day, respectively. CP intake (gkg(-1)W(0.75) per day) was highest with NFG (5.6) followed by GSM (4.8) and the UFG (3.5). Total N excreted followed the same trend as the CP intake. There was no significant difference between N-retention of GSM and NFG (28.5 and 26.7%), but goats on UFG had a negative N balance (-9.16%). Animals on GSM had significantly higher liveweight gain (31.9g per day) than those of NFG (25.1g per day) and UFG (21.9g per day) which also differed significantly. The digestibilities of total DM, OM, CP, NDF were higher with GSM than NFG or UFG. It is concluded that growing Verano stylo in mixture with Guinea grass is a better option for improving the feed quality of forage diets for goats than direct application of inorganic fertilizer at 200kgNha(-1) to the pure grass. PMID:11182307

  8. Intercropping with grasses helps to reduce iron chlorosis in olive

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C, Cañasveras; M. C, del Campillo; V, Barrón; J, Torrent.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are more efficient than dicots in acquiring Fe from calcareous soils. We studied whether intercropping with grasses alleviates Fe chlorosis in olive and whether the effect persists in succeeding dicot crops. Three different pot experiments were conducted. In the first, olive plants were inte [...] rcropped with 6 different grass species (purple false brome, annual ryegrass, compact brome, goatgrass, barley and red fescue); in the second, the two species best performing in the previous experiment were studied in various calcareous soils and; in the third, chickpea and peanut were grown in pots previously used to cultivate the two grasses. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and/or boosted growth of olive trees on three different calcareous soils. Olive growth was adversely affected by intercropping in one soil as a result of competition for water. Intercropping increased Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn leaf contents in olive. Also, grass cropping generally raised available levels of soil Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn; this effect, however, resulted in no substantial alleviation of Fe chlorosis in succeeding chickpea or peanut crops. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley appears to be a promising remedy for Fe chlorosis in olive orchards affected by Fe chlorosis.

  9. A capillary pumping device utilizing super-hydrophobic silicon grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity

  10. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Orby, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in Aarhus - a twin peak profile during the early season, a single evening profile during the middle of the season, and a single midday peak during the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that it was driven by a succession of different grass species with different diurnal flowering patterns dominating atmospheric pollen loads as the season progressed. The potential for exposure was found to be significantly greater during the late-season period than during either the early - or mid-season periods.

  11. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different types of grasses available in Denmark using a GIS (Geographical Information System) based approach and to supplement these with biofuel potential maps based on HtL conversion. Biomass yields (t/ha) and biofuel energy equivalent (GJ/ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost factor and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a high bio-crude yield and a high quality of the bio-crude using grasses as feedstock a series of experiments with meadow grass have been carried out in a batch reactor. Biomass input and liquefaction products are characterized using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, heating values, FTIR, GC/MS. Data is subject to a multivariate analysis based on the different parameters used during the hydrothermal liquefaction process (temperature, heating rate, pressure, composition, bio-crude yield). Keywords: biomass resources, biomass potential, GIS, hydrothermal liquefaction, production potential of biofuels!

  12. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-10-13

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  13. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  14. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...... block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  coordinates, the mean altitude, the mean of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to wood, trees and hedge close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the factors time of...

  15. A grass ecosystem project for monitoring fallout radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the co-operation of several Member States in Europe and the Mediterranean Sea region, the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory is conducting a Grass Ecosystem Project for the purpose of monitoring fallout radioactivity from the nuclear power reactor accident at Chernobyl. The circumstances which prompted the project and the measures taken to organize and develop the project are discussed. The advantages and importance of a grass ecosystem for monitoring radioactive fallout are elaborated. A description of methods used for collecting, preparing and analysing the grass samples are presented. Results of the analyses from nine participating laboratories are presented for the more important radionuclides. The importance of intercomparisons are shown by the data. Data calculated to both the sampling dates and the date of the accident are provided, and ratios of several radionuclides at various locations are mentioned. Future plans for the project are also presented

  16. EGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SUDANESE GRASSES AND GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Idris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen plant species, three ingredients, and six diets were studied for their degradation characteristics, using gas production techniques. The palatable grasses were selected during the rainy season from the range land of Kordofan, Sudan. The ingredients were Roselle seeds, Sorghum grain and Groundnut cake. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using rumen inoculum of three of the sheep used for the nylon bag. The results showed a large variation between the different plant species in the gas volume. The potential gas volume reflected the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Gas production from the ingredients indicated that sorghum grain recorded the highest gas production volume. The gas production at different time intervals showed increased degradability in the grasses, diets and the ingredients. Eragrostis tremula could be used as reference forage in evaluating the organic matter digestibility and energy density of grasses and Farsefia longisiliqua as a reference for crude protein.

  17. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance. PMID:26751036

  18. Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

  19. Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass

    OpenAIRE

    Trache D.; Khimeche K.; Donnot A.; Benelmir R.

    2013-01-01

    Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto), and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis pr...

  20. Effect of inclusion of citrus pulp inxaraés grass silage

    OpenAIRE

    Júnior Issamu Yasuoka; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Jonas Teixeira Granuzzo; Marcia Pereira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different levels of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) on the quality of xaraés grass silage. Xaraés grass was ensiled at 54 days of growth with 0, 10, 20 and 30% PCP and divided into 20 experimental silos (five repetitions/treatment). A completely randomized design was adopted. The silos were opened after 67 days for the determination of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF...

  1. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  2. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...... for HTT of grass and grass silage at both 170 and 180°C, but at 190°C the overall sugar yield was better for HTT of dry grass. Conclusions: This study unequivocally establishes that ensiling of grass as a biomass pretreatment method comes with a loss of WSC. The loss of WSC by ensiling is not...

  3. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as livestock nutritive energy sources and potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass, Brachypodium distanchyon, has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agricultur...

  4. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment method with low cost and low energy requirements, plus brings about multiple advantages with regards to agricultural management. However, the pretreatment effect of ensiling, and the overall effects for further conversion are limited. In this study, ensiling was evaluated as a method of pretreatment for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project was devoted to method development. This resulted in the development of a simple and flexible standard method forlaboratory ensilingwith a high reproducibility,which is well suited for high-throughput experiments.   A comprehensive study on important parameters in ensiling was conducted to find optimal conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however, insignificant. Cellulose conversion was noted to be largely determined by the stage of maturity of the four different cuts of grass. Less mature grass had high convertibility but less amount of cellulose and vice versa. This led to the conclusion that an optimal maturity of grass can be found, which gives an optimal glucose release. However, limitations of the method were also noted. The ensiling of grass came with a considerable loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which was in fact higher than the improved glucose release. Furthermore, the amount of released glucose was not adequate to support an efficient production of ethanol. Lastly, the conversion of xylan was extremely low in both grass and grass silage. Optimization of the enzymatic saccharification of grass was attempted through improvement of the hemicellulase content in the enzyme blend. However, neither additional xylanases (Cellic HTec2® and ß-xylosidase) nor hemicellulose degrading esterases (acetyl xylan esterase and ferulic acid esterase) showed any improvements of xylan or glucan convertibility. Furthermore, hemicellulases were added before ensiling in order to assist and improve the pretreatment effect. This resulted in, however, the undesired effect that additionally released monosaccharides were utilized during storage and had a negative impact on sugar release after enzymatic saccharification. In both of the above mentioned experiments on optimization ofsugar release by means of enzymes, it was noted that the hemicellulose structure of Festulolium Hykor appeared unusually resistant to enzymatic degradation. Due to the low conversion results on Festulolium Hykor, the last part of the project was based on a new tenet: Ensiling can not provide sufficient pretreatment effect to be a stand-alone pretreatment method. Ensiling was therefore combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT), and the pretreatment combination was applied to both grass (Festulolium  Hykor) and whea

  5. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Idupulapati M. Rao

    2015-01-01

    The study provided an overview of the dynamics of growth, water uptake and water use of two tropical C4 forage grasses: Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II. This in combination with the observations of leaf rolling scores suggested that Napier grass and Mulato fall respectively into contrasting “water spending/water saving” models of water use. As such, Napier grass might be targeted for areas with intermittent and short periods of drought, whereas Mulato I...

  6. Effectiveness of tropical grass species as sediment filters in the riparian zone of Lake Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyama, Joshua; Herremans, Kristof; Maetens, Willem; Isabirye, M.; Kahimba, Frederick; Kimaro, Didas; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Seppe

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of tropical grass species in strips of different length in trapping sediment from cropland was assessed, and the influence of filter length was determined. The assessment was made under natural rainfall which induced sheet and rill erosion in run-off plots and then using simulated run-off which caused concentrated erosion. The evaluated grasses were elephant grass, lemon grass, paspalum and sugarcane. Run-off plots were on a 10% slope in a randomized complete blo...

  7. Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I. J.; Poppi, D.P.; Elgersma, A.

    2011-01-01

    The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and leaves. This study (i) quantified and compared the tensile fracture properties of stems and leaves of seven tropical grass species and (ii) provided insight into the underlying plant traits that expla...

  8. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z; SITI NORDAHLIAWATE, M.S; NOR AZLIZA, I; Salleh, B.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum) and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digit...

  9. Uptake of Radium by Grass and Shrubs Grown on Mineral Heaps: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of the uptake of 226Ra and 228Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  10. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  11. Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Belo; Dias, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

  12. Grass-roots approach: developing qualified nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees

  13. PERENNIAL GRASS BREEDING PROGRAM FOR FORAGE AND BIOFUELS - TIFTON, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage improvement of bermudagrass and bahiagrass continues within the Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit of USDA/ARS. Recently, a new effort has begun within the unit toward developing perennial grass crops as feedstocks for bio-energy in the Southeast. An emphasis beginning three years ago...

  14. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  15. Growth and nutritive value of grass pea in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool-season grass pea (GP) has some potential to provide as late spring forage in the southern Great Plains (SGP), but genetic materials for development of new cultivars is limited. Our objective was to evaluate seasonal forage production and grain yield for 10 new Mediterranean-origin GP lines, in ...

  16. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Magura

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge effect on the studied carabid communities: the Shannon diversity increased significantly along the transects from the forest towards the grass. The diversity of the carabids were significantly higher in the forest edge and in the grass than in the forest interior. The carabids of the forest, the forest edge and the grass are separated from each other by principal coordinates analysis and by indicator species analysis (IndVal, suggesting that each of the three habitats has a distinct species assemblages. There were 5 distinctive groups of carabids: 1 habitat generalists, 2 forest generalists, 3 species of the open area, 4 forest edge species, and 5 forest specialists. It was demonstrated by multiple regression analyses, that the relative air moisture, temperature of the ground, the cover of leaf litter, herbs, shrubs and canopy cover, abundance of the carabids’ preys are the most important factors determining the diversity and spatial pattern of carabids along the studied transects.

  17. Exotic annual grass alters fuel amounts, continuity and moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Invasion by exotic plants are one of the most serious threats to native plant communities, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning. Of particular concern are exotic plants that alter disturbance regimes. Exotic annual grasses are believed to increase wildfire frequency to the detriment of nativ...

  18. Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using panicum maximum forage grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Chavan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum Jacq (Guinea grass is an important multicut forage grass with ease of propagation, fast growth available at local level and high quality forage for livestock. This grass is a biotic resource, due to its several properties grass. It is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Panicum maximum was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. Designed Angular Horizontal Subsurface type constructed wetland for the treatment of sewage was used for recycling and reuses. The samples of sewage with different dilutions viz. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% were tested for the treatment. Results reveal that pH range was changed from 6.79 to 7.10, maximum reduction of E.C was 25.14 % at 80%, TSS by 48.70%, TDS by 55.73 %, TS by 54.31 %, COD by 61.05 %, BOD by 59.25 %, NO3 by 69.32%, PO4 by 48.10% and SO4 by 41.48% respectively. The colour and odour were removed resulting into clear water.

  19. Grass inflorescence mutations and their role in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of natural mutants in the grass family were presented. All appeared as changes in inflorescence structure. In mutated plants chasmogamy was restricted due to anomalous lodicules or compactness of ears. A rare glumeless mutation in Agropyron pectiniforme reduced the level of assimilation in the ear. All mutations appear as unfavorable in natural populations.

  20. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  1. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various management practices have been proposed to help alleviate deleterious effects of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetla...

  2. Simulated frost effects on cool-season grass carbohydrate levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anecdotal observations suggest increased incidences of metabolic problems in horses on pasture after a frost. The speculation is that frost increases the level of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) in cool-season grasses, which have been implicated in horse metabolic problems (e.g., laminitis). We co...

  3. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  4. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    OpenAIRE

    A. Priolo; Berdagué, J.L; Lanza, M.; N. Kondjoyan; Micol, D.; Krogmann, M.; Cornu, A

    2011-01-01

    Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003) have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole) have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997)...

  5. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  6. Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

  7. Chemical Compositions and Nutrient Degradation of Elephant Grass Silage Ensiled with Black Tea Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, B; MN Lekitoo; Umiyati

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical compositions and nutrient degradation during ensiling of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage with black tea waste (BTW) addition. Four silage treatments were elephant grass (S0); elephant grass + 100 g BTW/ kg fresh matter (S1); elephant grass + 200 g BTW/kg fresh matter (S2); elephant grass + 300 g BTW/kg fresh matter. About 220 g of silage material were ensiled for 30 days at room temperature (approximately 28°C). Three replicates were prepared ...

  8. Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass) in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function

    OpenAIRE

    A. Plascencia; E.G. Alvarez; R.A Zinn

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass) on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB): 1) 49% alfalfa hay; 2) 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3) 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4) 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB). In trial 1, four lactating Holstein co...

  9. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens, and Dactylis glomerata were the only important grass weeds with a declining frequency during the six years. Vulpia spp. has recently become a significant problem in red fescue for seed production, and a significant increased frequency was seen during the study period. However, the study also showed that Vulpia spp. is primarily a problem in red fescue crops established in the autumn, whereas spring establishment of red fescue almost solves the problem with this primarily autumn-germinating grass weed.

  10. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

  11. Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilane Aparecida da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk, Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu, Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes, Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85. The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE. The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

  12. Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edilane Aparecida da, Silva; Wilson Jesus da, Silva; Antônio Carlos, Barreto; Antonio Barbosa de, Oliveira Junior; José Mauro Valente, Paes; José Reinaldo Mendes, Ruas; Domingos Sávio, Queiroz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu [...] ), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85). The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE). The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

  13. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    OpenAIRE

    A.L.L. Barroso; H.A Dan; S. O. Procópio; R.E.B Toledo; C.R. Sandaniel; G.B.P Braz; K.L. Cruvinel

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + ...

  14. The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

  15. Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H2SO4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

  16. Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto, and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with thermogravimetric analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposing patterns of the cellulosic preparations, obtained by hydrochloric hydrolysis gave additional evidence to the relatively higher stability of the more crystalline cellulosic preparations. In the main decomposition stage, the cleavage of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose reduces the polymerization degree leading to the formation of CO2, H2O and other hydrocarbon derivatives.

  17. Study of "napier grass" delignification for production of cellulosic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Morandim-Giannetti, Andreia; Albuquerque, Tiago Santos; de Carvalho, Renata Kobal Campos; Araújo, Ramires Menezes Silva; Magnabosco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-30

    Recently, much research on the evaluation of new cellulose sources has been developed. In this context, a promising source is "napier grass", which contains 30.40% lignin, 36.34% cellulose, and 34.12% hemicellulose. In this work, conditions for the delignification of "napier grass" in the laboratory were studied by using calcium oxide (CaO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The best pulping conditions were 9.00% CaO for a period of 2.73 h, which resulted in 74.99% delignification and 66.58% cellulose. The best conditions for the bleaching process were pH 12 and hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 4.2% for 6h, at a temperature of 40 °C, which gave 90.98% delignification and 99.21% cellulose. The analyses were performed by using weight percent. PMID:23218375

  18. Genotype × Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Polignano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight grass pea lines grown in three different seasons were evaluated for the stability of seed yield, 100 seeds weight, flowering time, plant height, and biomass. Significant differences existed among years, lines, and lines × years interaction for all traits except for 100 seeds weight. Two methods of multivariate analysis cluster and principal components were utilized to determine: firstly, whether a pattern existed among lines in their response across years and secondly to examine the relationships among them. In both analyses, each line was presented as a vector whose elements were given by the performance of lines in each year. The analyses used arranged the lines into groups that were differentiable in terms of performances and stability. Our results provide useful information to aid the choice of grass pea lines in the Mediterranean marginal areas.

  19. Mycorrhizas effects on nutrient interception in two riparian grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Asghari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on plant growth and soil nutrient depletion are well known, but their roles as nutrient interceptor in riparian areas are less clear. The effects of AM fungi on growth, soil nutrient depletion and nutrient leaching were investigated in columns with two riparian grass species. Mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal (NM plants were grown in a mixture of riparian soil and sand (60% and 40%, w/w respectively for 8 weeks under glasshouse conditions. Mycorrhizal colonization, AM external hyphae development, plant growth, nutrient uptake and NO3, NH4 and available P in soil and leachate were measured. Mycorrhizal fungi highly colonized roots of exotic grass Phalaris aquatica and significantly increased plant growth and nutrient uptake. Columns containing of AM Phalaris aquatica had higher levels of AM external hyphae, lower levels of NO3, NH4 and available P in soil and leachate than NM columns. Although roots of native grass Austrodanthonia caespitosa had moderately high levels of AM colonization and AM external hyphae in soil, AM inoculation had no significant effects on plant growth, soil and leachate concentration of NO3 and NH4. But AM inoculation decreased available soil P concentration in deeper soil layer and had no effects on dissolved P in leachate. Although both grass species had nearly the same biomass, results showed that leachate collected from Austrodanthonia caespitosa columns significantly had lower levels of NO3, NH4 and dissolve P than leachate from exotic Phalaris aquatica columns. Taken together, these data shows that native plant species intercept higher nutrient than exotic plant species and had no responsiveness to AM fungi related to nutrient leaching, but AM fungi play an important role in interception of nutrient in exotic plant species.

  20. Southern African grasses with foliage that revives after dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Gaff

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief survey in Southern Africa revealed 11 grass species and a number of sedges with foliage that recovers from air-drying (equivalent to equilibrium with air at 20-40 % relative humidity at 28° C.. The desiccation tolerance limits were extremely low being equivalent to approximately 0-5  % relative humidity. Some species may have a potential use in agriculture.

  1. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    van Vuuren, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

  2. Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria del Mar

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

  3. Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; BLANDE, JAMES D.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, ...

  4. Genotype × Environment Interaction in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Polignano, G. B.; Bisignano, V.; TOMASELLI, V.; Uggenti, P.; Alba, V.; Della Gatta, C.

    2009-01-01

    Eight grass pea lines grown in three different seasons were evaluated for the stability of seed yield, 100 seeds weight, flowering time, plant height, and biomass. Significant differences existed among years, lines, and lines × years interaction for all traits except for 100 seeds weight. Two methods of multivariate analysis cluster and principal components were utilized to determine: firstly, whether a pattern existed among lines in their response across years and secondly to examine ...

  5. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  6. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal Shonima; Iyer Uma

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP) supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36) and control gro...

  7. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygrothermal performance in the field, four test walls have been built. The relative humidity and temperature in the constructions have been measured during a winter period and are presented in this paper.

  8. Study of some biochemical parameters in the grass carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina-Ioana Cojocaru

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigations were devoted to some biochemical parameters (glycogen, catalase, alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferase in three summer-old representatives of grass carp, at the level of the hepatic and muscular tissue. The results obtained evidenced significant differences between the tissues under analysis, both in the concentration of the main reserve polyglucides, as a supplier of circulating glucose, and in the enzymatic activity, in close correlation with the physiological and biochemical role of each tissue in part.

  9. Colonial Issues in Grass is Singing by Doris Lessing

    OpenAIRE

    Letá, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with the issues connected to the colonial life depicted in the novel Grass is Singing by Doris Lessing. It provides the analysis of the specific issues concerning the relationship between the British ruling class and the native population as well as the mutual relationships among the white farmers. Further, the issues of racial and gender stereotypes are discussed since both these stereotypes shape the lives of the main characters in the novel.

