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Growth Response of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) to Phosphorus and Mycorrhizal Inoculation  

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Arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although the majority of grasses form an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, little is known of the mycorrhization of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). A pot study was conducted in sterilized soil to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus amendment on the biomass production in C. ciliaris. Mycorrhizal fungi used were Gigaspora rosea, Glom...

Irshad Ahmad Khan; Shahbaz Ahmad; Mirza, Sarwat N.; Moazzam Nizami; Mohammad Athar; Shaikh Mohammad Shabbir

2007-01-01

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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) grazed by goats and sheep / Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pastejada por ovinos e caprinos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de [...] 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD) e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.). A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS) de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel. Abstract in english Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, w [...] as divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD) goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM) availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis) by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

Luiza Daiana Araújo da Silva, Formiga; José Morais, Pereira Filho; Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo, Silva; Nadjanara Souza, Oliveira; Diogo da Costa, Soares; Olaf Andreas, Bakke.

2012-06-01

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Phosphorus fertilization and growth of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliares L.) cultivars / Adubação fosfatada e crescimento de cultivares de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliares L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O fósforo (P) desempenha papel importante no crescimento do sistema radicular, quanto no perfilhamento das gramíneas, fundamental para o aumento da produtividade dessas espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de cultivares (cvs.) [...] de capim-buffel e estabelecer os níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação com arranjo experimental em esquema fatorial 4 x 5 (quatro cultivares de Cenchrus ciliaris: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 e Pusa Giant e cinco doses de P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1) além de quatro repetições. Após 90 dias de cultivo foram determinadas a produção de fitomassa seca da parte áerea (MSPA) e a raiz (MSR) tal como o acúmulo de P nesses tecidos. Coletaram-se amostras de solo para determinação do teor de P e do seu nível crítico (NiCri). Em cultivares S Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus apresentaram diferentes níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta obtido na estufa demonstrando que a mesma apresentou exigência diferenciada deste nutriente para seu crescimento. A cultivar CPATSA 7754 demonstrou maior exigência em fósforo não permitindo estabelecer os níveis críticos com as doses utilizadas no presente estudo. Abstract in english Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the growth of root system as well as the tillering grass, being fundamental to increase the productivity of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of buffel grass cultivars and establ [...] ish critical values of P in plant and soil. The experimental set up was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (four Cenchrus ciliaris cvs.: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 and Pusa Giant, and five doses of P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) with four replications. After 90 days of cultivation, dry mass of shoot (DMS) and root (DMR) production and the P accumulation (Pacc) were determined. Soil samples to determine the P content and determination of the critical level (CriLev) were also collected. The cv. Biloela presented lower DMR and DMS production compared to the other cultivars. The cultivares Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus showed different critical levels of P in soil and plant, obtained in the greenhouse showing that they have different requirement of this nutrient for their growth. The cultivar CPATSA 7754 showed higher phosphorus requirement and did not permit to establish critical levels with doses used in the present study.

Vanderlise, Giongo; Alessandra M., Salviano; Betina R. C. dos, Santos; Emylly F., Leal.

2015-01-01

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Growth Response of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris to Phosphorus and Mycorrhizal Inoculation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although the majority of grasses form an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, little is known of the mycorrhization of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris. A pot study was conducted in sterilized soil to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus amendment on the biomass production in C. ciliaris. Mycorrhizal fungi used were Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum. Inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone, and combined incoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum signifi cantly (P<0.05 increased dry biomass in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum showed pronounced (P<0.05 eff ect on dry biomass compared to inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum resulted in signifi cantly (P<0.05 higher dry biomass campared to the combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Th e results clearly show that inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum is highly benefi cial for the growth and biomass production in the absence or presence of P2O5 under sterile soil conditions. Inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with these mycorrizal fungi may help in forage production in marginal and shallow soils of the rangelands of Pakistan.

Irshad Ahmad Khan

2007-06-01

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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12548  

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Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

Diogo da Costa Soares

2012-03-01

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Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense  

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Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda.

Erick De la Barrera

2008-12-01

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Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape  

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Full Text Available This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris, in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histories of seeds, among others. While the article does not explicitly discuss Clifford’s argument, it is an attempt to explore similarly diverse histories including those generated by arid zone scientists, Albert Namatjira’s efforts to gain a grazing licence, environmental impact of settlement (including erosion, dust storms and species extinction, along with personal narratives impelled by engagement with place. The article does not aim to theorise its content, rather to elaborate knowledge of landscape along with that elusive quality, a ‘sense of place’, through connecting disparate things.

Saskia Maya Beudel

2012-11-01

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Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape  

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Full Text Available This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris, in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histories of seeds, among others. While the article does not explicitly discuss Clifford’s argument, it is an attempt to explore similarly diverse histories including those generated by arid zone scientists, Albert Namatjira’s efforts to gain a grazing licence, environmental impact of settlement (including erosion, dust storms and species extinction, along with personal narratives impelled by engagement with place. The article does not aim to theorise its content, rather to elaborate knowledge of landscape along with that elusive quality, a ‘sense of place’, through connecting disparate things.

Saskia Maya Beudel

2012-12-01

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Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4?×?4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods (n = 4). Animals were fed with BG with different levels of GS: 100% BG (T1, control), 90% BG + 10% GS (T2), 80% BG + 20% GS (T3), and 70% BG?+?30% GS (T4). Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P < 0.05) in those lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in the other treatments. CP digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in T4 compared to T1, T2, and T3. The study showed that inclusion of GS up to 30% with BG in forage-based diets of sheep does not affect DM and fiber intake nor influence DM and OM digestibilities but it increases CP intake and reduces NDF and ADF digestibilities. PMID:23420067

Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N; Valle-Cerdán, José L; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco; Angeles-Campos, Sergio; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar

2013-08-01

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Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida / Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta áre [...] a destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusi [...] vely for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of the experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

Walter Alves de, Vasconcelos; Albericio Pereira de, Andrade; Edson Mauro, Santos; Ricardo Loiola, Edvan; Divan Soares, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva.

2013-03-01

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Fenos de capim-buffel amonizados com ureia / Buffel grass hays ammoniated with urea  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se quantificar a população de mofos e leveduras, avaliar as perdas de matéria seca e a composição bromatológica de fenos de capim-buffel amonizados com ureia. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam aos ní [...] veis de ureia (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0%), que foram adicionados aos fardos de feno com base na matéria seca. A inclusão de 1,0% de ureia elevou a recuperação de matéria seca (93,21%) em relação ao feno não amonizado. Observou-se efeito quadrático para o pH, com o maior valor observado no nível de 0,5% de ureia (8,88), reduzindo nos demais níveis de ureia. A adição de níveis de ureia foi eficiente em reduzir a população de mofos e leveduras, reduzindo de 6,50 log UFC/g no feno sem tratamento com ureia para 3,65 log UFC/g quando adicionados 4% de ureia no feno. A adição de ureia proporcionou aumento nos teores de matéria orgânica e proteína bruta dos fenos de capim-buffel, atingindo os maiores valores com a utilização de 4,0% de ureia, com 90,96% e 14,03% para matéria orgânica e proteína bruta, respectivamente. A aplicação de ureia não proporciona diminuição em relação às perdas de matéria seca, exceto na dose de 1,0%, no entanto, é eficiente em reduzir a população de mofos e leveduras e elevar os teores de proteína bruta de fenos de capim-buffel. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to quantify the population of molds and yeasts, evaluate losses dry matter and chemical composition of buffelgrass hay ammoniated with urea. We used a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted the urea levels (0, 0 [...] .5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0%) that were added to the hay bales based on dry matter. The inclusion of 1.0% of urea increased dry matter recovery (93.21%) compared to non-ammoniated hay. There was quadratic effect for the pH with highest value observed at the level of 0.5% of urea (8.88), reducing the other levels of urea. The addition of urea levels was efficient to reduce the population of molds and yeasts, reducing from 6.50 log CFU/g in untreated hay with urea to 3.65 log CFU/g when added 4% of urea in the hay. The addition of urea resulted in increased contents of organic matter and crude protein hay buffelgrass, reaching the highest values with the use de 4.0% of urea, with 90.96% and 14.03%, respectively. The application of urea does not provide decreased in respect losses of dry matter, except at a level of 1.0%, however it is efficient in to reduce the population of molds and yeasts and elevate the crude protein of buffel grass hay.

Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra; Edson Mauro, Santos; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Alexandre Fernandes, Perazzo; Ana Paula Gomes da, Silva; João Paulo de Farias, Ramo; Gildenia Araújo, Pereira.

2014-09-01

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AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

2011-01-01

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Características de produção do capim-buffel submetido a intensidades e freqüências de corte / Characteristics of production of buffel grass as function of cutting intensity and frequency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas, estruturais e a produção de biomassa do capim-buffel sob intensidades e freqüências de corte. Utilizou-se um pasto já implantado de capimbuffel, cultivar Molopo. A área total utilizada foi dividida em 20 parcelas de 8 m² cada com linha de bordadura [...] de 1 m entre as parcelas. Foi utilizado um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, tendo nas parcelas um arranjo fatorial 2x2 referente a combinações entre duas alturas de corte (60 e 80 cm) e duas alturas de resíduo (20 e 40 cm), em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais, que receberam as denominações 20-60, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. Houve efeito (p0,05), entre os tratamentos. A freqüência e a intensidade de corte influenciaram o perfilhamento, relação lâmina/colmo e a produção de matéria seca do capim-buffel tanto para o corte como para a produção total. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics and biomass production of buffel grass as a function of cut intensities and frequencies. A previously established pasture of buffel grass cultivar Molopo was used. Total area was splited in twenty 8 m² expe [...] rimental unities with 1 m border lines. A split plot scheme was used with plot in factorial scheme 2x2 to combination of two height of cut (60 and 80 cm) and two height post cut (20 and 40 cm). The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with five replicates named 2060, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. There (p0.05) between treatments. Cutting frequency and intensities influenced tillering, leaf/ stem ratio and dry matter production for both the cut as to the total.

R.L., Edvan; E.M., Santos; D.S., Da Silva; A.P., De Andrade; R.G., Costa; W.A., Vasconcelos.

1281-12-01

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Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

2014-03-01

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Microbial and fermentation profiles, losses and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass harvested at different cutting heights  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study evaluated the microbial population, fermentation profile, losses and dry matter recovery, and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass at different cutting heights. To evaluate the microbial fermentation dynamics, the treatments resulted from?a 4 × 5 factorial combination co [...] nsisting of 4 cutting heights and 5 fermentation periods, in a completely randomized design with three replications. The fermentation was evaluated at the end of 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. The other characteristics of silages with 30 days were evaluated following a completely randomized design with four treatments, consisting of 4 cutting heights (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm), and five replications. Fermentation period and cutting height effects and interaction between both factors were observed on the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterobacteria and molds and yeasts. The peak of development of LAB populations was observed on the seventh day of fermentation for the heights of 40 and 50 cm, with 8.25 and 8.30 log cfu/g, respectively. The pH values of silages ranged with different cutting heights, in which at the height of 50 cm the decrease was most pronounced. However, the pH values were similar between the cutting heights at the end of 30 days of fermentation. Quadratic relationship was observed between lactic acid concentrations and cutting heights. The crude protein content behaved linearly, initially showing 128.5 g/kg DM at 30 cm, decreasing as the cutting heights increased. The neutral detergent fiber and ether extract contents increased linearly with the cutting heights. Based on microbial populations, fermentation, losses and chemical composition, it is recommended to harvest buffel grass for silage from 50 cm on.

Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Edson Mauro, Santos; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Ana Paula Gomes da, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva; Fleming Sena, Campos; Carlos Henrique Oliveira, Macedo.

2013-12-01

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Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography  

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We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery...

Marshall, V. M.; Lewis, M. M.; Ostendorf, B.

2013-01-01

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Field evaluation of seven grasses for use in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in Central Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pasture-based systems, dominated by the tussock forming Cenchrus cilliaris cv. Biloela (buffel grass) and the stoloniferous Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (rhodes grass), are commonly used in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in the Bowen Basin of Central Queensland. Although able to establish quickly under favourable conditions, neither species has proven entirely suitable for use in this situation, particularly in providing effective ground cover for erosion control on the re-contoured post-mining landscape. The aim of this study was to evaluate a range of new pasture grasses, with the objective of identifying accessions better adapted to the climatic conditions of the areas requiring revegetation.

Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Mott, J.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

1999-07-01

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COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY  

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Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

Singariya P.

2012-04-01

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Nutrient Balance of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement  

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Full Text Available In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

A.A. Aganga

2006-01-01

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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel / Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pel [...] o sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simula [...] ted by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E, SILVA; DERMEVAL ARAÚJO, FURTADO; JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE, MATOS.

1867-18-01

 
 
 
 
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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

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Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

2000-09-01

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Avaliação de fenos de capim-buffel colhido em diferentes alturas de corte / Evaluation of buffelgrass hay harvested at different cutting heights  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, composição bromatológica e recuperação de matéria seca do feno de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), colhido em diferentes alturas de corte. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental Pendência, da Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da [...] Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA), situada no Município de Soledade-PB. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro alturas de corte (30; 40; 50 e 60cm) e cinco repetições. O rendimento forrageiro foi influenciado pela altura de colheita, com aumento linear alcançando produção de matéria seca de 7206,78kg/ha a 60cm de altura. Observou-se efeito de altura de colheita para os conteúdos de lâmina, colmo e relação lâmina:colmo na matéria seca, em que os valores da relação lâmina:colmo diminuíram com o aumento da altura de colheita, obtendo valores de 0,87 e 0,48 quando colhidos aos 30 e 60cm de altura, respectivamente. Obteve-se efeito quadrático de altura de colheita apenas para o teor de fibra em detergente neutro, com teores variando de 71,82 a 77,08% na matéria seca. Os valores médios de matéria seca do feno variaram entre 82,44 e 84,48%. A recuperação de matéria seca durante a desidratação diminuiu em função das alturas de colheita, apresentando comportamento linear com menor média observada no capim colhido a 60cm de altura (76,58%). A ausência de variação nos constituintes bromatológicos e nas perdas de matéria seca final e as maiores produções de biomassa nas maiores alturas de colheita permite concluir que o capim-buffel seja colhido nas alturas de colheita que possibilite maior produção. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the forage yield, chemical composition and dry matter recovery of buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), at different cutting heights. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Pendência of Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A (EMEPA) [...] , located in city of Soledade-PB. A randomized complete block design was used, with four cutting heights (30; 40; 50 and 60cm) with five replicates. The forage yield had effect with a linear increase in values achieving dry matter yield 7206.78kg/ha for 60cm height. There was harvesting height effect for leaf, stem and leaf:stem ratio in dry matter, wherein the values of leaf:stem ratio decreased with increasing harvesting height, getting values of 0.87 to 0.48 when harvested at 30 and 60cm height, respectively. Quadratic effect was observed in harvesting height only to the neutral detergent fiber, with contents ranging from 71.82 to 77.08% in dry matter. The average values of dry matter of hay were between 82.44 and 84.48%. The dry matter recovery in dehydration decreased in function of harvesting heights, showing linear behavior, with the smallest average observed for the grass to 60cm (76.58%). The absence of variation in the bromatological constituents and dry matter final losses and higher biomass production in the highest cutting harvest may conclude that buffel grass is to be harvested in the cutting height that enable greater production.

Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Edson Mauro, Santos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Fleming Sena, Campos; Gildenia Araujo, Pereira; Robervânia Maria, Correia.

2013-09-01

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Faecal Microbial Flora of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia sericea or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement  

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Full Text Available Fifteen female and ten castrated yearling Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into five groups of five goats of which 3 were females and 2 were males. The objectives of the project was to determine effects of T. serecia and B. albitrunca at two levels on faecal egg worm count, bacterial count and bacterial identification. All the goats were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris as a basal diet, while Medicago sativa (0% tannin content was fed to the control group as a supplements. The other four groups were fed low B. albitrunca (0.267% tannin in diet, high B. albitrunca (0.497% tannin in diet, Low T. serecia (0.342% tannin in diet and high T. serecia (0.497% tannin in diet as a supplement. The basal diet comprised of 60% of the ration, while Lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Wheat bran was provided at 250 g to provide energy for the goats. Water was provided daily. The study lasted for 60 days and faecal sampling was done fortnightly from the rectum of the goats in the morning. The faecal samples which were collected fortnightly from rectum of the goats were used for evaluation of egg worm count and bacterial identification. After a week of feeding T. sericea there was significant reduction on egg worm count (p<0.05, while on other treatments there were no significant differences in all faecal sampling dates (p>0.05.

A.A. Aganga

2006-01-01

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/ Animal bait effect on the recovery of Boophilus microplus larvae from experimentally infested grass in Morelos, Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para cuantificar la influencia de la presencia animal en la recuperación de larvas de pastos infestados experimentalmente, se realizó un ensayo en otoño 1999 e invierno 1999-2000. Para ello se compararon 4 formas de muestreo y 3 tipos de pastos. No hubo diferencias en la recuperación de larvas entre [...] las 4 formas, pero si, entre los tipos de pastos (p Abstract in english To quantify the influence of the animal presence on the percentage of Boophilus microplus larvae recovery from plots experimentally infested with this tick, it was carried out a trial in Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico, during autumn 1999 and winter 1999-2000. For this purpose there were compared four sam [...] pling methods: human walking with chaps, bovine dressed walking, double walking flagging and double walking with baited flagging. The comparison was made on tree grasses: Andropogun gayanus(gamba), Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel) and Melinis minutiflora (molasses). It was observed the same recovery efficiency of B. microplus larvae in the four sampling methods studied in the two seasons. There were no statistical differences, although, there were differences (P

MANUEL, FERNÁNDEZ-RUVALCABA; JESUS F, PRECIADO-DE LA TORRE; GLORIA, CORDOBA-JUAREZ; ZEFERINO, GARCÍA-VAZQUEZ; RODRIGO, ROSARIO-CRUZ; JORGE, SALTIJERAL-OAXACA.

2003-01-01

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Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan  

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Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm), number of tillers per plant (96), dry matter yield (22 t )ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forag...

Maria Ali; Qamar, Imtiaz A.; Asghar Ali; Arshad, M.; Mr.Javed Iqbal

2001-01-01

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Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm, number of tillers per plant (96, dry matter yield (22 t ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forage yield and crude protein content in the Pothwar plateau conditions.

Maria Ali

2001-01-01

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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae  

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Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Hugo F Gutiérrez

2012-06-01

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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómic [...] a del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación) permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth. Abstract in english Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of specie [...] s of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation). To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Hugo F, Gutiérrez; Osvaldo, Morrone.

2012-06-01

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Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection / Obtención de nuevo germoplasma en Cenchrus ciliaris L. a través de mutaciones inducidas y selección in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cenchrus ciliaris L., una forrajera subtropical de amplia distribución en la zona noroeste de Argentina, es un especie tetraploide (4x = 36) y apomíctica obligada. Una forma de obtener nuevo germoplasma es mediante mutaciones inducidas. En este trabajo, mutaciones físicas y químicas se combinaron co [...] n técnicas de selección in vitro a fin de obtener nuevo germoplama, con énfasis en tolerancia a salinidad y sequía. Semillas maduras de Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela fueron tratadas con rayos X (400 Gray) y con una solución de etil metano sulfonato (5,5 mM EMS durante 24 h). Para realizar la selección in vitro, las plántulas que germinaron 7 días después de los tratamientos mutagénicos fueron transferidas a tubos que contenían medio basal Murashige y Skoog, suplementado con NaCl o manitol para simular condiciones de salinidad y sequía, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron cincuenta y cuatro plantas selectas que toleraron 200 mM NaCl y 100 mM de manitol. Ambos agentes mutagénicos exhibieron similares porcentajes de variación genética medida a través de RAPDs. Este trabajo demostró que es posible generar variabilidad genética en Cenchrus ciliaris L. mediante el uso de agentes mutagénicos y selección in vitro. Abstract in english Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedu [...] res seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays treatments, germinated seeds were transferred to tubes containing Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with NaCl or mannitol to simulate salinity and drought conditions, respectively. Fifty-four selected plants were isolated which tolerated 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM mannitol. Both mutagenic agents exhibited similar percentages of induced genetic variation measured through RAPD polymorphisms. This work demonstrated that genetic variability can be generated in Cenchrus ciliaris L. using mutagenic agents and in vitro selection.

E, López Colomba; A, Prina; S, Griffa; AN, Ribotta; E, Carloni; E, Tommasino; C, Luna; E, Biderbost; K, Grunberg.

2011-06-01

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Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa  

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Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall ...

Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.; Nyangito, M. M.; Mwangombe, A. W.; Ekaya, W. N.; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; Von Kaufmann, R.; Verhagen, J.; Muiri, W. M.

2010-01-01

31

Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

2011-12-01

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Nutritional Evaluation of Major Range Grasses from Cholistan Desert  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritional status of ten grass species from Cholistan desert. The evaluated species were: Aeluropus lagopoides, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Lasiurus scindicus, Ochthochloa compressa, Panicum antidotale, Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum divisum, Sporobolus iocladus and Stipagrostis plumosa. Proximate analysis showed that the investigated grasses have deficient levels of crude protein and ether extract to meet the requirements of ruminants being reared there but have sufficient supplies of dry matter, crude fiber and ash. However, fiber analysis reflected that all the ten investigated grasses have high levels of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemi-cellulose and lignin.

Shahid Yaqoob

2013-01-01

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Water use of perennial summer grasses in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five subtropical perennial grass species, Cenchrus ciliaris, a Cynodon hybrid, Digitaria eriantha subsp. eriantha, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum clandestinum, were subjected to four levels of water availability in a small plot trial under a rainshelter during the summer growing seasons of 1996/97 and 1997/98. This work was carried out on the Hatfield Experimental Farm of the University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Th...

Marais, Diana

2005-01-01

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Mycorrhizas in the Perennial Grasses of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Roots of eleven perennial grass species and their associated rhizosphere soil samples were collected from different rangeland habitats of Cholistan desert and studied for the occurrence of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM associations of Glomalean fungi with their roots and AM fungal propagules in their rhizospheres. Panicum antidotale roots showed highest percentage of AMF colonization (i.e., 92.75% while lowest percentage (43.5% was recorded in the roots of Cyprus conglomeratus. Roots of all the grasses studied had vesicular infection whereas only 27.27% grass species exhibited arbuscular infection. Except Cenchrus biflorus, Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE fungal hyphae were always present concurrently with the AMF hyphae in the cortices of all the root samples of the grass species studied. Average number of AMF propagules recovered from the rhizospheres of the grasses examined in the present study ranged from 19.33 in Ochthochloa compressa to 356.32 in Cenchrus biflorus. Spores belonging to the Glomus sp. such as G. fasciculatus, G. deserticola and G. agrigatum were the dominant ones among the AMF species encountered in this study. Maximum number of AMF species were recovered from the rhizospheres of Cymbopogon jwarancusa. The potential significance of AMF in the development of mycorrhiza dependent perennial grasses of Cholistan desert is discussed. Researchers could use this knowledge in the revegetation attempts to put a green mantle on the desertified land and to stabilize sand dunes.