  10. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Schardl, Christopher

    2002-10-01

    Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and systemically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted endophytes is strongly suggestive of cocladogenesis with their hosts. Molecular evidence indicates that many seed-transmitted endophytes are interspecific hybrids. Superinfection may result in hyphal fusion and parasexual recombination. Most endophytes produce one or more alkaloid classes that likely play some role in defending the host plant against pests. Hybridization may have led to the proliferation of alkaloid-production genes among asexual endophytes, favoring hybrids. The ergot alkaloid ergovaline, lolitrems, and lolines are produced by only a single sexual species, Epichloë festucae, but they are common in seed-transmitted endophytes, suggesting that E. festucae contributed genes for their synthesis. Asexual hybrids may also be favored by the counteracting of the accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller's rachet). Endophyte infection can provide other benefits, such as enhanced drought tolerance, photosynthetic rate, and growth. Estimates of infection frequency have revealed variable levels of infection with especially high prevalence in the subfamily Pooideae. Longitudinal studies suggest that the prevalence of seed-transmitted endophytes can increase rapidly over time. In field experiments, infected tall fescue suppressed other grasses and forbs relative to uninfected fescue and supported lower consumer populations. Unlike other widespread plant/microbial symbioses based on the acquisition of mineral resources, grass/endophyte associations are based primarily on protection of the host from biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:18707456

  11. The epichloae: alkaloid diversity and roles in symbiosis with grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Schardl, Christopher L; Florea, Simona; Pan, Juan; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Bec, Sladana; Calie, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species; Clavicipitaceae) are fungi that live in systemic symbioses with cool-season grasses, and many produce alkaloids that are deterrent or toxic to herbivores. The epichloae colonize much of the aerial plant tissues, and most benignly colonize host seeds to transmit vertically. Of their four chemical classes of alkaloids, the ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes are active against mammals and insects, whereas peramine and lolines specifically affect i...

  12. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

  13. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Yee Liong; Rasmina Halis; Oi Ming Lai; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks wit...

  14. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  15. Radioactive isotope uptake in a grass-legume association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive uptake of Medicago sativa and Rye grass in a pasture exposed to the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, was determined in four consecutive harvests covering a period of one year after the accident. In plants of Medicago sativa, inoculated with an effective Rhizobia meliloti strain isolated from Greek soils, a high degree of biological nitrogen fixation was observed at all harvests using N-15 techniques. At the second and third harvests, the percentage nitrogen derived from fixation (%NdfF), the percentage nitrogen derived from soil (%NdfS), as well as the radioactive uptake from the soil remained stable. At the fourth harvest, however, the %NdfF decreased while the %NdfS and the radioactive uptake from soil significantly increased. At the first harvest the radioactivity in both plants, caused mainly by direct fallout contamination, was considerably higher than that observed at the later harvests. Medicago sativa contained significantly less radioactivity than the grass at all harvests, although both plants were grown under the same environmental conditions. Even at the fourth harvest, almost one year after the initial contamination, the radioactivity of grass remained at high levels (20 Bq g-1 of protein) while in Medicago sativa it assumed considerably lower values (3.6 Bq g-1 of protein). A possible involvement of biological nitrogen fixation in the reduction of radioactive uptake is discussed. Finally, certain practical conclusions are drawn with respect to a safer management of pastures exposed to radioactivity. (author)

  16. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  17. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  18. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  19. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2004-08-01

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species.

  20. Nanostructured platinum grass enables superior impedance reduction for neural microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, C; Stieglitz, T; Asplund, M

    2015-10-01

    Micro-sized electrodes are essential for highly sensitive communication at the neural interface with superior spatial resolution. However, such small electrodes inevitably suffer from high electrical impedance and thus high levels of thermal noise deteriorating the signal to noise ratio. In order to overcome this problem, a nanostructured Pt-coating was introduced as add-on functionalization for impedance reduction of small electrodes. In comparison to platinum black deposition, all used chemicals in the deposition process are free from cytotoxic components. The grass-like nanostructure was found to reduce the impedance by almost two orders of magnitude compared to untreated samples which was lower than what could be achieved with conventional electrode coatings like IrOx or PEDOT. The realization of the Pt-grass coating is performed via a simple electrochemical process which can be applied to virtually any possible electrode type and accordingly shows potential as a universal impedance reduction strategy. Elution tests revealed non-toxicity of the Pt-grass and the coating was found to exhibit strong adhesion to the metallized substrate. PMID:26232883

  1. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

  2. Effect of inclusion of citrus pulp inxaraés grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Issamu Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different levels of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP on the quality of xaraés grass silage. Xaraés grass was ensiled at 54 days of growth with 0, 10, 20 and 30% PCP and divided into 20 experimental silos (five repetitions/treatment. A completely randomized design was adopted. The silos were opened after 67 days for the determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH, and titratable acidity of the silages. The inclusion of PCP did not influence DM content, but reduced CP content. NDF and ADF content decreased with the addition of citrus pulp. Regarding pH, a significant difference was only observed for the inclusion of 30% PCP. Titratable acidity in the silage was lower in the absence of PCP (0% compared to the treatment with 30% (P<0.05. The inclusion of 30% PCP in xaraés grass silage is indicated since it improves the quality of the fibrous fraction, while maintaining acceptable pH values.

  3. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a 'water-spending' behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a 'water-saving' nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  4. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  5. Effect of mixing low palatable grasses and ipil ipil leaves on forage quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan to investigate the impact of mixing low palatable grasses namely Heteropogon contortus, Desmostachya bipinnata, Sorghum halepense and Chrysopogon aucheri with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and for grass 25% + Ipil ipil 75%, it was 55%. The CP value of the treatments showed significant variation ranging from less than 10% in grasses to almost 30% in pure Ipil ipil leaves. The mixtures had CP content corresponding to proportions of grasses and legume tree leaves. The CF values also varied significantly among the treatments. Grasses had in general higher CF content than legume leaves. It can be concluded that addition of Ipil ipil leaves to grasses improved overall nutrition especially CP of the feed. (author)

  6. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  7. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  8. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  9. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas; Geels, Camilla; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sommer, J.; Søgaard, P.; Hertel, Ole

    2013-01-01

    available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of......We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three...... pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban-scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly...

  10. Genetic Diversity in Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Assessed by SSR Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Geofrey Kawube; Titus Alicai; Bramwel Wanjala; Moses Njahira; Juma Awalla; Robert Skilton

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of genetic diversity among Napier grass is very important for selection and improvement of Napier grass breeding population. This study determined the genetic diversity among the farmer preferred, wild (local) and selected ILRI gene-bank Napier grass clones using 23 SSR markers selected from pearl millet, maize and sorghum. The results indicated polymorphism among the SSR markers, revealing a total of 339 alleles of which 27.1% alleles were unique, occurring either only in local...

  11. Mitigating Agricultural Phosphorus Leaching : The Effect of Timing in Grass Harvesting in Mitigating Wintertime Phosphorus Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Yli-Heikkilä, Katariina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study how much the above-ground grass biomass, harvested at different times during the growing season, contains phosphorus at the end of the growing season, and how much of it is leached after freezing and thawing. The study aims to give information about the ideal time for grass harvesting in order to mitigate the wintertime phosphorus leaching. The grass biomass was harvested from managed uncultivated arable field at MTT Agrifood Research Centre experi...

  12. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo M. Sousa; Pâmela S. Silva; Lyderson F. Viccini

    2010-01-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous...

  13. Structure-Function Analysis of Grass Clip Serine Protease Involved in Drosophila Toll Pathway Activation*

    OpenAIRE

    Kellenberger, Christine; Leone, Philippe; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Grass is a clip domain serine protease (SP) involved in a proteolytic cascade triggering the Toll pathway activation of Drosophila during an immune response. Epistasic studies position it downstream of the apical protease ModSP and upstream of the terminal protease Spaetzle-processing enzyme. Here, we report the crystal structure of Grass zymogen. We found that Grass displays a rather deep active site cleft comparable with that of proteases of coagulation and complement cascades. A key distin...

  14. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Simi? Aleksandar S.; Dželetovi? Željko S.; Vu?kovi? Savo M.; Sokolovi? Dejan R.; Deli? Dušica I.; Mandi? Violeta T.; An?elkovi? Bojan S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata) was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A) thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full devel...

  15. Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, J.W.; Mostacedo, B; Peña-Claros, M.; Putz, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5 yr after selective logging, and experimentally tested the effect of forest fire on populations of invasive grasses. In unlogged forests and in microhabitats created by selective logging we found a total...

  16. Silica accumulation in grasses in response to a large scale herbivore exclosure experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz Jusdado, Juan German

    2011-01-01

    Silica defenses in grasses have been recently proposed to be important for plant-herbivore interactions. High silica levels in grasses have been found to have a negative impact on herbivores performance and act as an herbivory deterrent. Moreover, accumulation of silica has been proposed to be inducible, i.e. highly grazed grasses accumulate silica in their leaves. In order to assess whether silica induction is an important mechanism of plant-herbivore interactions also in sub-arctic ecosyste...

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly for the Tropical Grass Panicum maximum Jacq

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Jank, Liana; Souza, Anete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different gen...

  18. GRASS: a server for the graphical representation and analysis of structures.

    OpenAIRE

    Nayal, M; Hitz, B. C.; Honig, B

    1999-01-01

    GRASS (Graphical Representation and Analysis of Structures Server), a new web-based server, is described. GRASS exploits many of the features of the GRASP program and is designed to provide interactive molecular graphics and quantitative analysis tools with a simple interface over the World-Wide Web. Using GRASS, it is now possible to view many surface features of biological macromolecules on either standard workstations used in macromolecular analysis or personal computers. The result is a W...

  19. A grass–fire cycle eliminates an obligate-seeding tree in a tropical savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, David M.J.S.; MacDermott, Harry J; Nichols, Scott C; Murphy, Brett P.

    2014-01-01

    A grass–fire cycle in Australian tropical savannas has been postulated as driving the regional decline of the obligate-seeding conifer Callitris intratropica and other fire-sensitive components of the regional flora and fauna, due to proliferation of flammable native grasses. We tested the hypothesis that a high-biomass invasive savanna grass drives a positive feedback process where intense fires destroy fire-sensitive trees, and the reduction in canopy cover facilitates further invasion by g...

  20. Calcium Accumulation in Grasses in Relation to their Root Cation Exchange Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    K.J. George; Ray, J G

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the role of root CEC on the accumulation of Calcium in roots or shoots, pot-culture experiments with wild grasses was carried out. The seven species of grasses used were Sporobolus diander (L.), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. Ex Roem and Schult, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Panicum repens Jacq, Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongn. and Chloris barbeta Sw. These grasses were significantly different in their root cation exchange capac...

  1. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    OpenAIRE

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at ...

  2. Identification of Microdochium bolleyi Associated with Basal Rot of Creeping Bent Grass in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Wan Gyu; Choi, Hyo Weon; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of basal rot occurred sporadically on creeping bent grasses growing at a golf course in Hampyeong, Korea in April 2007. Ten isolates of Microdochium sp. were obtained from leaves and crowns of the diseased bent grasses. All isolates were identified as Microdochium bolleyi based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report on M. bolleyi associated with basal rot on creeping bent grass in Korea.

  3. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    in the acidification and eutrophication (N) categories for the reed canary grass scenario, reflecting the impacts of the cultivation process. The main conclusion was that future strategies for manure-biogas production in Estonia should not rely upon land-dependent biomass, even if the availability of...... arable land in Estonia is, under current conditions, not considered to be an issue. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, land use changes, dairy manure, reed canary grass, natural grass...

  4. Ergovaline occurrence in grasses infected by fungal endophytes of semi-arid pastures in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez de Aldana, Beatriz R.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; García Ciudad, A.; García Criado, B.

    2003-01-01

    Ergovaline is a mycotoxin produced by fungal endophytes belonging to Neotyphodium and Epichloë spp in several host grass species. Due to the production of this alkaloid, the ingestion of endophyte infected grasses cause toxicosis in grazing animals. The aim of this work was to determine if ergovaline is produced in several grasses (Agrostis castellana Boiss and Reuter, Brachypodium phoenicoides (L) Roemer and Schultes, Dactylis glomerata L, Festuca arundinacea Schreb, Festuca arundinacea Schr...

  5. Occurrence of ergovaline in endophyte infected grasses from mediterranean grasslands.

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez de Aldana, Beatriz R.; García Criado, B.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; García Ciudad, A.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Epichloe systemically infect several grasses. One of the most relevant aspects of the grass-endophyte interaction is the production of secondary compounds (alkaloids) which are toxic to both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. To date, ergovaline is the most abundant ergot alkaloid which has been found in several endophyte infected grasses. This alkaloid seems to be responsible for livestock disorders such as reduced weight gain or re...

  6. Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tandong Yao; Lochan Prasad Devkota; Man Zhang; Chen Zeng; Xuedong Yan; Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Transportation activities can contribute to accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soil and grass, which could potentially compromise public health and the environment if the roadways cross farmland areas. Particularly, heavy metals may enter the food chain as a result of their uptake by roadside edible grasses. This research was conducted to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in roadside farmland soils and corresponding grasses around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors...

  7. Effect of organic fertilization on biomass production and bioactivity of citronella grass essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano de Aguiar Soares; Henrique Guilhon de Castro; Gil Rodrigues dos Santos; Dione Pereira Cardoso; Aloisio Freitas Chagas Júnior; Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of organic fertilization on the growth and on biomass production of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) as well as evaluating the effect citronella grass essential oil and of the citronellal compound in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the Didymella bryoniae fungi. To evaluate the effect of organic fertilization on the growth of citronella grass, the experiment was installed in a block randomized design in subdivided plot scheme. The plots consisted by...

  8. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia grass silage quality on family farms

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vrani?; Mladen Kneževi?; Goran Per?ulija; Josip Leto; Krešimir Bošnjak; Ivana Rupi?

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004) Over last 15 years, grass silage become of the same importance in dairy cows nutrition as other traditionally conserved forage in Croatia. In this paper the nutritive value of grass silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension servi...

  9. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10?2 d L?1 and 4.6 × 10?2 d L?1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10?2 d L?1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10?3 d L?1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of 137Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y?1 and 0.04 ?Sv y?1,while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y?1 and 0.05 ?Sv y?1, respectively. -- Highlights: • This is a detailed study on Fv and Fm for 137Cs and stable Cs around the Kaiga nuclear power plant, India. • The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. • The Fm value for 137Cs for the local breed cows was estimated to be 2.4 × 10?2 d L?1. • The Fm value for dairy farm cows (4.0 × 10?3 d L?1) was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. • The reasons for the higher Fm values for 137Cs for the local breed cows are identified

  10. Phytolith indices as proxies of grass subfamilies on East African tropical mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, Laurent; Alexandre, Anne; Wooller, Matthew J.; Hély, Christelle; Williamson, David; Schäfer, Peter A.; Majule, Amos; Guiot, Joël

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide researchers that investigate fossil phytolith assemblages and model/data comparisons a new tool for estimating C 3/C 4 grass composition over time. We tested the reliability of modern soil phytolith assemblages and phytolith indices for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies and tree cover density. We analyzed modern soil phytolith assemblages from sites over elevation gradients on Mount Kenya (Kenya), Mount Rungwe and around Lake Masoko (southern Tanzania). These data were compared with available botanical data. A phytolith index named Ic, proved to be an effective proxy of the proportions of Pooideae, Arundinoideae and Bambusoideae grasses (mainly C 3 grasses) versus Panicoideae grasses (mainly C 4 grasses), increasing with elevation in East-Africa. When tropical mountains are covered by open habitats (e.g . grasses and shrublands), Ic should be a reliable proxy of the C 3/C 4 grass composition. These results highlight the value of the phytolith index Ic, when interpreting paleo-environmental records from tropical mountains, to: 1) better understand past local and regional C 3/C 4 grass distributions and associated climatic changes and 2) increase the set of C 3/C 4 data available for model/data comparisons.

  11. Molecular characterization of Phl p II, a major timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolecek, C; Vrtala, S.; Laffer, S; Steinberger, P.; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O.; VALENTA, R

    1993-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens belong to the most important and widespread elicitors of pollen allergy. Using serum IgE from a grass pollen allergic patient, a complete cDNA encoding a group II allergen was isolated from a timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen expression library. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Phl p II allergen shows an average sequence identity of 61% with the protein sequences determined for group II/III allergens from rye grass (Lolium perenne) and a sequence identity of ...

  12. Dry Matter Yields and Forage Quality of Grass Alone and Grass Plus Legume Mixture in Relation to Cattle Manure Rates and Production Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yoottasanong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out at Khon Kaen University from April-November 2011 to determine dry matter yields and forage quality of the Purple Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. TD 58 and grass plus legumes grown on Korat soil series (Oxic Paleustults. The 3 Production Methods (PM were used viz., without legume (PM1, with Verano stylo, Stylosanthes hamata cv., Verano, (PM2 and with Wynn cassia, Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv., Wynn, (PM3. Dry Cattle Manure (CM rates of 0, 8, 16 and 24 t ha–1 were used. They were subjected to a 3×4 factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with 4 replications. The results showed that an increase in cattle manure rates highly increased both Dry Matter Yields (DMY% of the grass alone and grass plus legumes. The high DMY of 10,596 and 10,673 tons ha–1 were attained with the PM2 and the PM3, respectively. An increase in cattle manure rates highly decreased Crude Protein (CP% of the grass alone and grass plus legumes mixture. Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF% for the grass alone increased with an increase in cattle manure rates only up to 8 t ha–1 but the production methods did not. The NDF% of the grass plus legumes mixture highly increased with an increase in cattle manure rates but a reverse result was found with the production methods. Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF% for the grass alone highly increased but the increase was only up to 8 t ha–1. Production methods had no significant effect on the ADF%. An increase in cattle manure rates did not significantly affect DMD%, except that of the production methods where an increase was with the PM2 only.

  13. Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. AGANGA; U.J. Omphile; T. Thema; J.C. Baitshotlhi

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum) cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m). They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increa...

  14. Repeated evolution of salt-tolerance in grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, T. H.; Flowers, T. J.; Bromham, L

    2013-01-01

    The amount of salt-affected agricultural land is increasing globally, so new crop varieties are needed that can grow in salt-affected soils. Despite concerted effort to develop salt-tolerant cereal crops, few commercially viable salt-tolerant crops have been released. This is puzzling, given the number of naturally salt-tolerant grass species. To better understand why salt-tolerance occurs naturally but is difficult to breed into crop species, we take a novel, biodiversity-based approach to i...

  15. Effect of grasses on herbicide fate in the soil column: infiltration of runoff, movement, and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jason B; Coats, Joel R

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate if the presence of grass or the type of grass influences the environmental fate of herbicides within a soil column. Intact soil columns were planted with either smooth brome, big bluestem, tall fescue, switchgrass, or a mixture of prairie grasses or were left unvegetated. Artificial runoff containing atrazine, metolachlor, and pendimethalin was applied to the columns and allowed to infiltrate, and the resulting leachate was collected at the bottom of the soil column. This process was repeated on day 7 with herbicide-fortified runoff and on days 14 and 21 with water only. Following the leaching experiments, soil from the columns was fortified with either [14C]atrazine or [14C]metolachlor to measure pesticide degradation potential. The mean time necessary for infiltration of the artificial runoff decreased from 7.5 h for unvegetated to 3.4 h for grassed soil columns, and the type of grass did not have a significant effect. Neither the type of grass nor the presence of grass caused a significant change in the total amount of herbicide that leached through the columns. However, the presence of some grasses did decrease the amount of herbicide that leached in the final two events (i.e., additions not fortified with herbicide). Fescue was the least effective, reducing the amount of leached atrazine and metolachlor by 13% and 33% respectively, and mixed prairie grass was most effective, with reductions of 43% and 44%, respectively. In addition, atrazine and metolachlor degraded more rapidly in soil vegetated by some grasses. Mixed prairie grass had the greatest effect, increasing atrazine mineralization by 260% and formation of metolachlor-bound residue by 760%. PMID:15379004

  16. Prairie grass establishment on calcareous reclaimed mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Mark; Cardina, John

    2011-01-01

    Reclaimed Appalachian surface mined lands have difficulty in sustaining native deciduous forest communities. Establishing prairie communities could increase ecosystem function; however, a native model system does not exist. We evaluated establishment of 15 North American prairie grasses as monocultures on reclaimed mine soil in southeast Ohio in four randomized complete blocks planted May 2005 and 2006. Population density was assessed 30 d after planting (30 DAP) and in October of the planting year (YR1) and second year following planting (YR2) and expressed as percentage of viable seeds sown (PVSS). Canopy cover of nonnative species reestablishing in the plots was measured in 2007. Eastern gamagrass ( L.) population was >50 PVSS in all censuses. Western wheatgrass [ (Rydb.) A. Löve] was initially 7 PVSS at 30 DAP, but increased to 154 PVSS by YR2 from rhizomes spreading into gaps. Big bluestem ( Vitman) was 7 PVSS at 30 DAP and 4 PVSS at YR2. Blue grama [ (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths] and sideoats grama [ (Michx.) Torr.] did not survive past YR1. Gaps left from poor stand establishment were primarily recolonized by nonnative Kentucky bluegrass ( L.) in the 2005 planting and birdsfoot trefoil ( L.) in the 2006 planting, but was least in eastern gamagrass and tall dropseed [ (P. Beauv.) Kunth]. This research demonstrates the potential for increasing diversity and species richness on mine soil habitats with regionally native grasses that could increase functional quality through ecological resilience. PMID:22031565

  17. Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed. Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The one with highest (R2 and lowest (MBE and (RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. Three temperatures (35, 45 and 55°C and three humidities (30, 40 and 50% were investigated with a fixed air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Conclusion/Recommendation: The increase in the drying air temperature increased the drying process and decreased the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC of Lemon grass. The drying process decreased as the air humidity increases. The effect was less than that of the temperature. The EMC have high values with high relative humidity.