M.S. Chaudhry

2006-01-01

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Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia / Levels of nitrates in a urea fertilized Kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) pasture on the high plains of Antioquia, Colombia / Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Resumo A adubação é um dos fatores que contribuem na acumulação de nitratos da pastagem kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) do trópico. Este estudo foi realizado entre dezembro de 2012 e junho de 2013 na fazenda Paysandu da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia, localizada no corregimento Santa Elena da cida [...] de de Medellín, Antioquia. Avaliou-se a influência da adubação com nitrogênio sobre a produção e as concentrações de nitratos. O desenho experimental foi de blocos de 4 x 4 com quatro repetições nas parcelas da monocultura de pastagem kikuyo. Os tratamentos foram quatro níveis de nitrogênio aplicado como grânulos de uréia sobre a superfície (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg/ha por safra). As amostras da pastagem completa (folhas e talhos) coletaram-se aos 42 dias após adubação, com o intuito de simular a exposição ao pastoreio com gado. A biomassa mediou-se com a produção de matéria seca por hectare; os nitratos mediram-se por cromatografia iônica, expressada em partes por milhão (ppm) sobre o conteúdo de matéria seca. Não houve diferença significativa na produção de biomassa entre as diferentes taxas de aplicação de uréia; embora, todas as parcelas experimentais produziram maior biomassa comparada com as parcelas não tratadas (media 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in spanish Resumen La fertilización es uno de los factores que contribuye a la acumulación de nitratos en el pasto kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) en el trópico. Este estudio, realizado entre diciembre de 2012 y junio de 2013 en la Hacienda Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional, ubicada en Santa Elena-Medellín (A [...] ntioquia), evaluó la influencia de la fertilización con nitrógeno sobre la producción y las concentraciones de nitratos. El diseño experimental fue en bloques de 4 x 4 con cuatro repeticiones de parcelas monocultivo de pasto kikuyo. Los tratamientos fueron cuatro niveles de nitrógeno aplicado como gránulos de urea sobre la superficie (0, 50, 100 y 200 kg/ha por corte). Las muestras de pasto completo (hojas y tallos) se colectaron a los 42 días posfertilización, con el fin de simular la exposición al pastoreo con ganado. La biomasa se midió como la producción de materia seca por hectárea; los nitratos se midieron por cromatografía iónica, expresada en partes por millón (ppm) sobre el contenido de materia seca. No hubo diferencia significativa en la producción de biomasa entre las diferentes tasas de aplicación de urea; sin embargo todas las parcelas tratadas produjeron más biomasa comparadas con las parcelas no tratadas (promedio 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in english Abstract Fertilization is one of the factors that can contribute to build-up of nitrates in kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus) pastures of the tropics. Field studies to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrate concentrations were conducted between December 2012 and June 2013 [...] at the Agricultural Station of the National University at Santa Elena (Antioquia). The experimental design was a 4 x 4 block design with four replications in a monoculture paddock of kikuyu grass. Treatments were four levels of nitrogen applied as topdressing urea granules (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg/ha per plot). Whole grass samples (blades and stems) were collected at 42 days post-fertilization to mimic cattle grazing exposure. Biomass was estimated as dry matter yield per hectare and nitrates were measured by ion chromatography and expressed as parts per million (ppm) on dry matter content. No significant difference in biomass was observed between urea application rates; however, all treated plots produced more biomass than non-treated plots (mean 2.14 vs 1.12 Tons/ha, p

Jhon Didier, Ruiz Buitrago; David, Villar Argaiz; Héctor Jairo, Correa; Manuela, Roldán; Juan Camilo, Ríos.

2014-06-01

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Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris. PMID:23553451

Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

2013-07-01

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Biomasa y composición nutricional de la asociación Cenchrus ciliaris - Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento  

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Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc) y Gliricidia sepium (Gs) para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/...

Valle, J. L.; Palma, J. M.; Sangines, G. L.

2004-01-01

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Allelopathic Effect of Seed and Leaf Aqueous Extracts of Datura stramonium on Leaf Chlorophyll Content, Shoot and Root Elongation of Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii  

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Full Text Available Pot experiment was carried out to determine the allelopathic effects of Datura stramonium on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot elongation, fresh and dry weight of two wild plant species: Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii. Different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% from seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium were used to investigate the allelopathic effects of D. stramonium on growth of tested species. The total chlorophyll content of N. wightii was significantly reduced in all plants treated with both aqueous seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium. In C. ciliaris, the total chlorophyll content was also significantly reduced for those plants treated with aqueous seed extract and leaf extract from D. stramonium. Relative to the control treatments, there was greater reduction in root and shoot length which was observed in higher concentrations of aqueous seed and leaf extracts. Fresh and dry weight of tested species significantly decreased after being treated with both seed and leaf aqueous extracts of D. stramonium. It was found that the allelopathic effect of aqueous seed and leaf extracts from D. stramonium on tested species was concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effects on all tested species increased as the concentration of both extracts increased from 0% to 100%. This study concluded that aqueous seed and leaf extract of D. stramonium have allelopathic effects on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of grass (C. ciliaris and legume (N. wightii species.

Filemon Elisante

2013-11-01

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Kikuyu grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

TOXIC PRINCIPLE: • Grass invaded with Spodoptera exempta (army worms, kommandowurms). • The worms themselves are not toxic and the kikuyu grass in itself appears to be non-toxic, but a combination of these two results in toxicity through an unknown mechanism. • It takes ±10 days for the grass to become toxic after an army worm infestation and the toxicity is retained for 4 - 6 weeks after the worms have gone (life-cycle is completed, or they are killed by insecticides). ...

Botha, C. J.; Venter, Elna

2002-01-01

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Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae in pots Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae en macetas  

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Full Text Available Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (PSe evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimental de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta, y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta, en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta, revelando diferencias significativas (P<0,01 entre ambos grupos poblacionales. El número de hojas fue relativamente mayor a baja densidad de plantas, y la floración se presentó en la cosecha de los 30 días. El valor del coeficiente reveló una limitada capacidad competitiva para la cosecha de los 15 días, mientras que para el segundo periodo de evaluación resultó una interacción más intensa. Se concluye que existe una fuerte competencia intraespecífica a medida que incrementa la densidad poblacional y la relación de los coeficientes (A1/Ao corroboran la presencia de esta interacción ecológica. Se recomienda continuar los estudios de competencia vegetal con otras especies de malezas de importancia agroecológica en la Planicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela.

A Vera

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

2010-12-01

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GRASS GIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The GRASS GIS Homepage Web site offers the free Geographical Information System (GIS) software that was originally created as a tool for land management and environmental planning for the military. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) is used for data management, image processing, graphics production, spatial modeling, and visualization of many types of data with a wide range of applications in many different areas of scientific research. It has continually evolved since 1982 with help from a large number of federal US agencies, universities, and private companies. It is available free from the site, along with add-ons, sample data, manuals, and more.

2008-08-22

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Grass Lignocellulose  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

Akin, Danny E.

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Ecophysiology of the invader Pennisetum setaceum and three native grasses in the Canary Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass) is an aggressive invader in the arid and semi-arid habitats of the tropics and subtropics. In the last twenty years the spread of fountain grass in the Canary Islands has been very rapid. We compared its ecophysiological, architectural and reproductive traits with those of three native grasses ( Hyparrhenia hirta, Cenchrus ciliaris and Aristida adscensionis) in two habitats of Tenerife Island which differ in rainfall. The detection of traits that differ between native and invader grasses may provide information for the improved control and eradication of the latter contributing to protect the native plant diversity. P. setaceum and the native grasses differed in all measured traits and in their response to water availability which is more restricted in the southern site. Specific leaf area was lower in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. Although this reduces carbon assimilation per unit area, it also reduces transpiration, increasing water use efficiency and contributes to the maintenance of high relative water content. Leaf N in P. setaceum was lower than in the native grasses indicating higher nitrogen use efficiency. The activity of photosystem II was higher and lasted longer in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. The ecophysiological traits of P. setaceum support its large size, extensive canopy and shorter leaf senescence period. They confer considerable competitive advantage to the invader and partially explain its success in the Canary Islands. The differences between the invader and the native grasses were maintained in both sites revealing a good adaptation of P. setaceum to the low resource local habitats in the Canary Islands and confirms its large plasticity. The large invasive potential of P. setaceum, in concert with the projected global changes, forecast eventual risks for the conservation of the endemic flora and remaining native communities in the Canary Islands.

González-Rodríguez, Agueda M. a.; Baruch, Zdravko; Palomo, Debora; Cruz-Trujillo, Gilberto; Jiménez, M. a. Soledad; Morales, Domingo

2010-03-01

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Wheat grass selection  

Science.gov (United States)

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA; ARS)

2006-09-25

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Herbicidal Control of Grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Necessity of the herbicidal application for controlling undesirable grasses, by the Defence Services, Military farms and Inter Service Organisations is highlighted. Control of grasses by herbicidal chemicals, registered under the Insecticides Act 1968 in this country, is reviewed apart from a mention of non-chemical methods.

Om Prakash

2014-03-01

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Diversidad de las gramíneas de Durango, México / Diversity of the grasses from Durango, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estado de Durango, México, cuya posición geográfica se ubica en la región centro-norte del país, presenta una topografía rugosa y un clima y geología variables, lo que le confiere una riqueza florística relativamente alta en comparación con otras entidades de México. La presencia de gramíneas var [...] iadas en este estado le ha permitido ser productor de ganado de exportación durante el último siglo, Herrera (2001) reporta 97 géneros y 338 especies de gramíneas para Durango, que comparadas con otras entidades resulta ser tan sólo superada por cinco estados mexicanos: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca y Sinaloa por el número de especies (Dávila y col., 2006). En este trabajo se muestra la distribución de los taxa que se encuentran creciendo en respuesta a las condiciones climáticas del estado, así como otros grupos de especies interesantes por su condición para subsistir: 1) especies endémicas [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] y especies raras o escasas [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) especies adaptadas a suelos salinos, alcalinos o yesosos [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) especies introducidas para ser cultivadas y escapadas de cultivo [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Megathyrsus maximus]; 4) especies que requieren ambientes acuáticos y subacuáticos [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum]. Abstract in english Durango is a state located at the north-central part of Mexico, because of its geographical position it has a rugose topography, a variable climate and geology which confers to it a relatively high floristic richness compared to other Mexican states. The presence of varied grasses in this area has p [...] ermitted to it being a cattle production in the last century, Herrera (2001) reported 97 genera and 338 species of grasses from Durango, that compared with other entities results to be surpassed only for 5 Mexican states: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca and Sinaloa based on the number of species (Dávila y col., 2006). The distribution of grasses growing in response to the climatic conditions of the State is shown, as well as other species which are interesting because of the condition to subsist: 1) endemic species [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] and rare species [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) species adapted to saline, alcaline or gypsofile soils [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) introduced species to be cultivated and escaped from cultivars [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Urochloa máxima]; 4) species which are aquatic or subaquatic [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum].

Yolanda, Herrera Arrieta; Armando, Cortés Ortiz.

2009-09-01

48

Grass Wave (Perconia strigillaria)  

...Nature ReservesResearchSurveillance and MonitoringNatural Heritage Grant ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkGrass Wave (Perconia strigillaria)Last updated: 31 December 2010Description: Wingspan 36-41mm. Adults...

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Kansas Wildflowers and Grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

This great online field guide for the wildflowers and grasses of Kansas was created by Professor Mike Haddock, Science Libraries Web Coordinator and Agriculture Librarian at Kansas State University. The site utilizes "more than 1600 identification photos for some 380 species of forbs, grasses, sedges, rushes, and woody plants that are found growing in Kansas." Professor Haddock's well-organized site offers sections that list plants by common and scientific name, grasses and wildflowers by time of flowering, and wildflowers by color. There are also separate sections for the grasses, the sedge and rush families, and drawings that depict morphological features of different plants. The site photos are excellent and the accompanying information is clear and concise. A bibliography, glossary, and list of related links are included as well.

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Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramíneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto / Effect of polycropping on the establishment of three tropical grasses, on a Vertisol soil of the Cauto Valley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramíneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramíneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide) y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino [...] ; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz) en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro réplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interacción altamente significativa (p Abstract in english In order to evaluate the influence of polycropping on the establishment of grasses, on a Vertisol soil, three tropical grasses (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela and Chloris gayana cv. Callide) and five legumes (Vigna radiata, variety mung bean; and Vigna unguiculata, varieti [...] es: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 and IITA precoz) were sown in polycrop and monocrop systems. The design was split plots, with four replications and 18 treatments. The crop combinations did not affect the pasture establishment. There was highly significant interaction (p

I, Gómez; J. L, Fernández; L. L, Estrada; Yuseika, Olivera; A, Botello.

2014-03-01

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Local de ação de trifluralin na germinação de capim-carrapicho Site of action of trifluralin on germinating Cenchrus echinatus L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram conduzidos estudos em vasos e no campo, para conhecer até que profundidade ocorria germinação de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.. Em vasos esta ocorreu até 11 cm de profundidade e no campo até 9 cm em solo argiloso, e 10 cm em solo barrento. Foi frequente a germinação de duas ou mais cariopses por infrutescência. Em dois outros testes em vasos foi estudado o local de ação do trifluralin na dose de 0,84 kg/ha de i.a., em solo barrento. Verificou-se ação do herbicida nas zonas meristemáticas da raiz e do coleóptilo, causando inibição de desenvolvimento longitudinal do mesocótilo e da raiz. Na ponta da raiz primária, no primeiro nó e nó coleoptilar verificou-se aumento pronunciado de diâmetro.Studies were performed in pots and in field to know the capacity of germination of Cenchrus echinatus L. at different depths. In pots the seeds germinated from 1 to 11 cm and in the field from 1 to 9 cm in clay soil and from 1 to 10 cm in loamy soil. The germination of two or three seeds from the same fructescence was frequent. In two other tests the side of action of trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, in loamy soil, was studied. The herbicide showed activity on the meristematic zones of the root and coleoptile, inhibiting the growth of the shoot and root. The affected regions showed an increase in diameter.

Robert Deuber

1977-01-01

52

The GRASS GIS Homepage  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS) Homepage provides software used for data management, image processing, graphics production, spatial modelling, and visualization of many types of data. GRASS allows users to analyze, store, update, model, and display data quickly and easily. Although it was originally developed for use in land planning, its capabilities have been expanded and used in the fields of engineering, hydrology, geology, physics, statistics, remote sensing, and business.

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GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7  

Science.gov (United States)

The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the new Python interface allows to directly access functions provided by the underlying C library; this combines the ease of writing Python scripts with the power of optimized C functionality in the library backend.

Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

2014-05-01

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Impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion and water quality for field plots on a range of soil and spoil materials on central Queensland coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1993, a field study commenced to determine the impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion, and water quality at 3 open-cut coal mine sites. Runoff, sediment, and water quality were measured on 0.01-ha field plots from 3 slope gradients (10, 20 30%), with pasture and tree treatments imposed on soil and spoil material, and 2 soil and spoil plots left bare. The greatest soil erosion occurred before pasture cover established, when a large surface area of soil ({gt} 0.5 plot area) was exposed to rainfall and overland flow. Once buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) colonised soil plots, there were negligible differences in soil erosion between slope gradients. On spoil, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) reduced in situ soluble salt content, and reduced runoff electrical conductivity to levels measured in surrounding creeks. Where spoil crusted there was poor vegetative growth and unacceptably large runoff and erosion rates throughout the study

Carroll, C.; Merton, L.; Burger, P. [Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Emerald, Qld. (Australia)

2000-07-01

55

Use of Grasses and Mixtures of Grasses for Energy Purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As levels of agricultural productivity increase, there is also an increase in land area not utilized for food production. This area can be used for growing energy crops, including grasses. When land is set aside for grassing, or when the potential of perennial grasses is not utilized due to reductions in cattle herds, there is also an increased amount of grass that can be utilized for energy purposes. Experiments were carried out on the principle of single-stage anaerobic digestion within the...

David Andert; Jan Frydrych; Ilona Gerndtová

2012-01-01

56

Germinación de cuatro pastos bajo condiciones de estrés salino / Germination of four grasses under salt stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las forrajeras cultivadas son en Argentina el sustento fundamental de los sistemas ganaderos tradicionales. Actualmente, la implantación de pasturas en zonas cada vez más áridas es uno de los principales desafíos para la ganadería. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la germinación de cuatro esp [...] ecies forrajeras: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas y Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino. Se utilizaron soluciones de NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 y Manitol como soluto inerte, obteniéndose potenciales osmóticos (?o) de -0,5, -1, -1,5, -2,0 y -2,5 MPa. Las semillas se sembraron en cajas de Petri sobre papel de germinación, se regaron con 4 mL de solución y se incubaron a 25 °C. El diseño fue al azar con 4 repeticiones. Diariamente, durante 10 días, se contó el número de semillas germinadas y con los datos obtenidos se calculó el porcentaje, la velocidad de germinación (ERI) y el tiempo medio de germinación (MT). Los datos se analizaron con el software estadístico Infostat. A medida que se incrementó la concentración de la solución se observó que la germinación disminuyó en las cuatro especies. En general las sales de SO4-2 resultaron más perjudiciales para la germinación que las de Cl-. Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas resultó la especie más tolerante al estrés hídrico inducido con manitol, registrando porcentajes de germinación cercanos al 50% aún en ?o de -2,5 MPa. En contraste, Panicumcoloratun cv Klein verde fue la especie menos tolerante a condiciones de estrés, presentando bajos porcentajes de germinación a -1 MPa y ninguna respuesta a -1.5 MPa o potenciales hídricos menores, independientemente del soluto utilizado. Abstract in english In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubesce [...] ns, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (?o) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of deionized water and incubated to 25 °C. We used a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. During 10 days, the number of sprouted seeds was counted daily, and the percentage of germination, the speed of germination (ERI) and the mean time to germination (MTG), were calculated. Data were analyzed with the statistical software Infostat. Germination declined with increasing concentration of the solution in the four species. In general, salts of SO4-2 proved more damaging to the germination than those of Cl-.Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas was the most water stress tolerant species, with percentages of germination close to 50% even in ?o of -2.5 MPa. On the contrary, Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde was the less tolerant, with low percentages of germination at -1 MPa, and no response to ?o of -1.5 MPa or lower.

M, Ruiz; O, Terenti.

2012-12-01

57

Perennial Grass Growth and Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Central to the management of perennial grasses in traditional range and pasture and advanced biomass energy production systems is having a firm understanding of how grasses grow and develop.  In this lesson module, you will learn about physiology, growth, and development of perennial grasses through animation, text, and video.  It will discuss grass seed structures and functions; the process of grass seedling establishment; morphological structures of grasses once they are established; and how perennial grasses grow. This module is written for beginning agronomy, plant science, and natural resource ecology and management students and will be useful for advanced high school students or introductory-level undergraduates. Extension audiences wishing to learn more about perennial grasses will also find the lesson helpful.

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Local de ação de trifluralin na germinação de capim-carrapicho / Site of action of trifluralin on germinating Cenchrus echinatus L  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram conduzidos estudos em vasos e no campo, para conhecer até que profundidade ocorria germinação de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.). Em vasos esta ocorreu até 11 cm de profundidade e no campo até 9 cm em solo argiloso, e 10 cm em solo barrento. Foi frequente a germinação de duas ou mais [...] cariopses por infrutescência. Em dois outros testes em vasos foi estudado o local de ação do trifluralin na dose de 0,84 kg/ha de i.a., em solo barrento. Verificou-se ação do herbicida nas zonas meristemáticas da raiz e do coleóptilo, causando inibição de desenvolvimento longitudinal do mesocótilo e da raiz. Na ponta da raiz primária, no primeiro nó e nó coleoptilar verificou-se aumento pronunciado de diâmetro. Abstract in english Studies were performed in pots and in field to know the capacity of germination of Cenchrus echinatus L. at different depths. In pots the seeds germinated from 1 to 11 cm and in the field from 1 to 9 cm in clay soil and from 1 to 10 cm in loamy soil. The germination of two or three seeds from the sa [...] me fructescence was frequent. In two other tests the side of action of trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, in loamy soil, was studied. The herbicide showed activity on the meristematic zones of the root and coleoptile, inhibiting the growth of the shoot and root. The affected regions showed an increase in diameter.

Robert, Deuber; Reinaldo, Forster; Lúcia Helena, Signori.

59

Grass and grain seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

60

Use of Grasses and Mixtures of Grasses for Energy Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As levels of agricultural productivity increase, there is also an increase in land area not utilized for food production. This area can be used for growing energy crops, including grasses. When land is set aside for grassing, or when the potential of perennial grasses is not utilized due to reductions in cattle herds, there is also an increased amount of grass that can be utilized for energy purposes. Experiments were carried out on the principle of single-stage anaerobic digestion within the mezophyle range. During the experiments, we measured the cumulative production of biogas and its composition. The processed grass was disintegrated by pressing and cutting. This adaptation of the material resulted in increased biogas production. The optimum proportion of grass dry matter is from 35 to 50 % in the total d.m. The results of the experiments proved the suitability of grass phytomass as a material for biogas production.

David Andert

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

5.NF Grass Seedlings  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The students in Raulâs class were growing grass seedlings in different conditions for a science project. He noticed that Pabloâs seedlings were $1\\frac...

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Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em...

Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; Saulo Leme Amstalden; Dionísio Luis Piza Gazziero; Michel Alex Raimondi; Gesley Ramos Guimarães Lima; Antônio Mendes de Oliveira Neto; Naiara Guerra; Wagner Justiniano

2011-01-01

63

Use of browses (Terminalia serecia, Combretum apiculatum or Euclea schimperi) as a supplement for growing Tswana goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty yearling male castrated Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals. All the animals were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while lucerne (Medicago sativa) was fed to the control group as supplement. The other three groups were fed either Combretum apiculatum, Terminalia serecia or Euclea schimperi as a supplement. The basal diet comprised 60% of the ration, while the lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Water was provided daily. Leftover water and feed were measured daily. The goats were weigted every 2 weeks, prior to the morning feed. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The average daily dry matter intake of the lucerne, C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi supplements was 702.17, 769.91, 776.68 and 752.50 g, respectively, and was not significantly different between treatments (p > 0.05). The average daily water intake was significantly different (p 0.05). Differences in feed conversion ratio were not significant (p > 0.05), but the ratio was lower for the goats on lucerne at 9.00 compared to 10.41, 11.98, and 11.23 for C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi, respectively. The study demonstrated that these browses can be used to replace lucerne as a supplement for Tswana goats fed on buffel grass hay as the basal diet. PMID:10509422

Aganga, A A; Monyatsiwa, C B

1999-10-01

64

Native Utah Grasses for Biomass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considerable breeding and genetic research is currently dedicated to the development of warm-season perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as dedicated biomass crops. However, the Great Basin and other large regions of the western United States and World are dominated by cool-season grasses with special adaptations to salinity, drought, and other harsh conditions. A project was initiated to identify perennial grass species, genes, and traits needed for low-input bio...

Larson, Steve

2011-01-01

65

Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species' preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists' claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists' experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (pDigitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (p<0.05) varied between and within sites. The ranking of species by pastoralists according to their preferences by cattle was highly correlated with the chemical composition of laboratory results of individual grass species with 'r' values for CP (0.94), ash (0.95), NDF (-0.98), ADF (-0.93) and ADL (-0.93). We suggest the complimentary use of LEBHP and laboratory techniques in evaluating the nutritive quality of rangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID:25049799

Keba, Habtamu T; Madakadze, I C; Angassa, A; Hassen, A

2013-03-01

66

Efeitos de herbicidas na anatomia de capim-carrapicho e amendoim-bravo Effect of herbicides on the anatomy of Cenchrus echinatus and Euphorbia heterophylla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de melhor conhecer a ação de herbicidas, plantas de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. foram tratadas com trifluralin, a 0,84 kg/ha, incorporado nas profundidades de 0 a 3 e 5 a 11cm, e plantas de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia hetero-phylla L. foram tratadas com trifluralin, na mesma dose, incorporada até 8cm, pendimetalin a 1,15 kg/ha e 2,4-D amina, a 1,44 kg/ha de i.a., aplicados em pré-emergência, em vasos. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi observado a partir de sete dias da semeadura e aos 14 dias coletou-se material para observações ao microscópio. O trifluralin causou acentuado aumento de diâmetro do ápice da raiz e do coleóptilo, inibindo o crescimento dessas partes em C. echinatus. Também ocorreu aumento pronunciado das células do córtex e da epiderme e as paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas, com células plurinucleadas. Em E. heterophylla houve inibição de raízes secundárias e leve aumento do diâmetro de células do córtex. O pendimetalin causou grande aumento do diâmetro do colo da planta em E. heterophylla, devido ao aumento das células do córtex e epiderme. As paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas. Houve pequena inibição de raízes secundárias. O 2,4-D causou a formação de células no centro da medula em algumas plantas e descolamento da epiderme em outras.Cenchrus echinatus L., seeded in pots at a depth of four cm, was treated with trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, incorporated at depths of 0 to 3 and 5 to 11 cm. Euphorbia heterophylla L, seeded at a depth of one cm, was treated with trifluralin at the same rate, incorporated from 0 to 8 cm, pendimethalin at 1.15 kg/ha and 2.4-D, amine, at 1.44 kg/ha at surface, in preemergence. The plants were observed during the two first weeks and after this material was collected and microscopic observations were made on the affected tissues. Trifluralin enlarged the root tip and the coleoptile diameter, inhibiting their growth in C. echinatus. Swelling of cortical cells was observed. The cells had thinner walls and sometimes were multinucleate. In E. heterophylla there was lateral root inhibition and little swelling of cortical cells. Pendimethalin caused great thickening of the transition zone in E. heterophylla, due to swelling of cortical and epidermal cells, which had thinner walls. Small lateral root inhibition occured. The 2.4-D affected tissue formation, originating cells in the pith center. In some plants an epidermal dislocation was observed.

Robert Deuber

1977-01-01

67

Primary Productivity: Grass  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity students will use grass plants grown over a one week period in the classroom to calculate productivity rates using two methods of collection. At the end of this lab students will understand the concept of primary productivity and will have used one or more methods to calculate it. They will have also been introduced to the concepts of standing biomass, net productivity versus gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information. There are also links to several other sites with more information on this topic.

Morrow, Angela

68

Nutrient Parameters of Grass Silages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The set of samples was classified by the phenophases: before the heading, the beginning of heading and full heading. Each group contained 12 samples. The parameters of nutritional value were evaluated. The chemical compositions (CP, PDIN and DOM were highly significantly affected (P < 0.01 by the phenophases. The best results have been reported in grass silage harvested in the phenophase before the heading. The chemical compositions CF and NEL were better (P < 0.01 in grass silages harvested in the phenophase before the heading and in the phenophase the beginning of heading against grass silage harvested in the phenophase full heading.

Vaclav Kubát

2010-05-01

69

High green fodder yielding new grass varieties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

C Babu, K. Iyanar And A. Kalamani

2014-01-01

70

Grass Manual on the Web  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive source of information on grasses is derived from the _Manual of Grasses for North America_, a project that has received support from Utah State University and a host of other organizations including the Flora North America Association, National Science Foundation, US Forest Service, National Park Service, and more. This online Manual provides information about a multitude of species from Achnatherum aridum to Zoysia pacifica. Information options for most grass species include Map, Illustration, and Treatment. For the majority of species listed, Synonymy and Notes have yet to be added. The site also links to information about the _Manual of Grasses for North America_ project, as well as the Utah State University Intermountain Herbarium.

71

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01

72

Efeitos de herbicidas na anatomia de capim-carrapicho e amendoim-bravo / Effect of herbicides on the anatomy of Cenchrus echinatus and Euphorbia heterophylla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de melhor conhecer a ação de herbicidas, plantas de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) foram tratadas com trifluralin, a 0,84 kg/ha, incorporado nas profundidades de 0 a 3 e 5 a 11cm, e plantas de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia hetero-phylla L.) foram tratadas com trifluralin, na mes [...] ma dose, incorporada até 8cm, pendimetalin a 1,15 kg/ha e 2,4-D amina, a 1,44 kg/ha de i.a., aplicados em pré-emergência, em vasos. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi observado a partir de sete dias da semeadura e aos 14 dias coletou-se material para observações ao microscópio. O trifluralin causou acentuado aumento de diâmetro do ápice da raiz e do coleóptilo, inibindo o crescimento dessas partes em C. echinatus. Também ocorreu aumento pronunciado das células do córtex e da epiderme e as paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas, com células plurinucleadas. Em E. heterophylla houve inibição de raízes secundárias e leve aumento do diâmetro de células do córtex. O pendimetalin causou grande aumento do diâmetro do colo da planta em E. heterophylla, devido ao aumento das células do córtex e epiderme. As paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas. Houve pequena inibição de raízes secundárias. O 2,4-D causou a formação de células no centro da medula em algumas plantas e descolamento da epiderme em outras. Abstract in english Cenchrus echinatus L., seeded in pots at a depth of four cm, was treated with trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, incorporated at depths of 0 to 3 and 5 to 11 cm. Euphorbia heterophylla L, seeded at a depth of one cm, was treated with trifluralin at the same rate, incorporated from 0 to 8 cm, pendimethalin a [...] t 1.15 kg/ha and 2.4-D, amine, at 1.44 kg/ha at surface, in preemergence. The plants were observed during the two first weeks and after this material was collected and microscopic observations were made on the affected tissues. Trifluralin enlarged the root tip and the coleoptile diameter, inhibiting their growth in C. echinatus. Swelling of cortical cells was observed. The cells had thinner walls and sometimes were multinucleate. In E. heterophylla there was lateral root inhibition and little swelling of cortical cells. Pendimethalin caused great thickening of the transition zone in E. heterophylla, due to swelling of cortical and epidermal cells, which had thinner walls. Small lateral root inhibition occured. The 2.4-D affected tissue formation, originating cells in the pith center. In some plants an epidermal dislocation was observed.

Robert, Deuber; Reinaldo, Forstee; Lúcia H., Signori; Dixier M., Medina.

73

REPELENCIA DE LOS PASTOS Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha Y Cenchrus ciliaris SOBRE LARVAS DE GARRAPATA Amblyomma cajennense F. (Acari:Ixodidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el trópico y subtropico a nivel mundial, uno de los principales problemas zoosanitarios que afectan la productividad ganadera, principalmente en bovinos es la garrapata, además trasmiten las enfermedades Anaplasmosis y Babesiosis. El establecimiento de pastos repelentes a la garrapata es un control biológico alternativo para solucionar este problema. Por tanto, el objetivo fue determinar la repelencia en Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha y Cenchrus ciliaris sobre larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. La investigación se realizó en la localidad de Mora, municipio de Tepic, Nayarit, México. Se formaron 24 parcelas de 35 m2 a distancia entre ellas de 1 m, con cinco unidades de muestreo cada una (5 x 1 m de ancho y pasillos de 0.5 m entre unidades. Las unidades se infestaron con aproximadamente 5,000 larvas de A. cajenennse, el efecto anti-garrapata de los pastos se evaluó mediante la recuperación de larvas adheridas por método de Franela en los tiempos 7, 14, 21 días de post-infestación. Los tratamientos fueron los cuatro pastos descritos con seis repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados fueron analizados por el procedimiento PROC MIXED de SAS y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p<0.05, donde M. minutiflora presentó el mayor efecto repelente (p<0.05 por la menor cantidad de larvas recuperadas (2.39 ± 0.13 que el resto de los pastos, en C. ciliaris (1,192.04 ± 10.3, A. gayanus (72.48 ± 10.30 y B. brizantha (56.48 ± 11.68, en los dos últimos tratamientos no hubo significación en larvas recolectadas. Para los tres tiempos de colecta también se mostraron diferencias (p<0.05 en la media de larvas recuperadas en los pastos. Se concluye que los zacates Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus y Brachiaria brizantha manifestaron repelencia contra larvas de A. cajennense, sin embargo el que muestra mayor es M. minutiflora.

Ulloa Castañeda RR

2013-07-01

74

Adaptation and evaluation of a mechanistic grass growth simulation model for grass-based systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An accurate grass growth model would be a valuable tool in anticipating grass growth and grass utilization at farm level. Ideally, a grass growth simulation model must be accurate, dynamic, use realistic input parameters and incorporate meteorological data. The objective of this study was to parameterize the grass growth model developed by Jouven et al. (2006) to increase its accuracy of grass growth simulation in the south of Ireland. The model was parameterized using an optimization techniq...

Hurtado-uria, Cristina; Hennessy, Deirdre; Delaby, Luc; O Connor, Declan; Shalloo, Laurence

2013-01-01

75

UV induced visual cues in grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules,...

Sabulal Baby; Anil John Johnson; Balaji Govindan; Sujith Lukose; Bhaskaran Gopakumar; Konnath Chacko Koshy

2013-01-01

76

Catalogue of New World Grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

This website was developed by agrostologists from several institutions to present the Catalogue of New World Grasses (CNWG). CNWG is "an on-going project to database ...and link all nomenclature, types, synonymy, current taxonomy, and distribution for grasses occurring from Alaska and Greenland to Tierra del Fuego." CNWG uses TROPICOS and provides a search mechanism whereby one can enter scientific names and receive current information on his or her entries. CNWG also offers three indices-Accepted taxa, All treated taxa, and Suprageneric, Generic, and Subgeneric-through which names and corresponding information can be located. This site provides an extensive list of links to other agrostological sites categorized by areas such as genetics, mapping tools, and literature.

77

Nutrient Parameters of Grass Silages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The set of samples was classified by the phenophases: before the heading, the beginning of heading and full heading. Each group contained 12 samples. The parameters of nutritional value were evaluated. The chemical compositions (CP, PDIN and DOM) were highly significantly affected (P < 0.01) by the phenophases. The best results have been reported in grass silage harvested in the phenophase before the heading. The chemical compositions CF and NEL were better (P < 0.01) in g...

Vaclav Kubát; Frantisec Lád; Bohuslav ?ermák

2010-01-01

78

SOD FORM OF PERENNIAL GRASSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the peculiarities of turf and sod, specificity of formation of kidneys for regeneration, types of shoots, vegetative mobility and specificity of growth in certain conditions, turf grasses are divided into loosely-and tightly-turf characterized, by specific features of environmental, biological characteristics; forming turf from generative rosettes, elongated and shortened vegetative, side ground shoots, differing specificity of morphological, biochemical and fitocoenotical features

Belyuchenko I. S.

2014-06-01

79

De Waarde van GrassRoots. Eindrapport GrassRoots Evaluatieonderzoek  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sligte, H.W., Simons, P.R.J., Kral, M., van den Berg, E. (2005). De Waarde van GrassRoots. Eindrapport GrassRoots Evaluatieonderzoek. [The value of Grassroots. Final report GrassRoots evaluation]. Amsterdam: SCO-Kohnstamm Instituut.

Sligte, Henk; Simons, Robert-jan; Kral, Marijke; Berg, Ellen

2005-01-01

80

Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

Coaldrake, J.E.

1978-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). 201...Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae). ...timothy, wheatgrasses, and all other grasses listed in § 201.2(h). (a)...

2010-01-01

82

Biological nitrogen fixation in grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological nitrogen fixation in grassAbstractNitrogen (N) due to their role in plant metabolism is the nutrient that most limits crop production. It ispresent in large quantities in air, primarily as di-nitrogen, but unfortunately the plants are not able to 8 Evidência, Joaçaba v. 12 n. 1, p. 7-18, janeiro/junho 2012directly use the nutrient in that form, requiring it to be fixed in the form of ammonia. In soil, the fixed N isconverted to nitrate by nitrification process (mediated by Nitros...

, Julierme Zimme rBarbosa; Rangel Consalter; , Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta

2012-01-01

83

A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"  

Science.gov (United States)

This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

Kaatz, Kathryn

2008-01-01

84

The Physical Analyze of Local Grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research has been conducted to analyze physical characteristics of local grass. The aimed of this research was to observe grass physical characteristics, which are bulkiness, water regain capacity and water solubility. Also to observe correlation of water regain capacity to dry matter and organic matter digestibility as well as its degradation rate during 0, 12, 18 and 24 h incubation, in sacco, using 2 fistulae cows. Five local grass were tested in this research, which are field grass, elephant grass, brachiaria grass, king grass and setaria. Fistulae cows consumed forages and concentrates with ratio of 70:30, minimum protein level of 12% and minimum TDN of 60%. Physical characteristics data that obtained then analyzed using analysis of variance. Furthermore, honestly significant different was also performed. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility data that obtained were analyzed with regression of physical characteristics. Result showed that brachiaria grass has poor water regain capacity and water solubility. There are positive linear correlation between water regains capacity with dry matter and organic matter digestibility. (Animal Production 6(1: 37-42 (2004 Key Words: Bulkiness, Water Regain Capacity, Water Solubility, Dry Matter and Organic Matter Digestibility

FM Suhartati

2004-01-01

85

High green fodder yielding new grass varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green fodder yield (2010, dry matter yield (2009 and 2010, crude protein yield (2011 and crude protein per cent (2010 while Guinea grass CO (GG 3 ranked first at All India level for green fodder yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012, dry matter yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012 and crude protein yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 had recorded significantly higher mean green fodder yield (GFY of 1082 q/ha/year, dry matter yield (DMY of 239.03 q/ha/yr and crude protein yield (CPY of 18.32 q/ha/yr in AICRP on Forage crops trials over the qualifying and national check varieties. Similarly, Guinea grass CO (GG 3 too registered a higher mean GFY, DMY and CPY of 1082.4, 229.3 and 20.5 q/ha/year respectively over the qualifying and national check varieties.

C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

2014-06-01

86

Ensilability of the tropical grass 'Splenda'  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigated C4 photosynthesis grasses are more productive than C3 grasses in portuguese hot season, due to better use of nitrogen, water, high temperatures and solar radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and limiting factors of ’Splenda’ (Setaria sphacelata var. sericea x S. sphacelata var. splendida).

Martins, Jose? M.

1995-01-01

87

Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales: Revisión / Apomixis importance for tropical forage grass selection and breeding: Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Apomixis es un tipo reproductivo donde la producción de semilla ocurre sin fusión de gametos, resultando por generaciones, en descendencia que genéticamente, es copia fiel del progenitor materno. La apomixis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida entre las gramíneas forrajeras tropicales: Bothriochloa [...] , Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. Las especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México. Abstract in english Apomixis is a reproductive system resulting in seed production without gametes fusion, and produces, through generations, offspring that is a genetic copy from the maternal progenitor. Apomixis importance is widespread among tropical grasses: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchru [...] s, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum, Urochloa, among the most important. Apomictic species contain diploid as well as polyploid individuals conforming "agamic complexes" and reproductive barriers limited both by apomixis as well as ploidy level which has a great impact on apomictic species utilization. Diploid individuals maintain active the sexuality and these are rare out of the center of specie's genetic origin center. Polyploid individuals in nature are apomictic, and sexual individuals may be induced to polyploidy in the laboratory, allowing hybrid descendants production. Genetic richness originated within the specie's center of diversity is the basis to overcome productive challenges and ecological stability: dry season productivity, nitrogen fixation, forage quality, pest and disease resistance, etc.; as it has been shown by successful breeding programs for Brachiaria and Panicum, between the most recognized for Latin America, and Cenchrus in USA. Apomixis research advancements has elucidated the biology for this reproductive process as well as the techniques for its manipulation; however, the impact of this advancements on forage research in México has promoted a critical review on forage genetic resources utilization, resulting in an increased interest on hybrid material production to face the requirements for extensive grazing production systems in Mexico.

Adrián R., Quero Carrillo; Javier F., Enríquez Quiroz; Carlos R., Morales Nieto; Leonor, Miranda Jiménez.

2010-03-01

88

Biological nitrogen fixation in grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation in grassAbstractNitrogen (N due to their role in plant metabolism is the nutrient that most limits crop production. It ispresent in large quantities in air, primarily as di-nitrogen, but unfortunately the plants are not able to 8 Evidência, Joaçaba v. 12 n. 1, p. 7-18, janeiro/junho 2012directly use the nutrient in that form, requiring it to be fixed in the form of ammonia. In soil, the fixed N isconverted to nitrate by nitrification process (mediated by Nitrossomonas sp. and Nitrobacter sp. bacteria,thus becomes available for plants. The N fixation may occur via atmospheric, biological and industrial, andthe last was and still is a pillar in the construction and maintenance of modern agriculture. The biologicalnitrogen fixation (BNF provides economic and environmental advantages, being characterized asan important tool in achieving a more sustainable crop production. Plants of the family Fabaceae (legumeshas the efficiency in the process of BNF known and consecrated, however, four more crops produced inthe world (sugar cane, corn, rice and wheat are of the family Poaceae (grass, and exploitation of BNF inplants of this family is a recent possibility, with relatively low efficiency, however, the optimization ofthese processes can bring significant benefits, since plants of this family are of paramount importance inproducing food, fiber and energy. Based on the above, this review summarizes knowledge regarding theprocess and efficiency of non-nodulating diazotrophs in Poaceae, in order to assess the state of the scienceof BNF this plants family.

, Julierme Zimme rBarbosa; Rangel Consalter; , Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta

2012-01-01

89

Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

Schulman, Al

2009-08-09

90

Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein (CP) after passing the rumen, the intestines and the total gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in grass and grass silages were determined with the two-step mobile nylon bag technique and a two-step in vitro...

Cone, J. W.; Gelder, A. H.; Mathijssen-kamman, A. A.; Hindle, V. A.

2006-01-01

91

Conversation with Neil deGrasse Tyson  

Science.gov (United States)

From one of the newer Nova programs. "Neil deGrasse Tyson shares his thoughts on everything from the latest findings in origins science to the challenges he faced as a minority on the road to becoming a scientist. "

Public Broadcasting System - WGBH

92

Association of Azospirillum with Grass Roots †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between grass roots and Azospirillum brasilense Sp 7 was investigated by the Fahraeus slide technique, using nitrogen-free medium. Young inoculated roots of pearl millet and guinea grass produced more mucilaginous sheath (mucigel), root hairs, and lateral roots than did uninoculated sterile controls. The bacteria were found within the mucigel that accumulated on the root cap and along the root axes. Adherent bacteria were associated with granular material on root hairs and fib...

Umali-garcia, Mercedes; Hubbell, David H.; Gaskins, Murray H.; Dazzo, Frank B.

1980-01-01

93

FORMS OF PERENNIAL GRASSES WITH RHIZOMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the nature of the development of sod, gemmation resumption for a period of unfavorable conditions, types of shoots, their vegetative mobility and placement in terms of ecological niches rhizomatous grasses are divided into rhizomatous, rhizome-loosely-turf and sod-rhizomatous biomorphological types, that stand out the specifics of environmental and biological characteristics forming generative, elongated, lateral shoots and roots, differing features of morphology, anatomy, biochemistry and phytocoenology forming continuous grass stand

Belyuchenko I. S.

2014-06-01

94

MoDest GrassUp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Technology The technology is one of a kind, as there is no such mathematical model estimating animal feed uptake available today. The estimation of grass uptake, is based on real time wireless sensor data, cow merit and climate data. Relevant cow behaviour data (such as location, movement velocity of the cows while grazing and head frequency movements) are measured using wireless sensors (e.g. accelerometers, magnetometers) and collected by a wireless network. Grass length and density are...

Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; S Nadimi, Esmaeil

2010-01-01

95

Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP) of carpet ...

Chima Ngumah; Jude Ogbulie; Justina Orji; Ekperechi Amadi

2014-01-01

96

Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis) during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quali...

Borja, Ma?ikal S.; Oliveira, Ronaldo L.; Lima, Luciano S.; Bagaldo, Adriana R.; Gp, Gleidson Carvalho; Vdm, Cla?udio Ribeiro

2012-01-01

97

Effects of pasture cover on soil erosion and water quality on central Queensland coal mine rehabilitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion and water quality, a field study was commenced in 1993 at 3 open-cut coal mine sites in the Bowen Basin. Field plots of 0.1 ha with slope gradients of 10, 20 and 30%, along with catchments of 0.5 ha, were used to measure runoff, sediment loss and water quality from rehabilitated land. Pasture and tree treatments were imposed on soil and spoil material, while 2 soil and spoil plots were left bare as the control for the study. The greatest soil erosion risk occurred before pasture cover established, when a large surface area of the soil (> 50%) was exposed to rainfall impact and overland flow. Once grass species, such as buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), colonised soil plots, there were negligible differences in soil erosion between slope gradients. On spoil plots, rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) reduced in situ soluble salt content and runoff electrical conductivity levels. Where spoil crusted, there were poor vegetative growth and unacceptably high runoff and erosion rates.