  18. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR ?) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 ?m) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ? (C/EBP ?) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue. PMID:25893904

  19. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  20. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Gerorge Peel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment

  1. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  2. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10-11m-1. The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  3. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  4. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  5. Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

  6. Pretratamiento Alcalino de Pasto Elefante (Pennisetum sp) y King Grass (Pennisetum hybridum) Cultivados en Colombia para la Producción de Bioetanol / Alkaline Pretreatment of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum Sp) and King Grass (Pennisetum Hybridum) Cultured in Colombia for Ethanol Production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana M, Cardona; Jorge A, Rios; Juan D, Peña; Luis A, Rios.

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes condiciones del pretratamiento con hidróxido de sodio (NaOH) en la recuperación de la fracción celulósica, remoción de lignina y producción de etanol mediante fermentación y sacarificación simultáneas de los pastos elefante y king grass (Pennisetum purpureum [...] and Pennisetum hybridum). Estos pastos son materias primas potenciales para la obtención de bioetanol a partir de la fracción celulósica. Los resultados obtenidos en producción de etanol muestran que bajo condiciones de pretratamiento de 120ºC, 60 minutos, NaOH al 2% (w/w) y una relación líquido a sólido de 20 (w/w) se obtienen las más altas concentraciones de etanol: 27.7 g/L para king grass y 26.1 g/L para pasto elefante en 24 horas de fermentación. Además, bajo las condiciones evaluadas se pudo observar remociones de lignina de 88.4% y 94.0% para pasto elefante y pasto king grass respectivamente. La etapa de desintoxicación permite eliminar inhibidores formados durante el pretratamiento, los cuales afectan la hidrólisis y fermentación. Abstract in english Abstract The effect of different alkaline pretreatment conditions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the recuperation of cellulosic fraction, lignin removal and ethanol production was evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of elephant grass and king grass ((Pennisetum purpureu [...] m and Pennisetum hybridum). These types of grass are potential raw materials for bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction. Results obtained in ethanol production show that under pretreatment conditions of 120ºC, 60 minutes, 2%(w/w) of NaOH and a liquid to solid ratio of 20 (w/w), the highest ethanol concentrations are obtained: 27.7 g/L and 26.1 g/L for king grass and elephant grass respectively, in 24 hours of fermentation. Furthermore, under the evaluated conditions it was observed that lignin removal was 88.4% for elephant grass and 94.0% for king grass. The detoxification stage eliminates inhibitors formed during pretreatment, which affects the hydrolysis and fermentation.

  7. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P.J.M., Ir; Wouters, A.P.; Kariuki, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to good relation between morphology and crude protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Napier grass.

  8. Growth-defence balance in grass biomass production: the role of jasmonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Christine; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Growth-defence balance is the selective partitioning of resources between biomass accumulation and defence responses. Although it is generally postulated that reallocation of limited carbon pools drives the antagonism between growth and defence, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this regulation. Jasmonates (JAs) are a group of oxylipins that are required for a broad range of responses from defence against insects to reproductive growth. Application of JAs to seedlings also leads to inhibited growth and repression of photosynthesis, suggesting a role for JAs in regulating growth-defence balance. The majority of JA research uses dicot models such as Arabidopsis and tomato, while understanding of JA biology in monocot grasses, which comprise most bioenergy feedstocks, food for human consumption, and animal feed, is limited. Interestingly, JA mutants of grasses exhibit unique phenotypes compared with well-studied dicot models. Gene expression analyses in bioenergy grasses also suggest roles for JA in rhizome development, which has not been demonstrated in Arabidopsis. In this review we summarize current knowledge of JA biology in panicoid grasses-the group that consists of the world's emerging bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, sugarcane, Miscanthus, and sorghum. We discuss outstanding questions regarding the role of JAs in panicoid grasses, and highlight the importance of utilizing emerging grass models for molecular studies to provide a basis for engineering bioenergy grasses that can maximize biomass accumulation while efficiently defending against stress. PMID:25711704

  9. The Use of Internal Nitrogen Stores in the Rhizomatous Grass Calamagrostis epigejos During Regrowth After Defoliation

    OpenAIRE

    KAVANOVÁ, MONIKA; GLOSER, VÍT

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The regrowth dynamics after defoliation of the invasive grass Calamagrostis epigejos were studied. As nitrogen (N) reserves have been shown to play an important role during plant regrowth, the identity, location and relative importance for regrowth of N stores were determined in this rhizomatous grass.

  10. What Makes Responses Prepotent for Young Children? Insights from the Grass-Snow Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how responses become prepotent is essential for understanding when inhibitory control is needed in everyday behaviour. We investigated prepotency in the grass-snow task--in which a child points to a green card when the experimenter says "snow" and a white card when the experimenter says "grass". Experiment 1 (n = 548, mean age = 53.5…

  11. Sod-seeding to modify coastal bermuda grass on reclaimed lignite overburden in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the ability of nine low-maintenance species to establish and persist with Coastal bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) established on reclaimed lignite overburden; to evaluate the establishment and persistence of seventeen low-maintenance species seeded in overburden with no vegetation cover; and to examine seeding mixtures and rates for establishing low-maintenance species into three cover types (bermuda grass, oats, (Avena fatua L.) and no cover). Seventeen low-maintenance species established and persisted in overburden without fertilization during years of low precipitation. Several seeded grasses showed sufficient stand development in monoculture for erosion control. Most of the other seeded species were slower in establishment, yet persisted on the site and promoted multiple use of the reclaimed area. Recommended seeding rates were generally adequate for seedling establishment in oat, bermuda grass, and no vegetation cover types. Sod-seeding into bermuda grass resulted in higher seedling densities than those in oats and no cover because of stored moisture beneath the sod during bermuda grass dormancy. Using /sup 15/N-labelled fertilizer, Coastal bermuda grass demonstrated the ability to rapidly recovery applied N. Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani Schrad.) was suppressed by Coastal bermuda grass in mixture at all fertilizer N rates.

  12. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  13. Beneficial effects of Neotyphodium tembladerae and Neotyphodium pampeanum on a wild forage grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...

  14. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity must keep a record of its lobbying expenditures for the taxable year. Lobbying expenditures of which...

  15. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lobbying communications. 56.4911-3 Section 56.4911-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT....4911-3 Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition of term... lobbying communication's costs is a direct lobbying expenditure, what portion is a grass roots...

  16. Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

  17. Soil sterilization alters interactions between the native grass Bouteloua gracilis and invasive Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The invasive grass Bromus tectorum negatively impacts grassland communities throughout the western U.S. We asked whether soil biota growing in association with a native grass (Bouteloua gracilis) increase growth and competitive ability of Bromus, and whether responses vary between soils collec...

  18. Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle fattened on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) or Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaturasitha, S; Norkeaw, R; Vearasilp, T; Wicke, M; Kreuzer, M

    2009-01-01

    Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle, fattened for 2 years on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) and Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures, were investigated in twelve 3-years old males. Groups had similar carcass quality except for kidney fat percentage (higher in cattle of the grass-legume group). This group also had a lighter meat (Longissimus dorsi, Infraspinatus) than the grass-only fed cattle. Shear force was generally at the borderline to tender meat, and was unaffected by treatment as were other texture-related properties except muscle fibre diameter. Meat of the grass-legume group was perceived less juicy (P<0.05) but more tender (P<0.1). The meat of the grass-legume-fed cattle also had more intramuscular fat (4.3% vs. 3.4%) and a slightly less favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (2.2 vs. 2.0). In conclusion, the mostly weak differences in carcass and meat quality did not clearly favour one of the grazing systems. PMID:22063976

  19. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  20. Anaerobic Mono- and Co-digestion of Mechanically Pretreated Meadow Grass for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biomass from permanent grasslands and meadows can be exploited for biogas production, because this substrate is abundant and does not compete with food production. In the present study, the biogas productivity of meadow grass silage, harvested in two different seasons (early and late Cut), was...... investigated. The grass silage was mechanically pretreated with different methods to increase its biodegradability. It was found that the early cut of non-treated meadow grass silage led to higher methane production [294 mL of CH4/g of volatile solids (VS)] compared to the corresponding non-treated meadow...... grass silage from the late cut (282 mL of CH4/g of VS). Moreover, it was found that the application of two mesh grating plates, as the pretreatment method, greatly enhanced the methane production in early and late cut silage in a range of 15 and 17%, respectively, compared to the non-treated grass...

  1. Long Term Monitoring of Grass Shrimp Palaemonetes spp. Population Metrics at Sites with Agricultural Runoff Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, Andrew K; Scott, Geoffrey I; Fulton, Michael H; Daugomah, James W

    2005-01-01

    Rising concern over pesticide usage near estuarine systems and evidence of physical and physiological impacts on estuarine organisms have strengthened the need to better identify the ecological effects of nonpoint source runoff. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes spp., are ecologically important and abundant marsh inhabitants that may be impacted by anthropogenic contamination. Populations of grass shrimp were sampled monthly, over a period of ten years, at four sites in South Carolina with varying upland land use characteristics. Spatial and temporal trends in grass shrimp densities were noted over time and between sites. Agricultural and golf course land usage corresponded with decreased grass shrimp population levels, overall shrimp size, and percentage of gravid females. Conservation methods, such as the use of best management practices (BMPs) and integrated pesticide management (IPM) at agricultural fields, corresponded with increased grass shrimp population density. PMID:21676755

  2. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  3. Immunologic characterization of purified recombinant timothy grass pollen (Phleum pratense) allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p2, Phl p 5).

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtala, S.; Susani, M.; Sperr, WR; Valent, P.; Laffer, S; Dolecek, C; Kraft, D; VALENTA, R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grass pollen allergens belong to the potent elicitors of type I allergy. Approximately 40% of allergic individuals display IgE reactivity with grass pollen allergens. In previous studies we have reported the complementary DNA cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of three of the most relevant timothy grass pollen allergens: Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5. OBJECTIVE: To achieve high level expression of immunologically active timothy grass pollen allergens in E. coli, the cDNAs ...

  4. Detrimental and Neutral Effects of a Wild Grass-Fungal Endophyte Symbiotum on Insect Preference and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Stephen L.; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass—endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass—endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more...

  5. The interplay between the effectiveness of the grass-endophyte mutualism and the genetic variability of the host plant

    OpenAIRE

    Gundel, Pedro E.; Omacini, Marina; Sadras, Victor O; Ghersa, Claudio M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotyphodium endophytic fungi, the asexual state of Epichloë species, protect cool-season grasses against stresses. The outcomes of Neotyphodium-grass symbioses are agronomically relevant as they may affect the productivity of pastures. It has been suggested that the mutualism is characteristic of agronomic grasses and that differential rates of gene flow between both partners’ populations are expected to disrupt the specificity of the association and, thus, the mutualism in wild grasses. We ...

  6. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  7. Aboveground productivity and root-shoot allocation differ between native and introduced grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Brian J; Polley, H Wayne

    2006-11-01

    Plant species in grasslands are often separated into groups (C(4) and C(3) grasses, and forbs) with presumed links to ecosystem functioning. Each of these in turn can be separated into native and introduced (i.e., exotic) species. Although numerous studies have compared plant traits between the traditional groups of grasses and forbs, fewer have compared native versus introduced species. Introduced grass species, which were often introduced to prevent erosion or to improve grazing opportunities, have become common or even dominant species in grasslands. By virtue of their abundances, introduced species may alter ecosystems if they differ from natives in growth and allocation patterns. Introduced grasses were probably selected nonrandomly from the source population for forage (aboveground) productivity. Based on this expectation, aboveground production is predicted to be greater and root mass fraction to be smaller in introduced than native species. We compared root and shoot distribution and tissue quality between introduced and native C(4) grass species in the Blackland Prairie region of Central Texas, USA, and then compared differences to the more well-studied divergence between C(4) grasses and forbs. Comparisons were made in experimental monocultures planted with equal-sized transplants on a common soil type and at the same density. Aboveground productivity and C:N ratios were higher, on average, in native grasses than in native forbs, as expected. Native and introduced grasses had comparable amounts of shallow root biomass and tissue C:N ratios. However, aboveground productivity and total N were lower and deep root biomass and root mass fraction were greater in native than introduced grasses. These differences in average biomass distribution and N could be important to ecosystems in cases where native and introduced grasses have been exchanged. Our results indicate that native-introduced status may be important when interpreting species effects on grassland processes like productivity and plant N accumulation. PMID:16927104

  8. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo C., Dornelas; Adriana P.M., Rodriguez.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Como na maior parte das gramíneas, num determinado momento do seu ciclo de vida, o meristema vegetativo da cana-de-açúcar é convertido em meristema reprodutivo. Em cana-de-açúcar há pelo menos duas conversões meristemáticas distintas entre a indução para o florescimento e a formação do florete. Em e [...] spécies dicotiledôneas modelo, a conversão sucessiva das identidades dos meristemas, bem como o arranjo concêntrico de órgãos florais são controlados geneticamente. Todos os genes e/ou proteínas sabidamente envolvidos no desenvolvimento floral foram anotados e identificados no banco de dados do SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project). Comparações de seqüências entre genes reconhecidamente envolvidos no controle do desenvolvimento floral revelaram a conservação evolutiva entre os mecanismos de formação do padrão de desenvolvimento floral entre mono- e dicotiledôneas, bem como entre as gramíneas. Nossos estudos se concentraram na análise das famílias multigênicas dos fatores de transcrição do tipo MADS-box e AP2, uma vez que estes têm um papel importante na regulação do desenvolvimento reprodutivo vegetal. Também são apresentadas considerações sobre a genética evolutiva do desenvolvimento das flores de gramíneas e sua relação com o modelo ABC do desenvolvimento floral. Abstract in english In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (f [...] loret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Project (SUCEST) database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2) family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  9. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high initial N2O emission from simulated urine patches. The results are discussed in relation to the national N2O inventory guidelines issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the environmental impact of organic farming practises are also considered. Suggestions for future research are outlined. (au)

  10. Round baled grass silage as food for reindeer in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove H. Aagnes

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Round baled silage of mixed grasses was tested as emergency food for reindeer in winter. The silage was made of leaf rich regrowth of Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis and Poa spp. It contained 33-3% dry matter (DM, and 14.8 % crude protein, 24.5% cellulose and 26.7% hemicellulose on a DM basis. Palatability, food intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, body mass (BM, carcass weight and gastrointestinal (GI anatomy were investigated. A group of adult female reindeer (n = 38, were taken from natural winter pasture and fed grass silage ad libitum. The majority (78% of the animals were eating silage after two days and 95% of the animals ate silage after five days. Five reindeer calves were taken from natural winter pasture and fed lichens ad libitum for 14 days after which they were starved for two days before being offered silage adlibitum. The median daily DM food intake was 370 g (range 250-610 g on the first day increasing to 810 g (range 530-1100 g at days 16 to 20. Median apparent digestibility coefficient (DC of DM was 64.3% (range 62.4-66.2%. The median in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD of the silage after 72 h of microbial digestion was 68.3 % (range 66.6-71.3 % (Ws=30, n,=5, n2=4, P<0.01. Median ruminal VFA concentration and pH were 48.2 mM (range 38.4-52.5 mM and 7.0 (range 6.95-7.17, respectively, in the reindeer calves (n=5. BM initially increased when the reindeer calves were fed silage, but stabilised after 11 days. The increased BM may have been due to an increased recticulo-rumen digesta load, which amounted to 19.6-23.7 % of BM (n=3. The carcass weight of the reindeer calves was 42.6-44.2% of the BM (n=3 after 47 days of silage feeding. The results indicate that although the round bale silage of mixed grasses of medium quality was highly palatable to reindeer it was apparantly of only limited value as an emergency food for the reindeer calves, as indicated by low DC of DM and low ruminal VFA concentration.

  11. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which helps researchers to ensure the robustness of the algorithm, correctness of the results in edge cases as well as the detection of changes in results due to new development. For all modules GRASS GIS automatically creates standardized command line and graphical user interfaces and documentation. Finally, we will show how GRASS GIS can be used together with powerful Python tools such as the NumPy package and the IPython Notebook. References: Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environmental Modelling & Software 53, 1-12. Neteler, M., Bowman, M.H., Landa, M. and Metz, M., 2012. GRASS GIS: a multi-purpose Open Source GIS. Environmental Modelling & Software 31: 124-130. Petras, V., Gebbert, S., 2014. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing. Poster presented at: AGU Fall Meeting, December 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, USA. Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219.

  12. Potential of ozonolysis as a pretreatment for energy grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Anushadevi; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Kolar, Praveen; Ranney, Thomas; Peretti, Steven

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of ozonolysis on Miscanthus × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracillimus', Saccharum arundinaceum and Saccharum ravennae, collectively referred to as 'energy grasses'. Studies were conducted at three different ozone concentrations (40, 50 and 58 mg/l) using two ozone flow configurations - uni-directional and reversed flow. Pretreatment conditions for each variety were optimized based on lignin content and glucan recovery in ozonated solids. Results showed that ozonolysis was effective in removing up to 59.9% lignin without cellulose degradation. However, subsequent hydrolysis of pretreated solids with Cellic® CTec2 at 0.06 g/g raw biomass provided glucan conversion lower than untreated samples suggesting enzyme inhibition by lignin degradation products formed during ozonolysis. Future studies investigating hydrolysis efficiency of washed pretreated solids with higher enzyme loadings are therefore warranted to optimize the hydrolysis process and make it functionally feasible. PMID:24050926

  13. Radiation and temperature influence on forage grasses yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass production has been studied in forage plants, as well as the temperature and radiation effects on plant growth. Four cultivars of grasses: Lolium multiflorum var westerwoldicum cv Promenade, Lolium perenne cvs Combi and Compas and Bromus inermis were growing as microswards in a growth chamber with constant temperature and outdoors. A field assay was done also with the same cultivars. L. multiflorum was the highest productive genotype anywhere showing also more active growth at low temperatures. Total production showed significant differences among genotypes. It was also a clear correspondence among microswards and field productions. Highest efficiency values (in % of PAR accumulated as dry matter) was obtained in 6th cut (April) achieving to 5.18 % in L. multiflorum. Biomass production variations through the growth period show a low correlation with <> and very high correlation with total irradiation received by the sward between consecutive cuts

  14. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  15. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  16. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  17. Warm season grass establishment (in one year without the weeds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native warm season grasses, big bluestem and indian, were established by the broadcast method on a relatively large area (130 acres) of reclaimed coal surface-mined land in Perry County, Illinois. Existing vegetation was controlled using two quarts of Round-Up and 12 ounces of Plateau per acre the first week of May. Five pounds of pure live seed of both species were applied by airflow using 100 pounds per acre of 0-46-0 and 100 pounds per acre of 0-0-60, primarily to carry the seed. The surface was cultipacked to insure good seed to soil contact. Planting was initiated and completed the last week of June. An estimated 95% to 100% ground cover was evident by mid to late August. By mid September, numerous big blue stem flower/seed stalks were noticeable

  18. The epichloae: alkaloid diversity and roles in symbiosis with grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Florea, Simona; Pan, Juan; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Bec, Sladana; Calie, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species; Clavicipitaceae) are fungi that live in systemic symbioses with cool-season grasses, and many produce alkaloids that are deterrent or toxic to herbivores. The epichloae colonize much of the aerial plant tissues, and most benignly colonize host seeds to transmit vertically. Of their four chemical classes of alkaloids, the ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes are active against mammals and insects, whereas peramine and lolines specifically affect insects. Comparative genomic analysis of Clavicipitaceae reveals a distinctive feature of the epichloae, namely, large repeat blocks in their alkaloid biosynthesis gene loci. Such repeat blocks can facilitate gene losses, mutations, and duplications, thus enhancing diversity of alkaloid structures within each class. We suggest that alkaloid diversification is selected especially in the vertically transmissible epichloae. PMID:23850071

  19. Epichloë festucae and related mutualistic symbionts of grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, C L

    2001-07-01

    Epichloë and Neotyphodium species (Ascomycota) are mutualistic symbionts (endophytes) of temperate grasses, to which they impart numerous and profound fitness benefits. Epichloë festucae, a common symbiont of Festuca, Lolium,and Koeleria spp., is a model for endophyte research that is amenable to Mendelian and molecular genetic analysis. Characteristics of E. festucae include: (i) production of the anti-insect alkaloids peramine and lolines, (ii) production of the anti-vertebrate alkaloids lolitrem B and ergovaline, (iii) efficient vertical transmission via host seeds, (iv) a mildly pathogenic state associated with the E. festucae sexual cycle, and (v) a clear role in enhancing survival of host plants. Genetic analysis of alkaloid production has recently begun. Also, physiological and ultrastructural studies suggest that signals communicated between E. festucae and host plants ensure an exquisitely balanced interaction to the mutual benefit of both partners. Several mutualistic Neotyphodium species are hybrids between E. festucae and other endophyte species. PMID:11456460

  20. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... richness relative to native richness in California; warmer areas contain higher proportions of exotic species. This pattern was very well captured by a simple model that predicts invasion severity given only the trait–climate relationship for native species and trait differences between native and exotic...... species. This study provides some of the first evidence for an important interaction between climate change and species invasions across very broad geographic and taxonomic scales....