Carroll, C.; Tucker, A. [Department of Natural Resources, Emerald, Qld. (Australia)

2000-07-01

98

Branching of tillers in some grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In investigations on the grass regeneration biology a special attention was paid to the formation of aerial tillers and branching pseudostolons in Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Festuca pratensis Huds., Festuca rubra L., Phleum pratense L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., Lolium perenne L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Arrhenatherum elatius (L. P. B., Holcus lanatus L., Agropyron repens (L. P. B., Avenastrum pubescens (Huds Opiz and Agrostis alba L. Aerial tillers, vegetative short ones and with partly elongated internodes as well as generative tillers formed in tufted and rhizomatous grasses. Parental raised tillers, on which aerial tillers developed, had the anatomical structure specific for grass stems. In tufted grasses, moreover, parental branching pseudostolons developed; in their cross section the arrangement of tissues specific for stolons was observed. They constituted the starting point for agglomerations of new plants rooting in soil, contrary to raised tillers. In some grass species, beside pendant roots, shorter roots grew at the base of aerial tillers; they surrounded with a ring the parent shoot in the node, thus reinforcing the connection of aerial tillers with the stem. An attention was paid to the favourable role of branching pseudostolons in the sward thickness formation. Conditions of the arrangement of tissues in the stem cross section, owing to which the rhizomatous form is developed, are discussed. The fertilization with compost or the covering with sand results in the formation of tillers resembling pseudorhizomes.

Leontyna Olszewska

1981-06-01

99

Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

2012-11-01

100

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L., erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L. e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1; glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1 e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens.Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Commelina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1; glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1 and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® / Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate p [...] ara o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1); glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1) e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens. Abstract in english Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Comme [...] lina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1); glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1) and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

Cleber Daniel de Goes, Maciel; Juliana Parisotto, Poletine; Saulo Leme, Amstalden; Dionísio Luis Piza, Gazziero; Michel Alex, Raimondi; Gesley Ramos Guimarães, Lima; Antônio Mendes de, Oliveira Neto; Naiara, Guerra; Wagner, Justiniano.

2011-02-01

102

26 CFR 56.4911-2 - Lobbying expenditures, direct lobbying communications, and grass roots lobbying communications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...expenditures, direct lobbying communications, and grass roots lobbying communications. 56...expenditures, direct lobbying communications, and grass roots lobbying communications. (a...plus its expenditures during that year for grass roots lobbying communications (“grass...

2010-04-01

103

Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1, clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1, tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1, haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones, applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 , clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 , tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 , fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 , haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 and control (no herbicide. In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

A.L.L. Barroso

2010-01-01

104

Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology in agronomy and anaerobic digestion sectors and the need for rural development and sustainable energy production, is an attractive solution that fulfils many legislative, agronomic and environmental requirements.

Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.

2011-01-01

105

Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

106

Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species

Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno

2012-01-01

107

PURPLE GUINEA GRASS: PRETREATMENT AND ETHANOL FERMENTATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Treatment with dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at 121?C and 103.4 kPa was used to improve the efficiency of the cellulose digestion of purple guinea grass. Cellulase hydrolysis of the dilute H2SO4-pretreated purple guinea grass under optimized conditions (6% (w/v) in 3% (w/v) H2SO4 for 30 min) yielded a slightly higher level of reducing sugars than that from the Ca(OH)2 pretreatment under optimized conditions (6% (w/v) in 4% (w/v) Ca(OH)2 for 5 min). However, the...

Suvapatr Ratsamee,; Ancharida Akaracharanya,; Natchanun Leepipatpiboon; , Teerapatr Srinorakutara,; Vichien Kitpreechavanich,; Vasana Tolieng

2012-01-01

108

Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

109

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310...Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and...

2010-01-01

110

A new grass frog from Namibia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A new species of grass frog of the genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs in advisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that Ptychadena floweri must be regarded as a junior synonym of P. schillukorum.*******...

Channing, A.

2012-01-01

111

Grass Seed Structure and Seedling Emergence  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity discusses both seed structure and seedling emergence in monocots. Through active learning elements, photos and text students will discover the basic anatomy of seeds and the function of each structure. The process of seedling emergence is presented in detail including the difference between emergence in cool-season and warm-season grasses.

112

Grass-green urine from propofol infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green urine from propofol infusion is a benign and rare side effect. The discolouration appears when clearance of propofol exceeds hepatic elimination, and extrahepatic elimination of propofol occurs. This case report presents a 24-year-old male with grass green discolouration of urine based on propofol infusion. PMID:25394533

Pedersen, A B; Kobborg, T K; Larsen, J R

2015-02-01

113

Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda / In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilid [...] ad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ruminal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag techn [...] ique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

Jaime, Salinas-Chavira; Juan Carlos, Gutiérrez-González; Ramón, García-Castillo; Ramiro, López-Trujillo; Arturo, Duarte-Ortuño.

2011-12-01

114

Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

Danijel Karolyi

2010-01-01

115

Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel. 42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively. The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.

Chima Ngumah

2013-12-01

116

Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

1983-01-01

117

Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

Chima Ngumah

2014-01-01

118

A REVIEW ON LEMON GRASS: AGRICULTURAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lemongrass (Cymbopogan flexuosus and Cymbopogan Citraus is regarded as one of the grass which is commonly available in India and abroad. It is widely used in different conditions of pain and discomfort. The oil (Lemongrass oil obtained from the grass has diverse medicinal value. It also produces semi-synthetic Vitamin A that reduces the risk of Xerophthalmia and Night blindness. The grass has great benefits to mankind as it revitalizes the body and mind, helps with infections and act as muscle and skin toner. This review will explore the plant / grass and also suggest for more cultivation of the grass because of its medicinal importance.

Vaibhav Srivastava

2013-08-01

119

Revegetation of coal mine spoil using pasture on the Darling Downs of Queensland, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given of a revegetation experiment established on a spoil heap of the exploratory coal open-cut near Millmerran on the Darling Downs of southern Queensland. The experiment tested buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), and the legumes siratro (macroptilium atropurpureum) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). This experiment demonstrates that: (a) persistent pastures can be established on spoil at Millmerran as they have been on coal spoils elsewhere in eastern Australia: (b) a surface covering of 20-30 cm of suitable soil is adequate for good pasture establishment and persistence on spoil even on slopes up to 33%; (c) initial amendments with phosphatic and nitrogenous fertilizers produced a small positive response in cover and yield which went with time, but the pastures continue to persist and flourish; (d) the legumes siratro and lucerne can be established in such pastures. The relevance of these experimental results to post-mining land use are discussed. 16 references.

Russell, M.J.; Roberts, B.R.

1986-09-01

120

Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization (15N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization (15N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm3 of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg-1 as NH4NO3 enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of 15N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg-1 and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pen [...] nisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p

Rerisson José Cipriano dos, Santos; Mário de Andrade, Lira; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos, Santos; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de, Mello.

2013-02-01

122

Investigations on herbicide resistant grass weeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Weeds are one of the most troublesome threats for farmers, causing high yield losses and serving as hosts for pathogens and insect pests. Since the introduction of chemical weed control agricultural production systems have changed. During the last years the number of herbicide resistant grass weeds is steadily increasing especially in cereal monocultures. These monocultures are characterised by the repeated use of herbicides with the same modes of action and minimum-tillage practices. All the...

Balgheim, Natalie

2009-01-01

123

PURPLE GUINEA GRASS: PRETREATMENT AND ETHANOL FERMENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Treatment with dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4 or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 at 121?C and 103.4 kPa was used to improve the efficiency of the cellulose digestion of purple guinea grass. Cellulase hydrolysis of the dilute H2SO4-pretreated purple guinea grass under optimized conditions (6% (w/v in 3% (w/v H2SO4 for 30 min yielded a slightly higher level of reducing sugars than that from the Ca(OH2 pretreatment under optimized conditions (6% (w/v in 4% (w/v Ca(OH2 for 5 min. However, the level of glucose released from the Ca(OH2-pretreated purple guinea grass was slightly higher than that from the dilute H2SO4 pretreatment. Ethanol fermentation, via the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, of the Ca(OH2-pretreated purple guinea grass and then hydrolyzed with commercial cellulase (9 PFU/g, dry wt. for 6 h yielded ethanol at 0.44 g/g glucose (0.21 g/g cellulose within 48 h, while that from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process yielded 14.3% less ethanol at 0.18 g/g cellulose within 96 h (including the 6 h saccharification time. The ethanol yield from the SHF process increased 1.14-fold to 0.497 g/g glucose (0.24 g/g cellulose when the fermentation was performed in a 5 L fermentor.

Suvapatr Ratsamee,

2012-02-01

124

Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius) was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenol...

Cristiano Reschke Lajús; Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso; Mario Miranda; Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso Denardin; José Francisco Montenegro Valls

2011-01-01

125

Fuel pellet production from reed canary grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis focuses on two main areas: methods for assessing regional supply potentials of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) (RCG); and process technology for the production of high-quality RCG pellets. Partial equilibrium modelling, incorporating a break-even price approach, was used to examine supply potentials for RCG in Västerbotten County, northern Sweden. A remote sensing method, using black and white orthophoto interpretation, was developed, by which abandoned fields with lo...

Larsson, Sylvia

2008-01-01

126

Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear “front” and “back;” this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern. PMID:23898335

Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Camara, Paulo E. A. S.; Rudall, Paula J.; Ladd, Philip; Malcomber, Simon T.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Doust, Andrew N.

2013-01-01

127

Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

Luciano S. Lima

2013-03-01

128

Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

2014-08-01

129

Bermuda grass as feedstock for biofuel production: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bermuda grass is a promising feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol in the Southern United States. This paper presents a review of the significant amount of research on the conversion of Bermuda grass to ethanol and a brief discussion on the factors affecting the biomass production in the field. The biggest challenge of biomass conversion comes from the recalcitrance of lignocellulose. A variety of chemical, physico-chemical, and biological pretreatment methods have been investigated to improve the digestibility of Bermuda grass with encouraging results reported. The subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation steps have also been extensively studied and effectively optimized. It is expected that the development of genetic engineering technologies for the grass and fermenting organisms has the potential to greatly improve the economic viability of Bermuda grass-based fuel ethanol production systems. Other energy applications of Bermuda grass include anaerobic digestion for biogas generation and pyrolysis for syngas production. PMID:21683586

Xu, Jiele; Wang, Ziyu; Cheng, Jay J

2011-09-01

130

The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy  

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Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

Aleksi? Ivana

2014-01-01

131

Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes th...

Yan Xu; Chenyang Zhan; Bingru Huang

2011-01-01

132

Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. ? Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. ? The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. ? The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shk) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr-1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

133

Nitrogen Immobilization by Congo Grass Roots Impairs Cotton Initial Growth  

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Full Text Available In crop-livestock integration systems the presence of both grass roots in the soil and straw on the surface can temporarily immobilize nitrogen. This study examined the persistence of grass residues in the system as well as their effects on cotton response to N when grown after Congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Syn. Urochloa ruziziensis. Congo grass was grown in pots with soil. Next, cotton was grown in the same pots without residues, with whole plant residues (Congo grass roots and shoots or root residues (grass roots and fertilized with N as ammonium nitrate. Congo grass and cotton roots were separated using stable carbon isotope fractioning. Congo grass roots showed higher C/N ratio than shoots, losing 14% of its mass after 45 days and increasing soil N immobilization. The lower N availability resulted in N deficient and shorter cotton plants with lower dry matter yields. Nevertheless, the application of 80 to 120 mg kg-1 of N compensated the immobilization by the soil microorganisms, allowing cotton to show normal growth. When Congo grass is present in the cropping system, the effects of the decaying roots on soil N dynamics and availability are more important than those of the straw left on the soil surface.

Ciro A. Rosolem

2012-07-01

134

Pangola grass as forage for ruminant animals: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on the introduction and investigation of pangola grass as a tropical forage species especially in Thailand. Pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha Steud., synonym D. decumbens) is one of recent examples of grasses that have been successfully introduced to Southeast Asia and is often considered as one of the highest quality tropical grasses popularly grown as pasture. Pangola grass is utilized extensively as grass for animal grazing, hay and silage making. Its crude protein content is commonly in the order of 5 to 14% of dry matter and may exceed 15% of dry matter with young regrowth under high fertilization. It has been documented that the type and number of ruminants receiving pangola grass can determine the success of its use. Results obtained when pangola grass in fresh, hay or silage form was fed to ruminant animals as supplements showed better performances in body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield, meat quality, and milk yield and composition. In conclusion, pangola grass is a promising forage and a source of high quality feed for ruminant animals in tropical countries. PMID:24349943

Tikam, Kanitta; Phatsara, Chirawat; Mikled, Choke; Vearasilp, Therdchai; Phunphiphat, Wirapon; Chobtang, Jeerasak; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

2013-01-01

135

Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m. They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.

A.A. Aganga

2005-01-01

136

Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1), internode elongation (GS2) i and flowering (GS3). Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM...

Marija Teskera; Mladen Kneževi?; Marina Vrani?; Goran Per?ulija; Ivana Mati?

2009-01-01

137

Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

Orchard, J.; Chivers, I.; Aldous, D.; Bennell, K.; Seward, H.

2005-01-01

138

26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. 56...4911-3 Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition...lobbying expenditure, what portion is a grass roots expenditure and what...

2010-04-01

139

Degradation of Bermuda and Orchard Grass by Species of Ruminal Bacteria  

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Fiber degradation in Bermuda grass and orchard grass was evaluated gravimetrically and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after incubation with pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Lachnospira multiparus D-32 was unable to degrade plant cell wall components. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49 degraded 6 and 14.9% of the fiber components in Bermuda grass and orchard grass, respectively, and Ruminococcus albus 7 degraded 11.4% orchard grass fiber but none in Bermuda grass. Both B. fibrisolv...

Akin, Danny E.; Rigsby, Luanne L.

1985-01-01

140

Intercropping of four Leucaena cultivars with three grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A table shows the yield of DM in 809 days from each of Leucaena leucocephala varieties K8, Hawaiian common, Peru and Cunningham, interplanted with each of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Hybrid Napier NB 21 (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Total yield was greatest with the Cunningham/Hybrid Napier combination.

Relwani, L.L.; Nakat, R.V.; Khandale, D.Y.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

A Note on Chemical Composition of Some Uttarakhand Grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical composition of 30 local grasses of Uttarakhand were determined. The maximum crude protein, mineral contents and lower value of crude fibre content was recorded from Dactylis glosmerata, Arundo donax, Apluda mutica and Poa pratensis in comparison to other grasses.

Om Prakash

2014-03-01

142

Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dynamic simulation of grass field swaying in wind. The representation of large-scale grassland relies on three different levels of detail that reduce the rendering cost and still allow high-fidelity rendering of grass close to the viewer. To simulate real-time waggle of grasses, some physically based methods and procedural approaches are put forward according to different levels of detail. Experiments demonstrate that our method not only can realistically render the animated grass scenes in wind, but also can support the variable wind field.

Hang Qiu

2012-02-01

143

The development of reed canary grass fuel chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel chain of reed canary grass was studied. The objective was to find machinery combinations and working methods which could reduce the harvesting losses and transport cost of the bales. The crushing, feeding properties and the effects of reed canary grass on boiler operation were also studied. In earlier experiments it was noticed that disc mower and silage windrowers produced the lowest harvest losses (20 - 30 %). In this study it was shown that also silage mower with conditioner can reach low losses (20 %) if the adjustments are in optimum. A new type big square baler reached maximum bale density 201 kg/m3 (moisture content 15 %). Reed canary grass is supplied mainly in bales to power plants. Agricultural choppers and sometimes also stationary crushers are not suitable or effective enough for chopping of reed canary grass. Slow-speed two-rotor crushers can be on certain conditions appropriate for chopping. Reed canary grass is co-combusted with peat and wood fuels. Higher shares than 5 - 10 % of energy in the fuel blend can cause blockages on conveyor systems. Reed canary grass should be properly mixed with primary fuels and the chop should be as short as possible. Preliminary results indicate that there were no major changes in fouling or high temperature corrosion during the co-combustion tests of reed canary grass at 295 MWth bubbling fluidised-bed boiler with relatively low proportions of reed canary grass. (orig.)

Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J.; Impola, R.; Paappanen, T.; Leino, T.; Kallio, E. (VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Rinne, S. (YTY konsultointi, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Loetjoenen, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Ruukki (Finland)); Kirkkari, A. (TTS Research, Work Efficiency Institute, Rajamaeki (Finland))

2007-07-01

144

Evaluating Pasture Grasses: Fescues and Other Freaks of Nature  

Science.gov (United States)

Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has excellent potential for grazing-based dairy and beef systems in Wisconsin, but producer awareness of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that its intake potential is comparable or superior to other pasture grasses, and winter-ha...

145

Use of radioactive Lutetium for determining grass consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two data are necessary to determine grass consumption: grass digestibility and excreted feces amount. This amount can be determined by using radioactive lutetium. The first results obtained with radioactive lutetium show daily variations of very high lutetium fecal concentrations and an insufficient and irregular percent of daily recovery. (J.C.)

146

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

2013-02-01

147

From pasture grass to cattle milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131I in milk were also presented. (author)

148

Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

Máikal S. Borja

2012-08-01

149

Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

2007-06-01

150

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond releasetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

151

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

1998-12-31

152

Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1, internode elongation (GS2 i and flowering (GS3. Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001, organic matter, (P<0.001, neutral detergent fibre (NDF (P<0.05 and acid detergent fibre (ADF (P<0.001. Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001 in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

Marija Teskera

2009-03-01

153

Rhodeps Grass Evaluation - Evaluation of Rhodes Grass Cultivars under Emirates Conditions  

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Six genotypes of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana L.) were evaluated for their forage yield and quality under Emirates conditions during 1991/1992. The results revealed no significant differences between Katambora, Callide and Samford which produced significantly higher forage yield than other cultivars. Forage yield of different cuts increased gradually and reached its peak at the fifth cut. Later cuts during summer had the highest forage yield. Percent crude protein decreased while percent crud...

Ibrahim, Ym

1999-01-01

154

Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available t...

Moisés Calderón; Tove Brandt

2008-01-01

155

POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF THE EXCLUSION OF JOHNSON GRASS BY TALL GRASS PRAIRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically, plant distribution typically has been studied with the purpose of learning why a species grows and survives where it does; but why a species does not survive in a particular habitat has rarely been studied, although it may be just as important. According to the US Department of Agriculture, Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.; formerly Johnson grass] is listed as an agricultural pest in most states south of the 42nd parallel. Control of Johnsongrass inagricultural fields involves various labor intensive cultural, mechanical, and chemical means. Release of a bio-control agent has not been suitable for intensively cropped areas. An agriculturally important weed and prominent member of early stage secondary succession, Johnsongrass is not present in later stages of prairie succession. Various environmental factors (biotic and abiotic that might be involved in restricting Johnsongrass survival were examined in this research. In two sites in Oklahoma, soil conditions were found to be more favorable for survival and growth of Johnsongrass in undisturbed prairie than in the disturbed areas in which Johnsongrass was found vigorously growing. However, even when its rhizomes were introduced into mature prairie, Johnsongrass did not thrive. In laboratory and field trials, presence of the living dominant prairie grasses or leachate from living or dead leaf blades seemed to influence growth and survival of Johnsongrass rhizomes. The prairie grasses, little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx. Nash] and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L. Nash], seem to play a similarallelopathic role in restricting the growth of Johnsongrass to outside of the prairies. Looking at this past study might lead to new methods for the future. (Semtner 2012

Marilyn A. Semtner

2012-12-01

156

A new grass frog from Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A new species of grass frog of the genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs in advisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that Ptychadena floweri must be regarded as a junior synonym of P. schillukorum.******* AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Nuwe graspadda-spesies van die genus Ptychadena word van noordelike Namibia beskryf. Alhoewel dit oppervlakkig soortgelyk is aan Ptychadena schillukorum en Ptychadena mossambica, is daar duidelike verskille in advertensieroep en eksterne kenmerke. 'n Ondersoek van 'n reeks sonagramme toon dat Ptychadena floweri 'n junior sinoniem van P. schillukorum is. 

A. Channing

2012-01-01

157

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

158

Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

159

Characteristics of Cogon Grass Rhizomes and its Perforation of a Maiden Cane Rhizome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical) is one of the most aggressive grasses world wide and spreads by an extensive rhizome system. This study adds observational detail to growth of cogon grass rhizomes and provides for a mechanism by which cogon grass is able to perforate other species of plants. During a competition study between I. cylindrica and native grasses, where the plants were grown in 30 cm pots, under greenhouse conditions, the underground systems were harvested by remov...

Muchovej, J. J.; Onokpise, O. U.; Bambo, S. K.

2009-01-01

160

Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded daily. Per treatment a number of parameters relating to the composition of the grass, characteristics of the animals, and composition of the total diet were determined. The correlation between each of...

Bruinenberg, M. H.; Zom, R. L. G.; Valk, H.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Scientists Trace Corn Ancestry from Ancient Grass to Modern Crop  

Science.gov (United States)

... from Ancient Grass to Modern Crop Indigenous farmers bred the plant for hardiness and better food ... ago, Native Americans living in what is now Mexico began domesticating teosinte, or the "grain of ...

162

Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

O Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R. P. O.; O Kiely, P.; O Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S. T. J.; Struik, P. C.

2010-01-01

163

Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (32P, 86Rb and 45Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of 86Rb and 32P

164

Analyses of grass samples in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive fallout in Sweden was concentrated to the mid-eastern part of the country. A systematic survey of the country from south to north was done. Grass samples were taken at positions with relative distances of 20-50 km. In some areas in the north where there was very little grass, soil samples were taken. The results indicate that about 15-20% of the total fallout of Cs-137 will be found in the grass. Sr-90 analyses of grass samples show that the Sr-90/Cs-137 relation varies very little in the fallout over the country. The Sr-90 activity is everywhere between 1 and 3% of the Cs-137 activity

165

Grass silage in diets for organic growingfinishing pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The supply of a mixed ration of grass silage and concentrate to growing-finishing pigs reduced the growth performance and feed utilisation. Further improvements of the feeding system would be required to substantially reduce the feed costs.

Bikker, P.; Binnendijk, G. P.

2012-01-01

166

Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

1985-01-01

167

Temperate Perennial Grass Response to Defoliation Height and Interval  

Science.gov (United States)

The frequency and extent to which temperate perennial grasses are defoliated influences their productivity and persistence. Field-grown tillers of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), common quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould], and reed canarygrass (Phala...

168

The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

2012-01-01

169

Synergism of Wild Grass and Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria in Petroleum Biodegradation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of plants and microbes utilization for remediation measure of pollutant contaminated soil is the newest development in term of petroleum waste management technique. The research objective was to obtain wild grass types and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria which are capable to synergize in decreasing petroleum concentration within petroleum contaminated soil. This research was conducted in a factorial by using a randomized completely block design. The first factor was wild grass type w...

Nuni Gofar

2013-01-01

170

Determination of Nutritional Value of Some Legume and Grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of legumes and grasses for productivity of livestock. Vicia sativa, Pisum arvense, Lathrus sativus, Vicia narbonensis, Dactylis glomerata, Chrysopogon gryllus and Festuca ovina were taken as plant materials from field and rangeland Koseilyas village Tekirdag, Turkey. The results of present examination showed large differences in nutritive value between grass and legumes. The nutritional value and digestibility of forag...

Canan Tuna; Levent Coskuntuna; Fisun Koc

2004-01-01

171

Perennial forage grasses, from breeding to healthy ruminant feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Temperate forage grasses are the main components of grasslands occupying 40.5 % of the world’s terrestrial area and 30-40% of European agricultural area. They cover the land, providing a habitat and a source of food for domestic livestock, thus ensuring a supply of livestock products, with contributes to rural agricultural and economic development. Grasses are a natural food for ruminants. Rich in fibre, they provide the bulk necessary for good rumen func...

Sokolovi? D.; Radovi? J.; Tomi? Z.

2011-01-01

172

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharific...

Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon; Kunn Kangvansaichol; Vorakan Burapatana; Ratanavalee Inochanon; Pakorn Winayanuwattikun; Tikamporn Yongvanich; Warawut Chulalaksananukul

2012-01-01

173

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums...

Juliana Medianeira Machado; Marta Gomes da Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin; Aline Bosak dos Santos; Maria José de Oliveira Sichonany; Laila Arruda Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da Rosa

2013-01-01

174

Biomass Partitioning Following Defoliation of Annual and Perennial Mediterranean Grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A two-year experiment was conducted in northeastern Israel to study the effects of various defoliation regimes on biomass partitioning between vegetative and reproductive structures in a perennial and an annual Mediterranean grass. Greater insight into the mechanisms regulating biomass partitioning after defoliation enables ecologists and rangeland managers to interpret and predict population and community dynamics in Mediterranean grasslands more efficiently. Two typical Mediterranean grasse...

No'am Seligman; Pluda, Daniel C.; Imanuel Noy-Meir; Mario Gutman; Steven Rothman; Marcelo Sternberg

2002-01-01

175

Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

176

Synergism of Wild Grass and Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria in Petroleum Biodegradation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of plants and microbes utilization for remediation measure of pollutant contaminated soil is the newest development in term of petroleum waste management technique. The research objective was to obtain wild grass types and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria which are capable to synergize in decreasing petroleum concentration within petroleum contaminated soil. This research was conducted in a factorial by using a randomized completely block design. The first factor was wild grass type which were without plant, Tridax procumbens grass and Lepironia mucronata grass. The second factor was hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria type which were without bacterium, single bacterium of Alcaligenes faecalis, single bacterium of Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and mixed bacteria of Alcaligenes faecalis with P. alcaligenes. The results showed that mixed bacteria (A. faecalis and P. alcaligenes were capable to increase the crown and roots dry weights of these two grasses and bacteria population, decreased percentage of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon and had better pH value than that of single bacterium. The highest TPH decrease with magnitude of 70.1% was obtained on the treatment of L. mucronata grass in combination with mixed bacteria.

Nuni Gofar

2013-05-01

177

Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

178

Rhodeps Grass Evaluation - Evaluation of Rhodes Grass Cultivars under Emirates Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six genotypes of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana L. were evaluated for their forage yield and quality under Emirates conditions during 1991/1992. The results revealed no significant differences between Katambora, Callide and Samford which produced significantly higher forage yield than other cultivars. Forage yield of different cuts increased gradually and reached its peak at the fifth cut. Later cuts during summer had the highest forage yield. Percent crude protein decreased while percent crude fiber increased with cuts but the difference was significant only for early cuts. Pioneer, an early flowering genotype, had the lowest protein and the highest crude fiber while the late flowering genotypes performed well.

Ibrahim, YM.

1999-01-01

179

Development of reed canary grass fuel chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cultivation area of reed canary grass (RCG) has rapidly increased during last years. In 2008 the total area is estimated to be almost 21,000 ha. Due to experience from RCG there are deficiencies on the harvesting, delivery and use chain, which limit the use of RCG in technical and economical sense. The aim of the project was to improve the competitiveness of RCG as a solid fuel. The targets of development have been harvesting, long-distance transport, crushing and mixing, experiences from use on power plants, combustion, improve the use by pneumatic conveying and cost calculations of production supply chains as well as development of business concepts. Harvesting losses can be reduced by using right and correctly adjusted machines for mowing. The costs of long-distance transport can be lowered by increasing bale densities, if baler adjustments and driving style is correct, using square bales and making transports with largest available trucks. For power plants using sufficient large quantities of RCG, it may be reasonable to build a separate feeding line, which also removes the present fuel handling problems. One aim of the future is to develop the power plant technology, which enables the bale transports directly to the plant. According to combustion tests the use of RCG does not increase fouling and high-temperature corrosion of a boiler, if share is low, 1-2%. Also the properties of ash did not changed when burning RCG. (orig.)

Paappanen, T.; Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J.; Impola, R.; Taipale, R.; Leino, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Rinne, S. (YTY-Konsultointi, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), email: samuli.rinne@suomi24.fi; Loetjoenen, T. (AgriFood Research Finland, MTT, Jokioinen (Finland)), email: timo.lotjonen@mtt.fi; Kirkkari, A.-M. (Work Efficiency Institute, TTS, Rajamaeki (Finland)), email: anna-maija.kirkkari@tts.fi

2009-07-01

180

The Park Grass Experiment and next-generation approaches: local adaptation of sweet vernal grass revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term ecological experiments provide unique opportunities to observe the effects of natural selection. The Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Experiment Station in Hertfordshire, UK, is the longest running ecological experiment that incorporates fertilization treatments and has been ongoing since 1856. In the 1970s, local adaptation was observed in the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum to the elevated soil aluminium levels of the fertilized plots. Gould et al. () have utilized this system to reevaluate the extent of local adaptation, first documented nearly 45 years ago (Snaydon ), and to use emerging molecular approaches to identify candidate genes for the adaptation. From their work, they identify several plausible candidate loci for aluminium tolerance. This work shows the power of long-term field-based trials in a scientific age concentrated on rapidly emerging molecular techniques often utilized in short, narrowly focused laboratory or controlled environment experiments. The current study clearly illustrates the benefits gained by combining these molecular approaches within long-term monitoring experiments that can be regularly revisited in a changing world and used to address questions on evolutionary scales. PMID:25532867

von Wettberg, Eric J B; Vance, Wendy; Rowland, Diane L

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

Kroumov Victor

2009-01-01

182

Combining Ability in Mixtures of Prairie Grass and Clovers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the combining ability among cultivars of forage species, commonly sown in temperate regions of Argentina using a short rotation system. Three genetically diverse cultivars of prairie brome grass (Bromus catharticus, cv Copetona, cv Ñandú and cv Tango, a white clover cultivar (Trifolium repens, cv Lucero and a red clover cultivar (T. pratense, cv Tropero were evaluated. A randomized complete block design experiment was established in 2005. The treatments included five monocultures and ten binary mixtures. The experiment was harvested 6 times over an 18-month period. Cumulative dry matter yield (kg?ha–1 was calculated as the sum of the six individual harvests. Diallel analysis provided estimates of the general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA. Red clover in monoculture and mixtures produced the highest yields, with significant positive GCA effects (P < 0.01. Lucero white clover, and Copetona and Tango prairie grasses had significant negative GCA effects (P < 0.05. In mixtures, red clover with each of the three grass cultivars and white clover with Tango had significant and outstanding SCA effects (P < 0.01. Grass/grass mixtures and the legume/legume mixture showed non-significant SCA effects, while the grass/legume mixtures generally had higher yield than either component sown as a monoculture (P < 0.01. Given the short-term nature of this study, we must limit our inference to short-term pastures (<2 years. Under these conditions, red clover had the best combination with prairie brome grass.

Miguel Jacinto Arturi

2012-10-01

183

Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  coordinates, the mean altitude, the mean of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to wood, trees and hedge close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the factors time of: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; 

Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

2010-01-01

184

How much gas can we get from grass?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ? The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg?1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ? We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ? A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH4 kg?1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ? A two phase system achieved 341 L CH4 kg?1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg?1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH4 kg?1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH4 kg?1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.

185

Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

2011-12-01

186

Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

Odle, W. C.

1976-01-01

187

Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue. PMID:24231391

Klan?nik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberš?ik, Alenka

2014-01-01

188

Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves. PMID:24420892

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

1994-01-01

189

Intercropping with grasses helps to reduce iron chlorosis in olive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Grasses are more efficient than dicots in acquiring Fe from calcareous soils. We studied whether intercropping with grasses alleviates Fe chlorosis in olive and whether the effect persists in succeeding dicot crops. Three different pot experiments were conducted. In the first, olive plants were inte [...] rcropped with 6 different grass species (purple false brome, annual ryegrass, compact brome, goatgrass, barley and red fescue); in the second, the two species best performing in the previous experiment were studied in various calcareous soils and; in the third, chickpea and peanut were grown in pots previously used to cultivate the two grasses. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and/or boosted growth of olive trees on three different calcareous soils. Olive growth was adversely affected by intercropping in one soil as a result of competition for water. Intercropping increased Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn leaf contents in olive. Also, grass cropping generally raised available levels of soil Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn; this effect, however, resulted in no substantial alleviation of Fe chlorosis in succeeding chickpea or peanut crops. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley appears to be a promising remedy for Fe chlorosis in olive orchards affected by Fe chlorosis.

J.C, Cañasveras; M. C, del Campillo; V, Barrón; J, Torrent.

190

Intercropping with grasses helps to reduce iron chlorosis in olive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Grasses are more efficient than dicots in acquiring Fe from calcareous soils. We studied whether intercropping with grasses alleviates Fe chlorosis in olive and whether the effect persists in succeeding dicot crops. Three different pot experiments were conducted. In the first, olive plants were inte [...] rcropped with 6 different grass species (purple false brome, annual ryegrass, compact brome, goatgrass, barley and red fescue); in the second, the two species best performing in the previous experiment were studied in various calcareous soils and; in the third, chickpea and peanut were grown in pots previously used to cultivate the two grasses. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and/or boosted growth of olive trees on three different calcareous soils. Olive growth was adversely affected by intercropping in one soil as a result of competition for water. Intercropping increased Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn leaf contents in olive. Also, grass cropping generally raised available levels of soil Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn; this effect, however, resulted in no substantial alleviation of Fe chlorosis in succeeding chickpea or peanut crops. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley appears to be a promising remedy for Fe chlorosis in olive orchards affected by Fe chlorosis.

J.C, Cañasveras; M. C, del Campillo; V, Barrón; J, Torrent.

2014-09-01

191

Salt tolerance evolves more frequently in C4 grass lineages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt tolerance has evolved many times in the grass family, and yet few cereal crops are salt tolerant. Why has it been so difficult to develop crops tolerant of saline soils when salt tolerance has evolved so frequently in nature? One possible explanation is that some grass lineages have traits that predispose them to developing salt tolerance and that without these background traits, salt tolerance is harder to achieve. One candidate background trait is photosynthetic pathway, which has also been remarkably labile in grasses. At least 22 independent origins of the C4 photosynthetic pathway have been suggested to occur within the grass family. It is possible that the evolution of C4 photosynthesis aids exploitation of saline environments, because it reduces transpiration, increases water-use efficiency and limits the uptake of toxic ions. But the observed link between the evolution of C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance could simply be due to biases in phylogenetic distribution of halophytes or C4 species. Here, we use a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the association between photosynthetic pathway and salt tolerance in the grass family Poaceae. We find that salt tolerance is significantly more likely to occur in lineages with C4 photosynthesis than in C3 lineages. We discuss the possible links between C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance and consider the limitations of inferring the direction of causality of this relationship. PMID:24494637

Bromham, L; Bennett, T H

2014-02-01

192

Nitrogen cycle in pure grass and grass/legume pastures. Evaluation of pasture sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the impact on pasture sustainability of the introduction of a forage legume (Desmodium ovalifolium) into a Brachiaria humidicola pasture, studies of the contribution of legume N2 fixation, litter recycling, the plant material on offer and the animal live weight gain were made on grazed pure grass and mixed pastures at three different grazing pressures at the CEPLAC field station at Itabela in the Atlantic forest region of souther Bahia. The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to D. ovalifolium was estimated to be approximately 50% of plant N in a satellite experiment using the 15N isotope dilution technique. Evaluation of the plant material on offer showed that the proportion of legume in the mixed swards ranged between 39% (at the lowest stocking rate of two animals/ha) and 16 and 2% (three and four animals/ha, respectively). The total contribution of BNF was calculated at 74, 28 and 3 kg N·ha·a-1 for the three stocking rates, respectively. Litter deposition varied little between the different treatments, but the N content of the litter was considerably higher in the mixed sward and was considerably lower at the highest stocking rate in both pastures. Analysis of the 13C isotopic abundance of the soil organic matter showed that 5 years after establishment of the pure B. humidicola pasture, approximately 27% of the soil carbon was derived from grass at a depth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportipth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportion (20%) was derived from grass at 5-15 cm. Analysis of the 13C abundance of cattle faeces indicated that the proportion of legume consumed by cattle in the mixed sward was between 10 and 37%. The data indicate that selection of an appropriate grazing pressure can greatly influence recycling. Therefore, presumably pasture sustainability and the introduction of a legume in the pasture are beneficial to both animal production and pasture sustainability. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

193

Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja / Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchr [...] us echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones), applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinat [...] us in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 ), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 ), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 ), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 ), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 ) and control (no herbicide). In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

A.L.L., Barroso; H.A., Dan; S.O., Procópio; R.E.B., Toledo; C.R., Sandaniel; G.B.P., Braz; K.L., Cruvinel.

194

9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited...Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from...

2010-01-01

195

Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater. PMID:23488000

Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

196

Hydraulic performance of grass swales for managing highway runoff.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydraulic performance of grass swales as a highway stormwater control measure was evaluated in a field-scale study adjacent to a Maryland highway. Two common swale design alternatives, pretreatment grass filter strips and vegetated check dams, were compared during 52 storm events over 4.5 years. Swale performance is described via three regimes, dependent on the relative size of the rainfall event. Overall, half of the events were small enough that the entire flow was stored, infiltrated, and evapotranspirated by the swales, resulting in no net swale discharge. Swales significantly reduced total volume and flow magnitudes generally during events with rainfall less than 3 cm. While the majority of improvement can be attributed to the swales, inclusion of check dams increases swale effectiveness. Pretreatment grass filter strips produced mixed effects. The swales demonstrated essentially no volumetric reduction during large storm events, functioning instead as conveyance, and smoothing fluctuations in flow. PMID:22099481

Davis, Allen P; Stagge, James H; Jamil, Eliea; Kim, Hunho

2012-12-15

197

The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds. The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

Vu?kovi? Savo

2003-01-01

198

FEEDING VALUE OF GRASS SILAGES BASED ON DRY MATTER CONCENTRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total of 477 grass silage samples of different origin and quality were analysed by NIR spectroscopy to determine crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, digestible organic matter (OM in the dry matter (DM (D-value, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value and the ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N. According to DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample, the samples were divided into 8 classes: (1> 228; (2 229 313; (3 314-398;(4 399-483; (5 484-568; (6 569-653; (7i 654-738;(8 0.005 in NDF and pH value. It was concluded that increased DM concentration in silage samples was not a result of –grass wilting before ensiling but of advanced grass maturity at harvest.

Maja Lujanac

2010-12-01

199

MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these histopathological lesions were absent in all the groups in all the organs. But after 96 hours, these respective lesions in respective organs were usually of mild, moderate and severe nature in groups B, C and D, respectively. It was concluded that mercury intoxication not only resulted in marked histopathological changes and abnormal clinical signs but also depressed growth rate of fish.

M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

2004-01-01

200

26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. 56...EXCISE TAXES § 56.4911-6 Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Gasification of corn and clover grass in supercritical water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of pressure, temperature, residence time, and alkali addition on the gasification of corn starch, clover grass and corn silage in supercritical water was investigated. Changing the pressure did not alter the gasification yield. An increase in the temperature notably improved the conversion of biomass. Residence time variations revealed that with longer residence time, gasification yield was improved until a maximum was reached. Gas composition changed with residence time and temperature. Potassium addition affected the gasification yield of corn starch, but did not influence the gasification yield of the potassium-containing natural products of clover grass and corn silage. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Pedro D' Jesus; Nikolaos Boukis; Bettina Kraushaar-Czarnetzki; Eckhard Dinjus [Chemisch-Physikalische Verfahren (ITC-CPV), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Technische Chemie

2006-05-15

202

Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto), and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis pr...

Trache D.; Khimeche K.; Donnot A.; Benelmir R.

2013-01-01

203

Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and leaves. This study (i) quantified and compared the tensile fracture properties of stems and leaves of seven tropical grass species and (ii) provided insight into the underlying plant traits that expla...

Jacobs, A. A. A.; Scheper, J. A.; Benvenutti, M. A.; Gordon, I. J.; Poppi, D. P.; Elgersma, A.

2011-01-01

204

Leaf Vascular Systems in C3 and C4 Grasses: A Two-dimensional Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

• Background and Aims It is well documented that C4 grasses have a shorter distance between longitudinal veins in the leaves than C3 grasses. In grass leaves, however, veins with different structures and functions are differentiated: large longitudinal veins, small longitudinal veins and transverse veins. Thus, the densities of the three types of vein in leaves of C3 and C4 grasses were investigated from a two-dimensional perspective.

Ueno, Osamu; Kawano, Yukiko; Wakayama, Masataka; Takeda, Tomoshiro

2006-01-01

205

Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment method with low cost and low energy requirements, plus brings about multiple advantages with regards to agricultural management. However, the pretreatment effect of ensiling, and the overall effects for further conversion are limited. In this study, ensiling was evaluated as a method of pretreatment for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project was devoted to method development. This resulted in the development of a simple and flexible standard method forlaboratory ensilingwith a high reproducibility,which is well suited for high-throughput experiments.   A comprehensive study on important parameters in ensiling was conducted to find optimal conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however, insignificant. Cellulose conversion was noted to be largely determined by the stage of maturity of the four different cuts of grass. Less mature grass had high convertibility but less amount of cellulose and vice versa. This led to the conclusion that an optimal maturity of grass can be found, which gives an optimal glucose release. However, limitations of the method were also noted. The ensiling of grass came with a considerable loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which was in fact higher than the improved glucose release. Furthermore, the amount of released glucose was not adequate to support an efficient production of ethanol. Lastly, the conversion of xylan was extremely low in both grass and grass silage. Optimization of the enzymatic saccharification of grass was attempted through improvement of the hemicellulase content in the enzyme blend. However, neither additional xylanases (Cellic HTec2® and ß-xylosidase) nor hemicellulose degrading esterases (acetyl xylan esterase and ferulic acid esterase) showed any improvements of xylan or glucan convertibility. Furthermore, hemicellulases were added before ensiling in order to assist and improve the pretreatment effect. This resulted in, however, the undesired effect that additionally released monosaccharides were utilized during storage and had a negative impact on sugar release after enzymatic saccharification. In both of the above mentioned experiments on optimization ofsugar release by means of enzymes, it was noted that the hemicellulose structure of Festulolium Hykor appeared unusually resistant to enzymatic degradation. Due to the low conversion results on Festulolium Hykor, the last part of the project was based on a new tenet: Ensiling can not provide sufficient pretreatment effect to be a stand-alone pretreatment method. Ensiling was therefore combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT), and the pretreatment combination was applied to both grass (Festulolium  Hykor) and whea

Ambye-Jensen, Morten

2014-01-01

206

26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. 56.4911-6 ...56.4911-6 Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of...the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as described in...

2010-04-01

207

Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

Belo, A. F.; Dias, L. S.

1998-01-01

208

Climate Change Will Boost Grass Pollen Production, Study Contends  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Climate Change Will Boost Grass Pollen Production, Study Contends The ... Wednesday, November 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Allergy Climate Change Hay Fever WEDNESDAY, Nov. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

209

Salt flat and salt grass habitat at the Mojave desert  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt flat/ grass habitat provides shade and shelter for desert organisms. This habitat is found at a higher elevation than the sand and rock habitats and has slightly cooler temperatures and more moisture, which accounts for the abundance of vegetation.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-06

210

Theoretical versus Grass-Roots Development of a Community Partnership  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine Bracht, Kingbury, and Rissel's five-stage community development model as applied to a grass-roots community action group. The sample consisted of low-income, predominantly Hispanic women in a community action group in a Southwestern barrio, some of whom were experiencing domestic violence. The…

Escandon, Socorro

2010-01-01

211

CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

212

Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

2010-01-01

213

Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conservation considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass, a warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soil by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season grasses

214

Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using panicum maximum forage grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Panicum maximum Jacq (Guinea grass is an important multicut forage grass with ease of propagation, fast growth available at local level and high quality forage for livestock. This grass is a biotic resource, due to its several properties grass. It is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Panicum maximum was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. Designed Angular Horizontal Subsurface type constructed wetland for the treatment of sewage was used for recycling and reuses. The samples of sewage with different dilutions viz. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% were tested for the treatment. Results reveal that pH range was changed from 6.79 to 7.10, maximum reduction of E.C was 25.14 % at 80%, TSS by 48.70%, TDS by 55.73 %, TS by 54.31 %, COD by 61.05 %, BOD by 59.25 %, NO3 by 69.32%, PO4 by 48.10% and SO4 by 41.48% respectively. The colour and odour were removed resulting into clear water.