  1. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most previous studies of resuspension relate to arid and sparsely vegetated areas, and are not closely relevant in Britain and many other temperate areas. This report describes measurements of resuspension from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds. The measurements were carried out in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air onto 10 m2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of slit, sprayed onto a similar area of grass and allowed to dry, were broadly similar. The resuspension factor, initially 2 x 10-7 to 10-5 m-1, declined as the reciprocal of time of exposure to the wind and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source area give rise to large uncertainties in the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements such as those published here. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10-11 m-1. The fraction of deposited fallout that is resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10%

  2. Glucose Metabolism in Sheep Fed Grass Supplemented with Gliricidia Sepium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Widiawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritivefeed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionat and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteen sheeps (18 months old were used in the experiment. Theseare were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group, Gliricidia(GS group, and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group. D-[U-14C]glucoseinfusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps. The measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01. Glucose entry rate (GER increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that theutilization of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention.

  3. C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschner, Wolfram M.

    2010-05-01

    C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

  4. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Cellulose Synthase Gene Superfamily in Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, Julian G; MacKenzie, Katrin; Wright, Frank; Oehme, Daniel; Wagner, John M; Harvey, Andrew J; Shirley, Neil J; Burton, Rachel A; Schreiber, Miriam; Halpin, Claire; Zimmer, Jochen; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2015-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of cellulose synthase (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families from the cellulose synthase gene superfamily were used to reconstruct their evolutionary origins and selection histories. Counterintuitively, genes encoding primary cell wall CesAs have undergone extensive expansion and diversification following an ancestral duplication from a secondary cell wall-associated CesA. Selection pressure across entire CesA and Csl clades appears to be low, but this conceals considerable variation within individual clades. Genes in the CslF clade are of particular interest because some mediate the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucan, a polysaccharide characteristic of the evolutionarily successful grasses that is not widely distributed elsewhere in the plant kingdom. The phylogeny suggests that duplication of either CslF6 and/or CslF7 produced the ancestor of a highly conserved cluster of CslF genes that remain located in syntenic regions of all the grass genomes examined. A CslF6-specific insert encoding approximately 55 amino acid residues has subsequently been incorporated into the gene, or possibly lost from other CslFs, and the CslF7 clade has undergone a significant long-term shift in selection pressure. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics of the CslF6 protein were used to define the three-dimensional dispositions of individual amino acids that are subject to strong ongoing selection, together with the position of the conserved 55-amino acid insert that is known to influence the amounts and fine structures of (1,3;1,4)-?-glucans synthesized. These wall polysaccharides are attracting renewed interest because of their central roles as sources of dietary fiber in human health and for the generation of renewable liquid biofuels. PMID:25999407

  5. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U-14C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  6. Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n< 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  8. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  9. MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears

  10. Complex interactions between a legume and two grasses in a subalpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Charles; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Winterton, Peter; Lamaze, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between plants are a complex combination of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on environmental contexts. The more frequent association of Trifolium alpinum (legume) with Festuca eskia than with Nardus stricta (grasses) in many Pyrenean subalpine meadows suggests a differential ability to use nitrogen (N) derived from N(2) fixation. In the field, we investigated the interactions between the legume and grasses and, in the glasshouse, the transfer of (15)N from the legume to the grasses. In one grass-Trifolium mixture, the legume had a strong positive effect on the biomass and N content of the grass as compared to pure grass stands. When both grasses grew together with the legume, only Festuca benefited from the presence of Trifolium but, surprisingly, the benefit decreased with increasing Trifolium abundance. Leaf labeling experiments with (15)N-NH(4)(+) revealed a higher transfer of (15)N from Trifolium to Festuca than to Nardus, suggesting a more direct N pathway between the two species. This more direct pathway could prevent Nardus from benefiting from the legume N in the three-species mixtures. Thus, the positive interactions between N-fixers and nonfixers appear to be largely species-specific and to depend strongly on the species in the plant assemblage. PMID:21622302

  11. The effect of seaweed Ecklonia maxima extract and mineral nitrogen on fodder grass chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Grażyna Anna; Godlewska, Agnieszka; Jankowska, Jolanta

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the biostimulant Kelpak and different nitrogen rates on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents as well as non-structural carbohydrates in orchard grass and Braun's festulolium. The experiment was a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. It was set up at the experimental facility of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, in late April 2009. The following factors were examined: biostimulant with the trade name Kelpak SL applied at 2 dm(3) ha(-1) and a control-no biostimulant; nitrogen application rates 50 and 150 kg ha(-1) and a control (0 kg ha(-1)); pure stands of grass species grown in monoculture-orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), cv. Amila,-Braun's festulolium (Festulolium braunii), cv. Felopa. Kelpak significantly increased non-structural carbohydrates, and increasing nitrogen rates reduced the concentration of these components in plants. Increasing nitrogen rates significantly decreased cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and non-structural carbohydrate contents. Compared with orchard grass, Braun's festulolium proved to be of a higher nutritional value due to lower cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents and more non-structural carbohydrates. The aforementioned contents in the grasses differed significantly depending on the cut. Most cellulose and non-structural carbohydrates were determined in second-cut grass whereas most hemicellulose and lignin in second-cut grass. PMID:26408121

  12. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  13. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P??0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P?>?0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward. PMID:26003429

  14. MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; No, In Gye; Chin, Seoung Bum; Kim, Joon Sik; Choi, Jae Yeul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears.

  15. Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ?s and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428

  16. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Arnesson, A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS), medium (MCS) or late (LCS) cut grass silage. The ECS, MCS and LCS silages contained 449, 578, and 634 g NDF kg-1 and 166, 111 and 81 g crude protein kg-1 DM, respectively. The in situ rumen indigestible ND...

  17. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased the solubilization of dry matter (DM) during HTT and gave increased glucan content, but lower lignin in the insoluble fiber fraction. Ensiling improved glucose yields in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed solid fiber fraction at the lower HTT temperatures. At 170°C glucose yield improved from 17 to 24 (w/w)% (45 to 57% cellulose convertibility), and at 180°C glucose yield improved from 22 to 29 (w/w)% (54 to 69% cellulose convertibility). Direct HTT of grass at 190°C gave the same high glucose yield as for grass silage (35 (w/w)% (77% cellulose convertibility)) and improved xylan yields (27% xylan convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar for HTT of grass and grass silage at both 170 and 180°C, but at 190°C the overall sugar yield was better for HTT of dry grass. Conclusions: This study unequivocally establishes that ensiling of grass as a biomass pretreatment method comes with a loss of WSC. The loss of WSC by ensiling is not necessarily compensated for by providing a lower temperature requirement for HTT for high enzymatic monosaccharide release. However, ensiling can be an advantageous storage method prior to grass processing. © 2014 Ambye-Jensen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  19. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  20. Enumeration of lactic acid bacteria on grass and the effects on silage fermentation of added bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies on the methodology of enumerating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on grass and silage indicated that (a) varying the homogenisation time in a stomacher from 1 to 7 minutes did not effect LAB numbers, (b) MRS and Rogosa media gave similar LAB counts in silage and (c) anaerobic incubation of plates led to higher counts of LAB from silage compared to micro-aerophi1ic incubation, but similar counts from grass. A survey of LAB numbers on grass grown for silage sh...

  1. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly contribute to understanding how different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic grid are regulated. Given the conservation of the selected regulators in other grasses, results derived from this project are likely to provide important tools for the manipulation of phenolic compounds in other emerging biomass producers (e.g., switchgrass or miscanthus), either through conventional breeding techniques (e.g., marker-assisted breeding) or by using transgenic approaches.

  2. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian; Gislum, René; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16...... yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  trial coordinates, the average altitude, the average of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to  trees and hedges...... close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the timing of crop and soil damage as affected by wheel load and tire pressure. However, at specific times, there was a significant effect of wheel load and secondary by the tire pressure. At all...

  3. Ionomics: Genes and QTLs controlling heavy metal uptake in perennial grasses grown on phytoxic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses occupy diverse soils throughout the world, including many sites contaminated with heavy metals. Uncovering the genetic architecture of QTLs controlling mineral homoeostasis is critical for understanding the biochemical pathways that determine the elemental profiles of perennial pl...

  4. Solar Grass Cutter With Linear Blades By Using Scotch Yoke Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Amrutesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Solar grass cutter is a machine that uses sliding blades to cut a lawn at an even length. Even more sophisticated devices are there in every field. Power consumption becomes essential for future. Solar grass cutter is a very useful device which is very simple in construction. It is used to maintain and upkeep lawns in gardens, schools, college’s etc. We have made some changes in the existing machine to make its application easier at reduced cost. Our main aim in pollution control is attained through this. Unskilled operation can operate easily and maintain the lawn very fine and uniform surface look. In our project, ?Solar grass cutter? is used to cut the different grasses for the different application.

  5. Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

  6. Additions to the grasses (Poaceae of Telangana from Kawal Tiger Reserve, Adilabad District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Chorghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three species of grasses viz., Dimeria orissae, Iseilema holei and Spodiopogon rhizophorus are being reported for the first time as new distributional records to Telangana from the Kawal Tiger Reserve. Detailed description and illustrations are provided here.

  7. Ferulic acid: a key component in grass lignocellulose recalcitrance to hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Dyoni Matias; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Rodrigues Mota, Thatiane; Salvador, Victor Hugo; Moreira-Vilar, Flávia Carolina; Correa Molinari, Hugo Bruno; Craig Mitchell, Rowan Andrew; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo; Dantas Dos Santos, Wanderley

    2015-12-01

    In the near future, grasses must provide most of the biomass for the production of renewable fuels. However, grass cell walls are characterized by a large quantity of hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic and p-coumaric acids, which are thought to reduce the biomass saccharification. Ferulic acid (FA) binds to lignin, polysaccharides and structural proteins of grass cell walls cross-linking these components. A controlled reduction of FA level or of FA cross-linkages in plants of industrial interest can improve the production of cellulosic ethanol. Here, we review the biosynthesis and roles of FA in cell wall architecture and in grass biomass recalcitrance to enzyme hydrolysis. PMID:25417596

  8. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...communication, the communication will be treated...grass roots lobbying communication except to the extent that the electing public charity demonstrates that the communication was made primarily...E uses office space and...

  9. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. Species of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes wheat, barley and important forage grasses, have evolved extreme frost tolerance. A class of ice binding proteins that inhibit ice re-crystallisation, specific to the Pooideae...... expansion of the IRI-gene family happened ~36 million years ago (Mya). In addition to IRI-like paralogs, wheat contained several sequences that likely were products of polyploidisation events (homoeologs). Through sequence analysis we identified two short motifs in the rice LRR-PSR gene highly similar to...... the repeat motifs of the IRI-domain in cold tolerant grasses. Finally we show that the LRR-domain of carrot and grass IRI proteins both share homology to an Arabidopsis thaliana LRR-trans membrane protein kinase (LRR-TPK). Conclusion The diverse IRI-like genes identified in this study tell a tale of a...

  10. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...

  11. Growth response of some cultivars of bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon L.) to salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turfgrasses range from extremely salt sensitive to highly salt tolerant. Turf grass improvement for salinity tolerance requires reliable assessment for their adaptability to saline conditions, which vary among grasses. In the present study, four Bermuda grass cultivars - Tifway, Tifdwarf, Dacca and Khabbal (local ecotype) were assessed for salinity tolerance using half-strength Hoagland's solution culture system under green house conditions. The cultivars were exposed to five salinity levels viz., 2.4 (control) 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl). Increasing salt concentration in the nutrient media caused: (a) a reduction in number of stolons/plug, number of roots/plug, length of shoot, dry weights of root and shoot, turf quality, and potassium content in stolons, (b) increase in sodium and chloride content in stolons. Overall, cv. Tifway was found to be the most tolerant to salinity while Khabbal the most sensitive, among all four grass cultivars. (author)

  12. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 395...

  13. Protein contamination on Klason lignin contents in tropical grasses and legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the extent of protein contamination on Klason lignin (KL in tropical grasses and legumes, and to propose an equation to estimate the protein-free content of Klason lignin (KLp. Five grass (30 samples and 12 legume species (31 samples were evaluated. Legumes had higher KL contents. Protein contamination was significant in both grasses and legumes, but greater in legume samples. The model to predict KLp was based on KL and crude protein (CP contents, as follows: KLp = 0.8807KL - 0.0938KL x D - 0.00338CP (R2=0.935, in which D=0, for grasses, and D=1 for legumes.

  14. Mowing to Recycle Grass Clippings: Let the Clips Fall Where they May!

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, David Robert, 1951-; Booze-Daniels, Jody N.

    2009-01-01

    Explains the problems associated with traditional disposal of grass clippings by sending them to the landfill and introduces grasscycling, the direct return of fresh clippings to the lawn, as a viable option.

  15. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2004-07-01

    This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

  16. Asexual endophytes in a native grass: Tradeoffs in mortality, growth, reproduction, and alkaloid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual, seed-borne fungal symbionts that are thought to interact mutualistically with their grass hosts. Benefits include increased growth, reproduction, and resistance of herbivores via endophytic alkaloids. Although these benefits are well established in infected int...

  17. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 75...

  18. [Book Review] Field guide to the common grasses of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, by I. Barnard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Field Guide to the Common Grasses of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. Iralee Barnard. 2014. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA. 264 pages. $24.95 (paper). ISBN: 978-0-7006-1945-0.

  19. Yield and Chemical Composition of Brachiaria Forage Grasses in the Offseason after Corn Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Gean Alves Maia; Kátia Aparecida de Pinho Costa; Eduardo da Costa Severiano; Patrícia Soares Epifanio; José Flávio Neto; Matheus Gonçalves Ribeiro; Patrick Bezerra Fernandes; José Fausto Guimarães Silva; Wainer Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria ruziziensis, intercropped in oversown corn for implantation of integrated crop-livestock system. The results showed that intercropping corn with Brachiaria grasses favors the production of high-

  20. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight cattle...

  1. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight...

  2. Warming and altered precipitation affect litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics in a mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Luo, Y.; Xu, X.; Li, D.; Niu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics are important processes in ecosystems and how they respond to climate changes is a global concern. In order to explore the effects of warming and altered precipitation on litter decomposition and nitrogen dynamics, we conducted a field decomposition experiment with warming (+3°C) and altered precipitation (half and double) in a mixed-grass prairie in Oklahoma, USA, using litter bags with dominant C3 and C4 grasses since June, 2012. Litter bags were collected every month in the first six months and subsequently every three month thereafter. Remaining litter biomass as well as element concentration were measured in the lab. Warming significantly decreased the litter decomposition rate (k) by 25.4% for C3 grasses and 25.0% for C4 grasses. Doubled precipitation significantly increased the litter decomposition rate by 23.3% for C3 grasses and 30.1% for C4 grasses while half precipitation showed no significant effects. Soil temperature and soil moisture, controlled by warming and altered precipitation, are found to be the most important factors in regulating litter decomposition rate. Warming also decreased N concentration in C3 grasses while doubled precipitation increased N concentration in C4 grasses after one year of field decomposition. During that time, N concentration showed an average increase of 99.6% in C3 grass while only 68.1% in C4 grass. Other elements such as P and K were not much affected by these treatments although there were significant differences between C3 and C4 grasses. Our results suggest that climate change has significant impact on litter decomposition rate, which could influence the carbon balance of the ecosystem. Nutrient dynamics, especially nitrogen, were shown to be specific to plant types under altered climatic conditions. Our results show that conclusion derived from single-factor climate change experiments should be treated with caution due to interactive effects of warming with altered precipitation and differential responses of C3 and C4 plants.

  3. Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: Movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena; Ekblom, Björn; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33...

  4. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poaceae, Poales) and their interspecific hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Vânia Helena Techio; Lisete Chamma Davide; Antônio Vander Pereira

    2006-01-01

    The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28) and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14) can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21). This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their proge...

  5. Monami as an oscillatory hydrodynamic instability in a submerged sea grass bed

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ravi; Bandi, M M; Mahadevan, Amala

    2014-01-01

    The onset of monami, the synchronous waving of sea grass beds driven by a steady flow, is modeled as a linear instability of the flow. Our model treats the drag exerted by the grass in establishing the steady flow profile, and in damping out perturbations to it. This damping leads to a finite threshold flow for the instability, which agrees with experimental observations. This role of vegetation drag differentiates our mechanism from the previous hypothesis that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability underlies monami.

  6. Vegetative Hyphal Fusion and Subsequent Nuclear Behavior in Epichloë Grass Endophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D.; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A.; Craven, Kelly D.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nu...

  7. Pseudo-steppes with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea in Natura 2000 sites

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals includes a variety of xeric, termophilic and mostly open Mediterranean perennial and annual grasslands growing on usually eutrophic, but also oligotrophic, soils. Three major sub-types should be considered: one of perennial basophile rather hard short-grass communities, included in Lygeo-Stipetalia; another one of very dense and short but highly productive perennial summer drying swards, created by intense and continuous livestock activity, included in P...

  8. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacianelly Karla da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4 Latin square design.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS, elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS, elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB, and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB. There was no difference in dry matter (DM intake between diets EGS and CS in g d?1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg?1 d?1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

  9. Close Association of Azospirillum and Diazotrophic Rods with Different Root Zones of Kallar Grass

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The populations of diazotrophic and nondiazotrophic bacteria were estimated in the endorhizosphere and on the rhizoplane of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) and in nonrhizosphere soil. Microaerophilic diazotrophs were counted by the most-probable-number method, using two semisolid malate media, one of them adapted to the saline-sodic Kallar grass soil. Plate counts of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were done on nutrient agar. The dominating N2-fixing bacteria were differentiated by morphologic...

  10. Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser S. Al-Khalifah

    2000-01-01

    Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro condition...

  11. ROOT COLONIZATION AND SYSTEMIC SPREADING OF AZOARCUS SP STRAIN-BH72 IN GRASSES

    OpenAIRE

    HUREK, T; REINHOLD-HUREK, B; Van Montagu, Marc; E. Kellenberger

    1994-01-01

    The invasive properties of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72, an endorhizospheric isolate of Kallar grass, on gnotobiotically grown seedlings of Oryza sativa IR36 and Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth were studied. Additionally, Azoarcus spp. were localized in roots of field-grown Kallar grass. To facilitate localization and to assure identity of bacteria, genetically engineered microorganisms expressing beta-glucuronidase were also used as inocula. beta-Glucuronidase staining indicated that the apical regi...

  12. Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Fuller, C W

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare incidences and patterns of injury for female and male elite teams when playing football on artificial turf and grass. Twenty teams (15 male, 5 female) playing home matches on third-generation artificial turf were followed prospectively; their injury risk when playing on artificial turf pitches was compared with the risk when playing on grass. Individual exposure, injuries (time loss) and injury severity were recorded by the team medical staff. In tot...

  13. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two differen...

  14. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2008-01-01

    Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. Species of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes wheat, barley and important forage grasses, have evolved extreme frost tolerance. A class of ice binding proteins that inhibit ice re-crystallisation, specific to the Pooideae subfamily lineage, have been identified in perennial ryegrass and wheat, and these proteins are thought to have evolved from a leucine-rich repeat phytosulfokine receptor kinase (LRR-PSR)-like ancestor g...