B. L. Chavan

2012-10-01

215

Deposition of radioactive contamination on grass after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Daily measurements of radioactive contamination on fresh grass were done to assess partial deposition. Radioactivity elimination of single radionuclides related to time and weather is estimated. Results show that radioactivity decreases with lower elimination rates in undisturbed regions as compared to rates commonly used for calculations. (author). 1 ref

216

Three recently-introduced alien grasses in the Iberian Peninsula.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] Three non-native grasses (Gramineae/Poaceae): Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa laguroides subsp. torreyana and Agropyron desertorum, apparently hitherto unrecorded, have been detected in the Iberian Peninsula in recent years, and a further species, Nassella neesiana, is recorded as increasing its known distribution area in Catalonia (NE Spain).

Pyke, Samuel

2010-01-01

217

SEASONAL MORPHOLOGY AND FORAGE QUALITY OF TEMPERATE GRASSES  

Science.gov (United States)

Forage quality of grazed swards is closely associated with the contribution and quality of morphological components. We determined leaf and stem fraction dry matter and forage quality trends for temperate perennial grasses at two Wisconsin locations. After reaching 15 to 20 cm height, primary spri...

218

Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

2006-05-01

219

The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

2013-01-01

220

Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens, and Dactylis glomerata were the only important grass weeds with a declining frequency during the six years. Vulpia spp. has recently become a significant problem in red fescue for seed production, and a significant increased frequency was seen during the study period. However, the study also showed that Vulpia spp. is primarily a problem in red fescue crops established in the autumn, whereas spring establishment of red fescue almost solves the problem with this primarily autumn-germinating grass weed.

Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

EFFECT OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS ON INTAKE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR GRASS SPECIES FOUND IN TEMPERATE BIODIVERSE PASTURE SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Four grass species (meadow fescue (MF), Festuca elatior; orchard grass (ORG), Dactylis glomerata, L.; quack grass (QG), Elytrigia repens; and reed canarygrass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea) were sown in micro-sward boxes (31 in. x 19 in. x 5 in.) to investigate intake characteristics of four grass spe...

222

Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk, Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu, Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes, Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85. The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE. The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

Edilane Aparecida da Silva

2012-03-01

223

Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintater fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

224

Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS), a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the mo...

Marco Ciolli; Sören Gebbert; Pietro Zambelli

2013-01-01

225

Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of starchy plants in early hominin diets and when the culinary processing of starches began have been difficult to track archaeologically. Seed collecting is conventionally perceived to have been an irrelevant activity among the Pleistocene foragers of southern Africa, on the grounds of both technological difficulty in the processing of grains and the belief that roots, fruits, and nuts, not cereals, were the basis for subsistence for the past 100,000 years and further back in time. A large assemblage of starch granules has been retrieved from the surfaces of Middle Stone Age stone tools from Mozambique, showing that early Homo sapiens relied on grass seeds starting at least 105,000 years ago, including those of sorghum grasses. PMID:20019285

Mercader, Julio

2009-12-18

226

The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

227

Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H2SO4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

228

Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art  

Science.gov (United States)

Organized by the Museum for African Art, New York, and presented online by the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art, Grass Roots is a history of 300 years of African basket making, brought by African people to the American South. The grasses that grow in the marshes along the Atlantic coast in the Southern United States, where African slaves were brought to work on rice plantations, were ideal for making coiled baskets, similar to the ones they'd made in Africa. The plantation system of rice growing required large numbers of several particular shapes of work baskets, including flat trays for winnowing, or removing chaff from the grain, and carrying baskets. The web resource includes an 86-page teachers' guide with activities for students from grades 3 - 12, and additional images of the baskets.

229

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrog [...] en (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Juliana Medianeira, Machado; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de, Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato, Confortin; Aline Bosak dos, Santos; Maria José de Oliveira, Sichonany; Laila Arruda, Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da, Rosa.

2013-01-01

230

Utilization of fast-scanning techniques (GRASS) in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) is a fast-scanning MR imaging technique (General Electric Signa) that permits very short acquisition times. To optimize imaging time in the pediatric population, the authors utilized echo times of 12 msec and repetition times of 21 msec, with pulse flip angles of 30 degrees, to obtain relatively T2-weighted images. This technique was particularly useful in evaluating vascular structures (''angiogram effect''), joint space pathology (''arthrogram effect''), spinal tract abnormalities (''myelogram effect'') and for ''localizing'' scans. GRASS scanning is useful in evaluating children for preoperative liver transplantation, abdominal tumors, nonthoracic vascular lesions, joint space disease, and congenital as well as acquired disease of the spine

231

In situ spectral reflectance studies of tidal wetland grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Field measurements of wetland spectral canopy reflectance in the Landsat-MSS wavebands were correlated with biotic factors. The highest single band correlations were observed between visible (MSS Band 4: 0.5 to 0.6 micron and Band 5: 0.6 to 0.7 micron) canopy reflectance and the percentage, by weight, of live (green) vegetation in the canopies of Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow grass), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass). Infrared canopy reflectance displayed significant but weaker dependence on canopy parameters such as live and total biomass and canopy height. The Band 7 (0.8 to 1.1 microns)/Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron) reflectance ratio was found to be highly correlated with green biomass for S. alterniflora. Highest spectral separability between the 'low marsh' S. alterniflora and the 'high marsh' Salt Hay (S. patens and D. spicata) communities in Delaware occurs during December.

Bartlett, D. S.; Klemas, V.

1981-01-01

232

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Juliana Medianeira Machado

2013-01-01

233

Diversity of Puccinia striiformis on cereals and grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yellow (stripe) rust is a common fungal disease on cereals and grasses. It is caused by Puccinia striiformis sensu lato, which is biotrophic and heteroecious. The pathogen is specialized on the primary host at both species and cultivar levels, whereas several Berberis spp. may serve as alternate hosts. One lineage infects mainly cereals and at least two lineages are restricted to grasses. P. striiformis on cereals has a typical clonal population structure in many areas, resulting from asexual reproduction, but high diversity, suggesting frequent recombination, has been observed in certain areas in Asia. Yellow rust is spreading by airborne spores potentially across long distances, which may contribute to sudden disease epidemics in new areas. This has been the case since 2000, where large-scale epidemics in warmer wheat-growing areas have been ascribed to the emergence of two closely related yellow rust strains with increased aggressiveness and tolerance to warm temperatures. PMID:21599494

Hovmøller, Mogens S; Sørensen, Chris K; Walter, Stephanie; Justesen, Annemarie F

2011-01-01

234

Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products. PMID:8634519

Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

1996-04-01

235

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

A. Priolo

2011-03-01

236

Utility and distribution of conserved noncoding sequences in the grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Control of gene expression requires cis-acting regulatory DNA sequences. Historically these sequences have been difficult to identify. Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) have recently been identified in mammalian genes through cross-species genomic DNA comparisons, and some have been shown to be regulatory sequences. Using sequence alignment algorithms, we compared genomic noncoding DNA sequences of the liguleless1 (lg1) genes in two grasses, maize and rice, and found several CNSs in lg1. T...

Kaplinsky, Nicholas J.; Braun, David M.; Penterman, Jon; Goff, Stephen A.; Freeling, Michael

2002-01-01

237

Morphological and physiological studies of prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii Kunth).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis reports the results of seven indoor and outdoor studies on the growth of prairie grass( Bromus willdenowiiKunth) . In five studies comparisons were also made with ryegrass( Loliumspp.). Leaf and tiller production were quantified for undisturbed growth and growth under different cutting regimes. Water soluble carbohydrate reserves for regrowth were also determined. Particular attention was given to the effects of reproductive development on partitioning of bio...

Hume, D. E.

1990-01-01

238

Characterization of grass carp reovirus minor core protein VP4  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a tentative member in the genus Aquareovirus of family Reoviridae, contains eleven segmented (double-stranded RNA) dsRNA genome which encodes 12 proteins. A low-copy core component protein VP4, encoded by the viral genome segment 5(S5), has been suggested to play a key role in viral genome transcription and replication. Results To understand the role of minor core protein VP4 played in mole...

Yan Liming; Guo Hong; Sun Xiaoyun; Shao Ling; Fang Qin

2012-01-01

239

Combining Ability in Mixtures of Prairie Grass and Clovers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our objective was to evaluate the combining ability among cultivars of forage species, commonly sown in temperate regions of Argentina using a short rotation system. Three genetically diverse cultivars of prairie brome grass (Bromus catharticus, cv Copetona, cv Ñandú and cv Tango), a white clover cultivar (Trifolium repens, cv Lucero) and a red clover cultivar (T. pratense, cv Tropero) were evalua...

Miguel Jacinto Arturi; Mónica Beatriz Aulicino; Oscar Ansín; Gustavo Gallinger; Rodolfo Signorio

2012-01-01

240

Grasses Pollen Concentrations In The Atmosphere Of Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

657 Grasses Pollen Concentrations In The Atmosphere Of Portugal E. Caeiro1, C. Nunes2, R. Brandao3, L. Lopes3, A. Gaspar4, M. Almeida4; 1University of Evora, Portimao, PORTUGAL, 2Center of Allergy of Algarve, Portimao, PORTUGAL, 3University of Evora, Evora, PORTUGAL, 4CUF Descobertas, Lisboa, PORTUGAL. RATIONALE: To compare the main pollination season (MPS) of Poaceae pollen from different monitoring stations of the Portuguese Aerobiology Network (RPA): Oporto (north),...

Caeiro, E.; Nunes, C.; Brandao, R. M.; Lopes, M. L.; Gaspar, A.; Mario Morais-Almeida

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Three recently-introduced alien grasses in the Iberian Peninsula  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three non-native grasses (Gramineae/Poaceae): Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa laguroides subsp. torreyana and Agropyron desertorum, apparently hitherto unrecorded, have been detected in the Iberian Peninsula in recent years, and a further species, Nassella neesiana, is recorded as increasing its known distribution area in Catalonia (NE Spain).

Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa lag...

Pyke, S.

2010-01-01

242

Numerical Modeling of Combined Hydraulics and Infiltration in Grassed Swales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this thesis is to establish a numerical model capable of simulating combined infiltration and hydraulic discharge through grassed swales. The model is intended for making assessments of the hydraulics within urban drainage on a more detailed level than methods currently available.An initial literature survey has been conducted, finding that research on the scientific field of hydraulics within sustainable urban drainage is scarce. The research available on drainage systems, such as...

Grinden, Arve

2014-01-01

243

Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

Vuuren, A. M.

1993-01-01

244

Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

2008-12-01

245

Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges. PMID:15964059

Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

2005-12-01

246

EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site. PMID:19297989

Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

2008-11-01

247

Revising Himself : Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass  

Science.gov (United States)

An impressive feat of literary collation, the Library of Congress presents this exhibition on Walt Whitman, probably America's first superstar author, and Whitman's book of poetry, _Leaves of Grass_. Initially published in 1855, _Leaves of Grass_ contained 12 poems. Whitman continuously revised it until his death in 1892, when it contained 400 poems. The poet added new poems, renamed older ones, reworded lines, changed punctuation, and regrouped poems (through the 1881 edition), as well as inventing typography, and posing for frontispiece portraits wearing various styles of clothing and props. (front and back views of a cardboard butterfly that Whitman posed with in 1877 are included in the show). The exhibition traces this evolution of _Leaves of Grass_ and Whitman's life, as a poet and a person, from the first appearance of the lines "I am the poet of the body, And I am the poet of the soul" in a notebook dating 1847-1950s, to the final "Deathbed edition" of 1891-1892. A wealth of interesting biographical material on Whitman, his friends and associates, his work as a teacher, tending the wounded during the Civil War, and for the federal government, also appears in the exhibit.

248

Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

2015-01-01

249

Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a). PMID:25168231

Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

2015-01-25

250

Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices to remove pesticides that may be entrained in agricultural runoff. However, buffer system efficacy in pesticide runoff mitigation varies widely due to a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, pesticide chemistry, vegetation composition, and hydrology. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetland buffer system, were evaluated for their ability to retain diazinon and permethrin associated with a simulated storm runoff. The two systems were equally inefficient at retaining diazinon (mean 9.6 % retention for control and buffer). Grass-wetland buffers retained 83 % and 85 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively, while the control only retained 39 % and 44 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively. Half-distances (the distance required to decrease pesticide concentration by one-half) for both permethrin isomers were 26 %-30 % shorter in grass buffers (22-23 m) than in the control (32 m). The current study demonstrates treatment efficacy was a function of pesticide properties with the more strongly sorbing permethrin retained to a greater degree. The study also demonstrates challenges in remediating multiple pesticides with a single management practice. By using suites of management practices, especially those employing vegetation, better mitigation of pesticide impacts may be accomplished. PMID:25145638

Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Locke, M A; Lizotte, R E; Testa, S; Cooper, C M

2014-11-01

251

Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

252

Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conversion considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass. A warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soils by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season gasses.

McLaughlin, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bransby, D.I. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Soils; Parrish, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences

1994-10-01

253

Germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of selected grass species under the influence of blastokolins from germinating grass seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions in Department of Grass Science and Greenland Shaping in 2002-2004. Studies included six experiment series on Petri dishes set by means of complete randomization method in four replications. Following species were tested: Festulolium, Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis making one or two-species combinations. Fifteen seeds of two species were arranged alternately in 1- centimeter distance on a Petri dish. Objects where seeds germinated with no neighborhood of other species (30 seeds on a dish, were control. The filter's humidity on Petri dishes was maintained by wetting it with distilled water. Achieved results revealed significant influence of blastokolins of tested grass species on seed germination and initial seedling growth. Secretion of germinating Festulolium seeds showed the highest activity. Reaction of tested grass species to allelochemicals varied. In reference to control objects, Phleum pratense among tested species was distinguished with the highest susceptibility to allelochemicals released during seed germination.

Halina Lipi?ska

2006-12-01

254

Initial success of native grasses is contingent on multiple interactions among exotic grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall, and site effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological communities are increasingly being recognized as the products of contemporary drivers and historical legacies that are both biotic and abiotic. In an attempt to unravel multiple layers of ecological contingency, we manipulated a) competition with exotic annual grasses, b) the timing of this competition (temporal priority in arrival/seeding times), and c) watering (simulated rainfall) in a restoration-style planting of native perennial grasses. In addition, we replicated this experiment simultaneously at three sites in north-central California. Native perennial grasses had 73-99% less cover when planted with exotic annuals than when planted alone, but this reduction was greatly ameliorated by planting the natives two weeks prior to the exotics. In a drought year, irrigation significantly reduced benefits of early planting so that these benefits resembled those observed in a non-drought year. There were significant differences across the three sites (site effects and interactions) in a) overall native cover, b) response of natives to competition, c) the strength of the temporal priority effect, and d) the degree to which supplemental watering reduced priority effects. These results reveal the strong multi-layered contingency that underlies even relatively simple communities. PMID:25480888

Young, Truman P; Zefferman, Emily P; Vaughn, Kurt J; Fick, Stephen

2014-12-01

255

Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administration produced dose related significant (P < 0.05 reduction in total chloesterol,triglycerides,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in normal rats as compared to control.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids,tannins, saponins and sterols in Triticum aestivum grass. Conclusion: The results of the present study lndicate hypolipidemic activity of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice.

Kothari Saroj

2008-01-01

256

Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

1995-08-01

257

Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous...

Sousa, Saulo M.; Silva, Pa?mela S.; Viccini, Lyderson F.

2010-01-01

258

Treatment influence on herbicide resistance level of Belgian Alopecurus myosuroides populations (black-grass)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. Therefore, farmers started to spray herbicide intensively and soon cases of failure occurred for different molecules and different modes of action. Black-grass populations have been tested in greenhouses to assess the influence of an herbicide treatment as to the resistance level regarding three ...

Mare?chal, Pierre-yves; Henriet, Franc?ois; Bodson, Bernard

2009-01-01

259

Intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and leguminous plants: productivity, quality and composition of silages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of forages produced in systems of intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and different leguminous plants. Productivity, bromatological composition and the fermentative profile of the silages from the following treatments were evaluated: corn in exclusive cultivation (CEC); intercropping of corn with brachiaria grass (CB); intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Calopogonium muc...

Patrícia Monteiro Costa; Severino Delmar Junqueira Villela; Fernando de Paula Leonel; Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo; Karoline Guedes Araújo; José Reinaldo Mendes Ruas; Felipe Soares Coelho; Vinícius Raimundi Andrade

2012-01-01

260

Chloroplast DNA inversions and the origin of the grass family (Poaceae).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phylogenetic affinities of the grass family (Poaceae) have long been debated. The chloroplast genomes of at least some grasses have been known to possess three inversions relative to the typical gene arrangement found in most flowering plants. We have surveyed for the presence of these inversions in grasses and other monocots by polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers constructed from sequences flanking the inversion end points. Amplification phenotypes diagnostic for the lar...

Doyle, J. J.; Davis, J. I.; Soreng, R. J.; Garvin, D.; Anderson, M. J.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Perennial legumes and grasses stable source of quality livestock fodder feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perennial legumes, alfalfa, red clover, bird's foot trefoil, white clover, sainfoin and grasses, cock's foot, meadow fescue, tall fescue, Italian ryegrass, English ryegrass, French ryegrass, red fescue and Timothy grass can be grown successfully in pure crops and in legume-grass mixtures, on different soil types. Their importance in livestock development is based primarily on the great potential for yield of dry matter of over 20 t ha-1 if adequate agro-technical mea...

Tomi? Z.; Lugi? Z.; Radovi? J.; Sokolovi? D.; Neši? Z.; Krnjaja V.

2007-01-01

262

Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that improves plant growth. TGF and torrefied grass extracts (TGE) were inoculated with a suspension of microorganisms obtained from soil. Sequential microbial enrichment steps were then performed in both...

Trifonova, R. D.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J. J. M. H.; Elsas, J. D.

2008-01-01

263

Calcium Accumulation in Grasses in Relation to their Root Cation Exchange Capacity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to assess the role of root CEC on the accumulation of Calcium in roots or shoots, pot-culture experiments with wild grasses was carried out. The seven species of grasses used were Sporobolus diander (L.), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. Ex Roem and Schult, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Panicum repens Jacq, Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongn. and Chloris barbeta Sw. These grasses were significant...

George, K. J.; Ray, J. G.

2010-01-01

264

Forage quality on family farms in Croatia grass silage quality on family farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004) Over last 15 years, grass silage become of the same importance in dairy cows nutrition as other traditionally conserved forage in Croatia. In this paper the nutritive value of grass silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension s...

Marina Vrani?; Mladen Kneževi?; Goran Per?ulija; Josip Leto; Krešimir Bošnjak; Ivana Rupi?

2004-01-01

265

Fire Control – A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emi...

Paulsamy, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramaniam, V.; Arumugasamy, K.; Nagarajan, N.

2001-01-01

266

Occurrence of ergovaline in endophyte infected grasses from mediterranean grasslands.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Epichloe systemically infect several grasses. One of the most relevant aspects of the grass-endophyte interaction is the production of secondary compounds (alkaloids) which are toxic to both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. To date, ergovaline is the most abundant ergot alkaloid which has been found in several endophyte infected grasses. This alkaloid seems to be responsible for livestock disorders such as reduced weight gain or re...

Va?zquez Aldana, Beatriz R.; Garci?a Criado, B.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; Garci?a Ciudad, A.

2000-01-01

267

Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5 yr after selective logging, and experimentally tested the effect of forest fire on populations of invasive grasses. In unlogged forests and in microhabitats created by selective logging we found a total...

Veldman, J. W.; Mostacedo, B.; Pen?a-claros, M.; Putz, F. E.

2009-01-01

268

Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affects the grass yield negatively and more than the tire pressure

Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

2009-01-01

269

Characterisation of dog sensitisation to grass pollen in western France from 1999 to 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few studies have investigated the seasonal aspect of grass pollen sensitisation or its evolution in the allergic canine population. The aim of this study was to evaluate both these aspects. A study of canine grass pollen sensitisation was performed throughout the statistical analysis of 261 intradermal skin testings (IDT=25 allergens tested on average) performed from January 1999 to December 2010. IDTs were performed on dogs with pruritic allergic skin disease. ?(2) Tests were used for statistical analysis. Two hundred and thirteen dogs (81.6 per cent) were sensitised to at least one allergen, and 56 (21.5 per cent) to at least one grass pollen. No increase in the rate of positive IDT was recorded over three periods: 1999-2002, 2003-2006 and 2007-2010. No statistical correlation was detected between sex, age or birth month and grass sensitisation. Moreover, no link was found between the season in which the IDT was performed and sensitisation, indicating that there is no seasonality to the sensitisation. However, considering the grasses tested over these three periods (grass mix and rye grass), a clear and significant increase in the percentage of dogs sensitised to grass pollen was observed between 1999-2002 and 2007-2010 (14.4 per cent and 27.7 per cent, respectively). The possible reasons for this sensitisation increase of dogs to grass pollen are discussed. PMID:23748582

Roussel, A J J; Bruet, V; Bourdeau, P J

2013-06-29

270

Identification of phytotoxic substances from early growth of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barnyard grass is a problematic weed worldwide. It competes with crops and causes reduction in crop yields. In this study, barnyard grass suppressed rice emergence, and the degree of rice inhibition was proportional to the density of barnyard grass. Root exudates of barnyard grass reduced germination and growth of lettuce, rice, and monochoria. Fifteen compounds potentially involved in the phytotoxic activities of barnyard grass were isolated and identified, including phenolics, long-chain fatty acids, lactones, diethyl phthalate, acenaphthene, and derivatives of phthalic acids, benzoic acid, and decane. Quantities of diethyl phthalate, decanoic acid, myristic acid, stearic acid, 7,8-dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain, and 7,8-dihydrokavain were 2.7, 11.1, 19.6, 35.5, 10.3, and 15.5 microg/ml of barnyard grass root exudates, respectively. The two lactones exhibited the greatest inhibition, followed by the phenolics and the derivatives of phthalic acids. Fatty acids had stronger suppression than diethyl phthalate and ethyl ester-4-ethoxy-benzoic acid. The acenaphthene and decane derivatives were the least phytotoxic. The phytotoxins released by barnyard grass roots showed strong inhibition on growth of broadleaf indicator plants and paddy weeds, but were less effective on barnyard grass itself and rice. Our study revealed that in addition to competition, barnyard grass also interferes with rice and other plants in its surroundings by chemical means. PMID:16718576

Xuan, Tran Dang; Chung, Iii Min; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

2006-04-01

271

Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10?2 d L?1 and 4.6 × 10?2 d L?1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10?2 d L?1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10?3 d L?1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of 137Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y?1 and 0.04 ?Sv y?1,while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y?1 and 0.05 ?Sv y?1, respectively. -- Highlights: • This is a detailed study on Fv and Fm for 137Cs and stable Cs around the Kaiga nuclear power plant, India. • The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. • The Fm value for 137Cs for the local breed cows was estimated to be 2.4 × 10?2 d L?1. • The Fm value for dairy farm cows (4.0 × 10?3 d L?1) was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. • The reasons for the higher Fm values for 137Cs for the local breed cows are identified

272

ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done using a suction sampler worn on the chest or lapel that measures breathing zone concentration; a more useful exposure parameter for pollen allergy sufferers is the amount of pollen inhaled, i.e. the dose. The objective of this study was to investigate how well monitoring station data reflect actual exposure, something that is currently not well understood. Methods: Exposure samples were collected during the 2011 grass pollen season in an area of abundant unmaintained grass coverage close to the centre of Aarhus, Denmark. Sampling was performed at two-hourly intervals between 12:00 and 20:00 on 14 separate days whilst walking a set route. Journey times were in the region of 28 minutes. Nasal Air Samplers (small impaction devices worn inside the nostrils that capture inhaled particles) were used. The number of inhaled grass pollen grains was counted under a light microscope and compared with concurrent concentrations recorded at a nearby roof level pollen monitoring station. The relationship between these two data sets was also compared with local meteorological variables (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). Results: The number of grass pollen grains inhaled during individual exposure episode ranged from 6 -127 (median 34), and inhalation rates were between 0.23 - 4.83 (median 1.20) grains min-1. Corresponding concentrations recorded at the monitoring station lay within the range 0 - 311 (median 56) grains m-3. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the exposure and monitoring station data was 0.65 (p<0.001). Exposure was disproportionately high relative to monitoring station data in 15% of the dataset, with these occurring close to midday (12:00-14:00). On no occasion was exposure disproportionately low. Correlation coefficients for the ‘early’ (12:00-14:00) and ‘late’ (18:00-20:00) periods differ considerably (rs=0.51 and rs=0.82 respectively). The mean profile of monitoring station concentrations shows a persistent increase from 12:00-20:00 whilst for the exposure data the opposite is true. No relationship was observed between the standardised ratio of exposure to monitored data and any of the available weather data. Conclusions: Whilst the monitoring station data is a reasonable proxy for exposure, the quality of the relationship depends upon the time of day. Within the study area the risk of exposure decreases between noon and mid-evening, likely reflecting diurnal variation in the emission of grass pollen. This trend is contrary to what the monitoring station predicts, and this has implications where allergen avoidance is being advocated as a method for controlling symptoms. An exposure model for grass pollen is currently being developed for Aarhus. Model performance will be tested against the empirical exposure data described here, the ultimate aim being to build upon this study by using the model to assess the importance of source proximity to exposure.

Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole

273

Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum) cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m). They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increa...

Aganga, A. A.; Omphile, U. J.; Thema, T.; Baitshotlhi, J. C.

2005-01-01

274

Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb. PMID:21411942

Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

2011-01-01

275

Determination of Nutritional Value of Some Legume and Grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of legumes and grasses for productivity of livestock. Vicia sativa, Pisum arvense, Lathrus sativus, Vicia narbonensis, Dactylis glomerata, Chrysopogon gryllus and Festuca ovina were taken as plant materials from field and rangeland Koseilyas village Tekirdag, Turkey. The results of present examination showed large differences in nutritive value between grass and legumes. The nutritional value and digestibility of forages is related to stages of maturity at harvest, such as vegetative, heading and flowering. It was determined that grasses had lower concentration of CP but higher CF, DM, NDF and ADF concentration than legumes. The highest protein content was determined as 16.35% for Lathyrus sativus. Chrysopogon gryllus had the lowest content of protein (3.85%, but higher CF (39.17%, NDF(77.04% and ADF(45.27% values than other species. CF is negatively correlated to CP (r=-0.833 and positively correlated to ADF (r=0.972 and NDF (r=0.912. DM is positively correlated to CF (r=0.609, ADF (r=0.972, NDF (r=0.912 and negatively correlated to CP (r=-0.552.There are negative correlations between CP and ADF (r=-0.811 and NDF(r=-0.888 and positive correlated to ash (r=0.542. There are negative correlations between ash and NDF (r=-0.325, ADF (r=-0.439 and there are positive correlations between NDF and ADF (r=0.823.

Canan Tuna

2004-01-01

276

Biomass Partitioning Following Defoliation of Annual and Perennial Mediterranean Grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted in northeastern Israel to study the effects of various defoliation regimes on biomass partitioning between vegetative and reproductive structures in a perennial and an annual Mediterranean grass. Greater insight into the mechanisms regulating biomass partitioning after defoliation enables ecologists and rangeland managers to interpret and predict population and community dynamics in Mediterranean grasslands more efficiently. Two typical Mediterranean grasses, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual species, and Hordeum bulbosum, a perennial species, were grown in containers in the open. They were subjected to a series of defoliation treatments that comprised three clipping frequencies and three clipping heights in a full factorial combination. In addition, individuals of both species were sampled in the field, in paddocks that were grazed, and in a control exclosure that was closed to grazing during the growing season. The experiment was conducted over two growing seasons, one unusually dry and one unusually wet. The clipping treatments invariably caused a reduction in the amount of biomass partitioned to the reproductive organs, but had little effect on the vegetative components of the plants. Greater tillering following defoliation compensated, to a large degree, for the loss of photosynthetic biomass following defoliation. The effect of grazing on biomass partitioning was much lower than the effect of clipping. Under grazing, the investment in reproductive biomass was considerably higher than when the grasses were clipped. The results of this experiment help to elucidate the reasons for the persistence of these species and, especially, for the dominance of Hordeum bulbosum in many eastern Mediterranean grasslands.

No'am Seligman

2002-01-01

277

Three recently-introduced alien grasses in the Iberian Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three non-native grasses (Gramineae/Poaceae: Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa laguroides subsp. torreyana and Agropyron desertorum, apparently hitherto unrecorded, have been detected in the Iberian Peninsula in recent years, and a further species, Nassella neesiana, is recorded as increasing its known distribution area in Catalonia (NE Spain.

Bothriochloa barbinodis, Bothriochloa laguroides subsp. torreyana y Agropyron desertorum, sin citas previas conocidas, han sido detectadas en la península Ibérica recientemente, y otra especie, Nassella neesiana, amplía su área de distribución en Cataluña (NE España.

Pyke, S.

2010-12-01

278

Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution of grasses and grazers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicified plant tissues (phytoliths) preserved in Late Cretaceous coprolites from India show that at least five taxa from extant grass (Poaceae) subclades were present on the Indian subcontinent during the latest Cretaceous. This taxonomic diversity suggests that crown-group Poaceae had diversified and spread in Gondwana before India became geographically isolated. Other phytoliths extracted from the coprolites (from dicotyledons, conifers, and palms) suggest that the suspected dung producers (titanosaur sauropods) fed indiscriminately on a wide range of plants. These data also make plausible the hypothesis that gondwanatherian mammals with hypsodont cheek teeth were grazers. PMID:16293759

Prasad, Vandana; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Alimohammadian, Habib; Sahni, Ashok

2005-11-18

279

Limnological Studies of Intensively Stocked Grass Carp Rearing Ponds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of three iso-caloric test diets, viz. 30, 35 and 40 per cent crude protein (C.P.) on the physico-chemical characteristics of water and grass carp yields was studied for 270 days. In control treatment, fish yield was 84.47 per cent dependent on water nitrates, phosphates and temperature while nitrates along with hardness, alkalinity, pH and temperature accounted for 85.90 per cent variations in fish yield under 30 per cent C.P. treatment. In 35 per cent C.P. level fish yield showed ...

Muhammad Javed; Sheri, A. N.

1998-01-01

280

Radon transport through a cool-season grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

222Rn released by mature tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) growing on uranium mill wastes in a controlled environment was a direct function of leaf area and essentially unrelated to the quantity of water transpired by the plants. The quantity of 222Rn released by the grass blades at maturity was approximately 0.01 Bq m-2 s-1. We suggest that the radioactive gas is transported from the rooting medium to leaves by mass flow in liquid water, but from leaves to the atmosphere by a path generally independent of water, i.e., primarily through the leaf cuticle and epicuticular wax. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Torrefaction of pellets from reed canary grass and softwood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work an energy crop, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied in comparison with Norway Spruce (NS ) when treated in a torrefaction process. In the torrefaction process biomass is heated in an inert atmosphere (250-340 deg C) and physical and chemical characteristics are then enhanced and the product becomes more similar to coal. Co-firing of torrefied biomass with coal in existing CHP plants, and gasification of torrefied biomass has recently been demonstrated in industrial scale with positive results.

Oerberg, Haakan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Pommer, Linda; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

2012-11-01

282

Prevalence of Copepod Ectoparasites of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and twenty grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, were examined over a period of one year from March 1998 to February 1999 at Government Fish Hatchery, Mian Channu, Punjab, Pakistan. Four species of copepod ectoparasites recovered were Lernaea (L. polymorpha (Yu, 1938, L. cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1761, L. lophiara (Harding, 1950 and L. ctenopharyngodonis. The parasitic infestation was low during the summer months when temperature ranged between 30-32?C and highest in winter months when temperature was between 13 -23?C.

Zahida Tasawar

1999-01-01

283

Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

284

Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI) and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI) by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 d...

Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães; Lopes Fernando César Ferraz; Soares João Paulo Guimarães; Deresz Fermino; Verneque Rui da Silva; Arcuri Pedro Braga; Matos Leovegildo Lopes de

2001-01-01

285

FEEDING VALUE OF GRASS SILAGES BASED ON DRY MATTER CONCENTRATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total of 477 grass silage samples of different origin and quality were analysed by NIR spectroscopy to determine crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), digestible organic matter (OM) in the dry matter (DM) (D-value), metabolizable energy (ME), pH value and the ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N). According to DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample), the samples were divided into 8 classes: (1)> 228; (2) 229 313; (3) 314-398;(4) 399-483; (5) 484-568; (6) 569-653; (7i) 654-738;(8) <739. DM increase ...

Maja Lujanac; Hrvoje Kutnjak; Goran Per?ulija; Josip Leto; Krešimir Bošnjak; Mladen Kneževi?; Marina Vrani?

2010-01-01

286

A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed. PMID:17234253

Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

2007-04-01

287

The nutritive value of silages. Energy metabolism in sheep receiving diets of grass silage or grass silage and barley.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Two calorimetric experiments were conducted to study the utilization of energy in sheep given diets of grass silage or grass silage and barley. Three silages were investigated. One was made from first-harvest grass in the spring (S) and the others from regrowth cut either early or late in the autumn (E and L respectively). All were of perennial ryegress (Lolium perenne) and preserved with formic acid. Each silage was given at two levels of feeding, the lower providing approximately a maintenance energy intake. The S and L silages were also given supplemented with barley. 2. The digestibilities of organic matter, cellulose and energy in the silages were high. Measured at maintenance, digestible energy (DE) contents (MJ/kg dry matter (DM))were 11.83, 14.67 and 12.90 for S, E and L respectively. The DE contents of the S and E silages were depressed at the higher level of feeding but the effect was offset by changes in the energy losses as methane and urine. Metabolizable energy (ME) contents (MJ/kg DM) for the three silages, S, E and L were respectively 9.88, 12.54 and 10.73 at the low level of feeding and 9.91, 11.99 and 11.08 at the high level of feeding. The mean ME content of barley calculated by difference was 13.76 MJ/kg DM. 3. The mean efficiencies of utilization of ME for maintenance (km) for the S, E and L silages were 0.69, 0.71 and 0.68 respectively. Corresponding values for fattening (kf) were 0.21, 0.57 and 0.59. Excepting the kf for the S silage which was low, observed efficiencies were in broad agreement with those predicted by the equations of the Agricultural Research Council (1965). Similar agreement was obtained with all diets consisting of silage and barley. PMID:698160

Kelly, N C; Thomas, P C

1978-09-01

288

Pretratamiento Alcalino de Pasto Elefante (Pennisetum sp) y King Grass (Pennisetum hybridum) Cultivados en Colombia para la Producción de Bioetanol / Alkaline Pretreatment of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum Sp) and King Grass (Pennisetum Hybridum) Cultured in Colombia for Ethanol Production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes condiciones del pretratamiento con hidróxido de sodio (NaOH) en la recuperación de la fracción celulósica, remoción de lignina y producción de etanol mediante fermentación y sacarificación simultáneas de los pastos elefante y king grass (Pennisetum purpureum [...] and Pennisetum hybridum). Estos pastos son materias primas potenciales para la obtención de bioetanol a partir de la fracción celulósica. Los resultados obtenidos en producción de etanol muestran que bajo condiciones de pretratamiento de 120ºC, 60 minutos, NaOH al 2% (w/w) y una relación líquido a sólido de 20 (w/w) se obtienen las más altas concentraciones de etanol: 27.7 g/L para king grass y 26.1 g/L para pasto elefante en 24 horas de fermentación. Además, bajo las condiciones evaluadas se pudo observar remociones de lignina de 88.4% y 94.0% para pasto elefante y pasto king grass respectivamente. La etapa de desintoxicación permite eliminar inhibidores formados durante el pretratamiento, los cuales afectan la hidrólisis y fermentación. Abstract in english Abstract The effect of different alkaline pretreatment conditions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the recuperation of cellulosic fraction, lignin removal and ethanol production was evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of elephant grass and king grass ((Pennisetum purpureu [...] m and Pennisetum hybridum). These types of grass are potential raw materials for bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction. Results obtained in ethanol production show that under pretreatment conditions of 120ºC, 60 minutes, 2%(w/w) of NaOH and a liquid to solid ratio of 20 (w/w), the highest ethanol concentrations are obtained: 27.7 g/L and 26.1 g/L for king grass and elephant grass respectively, in 24 hours of fermentation. Furthermore, under the evaluated conditions it was observed that lignin removal was 88.4% for elephant grass and 94.0% for king grass. The detoxification stage eliminates inhibitors formed during pretreatment, which affects the hydrolysis and fermentation.

Eliana M, Cardona; Jorge A, Rios; Juan D, Peña; Luis A, Rios.

289

Estimation of grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for emergency situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies have been reported on soil to grass equilibrium transfer factors and grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for 137Cs for the environs of different nuclear power plants of both India and other parts of the world. In such studies, the activity concentration of 137Cs is measured in grass collected from different places. Cow's milk samples are collected from nearby localities or from milk dairies and analyzed for 137Cs and the grass to cow's milk transfer coefficient is estimated. In situation where 137Cs is not present in measurable activity concentrations, its stable counterpart (Cs) is measured for the estimation of transfer coefficients. These transfer coefficient values are generally used in theoretical models to estimate the dose to the population for hypothetical situation of emergency. It should be noted that the transfer coefficients obtained for equilibrium conditions may not be totally applicable for emergency situation. However, studies aimed at evaluating transfer coefficients for emergency situations are sparse because nuclear power plants do not release 137Cs during normal operating situations and therefore simulating situation of emergency release is not possible. Hence, the only method to estimate the grass to milk transfer coefficient for emergency situation is to spike the grass with small quantity of stable Cs. This paper reports the results of grass to milk transfer coefficientults of grass to milk transfer coefficients for stable isotope of Cesium (Cs) for emergency situation

290

Determination of concentration of iodine in grass and cow milk by NAA methods using reactor neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental and preconcentration methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been standardized for the determination of concentration of iodine in grass and cow milk samples, respectively. To study the transfer of iodine from grass to milk, known quantity of grass spiked with potassium iodide solution was fed to a cow. The spiked grass samples and milk samples, obtained from the cow after the ingestion of spiked grass, were collected. Iodine was separated from the milk samples chemically using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin. Spiked grass and ion exchange resin samples were neutron irradiated and radioactive assay was carried out using a 45 % relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to an 8k channel analyzer. Iodine concentrations in spiked grass samples were found to be in the range of 1,487-2,002 mg kg-1. Concentration of iodine in milk after 12 h of feeding the cow with spiked grass was 871 ± 56 ?g L-1 which was reduced to 334 ± 32 ?g L-1 after 48 h. (author)

291

What Makes Responses Prepotent for Young Children? Insights from the Grass-Snow Task  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how responses become prepotent is essential for understanding when inhibitory control is needed in everyday behaviour. We investigated prepotency in the grass-snow task--in which a child points to a green card when the experimenter says "snow" and a white card when the experimenter says "grass". Experiment 1 (n = 548, mean age = 53.5…

Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

292

AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER: TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION ABOVE A GRASS SEED FIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oregon, in the summer of 1993. he report describes the changes in the atmospheric surface layer over a grass seed field ...

293

Black grama grass under the microscope; Anatomical features of a native plant from southwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Black grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) is a perennial desert grass native to the arid Southwestern United States. It is most common in the Chihuahuan Desert, occupying large areas of New Mexico and Arizona, where occurrence of drought conditions are high. Black grama tends to grow in sandy loam soil...

294

Contamination rates and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from "grass-fed" labeled beef products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass-fed and organic beef products make up a growing share of the beef market in the United States. While processing, animal handling, and farm management play large roles in determining the safety of final beef products, grass-fed beef products are often marketed as safer alternatives to grain-finished beef products based on the potential effects of all-forage diets on host microbiota. We conducted a series of experiments examining bacterial contamination rates in 50 beef products labeled as "grass-fed" versus 50 conventionally raised retail beef products. Coliform concentrations did not differ between conventional and grass-fed beef (conventional: 2.6 log(10) CFU/mL rinsate; grass-fed: 2.7 log(10) CFU/mL rinsate). The percentages of Escherichia coli positive samples did not differ between the two groups (44% vs. 44%). Enterococcus spp. were frequently isolated from both grass-fed beef products (44%) and conventional beef products (62%; p = 0.07). No Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 isolates were recovered from any of the meat samples. Enterococcus spp. isolates from conventional beef were more frequently resistant to daptomycin and linezolid (p conventional and grass-fed beef. There were no differences in the percentages of antimicrobial resistant E. coli isolates between the two groups. Taken together, these data indicate that there are no clear food safety advantages to grass-fed beef products over conventional beef products. PMID:20618073

Zhang, Jiayi; Wall, Samantha K; Xu, Li; Ebner, Paul D

2010-11-01

295

Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri  

Science.gov (United States)

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

296

Grasses for biofuels: A low water-use alternative for cold desert agriculture?  

Science.gov (United States)

In arid regions, reductions in the amount of available agricultural water are fueling interest in alternative, low water-use crops. Perennial grasses have potential as low water-use biofuel crops. However, little is known about which perennial grasses can produce high quantity, high quality yields w...

297

Evaluation of three ancillary treatments in the management of equine grass sickness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brotizolam, acetylcysteine and aloe vera gel were evaluated as ancillary treatments for 29 cases of equine grass sickness. None of the treatments had any significant beneficial effect on the survival of the horses. However, 11 of 13 horses with mild chronic grass sickness survived solely with intensive nursing care. PMID:12403518

Fintl, C; McGorum, B C

2002-09-28

298

26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. 56.4911-3 Section...Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition of term...allocation rules regarding what portion of a lobbying communication's costs is a...

2010-04-01

299

Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait differences between groups allows us to predict changes in the exotic-native balance under climate change scenarios. Exotic species are more likely to be annual, taller, with larger leaves, larger seeds, higher specific leaf area, and higher leaf N percentage than native species. Across the state, all these traits are associated with regions with higher temperature. Therefore, we predict that increasing temperatures will favor trait states that tend to be possessed by exotic species, increasing the dominance of exotic species. This prediction is corroborated by the current distribution of exotic species richness relative to native richness in California; warmer areas contain higher proportions of exotic species. This pattern was very well captured by a simple model that predicts invasion severity given only the trait–climate relationship for native species and trait differences between native and exotic species. This study provides some of the first evidence for an important interaction between climate change and species invasions across very broad geographic and taxonomic scales.

Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

2012-01-01

300

Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter) when sward light interception reached 95% durin [...] g regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

Denise Baptaglin, Montagner; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Valéria Pacheco Batista, Euclides; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Marciele Neves, Carloto.

2012-04-01

302

An animal model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome: Nile grass rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent and complex disease, characterized by the variable coexistence of obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and hypertension. The alarming rise in the prevalence of metabolic disorders makes it imperative to innovate preventive or therapeutic measures for MetS and its complications. However, the elucidation of the pathogenesis of MetS has been hampered by the lack of realistic models. For example, the existing animal models of MetS, i.e., genetically engineered rodents, imitate certain aspects of the disease, while lacking other important components. Defining the natural course of MetS in a spontaneous animal model of the disease would be desirable. Here, we introduce the Nile grass rat (NGR), Arvicanthis niloticus, as a novel model of MetS. Studies of over 1100 NGRs in captivity, fed normal chow, revealed that most of these animals spontaneously develop dyslipidemia (PHafezi-Moghadam, A. An animal model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome: Nile grass rat. PMID:20335226

Noda, Kousuke; Melhorn, Mark I.; Zandi, Souska; Frimmel, Sonja; Tayyari, Faryan; Hisatomi, Toshio; Almulki, Lama; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Hayes, K. C.; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

2010-01-01

303

Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10-11m-1. The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

304

Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed. Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The one with highest (R2 and lowest (MBE and (RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. Three temperatures (35, 45 and 55°C and three humidities (30, 40 and 50% were investigated with a fixed air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Conclusion/Recommendation: The increase in the drying air temperature increased the drying process and decreased the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC of Lemon grass. The drying process decreased as the air humidity increases. The effect was less than that of the temperature. The EMC have high values with high relative humidity.

Mustafa Ibrahim

2009-01-01

305

Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO3) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 ?m and 5 ?m iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 ?m particles, 5 ?m particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

306

The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2008-08-20

307

Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?  

Science.gov (United States)

In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment.

Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

2014-08-01

308

Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n< 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The as grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

309

[Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].  

Science.gov (United States)

By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0.925 Pa, respectively. PMID:23717998

Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

2013-01-01

310

Effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In present study, 60Co ?-rays was used to irradiate soil with doses of 3.0 kGy and 25.0 kGy, respectively, to discriminate between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other soil microorganisms, while soil without irradiation was used as control to study the effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass. The results showed that the AM infection rates in ryegrass and bahia grass were 48.0% and 28.0% in the control soil, respectively which indicated that both grass species were prone to forming AM symbiosis with AM fungi. Although AM fungi and other soil microorganisms had no significant effect on above ground biomass in ryegrass and bahia grass, both AM fungi and other soil microorganisms decreased the uptake of 89Sr in the two grass species, though to a more or less extant. (authors)

311

The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

Bureenok, S.; Yuangklang, C.; Vasupen, K.; Schonewille, J. T.; Kawamoto, Y.