  15. Interspecific sex in grass smuts and the genetic diversity of their pheromone-receptor system

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner, Ronny; Vollmeister, Evelyn; Feldbrügge, Michael; Begerow, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR) system and he...

  16. Grass-tree interactions and the ecology of African savannas under current and future climates

    OpenAIRE

    Scheiter, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Two important questions in savanna ecology are (1) how do grasses and trees manage to coexist in savannas while excluding each other in grasslands or rainforests and (2) how do savannas respond to anticipated climate change. This thesis presents two different savanna models to explore these questions. It is shown that a heuristic and deterministic model can explain grass-tree coexistence on a rainfall gradient between 200 mm and 1200 mm mean annual precipitation and that vegetation dynamics a...

  17. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have been employed, and N2-fixation has been demonstrated to occur under controlled conditions, but this is insufficient evidence to prove a significant role for N2-fixation by heterotrophic bacteria in th...

  18. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jacianelly Karla da, Silva; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de, Medeiros; Edson Mauro, Santos; Tamires da Silva, Magalhães; Alenice Ozino, Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square des [...] ign.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB). There was no difference in dry matter (DM) intake between diets EGS and CS in g d?1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM) intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg?1 d?1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

  19. Attack on Lignified Grass Cell Walls by a Facultatively Anaerobic Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, Danny E.

    1980-01-01

    A filamentous, facultatively anaerobic microorganism that attacked lignified tissue in forage grasses was isolated from rumen fluid with a Bermuda grass-containing anaerobic medium in roll tubes. The microbe, designated 7-1, demonstrated various colony and cellular morphologies under different growth conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that 7-1 attacked lignified cell walls in aerobic and anaerobic culture. 7-1 predominately degraded tissues reacting positively for lignin with t...

  20. Evolutionary Relationships between Rhynchosporium lolii sp. nov. and Other Rhynchosporium Species on Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    KING, KEVIN M.; West, Jonathan S.; Brunner, Patrick C.; Dyer, Paul S.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.

    2013-01-01

    The fungal genus Rhynchosporium (causative agent of leaf blotch) contains several host-specialised species, including R. commune (colonising barley and brome-grass), R. agropyri (couch-grass), R. secalis (rye and triticale) and the more distantly related R. orthosporum (cocksfoot). This study used molecular fingerprinting, multilocus DNA sequence data, conidial morphology, host range tests and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the relationship between Rhynchosporium species on ryegr...

  1. PAH contamination of the grass Lolium perenne exposed to vehicular traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Crépineau-Ducoulombier, Cécile; Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; Rychen, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The contamination of pastures by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from vehicular emissions is the first step of the contamination of the food chain including the grazing ruminants producing dairy food. In this study, we measured PAH concentrations in grass exposed for 30 days and for 75 days using a standardised culture of Lolium perenne. This method allowed the comparison of the grass contamination between two sites of different daily traffic (highway and rural road) and two control s...

  2. Relationships among non-Acremonium sp. fungal endophytes in five grass species.

    OpenAIRE

    An, Z Q; Siegel, M. R.; Hollin, W; Tsai, H F; D. Schmidt; Schardl, C L

    1993-01-01

    Many cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae) possess maternally transmitted fungal symbionts which cause no known pathology and often enhance the ecological fitness and biochemical capabilities of the grass hosts. The most commonly described endophytes are the Acremonium section Albo-lanosa spp. (Acremonium endophytes), which are conidial anamorphs (strictly asexual forms) of Epichloë typhina. Other endophytes which have been noted are a Gliocladium-like fungus in perennial ryegrass (Lolium ...

  3. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

  4. Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Auraiwan Isuwan; Jeerasak Saelim; Somsak Paothong

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampl...

  5. Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Rolz, C.; Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; de Cabrera, S.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berk...

  6. Are loline alkaloid levels regulated in grass endophytes by gene expression or substrate availability?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Blankenship, Jimmy D; Schardl, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    Many cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfam. Pooideae) possess seed-borne fungal symbionts, the epichloae, known for their bioprotective properties and especially for production of anti-insect alkaloids such as lolines. Asexual epichloae (Neotyphodium species) are primarily or entirely transmitted vertically, whereas the sexual structures (stromata) of the related Epichloä species give rise to horizontally transmissible spores (ascospores). In certain grass-Neotyphodium species symbiota, levels...

  7. Grassing as potential factor in Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Goat in Banyumas District

    OpenAIRE

    Endro Yuwono; M Indradji

    2004-01-01

    Goat system manajemen like housing, feeding dan grassing have been studied on the diseases association in gastrointestinal nematodiasis infection. The method applied was survey on 150 goat (Jawarandhu) faeces sample in Banyumas District. The Research was carried out from July to September 2004. The result showed that the nematode infection 1,54 times to goat if grassing and 88,62% infection in groups. Housing, Feeding have no risk and associated with disease infection. (Animal Production 6(2...

  8. Effects of feeding salt-tolerant grasses on the reproductive efficiency of dwarf goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity of soil and groundwater is a major agricultural problem facing several countries. Numerous approaches have been made to alleviate this situation. A biological approach has been developed at our Institute whereby salt-tolerant plants that are more suited to the environment have been grown rather than reclamation of land for conventional crops. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) has been grown on such lands using brackish water for irrigation, thus producing large amounts of biomass. Since this biomass is not usually used as forage it was necessary to evaluate its effects on the growth and reproduction of farm animals. Buffalo, cows and goats are important for providing milk and meat in Pakistan. Goats are more important in arid and semi-arid areas. Dwarf goats were selected for the study because of easier handling, a shorter maturity period, better breeding, etc. One group of goats was contained and fed only Kallar grass throughout the year. (This grass is green in summer and, although it is a perennial, it dries in winter). Another group was allowed to free graze an area where, in addition to Kallar grass, some other wild species were also available. The effects of this forage were evaluated by recording the weight of the animals, pregnancies, lamb survival and hormone levels. It was found that when dry grass was the only source of nutrition the animals lost weight and reproduction was also affected; even though conception did take place lactation was reduced, the animals had difficulty in delivery and the lambs were born weak and did not survive. The progesterone and oestradiol levels and patterns were normal. The study concludes that dwarf goats can survive even when fed dry, low protein grass and that their body weight increases when the grass is green. They can, therefore, be raised on Kallar grass if kept for meat purposes; however, if they are to be maintained for breeding some supplementary fodder is desirable. Poor nutrition did not affect the hormone levels and patterns. (author)

  9. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G; Holm, J; Nielsen, N C; Holse, M; Wagtmann, V R; Würtzen, P A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with ...

  10. Long-term clinical efficacy in grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis after treatment with SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durham, Stephen R; Emminger, Waltraud; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; de Monchy, Jan G R; Rak, Sabina; Scadding, Glenis K; Andersen, Jens S; Riis, Bente; Dahl, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    controlled by symptomatic medications. The analysis set comprised 257 subjects at the follow-up. Efficacy end points were rhinoconjunctivitis symptom and medication scores, quality of life, and percentages of symptom and medication free days. Immunologic end points included grass pollen-specific serum IgG4...... and significant improvements in quality of life. Sustained clinical benefit was accompanied by immunologic changes. No safety issues were identified. CONCLUSION: Three years of treatment with the SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet resulted in consistent clinical improvement and...... accompanying immunologic changes that were sustained 1 year after treatment, which is indicative of disease modification and associated long-term benefits....

  11. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  12. Deriving Hydrological Response Units (HRUs using a Web Processing Service implementation based on GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwartze

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available QGIS releases equal to or newer than 0.7 can easily connected to GRASS GIS by means of a toolbox that provides a wide range of standard GRASS modules you can launch – albeit only on data coming from GRASS. This QGIS plugin is expandable through XML configurations describing the assignment of options and inputs for a certain module. But how about embedding a precise workflow where the several processes don’t consist of a single GRASS module by force? Especially for a sequence of dependent tasks it makes sense to merge relevant GRASS functionality into an own and encapsulated QGIS extension. Its architecture and development is tested and combined with the Web Processing Service (WPS for remote execution using the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs as an example. The results of this assay may be suitable for discussing and planning other wizard-like geoprocessing plugins in QGIS that also should make use of an additional GRASS server.

  13. Response of itchgrass and johnson grass to asulam/dalapon combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of asumlam [methyl[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]carbamate], dalapon (2,2-dichloropropionic acid) and asulam/dalapon combinations on itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata L.f.) and johnson grass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] were examined. When metabolism of 14C-asulam was monitored, seven days after application, 97-100% of recovered 14C co-chromatographed with 14C-asulam. Itchgrass exhibited rapid uptake of 14C-asulam within 8 hr after application. Asumlam concentrations remained constant in the plant between 8 and 72 hr. Johnson grass plants showed a differential response to asulam and asulam/dalapon treatments. Asulam-treated johnson grass absorbed 26-34% 14C within 2 hr with no future significant increase in absorption in absorption through 72 hr. Treatment of johnson grass with asulam/dalapon enhanced 14C absorption with time. At 24 and 72 hr 14C levels were double that absorbed from treatment of asulam alone. Movement of 14C-asulam in the apoplast and symplast of both itchgrass and johnson grass was noted. The highest radiolabel accumulated in the lower leaves of itchgrass and remained in the treated leaf of johnson grass

  14. The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TFU, kg kg-1 ). It was found that the TFU values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

  15. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

  16. A model for backscattering characteristics of tall prairie grass canopies at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a discrete microwave scattering model, describing the radar backscattering coefficient from two treatments (burned and unburned) of tall prairie grass canopies at VV (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals are vertically oriented) and HH (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals and horizontally oriented) polarizations, based on the physical, biophysical, and geometrical characteristics of such canopies. Grass blades are modeled as thin and finite dielectric ellipsoids with arbitrary orientations. Scattering by an individual grass blade is formulated using a generalization of the Rayleigh—Gans approximation with a quasistatic solution for the expansion of the interior field. By associating, with each grass blade, various appropriate distribution functions, the relative orientation, location, height, cross section, and permittivity of each grass blade is taken into account. This makes for a more realistic overall description of the canopy. Kirchhoff's surface scattering is used to model the backscatter from the soil surface. An incoherent summation of the effect of grass blades and soil surface is adopted to obtain the total canopy backscattering coefficient, taking into account the attenuation experienced by the signal as it travels through the canopy. The results of this model are given for 1.5, 5, and 10 GHz (L-, C-, and X-band). Although for the shorter wavelengths (X-band) the Rayleigh—Gans criteria is not totally satisfied, nevertheless, the limited available measured X-band data compare relatively well with the results of this model both quantitatively and qualitatively. (author)

  17. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  18. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations. PMID:22251716

  19. Morphogenetic characteristics in Tanzania grass conhsorted with Stylosanthes Campo Grande or fertilized with nitrogen under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida Lins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study morphogenic and structural characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania intercropped with Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata and Stylosanthes macrocephala or fertilized with nitrogen. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Were used a randomized complete blocks with split plots and three replications. The treatments were: Tanzania grass + Stylosanthes; Tanzania grass + 75 Kg N.ha. year-1; Tanzania grass + 150Kg N.ha.year-1; Tanzania grass + 225 Kg N.ha.year-1. Were used urea and ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source. The morphogenetic evaluations were conducted in the spring and summer. Were evaluated 15 tillers per paddock, twice a week for four weeks per season in study. The morphogenic characteristics were not affected by nitrogen fertilization or consortium, except the leaf elongation rate (LER. The highest values for this variable were observed in the spring in the fertilized pastures. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen fertilization influences the leaf elongation rate (LER of Tanzania grass, and this one when is intercropped with Stylosanthes Campo Grande show morphogenic characteristics similar when fertilized with nitrogen, except for rate leaf elongation.

  20. Contrasting impacts of grass species on nitrogen cycling in a grazed Sudanian savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yé, Lambiénou; Abbadie, Luc; Bardoux, Gérard; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Nacro, Hassan Bismarck; Masse, Dominique; de Parseval, Henri; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the impact of perennial and annuals grass species on nitrogen cycling in a Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso. We also analysed how the local context in terms of grazing and soil properties modifies these impacts. We selected four plots differing both by the intensity of grazing by cattle and soil depth, and used soil and grass biomass 15N as integrative indicators of N cycle. If perennials are able to foster a more efficient nitrogen cycling there should be lower 15N abundances in their biomass and soil. If soil depth and cattle pressure significantly modify nitrogen fluxes, soil depth and cattle pressure should influence 15N signatures. Our results suggest that perennial grasses are more conservative for nitrogen (inhibition of nitrification, less leaching via a perennial root system, slower cycling). The increase in leaf ?15N with N concentration is steeper in Loudetia togoensis than in the three other grasses. No significant difference was found between the 15N signatures of the four plots. Our results on 15N signatures and the fact that perennial grasses are much more abundant in the plots that are less grazed and have deeper soils, confirm that the switch from perennial to annual grasses is linked to a degradation in soil fertility and pasture quality. This suggests that 15N signatures can be used as indicators of fertility.

  1. Forage production of elephant grass under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva Chaves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter production of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum genotypes, managed under intermittent stocking. A completely randomized design was used, with two genotypes and three replicates. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations (2x2x2 of genotypes ('BRS Kurumi' and the clone CNPGL 00‑1‑3, two light interception levels (LI at the onset of grazing (90 and 95%, and two post‑grazing canopy heights (30 and 50 cm. A total of 24 Holstein x Zebu crossbred heifers were used. The stocking density varied in order to finish the grazing periods in two days. The interval between the defoliation, based on 95% LI, resulted in a higher leaf mass per grazing cycle. The post‑grazing height of 30 cm did not affect the number of grazing cycles but provided a greater herbage accumulation rate. The cultivar BRS Kurumi has higher pasture growth, lower rest period, and greater number of grazing cycles, which results in increased forage production in the growing season.

  2. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  3. Storage of carbon in natural grasses high andean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Marino Yaranga Cano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the capacity of storage of carbon in species of grasses natural of high andean, between January of 2012 and March of 2013. They were defined two sampling areas in the districts of Huasicancha and Chicche of the county of Huancayo, Junín. The first of the areas was located in the place Pumahuasi (18L 466456E 8628580N and the second in Vista Alegre (18L 464886E 8642964N, between 3 845 and 3 870 meters of altitude. 10 plants per species were collected at random, between April and May, considering the moment of maximum growth of the plants. The samples were washed and dried off to the atmosphere during 15 days, being completed the drying in a stove to 60 °C, during 48 hours. The determination of the percentage of dry matter of the samples was carried out by the difference between the initial and final weights. While that the determination of the percentage of carbon was carried out through the method of Walkley-Black. The results of the correlation of weight between air biomass and biomass radicular were highly significant r = 0.9856 ** and b = 3.4507. The percentage of the weight of the root regarding that of the air biomass oscillated between 27.93% and 30.20%, respectively. The content of carbon expressed as percentage varied according to the part of the plant and the origin place.

  4. Temperature-gradient and heat flow data, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, James B.; Gardner, Murray C.

    1979-11-01

    A series of 16 shallow and intermediate-depth temperature-gradient holes were drilled for Sunoco Energy Development Co. in Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada, on leases held by Aminoil USA, Inc., under the cost-sharing industry-linked program of the Department of Energy. Thirteen shallow (85-152 m) and 3 intermediate-depth (360-457 m) holes were completed and logged during the period June through September, 1979. The locations of these holes and of pre-existing temperature-gradient holes are shown on plate 1. This report constitutes a final data transmittal and disclosure of results. The drilling subcontractor was Southwest Drilling and Exploration, Inc. of Central, Utah. They provided a Gardner-Denver 15W rig, a 3-man crew, and supporting equipment. A l l holes were drilled with mud as the circulating medium. Drilling histories for each hole are summarized in table 1. GeothermEx, Inc. performed on-site geological descriptions of the cuttings; obtained several temperature profiles for each hole, including an equilibrium profile taken 23 days or more after cessation of drilling; selected samples for thermal conductivity measurements; integrated temperature, temperature-gradient, and heat-flow data obtained in this project with published values; and prepared this report.

  5. Assessing mesquite-grass vegetation condition from Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Haas, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band values, band ratios, and vegetation index models were compared with selected rangeland vegetation parameters collected at six test sites within the honey mesquitellotebushlmixed grass association in north-central Texas. The comparisons at four dates showed that two vegetation index models, TV16 and GVI, are highly correlated (P = 0.01) with green yield, green cover, and plant moisture content. The green vegetation index (GVZ) developed by Kauth and Thomas (1976), was highly correlated and superior to other models in relationship to wet green yield, dry green yield, and cured vegetation cover. TV16, developed by Rouse et al. (1974), was more highly correlated with green vegetation cover and vegetation moisture content. Both TV16 and GVI are superior to other models in their relationship with green cover. None of the Landsat MSS parameters tested was significantly correlated with dry total yield, percent bare ground, or moisture of the soil measured at the surface or at a 20 cm depth. I t is concluded that Landsat MSS data are sensitive to seasonal changes in vegetation growth conditions and inherent ecological differences within a relatively unqorm vegetationlsoil system.

  6. Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Shonima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36 and control groups (n=23. BGP (1.2 g/day in the form of capsules (n=4 was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

  7. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  8. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  9. Mass loading of soil particles on a pasture grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides associated with soil particles can be transported to plant surfaces by wind, raindrop splash, animal activities and mechanical disturbance and can contribute to radiation exposure through ingestion by humans or livestock. The quantities of radionuclides ingested with soil particles borne on plant surfaces can be estimated from the mass loadings of soil on plant surfaces (i.e. mg soil per g dry plant mass) and the radionuclide concentrations in soil. However, relatively few estimates of mass loadings are available for either row or pasture crops. Estimates of the concentration of soil on bahia grass, a common pasture species on the sandy soils of the southeastern United States, were obtained using 238Pu as an indicator of the presence of soil on vegetation. The mass loading of soil on live bahia biomass average 9.0 mg g-1, which is similar to that for some row crops grown on the same soils. The mass loading for bahia pasture may be less than that for English pastures but differences in methodologies among studies complicate comparisons. (author)

  10. Evolution of herbicide resistance mechanisms in grass weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzrafi, Maor; Gadri, Yaron; Frenkel, Eyal; Rubin, Baruch; Peleg, Zvi

    2014-12-01

    Herbicide resistant weeds are becoming increasingly common, threatening global food security. Here, we present BrIFAR: a new model system for the functional study of mechanisms of herbicide resistance in grass weeds. We have developed a large collection of Brachypodium accessions, the BrI collection, representing a wide range of habitats. Wide screening of the responses of the accessions to four major herbicide groups (PSII, ACCase, ALS/AHAS and EPSPS inhibitors) identified 28 herbicide-resistance candidate accessions. Target-site resistance to PSII inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a known history of herbicide applications. An amino acid substitution in the psbA gene (serine264 to glycine) conferred resistance and also significantly affected the flowering and shoot dry weight of the resistant accession, as compared to the sensitive accession. Non-target site resistance to ACCase inhibitors was found in accessions collected from habitats with a history of herbicide application and from a nature reserve. In-vitro enzyme activity tests and responses following pre-treatment with malathion (a cytochrome-P450 inhibitor) indicated sensitivity at the enzyme level, and give strong support to diclofop-methyl and pinoxaden enhanced detoxification as NTS resistance mechanism. BrIFAR can promote better understanding of the evolution of mechanisms of herbicide resistance and aid the implementation of integrative management approaches for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25443832

  11. GC3 biology in corn, rice, sorghum and other grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrov Nickolai N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The third, or wobble, position in a codon provides a high degree of possible degeneracy and is an elegant fault-tolerance mechanism. Nucleotide biases between organisms at the wobble position have been documented and correlated with the abundances of the complementary tRNAs. We and others have noticed a bias for cytosine and guanine at the third position in a subset of transcripts within a single organism. The bias is present in some plant species and warm-blooded vertebrates but not in all plants, or in invertebrates or cold-blooded vertebrates. Results Here we demonstrate that in certain organisms the amount of GC at the wobble position (GC3 can be used to distinguish two classes of genes. We highlight the following features of genes with high GC3 content: they (1 provide more targets for methylation, (2 exhibit more variable expression, (3 more frequently possess upstream TATA boxes, (4 are predominant in certain classes of genes (e.g., stress responsive genes and (5 have a GC3 content that increases from 5'to 3'. These observations led us to formulate a hypothesis to explain GC3 bimodality in grasses. Conclusions Our findings suggest that high levels of GC3 typify a class of genes whose expression is regulated through DNA methylation or are a legacy of accelerated evolution through gene conversion. We discuss the three most probable explanations for GC3 bimodality: biased gene conversion, transcriptional and translational advantage and gene methylation.

  12. UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jörg Schaller; Carsten Brackhage; Ernst Bäucker; E Gert Dudel

    2013-06-01

    UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be explained by the UV-screening effect of the silicon double layer. It was shown for seedlings of soybeans (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that enhanced silicon supply reduces stress induced by UV-radiation. Even more important is a direct correlation between silicon content in the epidermis near area (intercellular spaces) and the absorption of UV-radiation in this area shown in other papers. The silicon double layer may act like a glass layer and decreases the transmission of UV-radiation at the epidermis near area. In summary, the absorbance/reflection of ultraviolet radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the epidermis near area of leaves, particularly the occurrence (qualitatively and quantitatively) of phenolic substances and/or a silicon double layer in this area. Consequently, UV-screening by plant silicon double layer should get more attention in future research with emphasis on effects of UV-radiation on plant physiology.

  13. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. (Dept. of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  14. Detection and Isolation of Epichloë Species, Fungal Endophytes of Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Simona; Schardl, Christopher L; Hollin, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including former Neotyphodium species) are endophytic fungi that significantly affect fitness of cool-season grass hosts, potentially by increasing nutrient uptake and resistance to drought, parasitism and herbivory. Epichloë species are obligately biotrophic, living in the intercellular spaces of their plant hosts, and spreading systemically throughout host aerial tissues. The reproduction of Epichloë species is versatile; some strains have both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction, but others are restricted to one or the other mode. The reproduction mode determines the dissemination mechanism, and the asexual species most important to agriculture are strictly seed-borne, cause no signs or symptoms, and are undetectable except by specialized microscopic, molecular or antigenic procedures. These procedures can be used to identify endophytes in a variety of plant tissues. Similar protocols can be modified to detect less common symbionts, such as the penicillate "p-endophytes," when they occur by themselves or together with Epichloë species. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26237108

  15. How cereal grass shoots perceive and respond to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Brock, T. G.; Song, I.; Rho, Y. B.; Ghosheh, N. S.

    1987-01-01

    The leaf-sheath pulvinus of grasses presents a unique system for studying gravitropism, primarily because of its differences from other organs. The mature pulvinus is a discrete organ specialized for gravitropism: it is nongrowing in the absence of gravistimulation and capable of displaying a graviresponse independent of the rest of the plant. In this paper we present a model for gravitropism in pulvini based on recent findings from studies on the mechanisms of graviperception and graviresponse. According to this model, amyloplasts play an essential role in perceiving a change in the orientation of the pulvinus. The perception of this reorientation leads to the enhanced synthesis and release from conjugate of the auxin IAA, and the increased conjugation of gibberellin, on a localized basis. Because there is a graded growth promotion across the gravistimulated pulvinus, it is suggested that the observed hormonal asymmetry is actually an indication of a linear gradient of hormone concentration, as well as hormone response, across the pulvinus. It is further suggested that the linear gradient of hormone concentration may be predominantly the result of local changes in hormone level, rather than a product of hormonal movement into or across the pulvinus.

  16. Improving Hydrological Responses of Degraded Soils in Semi Arid Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    K.Z. Mganga; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyangito, M.M.; NYARIKI, D. M.; A.W. Mwang`Ombe

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the contribution of reseeding using indigenous perennial grasses; Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass) in improving soil hydrological properties and thus controlling soil erosion in the degraded areas of Kibwezi district, Kenya. The experiment was carried out using simulated rainfall, Kamphorst simulator, on bare ground and at different grass stubble heights. The experiment...

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF SODA PULPING PROCESS OF LIGNO-CELLULOSIC RESIDUES OF LEMON AND SOFIA GRASSES PRODUCED AFTER STEAM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjeet Kaur

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sofia (Cymbopogon martini, and lemon (Cymbopogon flexuosus grasses, are exclusively cultivated for extraction of important lemongrass and palma rosa oils. Lignocellulosic residue (LCR of sofia and lemon grasses left after steam distillation can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp. Steam distillation mitigates the problem of mass transfer, and facilitates the faster penetration of cooking liquor by leaching out a part of extraneous components. Sofia grass produces a pulp yield of 43.7% of kappa number 20 at an active alkali dose of 14% (as Na2O, maximum cooking temperature of 160 oC and cooking time 90 min. Likewise, lemon grass produces a pulp yield of 41.4% of kappa number 12.5 under the same conditions except temperature (150 oC by a soda pulping process. Addition of 0.1% AQ at optimum cooking conditions reduces kappa number by 26 and 8% for sofia and lemon grasses with insignificant increase in pulp yield i.e. 0.2 and 0.4% for sofia and lemon grasses, respectively. The mechanical strength properties of lemon grass soda-AQ pulp are better than sofia grass. Bauer-McNett fiber classification further validates that +20 fractions are more (62.63% in lemon grass than in sofia grass (42.72%.

  18. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

  19. Crude Protein and Crude of Fiber Benggala [Panicum Maximum] and Elephant [Pennisetum Purpureum] Grasses on Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ED Purbajanti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of crop response to water is essential for proper irrigation management. Research was conducted at Forage Crop Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Department, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry, Diponegoro University during 9 month trying two type grass that were benggala ( Panicum maximum and elephant ( Pennisetum purpureum with treatment of the following dry stres : S0 = control, without stress; S1 = 1 times drought stress, S2 = 2 times drought stress , and S3 = 3 times drought stress by lay out of complete random design( factorial pattern. Parameter perceived were( 1 forage production , (2 dry matter production, (3 percentage of crude protein, and (4 percentage of crude fibre. Data collected to be analysed by analysis of varians continued with Duncan multiple range test. Result of research indicate that forage production of elephant grass (103,79 g/pot bigger than benggala (53,08 g/pot. Dry matter production of elephant grass was 18,77 g/pot higher than benggala grass( 14,54 g/pot. Drought stres do not affect to forage production also dry matter production : Percentage of crude protein of benggala grass (9,10% higher than elephant grass (7,02%, while percentage crude fibre of benggala grass (35,64% higher than elephant grass (31,67%. Drought stres do not influence percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala and elephant grasses. Conclusion from research were (1 elephant grass have higher forage production and dry matter production than benggala grass (2 percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala grass higher than elephant grass, (3 drought stres do not affect to forage production , dry matter production, percentage of crude protein and crude fibre. (Animal Production 11(2: 109-115 (2009 Key Words : crude protein, fiber, drought stress

  20. Identifying urban sources as cause to elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Skjøth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres from this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflects the source areas identified in the inventory, and that these pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near and within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations, there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution, and is thus a local scale phenomenon. Model simulations aiming at assessment of population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulates pollen release in order to calculate urban scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14 m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are in additional available in tabular form.

  1. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; SkjØth, Carsten Ambelas

    2013-01-01

    We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban-scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflect the source areas identified in the inventory, and that the pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near or within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not to rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local-scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulate pollen release in order to calculate urban-scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are additionally available in tabular form.

  2. Bioenergy production from roadside grass : A case study of the feasibility of using roadside grass for biogas production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show that the potential annual yield of biomass obtainable from roadside verges varies widely depending on the local conditions. The net energy gain (NEG) from harvest, collection, transport, storage and digestion of roadside vegetation was estimated to range from 60,126–121,476 GJ, corresponding to 1.5–3.0% of the present national energy production based on biogas. The estimated values for the energy return on invested energy (EROEI) was found to range from 2.17 to 2.88. The measured contents of heavy metals in the roadside vegetation was seen not to exceed the legislative levels for what can be applied as fertilizer on agricultural land, neither does it reach levels considered as inhibitory for the anaerobic fermentation process. From a practical point of view, few challenges were identified related to the acquisition and processing of the roadside vegetation. Considering the positive net energy gains, further energy investments for management of these challenges can be made. Despite the somewhat low EROEI values, the use of this resource could however result in other positive externalities, such as improved biodiversity of the verges and recycling of nutrients.

  3. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swigo?ová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially providing an important role for retrotransposons in the evolution of gene function.

  4. Filterability of Monosodium Titanate Supplied by Blue Grass Chemical Specialties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design specification for monosodium titanate (MST) requires that less than 1 per cent of the particles are larger than 35 micron and that less than 1 per cent of the particles are smaller than 1 micron. Blue Grass Chemical Specialties produced two batches of MST for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) that do not meet the particle size specification. The material has more than 1 per cent of the particles smaller than 1 micron. This increase in the fraction of particles less than 1 micron could adversely affect filtration within the Actinide Removal Project (ARP). The authors conducted dead-end filtration testing with 0.45 micron polymeric filter media, 0.5 micron Mott sintered stainless steel filter media, and 0.1 micron Mott sintered stainless steel filter media. The authors make the following recommendations for MST particle size. If a 0.5 micron Mott filter is used for the ARP process, the existing particle size specification (less than 1 per cent of particles less than 1 micron and less than 1 per cent of particles greater than 35 micron) should be maintained. If a 0.1 micron Mott filter is used for the ARP process and the existing particle size specification is not met, DWPF personnel should arrange for filter tests, such as those described in this report, to be performed to evaluate the filterability of the MST. DWPF personnel should consider revising the particle size specification, because technology improvements allow better resolution of particles less than 1 micron. The limited data collected during this testing is not sufficient to change the particle size specification. Limited additional testing similar to that performed here would provide sufficient technical bases

  5. Characterization of grass carp reovirus minor core protein VP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liming

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV, a tentative member in the genus Aquareovirus of family Reoviridae, contains eleven segmented (double-stranded RNA dsRNA genome which encodes 12 proteins. A low-copy core component protein VP4, encoded by the viral genome segment 5(S5, has been suggested to play a key role in viral genome transcription and replication. Results To understand the role of minor core protein VP4 played in molecular pathogenesis during GCRV infection, the recombinant GCRV VP4 gene was constructed and expressed in both prokaryotic and mammalian cells in this investigation. The recombinant His-tag fusion VP4 products expressed in E.coli were identified by Western blotting utilizing His-tag specific monoclonal and GCRV polyclonal antibodies. In addition, the expression of VP4 in GCRV infected cells, appeared in granules structure concentrated mainly in the cytoplasm, can be detected by Immunofluorescence (IF using prepared anti-VP4 polyclonal antibody. Meanwhile, VP4 protein in GCRV core and infected cell lysate was identified by Immunoblotting (IB assay. Of particular note, the VP4 protein was exhibited a diffuse distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus in transfected cells, suggesting that VP4 protein may play a partial role in the nucleus by regulating cell cycle besides its predicted cytoplasmic function in GCRV infection. Conclusions Our results indicate the VP4 is a core component in GCRV. The cellular localization of VP4 is correlated with its predicted function. The data provide a foundation for further studies aimed at understanding the role of VP4 in viroplasmic inclusion bodies (VIB formation during GCRV replication and assembly.

  6. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  8. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi? Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapre?enje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  9. Effects of the Epichloë fungal endophyte symbiosis with Schedonorus pratensis on host grass invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kruti; Hager, Heather A; Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2015-07-01

    Initial studies of grass-endophyte mutualisms using Schedonorus arundinaceus cultivar Kentucky-31 infected with the vertically transmitted endophyte Epichloë coenophiala found strong, positive endophyte effects on host-grass invasion success. However, more recent work using different cultivars of S. arundinaceus has cast doubt on the ubiquity of this effect, at least as it pertains to S. arundinaceus-E. coenophiala. We investigated the generality of previous work on vertically transmitted Epichloë-associated grass invasiveness by studying a pair of very closely related species: S. pratensis and E. uncinata. Seven cultivars of S. pratensis and two cultivars of S. arundinaceus that were developed with high- or low-endophyte infection rate were broadcast seeded into 2 × 2-m plots in a tilled, old-field grassland community in a completely randomized block design. Schedonorus abundance, endophyte infection rate, and co-occurring vegetation were sampled 3, 4, 5, and 6 years after establishment, and the aboveground invertebrate community was sampled in S. pratensis plots 3 and 4 years after establishment. Endophyte infection did not enable the host grass to achieve high abundance in the plant community. Contrary to expectations, high-endophyte S. pratensis increased plant richness relative to low-endophyte cultivars. However, as expected, high-endophyte S. pratensis marginally decreased invertebrate taxon richness. Endophyte effects on vegetation and invertebrate community composition were inconsistent among cultivars and were weaker than temporal effects. The effect of the grass-Epichloë symbiosis on diversity is not generalizable, but rather specific to species, cultivar, infection, and potentially site. Examining grass-endophyte systems using multiple cultivars and species replicated among sites will be important to determine the range of conditions in which endophyte associations benefit host grass performance and have subsequent effects on co-occurring biotic communities. PMID:26257873

  10. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality programmes to identify any exceedances of European feeding stuff standards in the vicinity of large emitters.

  11. Organic dust toxic syndrome at a grass seed plant caused by exposure to high concentrations of bioaerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne M; Tendal, Kira; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heltberg, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of sudden health problems in workers at a Danish grass seed plant after exposure to a particularly dusty lot of grass seeds. The seeds are called problematic seeds. The association between development of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and the handling of grass seeds causing exposure was assessed in a four-step model: (i) identification of exposure source, (ii) characterization of the emission of bioaerosols from the problematic and reference seeds, (iii) personal and ...

  12. Modifications of Phleum pratense grass pollen allergens following artificial exposure to gaseous air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerieux, Françoise; Godfrin, D.; Senechal, Hélène; Motta, Alexandre; Marliere, Maryse; Peltre, Gabriel; Lacroix, Ghislaine

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a potential cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the major gaseous air pollutants on grass pollen allergens. Timothy grass pollen was exposed to ozone (O-3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) alone or in combination. Allergen contents were analysed by 2-dimensional immunoblot using grass pollen-sensitive patient sera. For O-3-treated pollen, immunoblotting ...

  13. Anti-tick repellent effect of Andropogon gayanus grass on plots of different ages experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS CRUZ-VAZQUEZ; MANUEL FERNANDEZ RUVALCABA

    2000-01-01

    The anti-tick repellent effect of Andropogon gayanus grass was evaluated on plots of different ages experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae, using Cenchurus ciliaris as control grass. Four infestations were made, at different plant ages, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. The effect was evaluated by recovery of larvae from the experimental plots by flagging during a four week period after each infestation. The anti-tick repellent effect observed in A. gayanus grass was manifested only...

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Organic Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass) in Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, N.; Verma, P; B. R. Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. (Hindi Name- gehun, kanak, Sanskrit name- godhuma) is called as a wheat grass, belonging to family: Gramineae, which posses high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers. Wheat grass has been shown to posses anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer activity, antioxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, and blood building activity in Thalassemia Major. It has been argued that wheat grass helps blood flow, digest...

  15. Grimms Wörter: Doppelbiografie und Doppelgeschichtsschreibung Grass schreibt eigene Autobiografie anhand Grimms? Autobiografie, Geschichte Deutschlands und des Deutschen.

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Zakaria Mohammed Amer

    2013-01-01

    Grimms Wörter ist ein vielseitiges Buch, denn es behandelt viererlei: Grass, die Grimms, die deutsche Sprache und die Geschichte Deutschlands. Die lebenslange literarische Produktion des deutschen Literaturnobelpreisträgers könnte mit diesem Buch beendet werden, wie Grass selbst behauptet, da er es sein "wahrscheinlich letztes Buch" nennt. Grass entschied sich für eine neue Form der Autobiografie: eigene Autobiografie anhand Autobiografie anderer Personen zu schreiben. Diese indirekte Form is...

  16. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within...

  17. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  18. Cyathostomin larvae: presence on Brachiaria humidicola grass during the rainy and dry seasons of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Claudia Navarro; de Souza, Luciene Soares; Vieira, Vivian Suane de Freitas; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    The presence of cyathostomin larvae is directly associated to climatic conditions of each region. This study aimed to evaluate the ecology of infective larvae on Brachiaria humidicola during the dry and rainy seasons from October 2007 to September 2008 in a tropical region, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. Stools were collected from the rectum of horses naturally infected with cyathostomins at the beginning of the rainy season (October to March) and dry season (April to September). They were divided into four samples of 500 g and deposited on a grass patch of B. humidicola. Seven days later and every 15 days thereafter samples of feces and grass were collected and processed by the Baermann technique. The mean number of larvae recovered from the grass varied according to the season, with greater recovery of larvae during the peak of the dry season (14,700 L3.kg-¹ DM). There was a statistically significant difference between L3 recovered from feces and grass, but not between L3 recovered from the grass base and apex. These results show that the region's climate favors the development and survival of infective cyathostomin larvae throughout the year, with a greater number of larvae during the dry season. PMID:22534941

  19. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C4 photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C3 type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C3 genera are found. The C3 species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C3 grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C4 grasses into the three subtypes of the C4 pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned

  20. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  1. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Soares, Miranda; Karina Guimarães, Ribeiro; Alexandre Christófaro, Silva; Rosana Cristina, Pereira; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Pablo Vidal, Torrado; José Sebastião Cunha, Fernandes; Maxwel Coura, Oliveira.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral con [...] tent and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  2. N resource of grasses and N2-fixation of alfalfa in mono-culture and mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N behavior in alfalfa and gramineous forage grasses, tall fescue, siberian wild rye, wheat grass and awnless brome were studied in potting and pasture experiments in 1986-1988 by using 15N isotope dilution technique. Comparison was made between the mixed culture and mono-culture. The % Ndff and %Ndfs of grasses were decreased by 14.19% and 20.76% respectively, while %Ndfa of alfalfa was increased by 20.22% in mixed culture as compared with mono-culture. The 15N and soil N uptake data revealed that this enhancement was largely due to a lower competitive ability for soil N by alfalfa than by grass in mixed stands, causing the alfalfa to depend more on atmospheric N2 fixation. 20.62%of N of grasses in mixed culture was from the N2-fixation by alfalfa, causing N level in root-sphere of alfalfa decreasing, which was considered to be one of the reasons that %Ndfa increased in mixed culture. N transfer may be carried out by the decomposition of roots and nodules of alfalfa plants

  3. Spittle protein profile of Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) fed various elephant grass genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auad, A M; Martins, M F; Fonseca, I; Paula-Moraes, S V; Kopp, M M; Cordeiro, M C

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the interaction between spittlebugs and forage grasses is essential for establishing factors that favor productive pastures. In the present study, we evaluated the protein profiles of the spittle of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) fed various elephant grass genotypes. Each plant was infested with a single fifth-instar M. spectabilis. After 24 h, samples of the spittle produced by each nymph were collected and stored at -20°C, after which their protein profiles were analyzed. The exclusivity or interactions of the proteins present in the spittle produced by the insects revealed the susceptibility of the tested genotypes. The results indicate that groups of genotypes show identical spittle protein profiles when subjected to attack by spittlebugs. Resistant and susceptible elephant grass genotypes exhibited high similarity indices within each group. The similarity index was low for the resistance control species (Brachiaria brizantha) compared with that of the tested elephant grass genotypes. Qualitative and quantitative studies of the proteins expressed in the most promising materials will be performed in an ongoing genetic improvement program seeking to develop genotypes resistant to spittlebugs, which are the main biotic pests of elephant grasses. PMID:23096685

  4. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm from February through May 2009 (experiment one and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment two. In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  5. Socioeconomic Study of Grasses and Legumes in Baria and Godhra Forest Division, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara J. GANDHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The cultural diversity in the Indian society reflects close relationship between the existence of human life and nature including all other living creatures and non-living creatures. The present paper deals with the traditional knowledge of villagers in 10 villages nearby the grasslands in Panchmahal and Dahod districts of Gujarat, India, regarding the multipurpose use of grasses and associated legumes prevailing in these grasslands. A survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic status. 69 grass species and 34 legumes could be identified growing in these grasslands of which 92 were used for livestocks. Among these grasses the most preferred grass species were Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum because of its high palatability. Three grasses and 8 legume species were used for food and medicine. The study emphasizes the use of plant wealth to human needs of the regions and assist in appraisal of various anthropogenic interventions accountable for loss of prevailing biodiversity of the region.

  6. Testing the recoverability of grass DNA transferred to textiles for forensic purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Francès

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Botanical evidence such as grass stains on textiles is sometimes present in the crime scene and can allow investigators to establish an association between persons linked to the criminal event and the crime scene. In this study, extraction of grass DNA from stains on textiles was undertaken. DNA extraction was performed on four grass species conserved both indoors and outdoors for 7, 14 and 30 days after staining. Once the extracted DNA was quantified, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplifying a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer was performed.DNA extraction was successful in 97.5% of samples. No significant differences in the amount of extracted DNA were detected among species or stain ages. However, one grass species (Cynodon dactylon showed a significant diminution in the mean DNA concentration between indoor and outdoor samples (439.9±137 ng/µL vs. 318.9±177 ng/µL respectively; p=0.041. PCR was successful in 89.2% of samples. This study has thus demonstrated the recoverability of grass DNA from stains on cloths and its stability in the first month after staining in both outdoor and indoor environments, as well as its suitability for PCR amplification that could allow correct species identification.

  7. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass ensiled with old man saltbush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otanael Oliveira dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of saltbush on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silages of elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum Schum. were studied through a completely randomized design with six old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % in substitution of the grass natural matter, with six replicates. Elephant grass presented 18.9% dry matter (DM and silages were produced in experimental PVC silos, which were open at 70 days after ensilage. The increasing old man saltbush levels had increasing linear effect on the DM content of silages. There was quadratic effect for the contents of lactic and acetic acids and in vitro DM digestibility. Contents of butyric acid were negligible. Values pH of and N-NH3 contents had increasing linear effect. Linear effect of the increasing levels of old man saltbush was verified on the CP contents. Neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and ether extract were not affected, whilst acid detergent fiber content showed decreasing linear effect. The addition of old man saltbush in the ensilage of elephant grass favored the fermentation process, promoting good lactic acid contents and reducing acetic acid, pH, dry matter loss and ammoniacal nitrogen, in addition to improving the nutritional quality of the elephant grass silages.

  8. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Hélida Christhine de Freitas, Monteiro; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Carlindo Santos, Rodrigues; André Fischer, Sbrissia.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm) from February through May 2009 (experiment one) and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment [...] two). In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  9. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass ensiled with old man saltbush

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Otanael Oliveira dos, Santos; Gherman Garcia Leal de, Araújo; Claudio, Mistura; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro, Pereira; Tadeu Vinhas, Voltolini; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos, Santos; Josivânia Rodrigues de, Araújo.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of saltbush on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silages of elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum Schum.) were studied through a completely randomized design with six old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind) levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 %) in [...] substitution of the grass natural matter, with six replicates. Elephant grass presented 18.9% dry matter (DM) and silages were produced in experimental PVC silos, which were open at 70 days after ensilage. The increasing old man saltbush levels had increasing linear effect on the DM content of silages. There was quadratic effect for the contents of lactic and acetic acids and in vitro DM digestibility. Contents of butyric acid were negligible. Values pH of and N-NH3 contents had increasing linear effect. Linear effect of the increasing levels of old man saltbush was verified on the CP contents. Neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and ether extract were not affected, whilst acid detergent fiber content showed decreasing linear effect. The addition of old man saltbush in the ensilage of elephant grass favored the fermentation process, promoting good lactic acid contents and reducing acetic acid, pH, dry matter loss and ammoniacal nitrogen, in addition to improving the nutritional quality of the elephant grass silages.

  10. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clair Jorge, Olivo; Carlos Alberto, Agnolin; Priscila Flôres, Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de, Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de, Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg, Diehl; Gilmar Roberto, Meinerz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season r [...] yegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems) two replications (paddocks) and independent evaluations (grazing cycles). The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  11. Interrelationships Between Fire, Grazing and Grass Cover at the Bontebok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Point surveys of permanently marked plots were conducted with the aim of (i determining the change in grass height, cover and degree of defoliation with increasing time after veld burning and (ii determining which plant species are most intensively defoliated by herbivores (mainly bontebok and grey rhebok. Grass was the most heavily defoliated component of the vegetation, whereas Restionaceae and Cyperaceae were generally avoided. No grass species was consistently avoided by herbivores, and no species was consistently favoured. Instead selection among species varied with growth stage. The tall, coarse species were favoured on new burns when the vegetation was still short. The short species came into favour once the sward had grown taller. Defoliation was heaviest within the first year after burning and thereafter decreased substantially. The introduction of coarse grass grazers such as mountain zebra to the park might lead to greater use of the mature veld. Those grass species that underwent the heaviest defoliation on new burns (over 50 of leaves severed showed three- to seven-fold increases in canopy spread cover over subsequent years. Thus heavy use of recently burnt veld is not necessarily deleterious.

  12. Diversity of alkane hydroxylase genes on the rhizoplane of grasses planted in petroleum-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the diversity and genotypic features of alkane hydroxylase genes on rhizoplanes of grasses planted in artificial petroleum-contaminated soils to acquire new insights into the bacterial communities responsible for petroleum degradation in phytoremediation. Four types of grass (Cynodon dactylon, two phenotypes of Zoysia japonica, and Z. matrella) were used. The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon effectively decreased in the grass-planted systems compared with the unplanted system. Among the representative alkane hydroxylase genes alkB, CYP153, almA and ladA, the first two were detected in this study, and the genotypes of both genes were apparently different among the systems studied. Their diversity was also higher on the rhizoplanes of the grasses than in unplanted oil-contaminated soils. Actinobacteria-related genes in particular were among the most diverse alkane hydroxylase genes on the rhizoplane in this study, indicating that they are one of the main contributors to degrading alkanes in oil-contaminated soils during phytoremediation. Actinobacteria-related alkB genes and CYP153 genes close to the genera Parvibaculum and Aeromicrobium were found in significant numbers on the rhizoplanes of grasses. These results suggest that the increase in diversity and genotype differences of the alkB and CYP153 genes are important factors affecting petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading ability during phytoremediation. PMID:26405645

  13. The Interplay Between Bioenergy Grass Production and Water Resources in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Cervarich, Matthew; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Landuyt, William; Cai, Ximing

    2016-03-15

    We apply a land surface model to evaluate the interplay between potential bioenergy grass (Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock, and Alamo) production, water quantity, and nitrogen leaching (NL) in the Central and Eastern U.S. Water use intensity tends to be lower where grass yields are modeled to be high, for example in the Midwest for Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock and the upper southeastern U.S. for Alamo. However, most of these regions are already occupied by crops and forests and substitution of these biome types for ethanol production implies trade-offs. In general, growing Miscanthus consumes more water, Alamo consumes less water, and Cave-in-Rock consumes approximately the same amount of water as existing vegetation. Bioenergy grasses can maintain high productivity over time, even in water limited regions, because their roots can grow deeper and extract the water from the deep, moist soil layers. However, this may not hold where there are frequent and intense drought events, particularly in regions with shallow soil depths. One advantage of bioenergy grasses is that they mitigate nitrogen leaching relative to row crops and herbaceous plants when grown without applying N fertilizer; and bioenergy grasses, especially Miscanthus, generally require less N fertilizer application than row crops and herbaceous plants. PMID:26866460

  14. Retrieval of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infective larvae from grass contaminated in winter and in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Raquel Abdallah da; Bricarello, Patrizia Ana; Rocha, Gilberto Pedroso da; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do

    2014-01-01

    The survival of infective larvae (L3) of Trichostrongylus colubriformis was evaluated on Brachiaria, Coast-cross and Aruana forage grasses. Feces of sheep parasitized exclusively by T. colubriformis were deposited in winter and spring on experimental plots whose grasses were cut at two heights: 5 cm and 30 cm. One, two, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks after depositing the feces, fecal and forage samples were collected for the retrieval and quantification of L3. Retrieval of L3 from feces and forage was negligible in winter due to the dry weather, although a few larvae were retrieved in the last larval collections. However, L3 retrieval from fecal samples was greater in spring, especially two weeks after feces were deposited on 30 cm high grasses. At this time, the L3 retrieval rate from the three forage grasses differed significantly (P <0.05), with Aruana grass showing the highest average L3 retrieval rate, followed by Coast-cross and Brachiaria. In conclusion, the winter drought proved very unfavorable for the presence of L3 in the environment, and the microclimate of Aruana pastureland was generally the most favorable for the retrieval of infective larvae. PMID:25517524

  15. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-05-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of <1 for all the metals. This study revealed the defense mechanisms employed by Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase. PMID:26588814

  16. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Soares Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  17. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto Magno, Fernandes; Fermino, Deresz; Douglas Sampaio, Henrique; Fernando César Ferraz, Lopes; Leonardo Siqueira, Glória.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area [...] divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa) samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.

  18. Effect of organic fertilization on biomass production and bioactivity of citronella grass essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Aguiar Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of organic fertilization on the growth and on biomass production of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus as well as evaluating the effect citronella grass essential oil and of the citronellal compound in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the Didymella bryoniae fungi. To evaluate the effect of organic fertilization on the growth of citronella grass, the experiment was installed in a block randomized design in subdivided plot scheme. The plots consisted by four doses of organic cattle manure (0, 3, 6 and 9 Kg hole-1 and the subplots by five sampling times (80, 108, 136, 164, 192 days after transplant. To evaluate the effect of citronella grass essential oil in inhibiting mycelial growth of D. bryoniae, the experiment was installed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of five aliquots (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μL of essential oil of citronella grass and citronellal compound in five sampling times. The treatment of organic fertilization 9 Kg hole-1 exhibited the highest values in all variables in the last sampling time. A greater effect of inhibition of mycelial growth was obtained using citronellal when compared with the essential oil. In the aliquot of 25 μL of citronellal was observed total inhibition of mycelial growth of the D. bryoniae fungi.

  19. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  20. The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, I. [Universiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society; Scurlock, J.M.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lindvall, E. [Svaloef Weibull AB, Umeae (Sweden); Christou, M. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi-Attikis (Greece)

    2003-10-01

    Perennial grasses display many beneficial attributes as energy crops, and there has been increasing interest in their use in the US and Europe since the mid-1980s. In the US, the Herbaceous Energy Crops Research Program (HECP), funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), was established in 1984. After evaluating 35 potential herbaceous crops of which 18 were perennial grasses it was concluded that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the native perennial grass which showed the greatest potential. In 1991, the DOE's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), which evolved from the HECP, decided to focus research on a 'model' crop system and to concentrate research resources on switchgrass, in order to rapidly attain its maximal output as a biomass crop. In Europe, about 20 perennial grasses have been tested and four perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRG), namely miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) giant reed (Arundo donax) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) were chosen for more extensive research programs. Reed canary grass and giant reed are grasses with the C{sub 3} photosynthetic pathway, and are native to Europe. Miscanthus, which originated in Southeast Asia, and switchgrass, native to North America, are both C{sub 4} grasses. These four grasses differ in their ecological/climatic demands, their yield potentials, biomass characteristics and crop management requirements. Efficient production of bioenergy from such perennial grasses requires the choice of the most appropriate grass species for the given ecological/climatic conditions. In temperate and warm regions, C{sub 4} grasses outyield C{sub 3} grasses due to their more efficient photosynthetic pathway. However, the further north perennial grasses are planted, the more likely cool season grasses are to yield more than warm season grasses. Low winter temperatures and short vegetation periods are major limits to the growth of C{sub 4} grasses in northern Europe. With increasing temperatures towards central and southern Europe, the productivity of C{sub 4} grasses and therefore their biomass yields and competitiveness increase. Since breeding of and research on perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRG) is comparatively recent, there is still a significant need for further development. Some of the given limitations, like insufficient biomass quality or the need for adaption to certain ecological/climatic zones, may be overcome by breeding varieties especially for biomass production. Furthermore, sure and cost-effective establishment methods for some of the grasses, and effective crop production and harvest methods, have yet to be developed. This review summarizes the experience with selecting perennial grasses for bioenergy production in both the US and Europe, and gives an overview of the characteristics and requirements of the four most investigated perennial rhizomatous grasses; switchgrass, miscanthus, reed canarygrass and giant reed. (author)

  1. Intermittent wind close to the ground within a grass canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylor, Donald E.; Wang, Yansen; Miller, David R.

    1993-12-01

    Wind speed was measured at a height of 1 cm above the ground and at several other heights in and above a canopy of tall fescue grass ( Festuca arundinacea) using single hot-wire and triple hot-film anemometers. The plant area density in the canopy was concentrated close to the ground, with ˜75% of the plant area standing below z=15 cm, where z is height above the ground. The frequency distributions of horizontal wind speeds, s, were sharply skewed towards positive values at all measurement heights, but were most highly skewed near the ground where the coefficient of skewness ranged from 1.6 to 2.9. Above mid-canopy height, the frequency distribution of s was described reasonably well by a Gumbel extreme value distribution. Average wind speed, S, decreased exponentially with depth into the canopy with an exponential scale length of about h/2.8, where h is the height of the canopy. At z=1 cm, the value of S was about 11% of the surface-layer u *. The standard deviation of the fluctuations of the vertical and horizontal components of the wind speed also decreased exponentially with depth inside the canopy with a scale length of about h/2.5. Inside the canopy, the Eulerian integral time scales for the vertical (? w ) and horizontal (? u ) components of wind speed were about 0.1 s and 1.0 s, respectively, and were approximately constant with height. Above the canopy, these time scales increased sharply and, at z=2.25 h, ? w and ? u were approximately 1.0 and 3.0s, respectively. Turbulence length scales in the vertical and downwind directions, ? u and ? w · U, respectively, were approximately 1 cm for heights between 1 to 10 cm above the ground inside the canopy, while at z=2.25 h, they were about 55 cm and 277 cm. Relatively quiescent periods (lulls) in the air close to the ground were interrupted frequently by gusts. The frequency of occurrence of gusts appears to be correlated with the value of the local shear near the top of the canopy.

  2. Dynamic response of grass cover to rainfall variability: implications for the function and persistence of savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Todd M.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Manfreda, Salvatore; Levin, Simon A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2005-03-01

    Savanna grass cover is dynamic and its annual extent resonates with wet season rainfall, as shown by satellite observations of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series for the Kalahari Transect (KT) in southern Africa. We explore the hydrological significance of the dynamic grass cover by applying a soil moisture model to the water-limited portion of the KT, which spans a north-south gradient in mean wet season rainfall, r¯, from approximately 700 to 300 mm. Satellite-derived tree fractional cover, xt, is shown to be highly correlated with ground meteorological measurements of r¯(R2=0.94) in this region. By implementing a simple expression for grass growth and decay in the model that factored in only xt and near-surface soil moisture, we were able to effectively reproduce the satellite-derived fractional grass cover, xg, along the transect over a 16-year period (1983-1998). We compared the results from dynamic grass model with those yielded by a static grass cover model in which xg was set to its 16-year average for each simulation. The dynamic quality of the grass was found to be important for reducing tree stress during dry years and for reducing the amount of water that is lost from the overall root zone during the wet years, relative to the static grass case. We find that the dynamic grass cover acts as a buffer against variability in wet season precipitation, and in doing so helps to maximize ecosystem water use. The model results indicate that mixed tree/grass savanna ecosystems are ideally suited to reach a dynamic equilibrium with respect to the use of a fluctuating limiting resource (water) by having functional components that respond to variability in rainfall over long timescales (trees) and short timescales (grasses).

  3. Uptake Evaluation Of Glass house Grown Grasses In Radio phyto remediation Of Caesium-Contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glass house experiment was performed to evaluate the uptake of grasses viz. Napier and Vetiver in radiophytoremediation of caesium-contaminated soil. The glass house radiophytoremediation experiment was designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The grasses were grown in troughs filled with soil mixed with a known specific activity of 134Cs. Initial Cs activity and activity after different cultivation time intervals of 1, 3, 6 and 9 months were analyzed using gamma spectrometer direct measurement. The results showed the uptake of caesium by Napier and Vetiver after 9 months with the transfer factors (TF) were 4.70 and 6.25, respectively. Meanwhile, the remediation of caesium from contaminated soil at the same time was 95.25 % (Napier) and 95.58 % (Vetiver). Both grasses have been found to accumulate caesium, with Vetiver accumulating higher than Napier. Thus, the present study suggests that Vetiver could be used as a potential plant for radiophytoremediation of caesium. (author)

  4. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg-1), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg-1) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  5. Zur Erinnerung an deutsche Opfer: Geschichte, Zeugnis und Fiktion in Grass’ Novelle Im Krebsgang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Galle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa, por meio de uma novela de G. Grass, uma tendência atual da literatura alemã sobre a II Guerra. Nesta nova literatura já não é mais a culpa, mas o sofrimento da população que se focaliza. O texto de Grass apresenta um cuidado particular nos fatos históricos, facilitando aos leitores distinguir entre elementos factuais e ficcionais. No âmbito da ação ficcional, o autor imita o gênero do testemunho, fato que contribui para qualificar sua novela como meio da memória colectiva. A ação ficcional desenvolve, além disso, uma argumentação política que explica a necessidade de comemorar também as vítimas alemães: para fazer jus à verdade, ao equilíbrio emocional e para encontrar uma saída do circuito da violência, perpetuada através das gerações. A novela de Grass encontra-se, por conseguinte, na tradição da representação de eventos históricos, a serviço de uma memória colectiva humanista e iluminada que, na Alemanha, remete à obra dramática de Schiller.

  6. Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L. In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Al-Khalifah

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro conditions were investigated. The grass has performed excellent growth through out the year producing seed heads, elongating and producing lateral shoots with slow growth during winter and hot summer, yellowing leafs under shaded greenhouse and short stems in small pots. Plants were affected by salinity levels of in vitro treatments as there was high significant difference in their response to different salinity concentrations, this response was increasing with the time.

  7. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy gain (NEG) was estimated to more than 600.000 GJ corresponding to ?15% of the total Danish biogas production in 2012.

  8. A theoretical framework of ecological phase transitions for characterizing tree-grass dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai-Lian

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical framework of ecological phase transitions for modeling tree-grass dynamics and analyzing the shifts or phase transitions from one vegetation structure to another in the southern Texas landscape. This framework implements the integration of percolation theory, fractal geometry and phase transition theory as a method for modeling the spatial patterns of tree-grass dynamics, and nonlinear Markov non-equilibrium thermodynamic stability theory as a method for characterizing temporal tree-grass dynamics and phase transition. An historical sequence of aerial photographs at a Prosopis-thornscrub savanna parkland site in southern Texas was used to determine the parameters of the models. The preliminary analytical result accords well with current understanding and field survey of vegetation dynamics in the southern Texas landscape. The potential of such approaches and other relevant theories such as self-organized criticality and synergetics to vegetation dynamics is also discussed. PMID:12211328

  9. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity of...... meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy...

  10. Metal pollution determined by pollution indices for sea grass P. oceanica and surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovi? Slavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, As, Co, and Hg in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica and surface sediment samples were determined. Together with P. oceanica, surface sediment samples were collected at eight locations in the major demographic, tourist and port areas along the Montenegrin coast to assess metal pollution. The metal pollution index (MPI and metal enrichment factor (EF were calculated and used to evaluate the impact of heavy metals in the surface sediment on P. oceanica. The sediment MPI and EF values were lower than these values in P. oceanica at the same locations. Since the surface sediment contained lower mean concentrations of Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg, than the sea grass P. oceanic, we concluded that the sea grass absorbed some metals from the seawater column. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  11. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium to grass. The implementation of the metabolism of the lamb includes an assumption of a biological halflife of three weeks for radiocaesium.

  12. X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry to characterise the chemical composition of ashes by the savannah grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to quantity the biomass burning emissions, the main atmospheric pollution source of the tropical and subtropical regions, we carried out the analysis of ashes that are also formed during these fires. When this aim, analytical methods to characterize the composition of Savannah grass burning ashes by using x-ray fluorescence for mineral elements and classical microanalysis for C,H,N and organic O have been developed. Samples used in this work have been collected during laboratory combustion experiments with chemically well-defined natural Savannah grasses from ivory Coast and South Africa. The reproducibility and efficiency of different procedures have been studied. The analytical relative precision is generally better than 5%. This development has allowed to establish for the first time, the global mass balance of ashes resulting from the burning of Savannah grasses. (author) 6 tabs

  13. CO2 and Er:YAG laser interaction with grass tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehun; Ki, Hyungson

    2013-01-01

    Plant leaves are multi-component optical materials consisting of water, pigments, and dry matter, among which water is the predominant constituent. In this article, we investigate laser interaction with grass using CO2 and Er:YAG lasers theoretically and experimentally, especially targeting water in grass tissues. We have first studied the optical properties of light absorbing constituents of grass theoretically, and then have identified interaction regimes and constructed interaction maps through a systematic experiment. Using the interaction maps, we have studied how interaction regimes change as process parameters are varied. This study reveals some interesting findings concerning carbonization and ablation mechanisms, the effect of laser beam diameter, and the ablation efficiency and quality of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers.

  14. The grasses (Poaceae) of the Colombian Guyana: analyses on their composition, richness, endemism, and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The checklist of grasses from Colombian Guyana is presented. In all, 152 species, 69 genera, and six subfamilies were recorded. Thus, in the Colombian Guyana is represented the 18.7 and 43.7% of the species and genera of Colombian grasses, respectively. The subfamilies with the highest number of species were Panicoideae (110 species/46 genera), Chloridoideae (21/9), and Bambusoideae (11/9). The most diverse genera were Paspalum (19 species), Panicum (16), Axonopus (14), Eragrostis (9), and Digitaria (8). Nineteen species are introduced and naturalized in the Colombian Guyana, which represent 12.5% of the agrostological flora for the Colombian Guyana. There were 8 endemic species (5.3% of Colombian Guayanan grasses). In addition, some species are reported for the first time for Colombian flora (belonging to Axonopus, Cyphonanthus, Gymnopogon, and Paspalum), and some species are new to science (belonging to Axonopus, Digitaria, Eragrostis, and Sacciolepis). On the other hand, some preliminary biogeographical aspect are analyzed.

  15. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  16. Nutrient leaching from e peat soil under reed canary grass and Timothey ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat soils comprise about 10% (200 000 ha) of the field area in Finland. In addition, 1000-2000 ha of peat soils is annually released from peat production to other purposes. Biomass production is one possibility to utilize the areas. Owing to decomposition of organic N and the low binding capacity for P, N and P losses from peat soils tend to be high. However, cultivation of perennial grass leys decreases N leaching risk due to less frequent soil tillage. In case of reed canary grass, the ten-year growing period may further reduce nutrient leaching compared to other field crops. The aim of this study is to compare nutrient leaching from perennial, rhizomous reed canary grass ley under delayed spring harvesting to timothy/meadow fescue ley under normal cultivation with two cuts each year. (au)

  17. Characterisation of a Giant Lemon Grass Acclimatised in the Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loumouamou Aubin Nestor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the essential oil of the giant variety of lemon grass (Poaceae obtained from farmers in Congo-Kinshasa and tested in Congo-Brazzaville. Chemical analysis, by GC and GCMS, of the essential oil from different parts of the plant, extracted at different stages of growth, revealed the very high stability of the citral chemotype (>80%; giving it the status of interesting species for the production of citral oil. However, it could not be identified to any of the oil-yielding grasses already described in the literature. Like Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf it produces an essential oil containing more than 80% citral, but displays morphological characteristics of vigorous grasses. The botanical description of the plant and the chemical composition of its oil identify it to Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud Stapf.

  18. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cunilio, T.V. [Center of Sustainable Argoforesty, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  19. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals' growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher's exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. PMID:26090810

  20. Establishment of warm season grasses with and without the use of compost soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Gough, G.A.; Lohnes, E.J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Two compost materials (COMPRO and LEAFGRO) were evaluated as soil amendments to enhance wildlife habitats, while maintaining optimal floral and faunal biodiversity. Special emphasis was placed on the role of compost in the establishment and retention of native warm season grasses (Andropogon gerardi, Schizachyrium scoparium, and Sorghastrum nutans). This study was conducted at two sites that were degraded by previous military and farming operations. Sites were plowed twice in 1996 and then a one inch layer of COMPRO or LEAFGRO was applied with a modified manure spreader and disked into the soil to a depth of 3 inches. Vegetation sampling was conducted in 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999. Initially the greatest vegetation cover occurred in plots treated with LEAFGRO. Plots treated with COMPRO had less vegetation cover than both types of controls plots (with and without warmseason grasses). The reduced plant growth in the plots treated with COMPRO may have been related to the much higher soil pH of these plots on both sites. In subsequent years, amounts of warm season grasses increased, however, in general there was more cover of warm season grasses in plots that did not receive compost than those that did receive compost. Sorghastrum nutans was more abundant on the sites than either of the other two species of warm season grasses. Invertebrate and mammal data collected for three years indicated that there was not more faunal activity in the plots treated with LEAFGRO or COMPRO compost soil amendments. Results indicate that compost amendments did not improve establishment of warm season grasses and the resultant faunal diversity or abundance.

  1. Competition between trees and grasses for both soil water and mineral nitrogen in dry savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, D; De Michele, C; Scholes, R J

    2013-09-01

    The co-existence of trees and grasses in savannas in general can be the result of processes involving competition for resources (e.g. water and nutrients) or differential response to disturbances such as fire, animals and human activities; or a combination of both broad mechanisms. In moist savannas, the tree-grass coexistence is mainly attributed to of disturbances, while in dry savannas, limiting resources are considered the principal mechanism of co-existence. Virtually all theoretical explorations of tree-grass dynamics in dry savannas consider only competition for soil water. Here we investigate whether coexistence could result from a balanced competition for two resources, namely soil water and mineral nitrogen. We introduce a simple dynamical resource-competition model for trees and grasses. We consider two alternative hypotheses: (1) trees are the superior competitors for nitrogen while grasses are superior competitors for water, and (2) vice-versa. We study the model properties under the two hypotheses and test each hypothesis against data from 132 dry savannas in Africa using Kendall's test of independence. We find that Hypothesis 1 gets much more support than Hypothesis 2, and more support than the null hypothesis that neither is operative. We further consider gradients of rainfall and nitrogen availability and find that the Hypothesis 1 model reproduces the observed patterns in nature. We do not consider our results to definitively show that tree-grass coexistence in dry savannas is due to balanced competition for water and nitrogen, but show that this mechanism is a possibility, which cannot be a priori excluded and should thus be considered along with the more traditional explanations. PMID:23639405

  2. 'Bio-energy Schaffhausen': biogas, proteins and fibres, all three from grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergie Schaffhausen Ltd., Switzerland, has commissioned the first industrial bio-refinery for processing grass. This unique grass refinery process provides a new industrial utilisation of grass. The products are green power and technical fibres for heat and sound insulation. The green electricity and green gas are made and sold by Etawatt Ltd. and Schaffhausen City Works, the green heat is used internally as process heat. All plant components are utilised for generation of value-added products, which makes the plant economically profitable even at a relatively small scale. The fully continuous and automated plant includes raw material reception, pre-treatment, fractionation, separation, and drying of fibres; separation of protein; juice treatment and conversion to biogas in a so-called UASB reactor; gas cleaning and conversion to electricity and process heat in a combined heat and power plant. The design capacity of the plant is 20,000 t fresh grass or 5,000 t dry substance input per year in two shifts. The plant supplier is '2B Biorefineries' (www.2bio.ch). The start up was in October 2001. Over 500 tons of grass have been processed. The grass refinery has produced so far 78,000 m3 biogas, 150,000 kWh green electricity and 250,000 kWh green heat. Further, 80 tons of insulation fibres have been produced and sold in the market under the brand name '2B Gratec'. Over 30 buildings have been insulated. The washer and drier have not reached production capacity. The drying is a critical process for fibre quality. The drier is being modified and a new washer is being installed. It is planned to run at design capacity from May 2003. (author)

  3. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be filled with some species previously with no significant associations. In addition, a Java program, associCoeff, re-writed from my earlier work, was introduced. A large number of data were thus given also.

  4. Peramine and other fungal alkaloids are exuded in the guttation fluid of endophyte-infected grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulman, Albert; Lane, Geoffrey A; Christensen, Mike J; Fraser, Karl; Tapper, Brian A

    2007-02-01

    Many grasses live in association with asymptomatic fungi (Neotyphodium spp. endophytes), which grow in the intercellular spaces of the grass. These endophytes produce a range of alkaloids that protect the grass against grazing by mammals and insects. One of these alkaloids is an unusual pyrrolopyrazine, peramine. Peramine appears to be continuously produced by the endophyte, but does not progressively accumulate. No mechanism for the removal of peramine by its further metabolism or any other process has been reported. Our aim was to detect peramine or peramine metabolites in plant fluids to determine if peramine is mobilized, metabolized or excreted by the plant. We also wanted to determine if other fungal metabolites are mobilized by the plant, as has been proposed for the loline alkaloids. We developed a highly sensitive method for the analysis of peramine, using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. We studied the fragmentation pathway of peramine using ESI MSn and ESI FTICRMS. Based on these results we developed a single reaction monitoring method using the fragmentation of the guanidinium moiety. Cut leaf fluid and guttation fluid of different grass endophyte associations (Lolium perenne with Neotyphodium lolii, Festuca arundinacea with Neotyphodium coenophialum, and Elymus sp. with Epichloë sp.) were analysed. Peramine was detected in the cut leaf fluid of all grass-endophyte associations, but not in the guttation fluid of all associations. In some associations we also detected lolines and ergot peptide alkaloids. This is the first report showing the mobilization of fungal alkaloids into plant fluids by the host plant in grass-endophyte associations. PMID:17126863

  5. Key role for a glutathione transferase in multiple-herbicide resistance in grass weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Ian; Wortley, David J; Sabbadin, Federico; He, Zhesi; Coxon, Christopher R; Straker, Hannah E; Sellars, Jonathan D; Knight, Kathryn; Edwards, Lesley; Hughes, David; Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; Steel, Patrick G; Edwards, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-herbicide resistance (MHR) in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and annual rye-grass (Lolium rigidum) is a global problem leading to a loss of chemical weed control in cereal crops. Although poorly understood, in common with multiple-drug resistance (MDR) in tumors, MHR is associated with an enhanced ability to detoxify xenobiotics. In humans, MDR is linked to the overexpression of a pi class glutathione transferase (GSTP1), which has both detoxification and signaling functions in promoting drug resistance. In both annual rye-grass and black-grass, MHR was also associated with the increased expression of an evolutionarily distinct plant phi (F) GSTF1 that had a restricted ability to detoxify herbicides. When the black-grass A. myosuroides (Am) AmGSTF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the transgenic plants acquired resistance to multiple herbicides and showed similar changes in their secondary, xenobiotic, and antioxidant metabolism to those determined in MHR weeds. Transcriptome array experiments showed that these changes in biochemistry were not due to changes in gene expression. Rather, AmGSTF1 exerted a direct regulatory control on metabolism that led to an accumulation of protective flavonoids. Further evidence for a key role for this protein in MHR was obtained by showing that the GSTP1- and MDR-inhibiting pharmacophore 4-chloro-7-nitro-benzoxadiazole was also active toward AmGSTF1 and helped restore herbicide control in MHR black-grass. These studies demonstrate a central role for specific GSTFs in MHR in weeds that has parallels with similar roles for unrelated GSTs in MDR in humans and shows their potential as targets for chemical intervention in resistant weed management. PMID:23530204

  6. Changes in organic matter (C, N and P) of soils under subsistence agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Productivities under low input or subsistence agriculture are strongly dependent on nutrient supply from soil organic matter mineralization (SOM). Few results are available and they indicate declines in soil fertility under this agricultural system, particularly in SOM levels. In an attempt to understand the nature and extent of these declines we selected ten sites having cultivated areas adjacent with areas under native vegetation at the same slope position, in the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba. Based on the management history, in situ observations and 137 Cs concentrations to evaluate soil erosion, the areas were divided in four groups having different levels of soil use intensity: Undisturbed Dry Forest (UDF), Disturbed Dry Forest (DDF), Preserved-Cultivated (PC) and Degraded-Cultivated (DC). In the first part of this work we quantified total organic C, N and P, in addition to 137 Cs concentrations, under the assumption that changes in organic nutrient contents among land use groups would be greater than the within group variability, thus enabling inferences at a regional scale. Concentrations of C and N in DC were 50% smaller (P-3) (C-lf); C-CO2 produced during three days of incubation (C-min3d); C oxidized with 333 mM (C-ox 333) and 16,5 mM (C-ox16) KMnO4. The only fraction that did not correlate with total C was C-fl. Average proportions of total C extracted by C-mins3d, C-ox 16 were 1.5%, 24% and 7.2 %, respectively. In the second phase, the whole sample set (n=160) was analyzed for C-ox16. This C fraction decreased from 1.65 g kg-1 under UDF to 0.70 in DC (P-1, in a pot experiment. Total C correlated significantly with N mineralized in 60 d (N-min60d) (r=0.79***) while N-min60 and P-Mehlich-1 explained 80% of the variation in dry matter production by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Low P availability, C and N losses, limited water availability and sometimes-inappropriate land management techniques, are considered strong limiting conditions for the recovery of degraded soils by traditional bush fallow techniques. (author)

  7. The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu QINXIAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel don’t think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak service consciousness, the financialinnovation lag and the unbalanced development. Finally eight pieces of adviceare brought forward as the measures against the eight butterfly effects.

  8. Economic evaluation of SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (Grazax® in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldson S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Ronaldson,1 Matthew Taylor,1 Peter G Bech,2 Ruth Shenton,1 Albrecht Bufe3 1York Health Economics Consortium, York, UK; 2ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark; 3Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany Background: Grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis is a common allergic respiratory disorder affecting over 20% of the UK population in terms of quality of life and sleep, work, and school patterns. The SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT has been demonstrated as a disease-modifying treatment which gives a sustained effect even after completion of a treatment course. The objective of this study was to provide an economic assessment of whether treatment with the SQ-standardized grass AIT, Grazax® (Phleum pratense in combination with symptomatic medications is preferable to the standard of care using symptomatic medications only. The analysis was performed for children with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis, with or without concomitant asthma, in the UK. Methods: The model evaluated the two treatment regimens in a cohort of 1,000 children from a payer’s perspective. Treatment was modeled in terms of management of symptoms, impact on resource use, and development of allergic asthma. The analysis modeled the use of SQ-standardized grass AIT and the sustained effects of treatment over a 9-year time horizon (ie, 3 years of treatment, with modeled long-term benefits. Data inputs were drawn from a recent clinical trial, published studies, and databases. Results: SQ-standardized grass AIT improves patient outcomes, generating an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained of £12,168. This is below commonly accepted thresholds in the UK. Conclusion: The resulting incremental cost per QALY falls below commonly accepted willingness to pay thresholds. Therefore, the SQ-standardized grass AIT is a cost-effective option for the treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis in the UK pediatric population. Keywords: cost-effectiveness, cost, quality of life, cost-benefit, United Kingdom, rhinoconjunctivitis, infant

  9. 14C of grasses as an indicator of fossil fuel CO2 pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Kashgarian, Michaele; Bol, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the amount of fossil fuel carbon stored in the vegetation is now crucial to understand the mechanisms ruling climate changes. In this respect, highly polluted areas such as major towns represent "natural" laboratories because fossil fuel CO2 (14C-free) is isotopically distinct from mean atmospheric CO2 (14C-labeled). Here, a 14C study of urban grasses near a major highway in Paris, France, shows that plants store up to 13% of fossil fuel carbon. 14C composition of urban grasses is t...

  10. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with ?-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494?g/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226?g/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of ?-tocopherol supplementation was observed on milk concentrations of any of the measured phytoestrogens. Variations were observed in milk concentrations of phytoestrogens, especially of equol, among cows, which could not be explained by variations in diet composition or phytoestrogen intake. The results show that milk phytoestrogen concentration is strongly influenced by silage botanical composition, but questions regarding phytoestrogen metabolism remain to be answered.

  11. The irrigation and different rates of nitrogen and potassium in elephant grass production

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Miranda de Oliveira; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Rubens Alves de Oliveira; Antônio Carlos Cóser; Ednaldo Miranda de Oliveira; Jair da Costa Oliveira Filho

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of application of different irrigation and nitrogen (N), and potassium (K) in Xaraes grass yield in southern Tocantins. We used a mixture of fertilizer, so that combinations of N and K2O relationship of 1 N:0.8 K2O. To assess the effect of different depths of irrigation water and combinations of the concentrations of N and K2O Xaraes the grass was determined during the experiment the dry matter yield. The lowest yield in the dry season w...

  12. Ensilage of elephant grass containing cassava meal Ensilagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Bianca Damasceno Pinho; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate gases and effluent losses, pH and chemical composition of elephant grass ensilage with different cassava meal (CM) levels. A completely randomized design, as 2 x 4 (elephant grass without and with wilting and four levels of cassava meal: 0, 4, 8 and 12%, as-fed basis) factorial arrangement, with four replicates, was used. PVC silos with packing density of 600 kg green matter/m3 were used. The gases and effluent losses decreased as CM levels increased,...

  13. The Butterfly Effect on the Agricultural Bank System at the Grass-Roots Level

    OpenAIRE

    Xu QINXIAN; Zhang JIAN

    2009-01-01

    The competition power of the Agricultural Bank of China has beendropping down for several years. The reason is that banks at the grass-rootslevel don’t think much of managing the subtle links. The paper uses the theoryof butterfly effect in Chaos for reference to discusses the risks existed in theAgricultural Bank of China at the grass-roots level such as the credit risk, theincomplete internal control, the loose accounting system, the disorder marketcompetitiveness, the brain drain, the weak...

  14. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  15. The effects of grass and clay plyometric training on jumping, sprinting and agility in collegiate cricketers

    OpenAIRE

    Moazzam Hussain Khan; Kamran Ali

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of Plyometrics on Grass Versus Clay Surface on Jumping, Sprinting and Agility in Collegiate CricketersDesign: Pre test-Post test same subject group Experimental design.Methods: After random allocation, 24 players’ completed 4 weeks of plyometric training, 12 players on clay surface and 12 players on grass surface. Before and after training, vertical jump, 40 yard sprint time and agility were measured.Result: Independent t- test was used for...

  16. Assessing veld condition in the Kruger National Park using key grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S.W. Trollope

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Veld condition refers to the condition of the vegetation in relation to some functional characteristic. In the Kruger National Park important functional characteristics are the potential of the veld to produce grass forage and fuel and to resist soil erosion. Consequently a simplified technique based on 18 key grass species was developed for assessing veld conditon and monitoring the effects of wild life management practices like veld burning, development of watering points and culling. The technique has been specifically developed for use by wildlife managers and has the ability to indicate the potential of the veld to support bulk grazing animals, to carry a fire and to resist soil erosion.

  17. PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA USING HYDROLYZED GRASS AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI SEED AS LOW COST SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Jeyaseelan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolyzed Bermuda grass (Cyanidon dactylon and Jambul seed (Syzygium cumini, were used as carbon sources for the production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA from soil microbial isolates. The efficiency of selected isolate for PHA production utilizing the hydrolyzed substrate as carbon source was compared with Ralstonia eutropha (reference strain using the same production medium. The best isolate SP-Y1 and Ralstonia eutropha were able to accumulate 26.76% and 28.97% of their dry cell weight when hydrolyzed grass was used as substrate and PHA accumulation increased to 41.7% and 42.2% when hydrolyzed seed was used as a sole carbon source.

  18. Dynamic modeling of the cesium, strontium, and ruthenium transfer to grass and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1988 to 1993, the Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire -- IPSN) conducted experimental programs focused on transfers to vegetation following accidental localized deposits of radioactive aerosols. In relation to vegetable crops (fruit, leaves, and root vegetables) and meadow grass these experiments have enabled a determination of the factors involved in the transfer of cesium, strontium, and ruthenium at successive harvests, or cuttings, in respect of various time lags after contamination. The dynamic modeling given by these results allows an evaluation of changes in the mass activity of vegetables and grass during the months following deposit. It constitutes part of the ASTRAL post-accident radioecology model

  19. Copper tolerance of the biomass crops Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (Phragmites australis) in soil culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Shen, Yixing; Lou, Laiqing; Ding, Chenglong; Cai, Qingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Pot trials were conducted to study the influence of copper (Cu) on the growth and biomass of Elephant grass (EG, Pennisetum purpureum Schumach), Vetiver grass (VG, Vetiveria zizanioides) and the upland reed (UR, Phragmites australis). Cu toxicity in EG, VG and UR was positively correlated with the total and bioavailable Cu concentrations in the soil. Based on the EC50, dry weights, Cu contents, chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rates, the Cu tolerance of the three species followed the trend EGNVGNUR. There were no significant differences in the unit calorific values among the different plants, though the total calorific values of EG were higher than those of VG and UR due to its higher biomass. The addition of KH2PO4 to the soil decreased the bioavailability of Cu and the Cu uptake by plants. EG could therefore be a good candidate for growth on Cu-contaminated soils, especially those improved by phosphate. PMID:19393734

  20. Working on the Short Grass: A Qualitative Analysis of Fundraiser Roles and Experiences at Public Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Natalie T. J.

    2009-01-01

    The former president of Morehouse College, Dr Benjamin E. Mays, once said, "Higher education for Blacks has always been in a precarious position. These institutions were founded on short grass financially, and they live today on short grass." Today, many public and private historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have found success in…