2012-01-01

312

Detrimental and Neutral Effects of a Wild Grass-Fungal Endophyte Symbiotum on Insect Preference and Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass—endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass—endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against...

Clement, Stephen L.; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V.; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R.

2011-01-01

313

Establishing a grassland signature in veins: 18O in the leaf water of C3 and C4 grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that 18O evaporative enrichment of bulk leaf water in grass species can be significantly more enriched than predicted by the Craig–Gordon model, with C4 grasses considerably more enriched than C3 grasses. Our results suggest that the unanticipated 18O leaf water enrichment of grasses is attributable to the progressive evaporative enrichment along parallel veins (a function of both leaf length and interveinal distance), a pattern that does not occur in Dicotyledonous species. We prop...

Helliker, Brent R.; Ehleringer, James R.

2000-01-01

314

A grass-fire cycle eliminates an obligate-seeding tree in a tropical savanna.  

Science.gov (United States)

A grass-fire cycle in Australian tropical savannas has been postulated as driving the regional decline of the obligate-seeding conifer Callitris intratropica and other fire-sensitive components of the regional flora and fauna, due to proliferation of flammable native grasses. We tested the hypothesis that a high-biomass invasive savanna grass drives a positive feedback process where intense fires destroy fire-sensitive trees, and the reduction in canopy cover facilitates further invasion by grass. We undertook an observational and experimental study using, as a model system, a plantation of C. intratropica that has been invaded by an African grass, gamba (Andropogon gayanus) in the Northern Territory, Australia. We found that high grass biomass was associated with reduced canopy cover and restriction of foliage to the upper canopy of surviving stems, and mortality of adult trees was very high (>50%) even in areas with low fuel loads (1 t·ha(-1)). Experimental fires, with fuel loads >10 t·ha(-1), typical of the grass-invasion front, caused significant mortality due to complete crown scorch. Lower fuel loads cause reduced canopy cover through defoliation of the lower canopy. These results help explain how increases in grass biomass are coupled with the decline of C. intratropica throughout northern Australia by causing a switch from litter and sparse perennial grass fuels, and hence low-intensity surface fires, to heavy annual grass fuel loads that sustain fires that burn into the midstorey. This study demonstrates that changes in fuel type can alter fire regimes with substantial knock-on effects on the biota. PMID:25505543

Bowman, David M J S; MacDermott, Harry J; Nichols, Scott C; Murphy, Brett P

2014-11-01

315

Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change. PMID:23504730

Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J

2013-01-01

316

26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of...Organizations § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of...lobbying ceiling amount or normally makes grass roots expenditures in excess of...

2010-04-01

317

Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

Judith L. Capper

2012-04-01

318

Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB: 1 49% alfalfa hay; 2 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB. In trial 1, four lactating Holstein cows (475 kg with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the treatments effects on digestive function. In trial 2, eight multiparous Holstein cows (567 kg with 80 ? 8 DIM were utilized in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects of on DMI and lactational performance. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10 on ruminal digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 51 and 31%, respectively. Microbial efficiency (g microbial N/ kg OM fermented was greater (20%, P = 0.07 for alfalfa (30 than for grass hay substituted diets (25. Nonammonia N flow to the small intestine, as a percentage of N intake (ruminal N efficiency averaged 101%, and was lower (linear effect, P 0.10 on total tract digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 70 and 43%, respectively. Digestible energy content of the diet was lower (5%, P 0.20 on DMI, milk yield, averaging 21.8 and 32.2 kg, respectively. Body condition scores were greater (linear, P > 0.05 for cows fed elephant grass than for cows fed sudangrass. Substituting grass hay for a portion of the alfalfa hay increased (1.2%, P < 0.10 milk fat percentage. We conclude that although substitution of a portion (40% of alfalfa hay with grass hay in diets for lactating cows may slightly decrease ruminal microbial efficiency, the impact on ruminal and total tract digestion of OM and NDF are small. The feeding value of elephant grass is at least equivalent to that of sudangrass in diets for lactating dairy cows. Grass hay can replace up to 40% of the forage in lactation diets without detrimentally affecting fat corrected milk yield, and milk yield efficiency.

A. Plascencia

2005-01-01

319

Solution growth of ZnO microwires and grass architectures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were produced. • Au nanoparticles resulted in uniformly dispersed and standing ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles also resulted in ZnO grass architectures. -- Abstract: In spite of extensive research in gold (Au) nanoparticles, it remains a challenge to synthesize structurally homogeneous sample-set with controlled morphologies. The latter critically affect the role of Au nanoparticles as a seed/catalyst for the growth of other nanostructures. Here, we systematically studied and quantified the growth of Au nanoparticles in a single-step chemical synthesis approach and observed the effects of growth temperature and duration, metal salt and surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. These parameters strongly influenced morphological evolution, distribution, and heterogeneities in the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Next, the synthesized Au nanoparticles were utilized for the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) microwires in a solution growth approach. It was observed that Au nanoparticles on the substrate did not catalyze the growth of ZnO microwires but facilitated uniform dispersion of standing microwires. Supported by microscopic analysis, the proposed growth mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation of ZnO on the loosely bound Au nanoparticles on the substrates, favored by lattice match between the ZnO and Au. Based on this mechanism, Au nanoparticles only assisted in the initial stages of ZnO microwire growth. For longer growth duration (?10 h), over-deposition of ZnO from the solution on already grown wires led to their micron scale diameters as well as grass architectures and making the growth process independent of size and shape of the Au nanoparticles. The formation of ZnO grass architecture is due to attachment of Au nanoparticles on the growing microwire surface, which further served as a heterogeneous nucleation site for the ZnO growth. These Au nanoparticles detached from the Si wafer due to cleavage of Au-S bonds or hydrolysis of Si-O bonds on the thiolated Si wafer in presence of the ZnO growth precursor (hexamethylenetetramine) and conditions. As-synthesized Au nanoparticles and ZnO microwires were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy.

Chopra, Nitin, E-mail: nchopra@eng.ua.edu; Wu, Junchi; Shi, Wenwu

2013-06-20

320

Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high initial N2O emission from simulated urine patches. The results are discussed in relation to the national N2O inventory guidelines issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the environmental impact of organic farming practises are also considered. Suggestions for future research are outlined. (au)

 
 
 
 
321

Solution growth of ZnO microwires and grass architectures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were produced. • Au nanoparticles resulted in uniformly dispersed and standing ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles also resulted in ZnO grass architectures. -- Abstract: In spite of extensive research in gold (Au) nanoparticles, it remains a challenge to synthesize structurally homogeneous sample-set with controlled morphologies. The latter critically affect the role of Au nanoparticles as a seed/catalyst for the growth of other nanostructures. Here, we systematically studied and quantified the growth of Au nanoparticles in a single-step chemical synthesis approach and observed the effects of growth temperature and duration, metal salt and surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. These parameters strongly influenced morphological evolution, distribution, and heterogeneities in the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Next, the synthesized Au nanoparticles were utilized for the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) microwires in a solution growth approach. It was observed that Au nanoparticles on the substrate did not catalyze the growth of ZnO microwires but facilitated uniform dispersion of standing microwires. Supported by microscopic analysis, the proposed growth mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation of ZnO on the loosely bound Au nanoparticles on the substrates, favored by lattice match between the ZnO and Au. Based on this mechanism, Au nanoparticles only assisted in the initial stages of ZnO microwire growth. For longer growth duration (?10 h), over-deposition of ZnO from the solution on already grown wires led to their micron scale diameters as well as grass architectures and making the growth process independent of size and shape of the Au nanoparticles. The formation of ZnO grass architecture is due to attachment of Au nanoparticles on the growing microwire surface, which further served as a heterogeneous nucleation site for the ZnO growth. These Au nanoparticles detached from the Si wafer due to cleavage of Au-S bonds or hydrolysis of Si-O bonds on the thiolated Si wafer in presence of the ZnO growth precursor (hexamethylenetetramine) and conditions. As-synthesized Au nanoparticles and ZnO microwires were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy

322

Round baled grass silage as food for reindeer in winter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Round baled silage of mixed grasses was tested as emergency food for reindeer in winter. The silage was made of leaf rich regrowth of Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis and Poa spp. It contained 33-3% dry matter (DM, and 14.8 % crude protein, 24.5% cellulose and 26.7% hemicellulose on a DM basis. Palatability, food intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, body mass (BM, carcass weight and gastrointestinal (GI anatomy were investigated. A group of adult female reindeer (n = 38, were taken from natural winter pasture and fed grass silage ad libitum. The majority (78% of the animals were eating silage after two days and 95% of the animals ate silage after five days. Five reindeer calves were taken from natural winter pasture and fed lichens ad libitum for 14 days after which they were starved for two days before being offered silage adlibitum. The median daily DM food intake was 370 g (range 250-610 g on the first day increasing to 810 g (range 530-1100 g at days 16 to 20. Median apparent digestibility coefficient (DC of DM was 64.3% (range 62.4-66.2%. The median in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD of the silage after 72 h of microbial digestion was 68.3 % (range 66.6-71.3 % (Ws=30, n,=5, n2=4, P<0.01. Median ruminal VFA concentration and pH were 48.2 mM (range 38.4-52.5 mM and 7.0 (range 6.95-7.17, respectively, in the reindeer calves (n=5. BM initially increased when the reindeer calves were fed silage, but stabilised after 11 days. The increased BM may have been due to an increased recticulo-rumen digesta load, which amounted to 19.6-23.7 % of BM (n=3. The carcass weight of the reindeer calves was 42.6-44.2% of the BM (n=3 after 47 days of silage feeding. The results indicate that although the round bale silage of mixed grasses of medium quality was highly palatable to reindeer it was apparantly of only limited value as an emergency food for the reindeer calves, as indicated by low DC of DM and low ruminal VFA concentration.

Tove H. Aagnes

1995-12-01

323

Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass into trailers with a forage harvester.  Normally, the traffic is spread throughout the whole field area during the growth season. Hence, the tracks formed by the machines will have different impacts on the grass and clover growth and yield.   Compared to grass, clover is known to have a higher feed value[1]. In order to evaluate the impact of different traffic intensities on the grass-clover, it is essential to know the ratio between grass and clover.   The objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate an automated image acquisition and image analysis method capable of estimating the grass clover ratio within the context of a full scale field trial. A 14 hectare full scale grass-clover field trial with 24 different traffic intensities and 35 replicates was established. Each net parcel measured 9 x 1.3 m and the 24 treatments were randomized onto the 840 net parcels. The grass clover was established in spring 2007 using RTK-GPS auto steered tractors and implements. A Claas Axion tractor equipped with AutoFarm RTK AutoSteer guidance system was used to carry two parallel mounted cameras over the net parcels at a speed of 1 m s-1. In combination, the cameras sampled an area of 1.3 x 0.48 m with 2.1 Hz ensuring that the whole parcel was imaged. Each image was geo-positioned. The image analysis comprised two steps: Extraction of green material and discrimination of grass and clover using the morphological opening approach. This paper shows the initial results using the automated imaging analysis algorithm to fulfill the aim [1] http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm

JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; SØrensen, Claus GrØn

324

Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The objective function of the optimisation is the maximisation of the profit which means the maximization of the difference between revenue and cost. The objective function trades off the income of the assigned transportation demands against the logistic costs. The constraints are the followings: (1) the free capacity of the assigned transportation resource is more than the re-quested capacity of the transportation demand; the calculated arrival time of the transportation resource to the harvesting place is not later than the requested arrival time of them; (3) the calculated arrival time of the transportation demand to the processing and production facility is not later than the requested arrival time; (4) one transportation demand is assigned to one transportation resource and one resource is assigned to one transportation resource. The decision variable of the optimisation problem is the set of scheduling variables and the assignment of resources to transportation demands. The evaluation parameters of the optimised system are the followings: total costs of the collection process; utilisation of transportation resources and warehouses; efficiency of production and/or processing facilities. However the multidimensional heuristic optimisation method is based on genetic algorithm, but the routing sequence of the optimisation works on the base of an ant colony algorithm. The optimal routes are calculated by the aid of the ant colony algorithm as a subroutine of the global optimisation method and the optimal assignment is given by the genetic algorithm. One important part of the mathematical method is the sensibility analysis of the objective function, which shows the influence rate of the different input parameters. Acknowledgements This research was implemented within the frame of the project entitled "Development and operation of the Technology and Knowledge Transfer Centre of the University of Miskolc". with support by the European Union and co-funding of the European Social Fund. References [1] P. R. Daniel: The Economics of Harvesting and Transporting Corn St

Bányai, Tamás.

2010-05-01

325

MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

Valentino Straser

2009-12-01

326

Warm season grass establishment (in one year without the weeds)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Native warm season grasses, big bluestem and indian, were established by the broadcast method on a relatively large area (130 acres) of reclaimed coal surface-mined land in Perry County, Illinois. Existing vegetation was controlled using two quarts of Round-Up and 12 ounces of Plateau per acre the first week of May. Five pounds of pure live seed of both species were applied by airflow using 100 pounds per acre of 0-46-0 and 100 pounds per acre of 0-0-60, primarily to carry the seed. The surface was cultipacked to insure good seed to soil contact. Planting was initiated and completed the last week of June. An estimated 95% to 100% ground cover was evident by mid to late August. By mid September, numerous big blue stem flower/seed stalks were noticeable

327

From Water Dynamics to Rainfed Landscapes with GRASS GIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in water availability is a key determinant of risk and constraint to productivity in rainfed agricultural systems. Understanding the dynamics of water availability across both spatial and temporal scales is essential to managing water and optimize production. This research proposes to look at both the physical measurement of water availability and water user perceptions of landscapes and water availability. Evapotranspiration makes up about three quarters of the transiting water in a landscape, it is composed of evaporation (water bodies, soil) and transpiration, the vegetation biomass growing quantity. This work will develop a methodology for defining landscapes based on water dynamics to be used at the interface of WLE research. The GRASS GIS Imagery, Landscape and Temporal toolkits form the basis of the methodological development, from evapotranspiration modeling and landscape analysis to spatio-temporal analysis.

Chemin, Yann; van Brakel, Martin; Johnston, Robyn; Curnow, Jayne

2014-05-01

328

Limnological Studies of Intensively Stocked Grass Carp Rearing Ponds  

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Full Text Available The impact of three iso-caloric test diets, viz. 30, 35 and 40 per cent crude protein (C.P. on the physico-chemical characteristics of water and grass carp yields was studied for 270 days. In control treatment, fish yield was 84.47 per cent dependent on water nitrates, phosphates and temperature while nitrates along with hardness, alkalinity, pH and temperature accounted for 85.90 per cent variations in fish yield under 30 per cent C.P. treatment. In 35 per cent C.P. level fish yield showed positively significant regression on ammonia-N, electrical conductivity and water temperature. In 40 per cent C.P. planktonic productivity showed positively significant while ammonia-N had negatively significant regression on fish yield. However, combined contribution of these two variables towards fish yield was 68.49 per cent.

Muhammad Javed

1998-01-01

329

Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n{lt} 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Smyth, C.R. [Myosotis Ecological Consulting, Blairmore, AB (Canada)

1997-09-01

330

Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

2010-01-01

331

Establishing a grassland signature in veins: 18O in the leaf water of C3 and C4 grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that 18O evaporative enrichment of bulk leaf water in grass species can be significantly more enriched than predicted by the Craig-Gordon model, with C4 grasses considerably more enriched than C3 grasses. Our results suggest that the unanticipated 18O leaf water enrichment of grasses is attributable to the progressive evaporative enrichment along parallel veins (a function of both leaf length and interveinal distance), a pattern that does not occur in Dicotyledonous species. We propose that the differential 18O enrichment of grasses will result in distinct C18O16O biospheric signals from grassland and forest ecosystems, allowing for further partitioning of terrestrial carbon fluxes.

Helliker, Brent R.; Ehleringer, James R.

2000-07-01

332

Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most previous studies of resuspension relate to arid and sparsely vegetated areas, and are not closely relevant in Britain and many other temperate areas. This report describes measurements of resuspension from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds. The measurements were carried out in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air onto 10 m2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of slit, sprayed onto a similar area of grass and allowed to dry, were broadly similar. The resuspension factor, initially 2 x 10-7 to 10-5 m-1, declined as the reciprocal of time of exposure to the wind and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source area give rise to large uncertainties in the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements such as those published here. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a r limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10-11 m-1. The fraction of deposited fallout that is resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10%

333

Determination of 90Sr in soil, grass and cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

90Sr was measured in environmental samples in Upper Austria in the year 2005. After the nuclear weapon tests the average deposition of 90Sr in Austria amounted to 3.3 kBq/m2. In 1986 the average deposition was 0.9 kBq/m2. To assess the actual condition in soil, grass and cereals 90Sr was measured in these samples. For all samples oxalate precipitation was conducted and strontium specific columns (Eichrom Industries, Inc.) were used. The calcium concentration in these samples was determined to estimate the amount of resin needed for the preparation. For grass and cereal samples columns were packed with the 100-150 ?m resin to gain a lower limit of detection LLD below 2 and below 0.1 Bq/kgdrymatter respectively. The prepacked 2 mL columns with particle size 100-150 ?m were used for soil (LLD below 2 Bq/kgdrymatter). After digestion of soil samples, hydroxide precipitation was used as an additional separation step. The 90Sr was measured by liquid scintillation counting. For quality control reasons, first the initial strontium concentration in the sample was determined then a strontium carrier solution was added and after the separation steps the chemical recovery was determined by ICP-MS. Thus, no radioactive tracer and just a small amount of the measuring solution were needed. The results are presented and discussed. These results will be used as reference for further 90Sd as reference for further 90Sr analyses which will be conducted in a 5 year period to detect any radiological impact of the nuclear power plant Temelin on the environment of Austria. (author)

334

Senescence, dormancy and tillering in perennial C4 grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perennial, temperate, C4 grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus have been tabbed as sources of herbaceous biomass for the production of green fuels and chemicals based on a number of positive agronomic traits. Although there is important literature on the management of these species for biomass production on marginal lands, numerous aspects of their biology are as yet unexplored at the molecular level. Perenniality, a key agronomic trait, is a function of plant dormancy and winter survival of the below-ground parts of the plants. These include the crowns, rhizomes and meristems that will produce tillers. Maintaining meristem viability is critical for the continued survival of the plants. Plant tillers emerge from the dormant crown and rhizome meristems at the start of the growing period in the spring, progress through a phase of vegetative growth, followed by flowering and eventually undergo senescence. There is nutrient mobilization from the aerial portions of the plant to the crowns and rhizomes during tiller senescence. Signals arising from the shoots and from the environment can be expected to be integrated as the plants enter into dormancy. Plant senescence and dormancy have been well studied in several dicot species and offer a potential framework to understand these processes in temperate C4 perennial grasses. The availability of latitudinally adapted populations for switchgrass presents an opportunity to dissect molecular mechanisms that can impact senescence, dormancy and winter survival. Given the large increase in genomic and other resources for switchgrass, it is anticipated that projected molecular studies with switchgrass will have a broader impact on related species. PMID:24467906

Sarath, Gautam; Baird, Lisa M; Mitchell, Robert B

2014-03-01

335

Soil phosphorus dynamics as affected by Congo grass and P fertilizer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Some plant species can change soil phosphorus (P) availability and this may be an important tool in managing tropical high fixing phosphorus soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate phosphorus transformations in the soil and phosphatase activity during periods of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruzizi [...] ensis, Germain et Evrard) growth in two tropical soils receiving 20, 40, 80, 160 mg dm-3 of inorganic P. Plants were grown for 84 days in 8-L pots. Acid phosphatase activity, P in the microbial mass, soil organic and inorganic P and P accumulation by Congo grass were evaluated. Phosphorus fertilization increased soil P availability, Congo grass yields and P accumulation in the plant. On average, less labile P forms in the soil were not changed by Congo grass; however, the P in the soil extracted with HCl (P-Ca - non labil form) decreased. This decrease may have resulted from the combination of the presence of grass and phosphatase capacity to dissolve less available P in the soil. Thus, soil exploration by Congo grass roots and the subsequent extraction of calcium phosphate may have increased the P concentration in the plant tissue. Despite the decrease in the P extracted from the soil with HCl resulting in increased labile P forms in the soil, the effect of Congo grass on the availability of P depends on the soil type.

Ciro Antonio, Rosolem; Alexandre, Merlin; Júlio Cesar Longo, Bull.

2014-08-01

336

Characteristics of Cogon Grass Rhizomes and its Perforation of a Maiden Cane Rhizome  

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Full Text Available Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical is one of the most aggressive grasses world wide and spreads by an extensive rhizome system. This study adds observational detail to growth of cogon grass rhizomes and provides for a mechanism by which cogon grass is able to perforate other species of plants. During a competition study between I. cylindrica and native grasses, where the plants were grown in 30 cm pots, under greenhouse conditions, the underground systems were harvested by removing the root ball from the pot, then removing the potting mixture in order to un-potted for determination of length and weight of rhizomes and roots. In one pot, a unique situation was observed where a rhizome of cogon grass had perforated and traversed a rhizome of maiden cane. Aside from the physical damage, the rhizome of the maiden cane did not appear to be diseased. This study describes the rhizomes of the two plants and documents penetration. While cogon grass can penetrate other below ground parts of other species of plants, it does not appear to provide for major damage.

J.J. Muchovej

2009-01-01

337

Estimation of grass to milk transfer coefficient for Strontium for emergency situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The grass to milk transfer coefficient is usually represented as Fm values. This paper reports the results of grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for Strontium for emergency situation. An experimental grass field was developed in Kaiga region and 2 cows were adopted for collecting milk samples regularly. Grass was cut from the field and spiked with very low concentration of stable Strontium, taken in the form of Sr(No3)2, to simulate a sudden deposition of Strontium on grass and fed to the adopted cows. The milk samples were collected during normal milking periods (morning and evening) for several days and analyzed. The peak concentration of Sr in milk was observed during time period 12-36 hrs after the intake of spiked grass. The mean value of transfer coefficient was found to be 1.4 x 10-3 d L-1. The grass to milk transfer coefficient values observed under spiked conditions were similar to that observed for equilibrium transfer coefficient for Kaiga region. (author)

338

Chemical Compositions and Nutrient Degradation of Elephant Grass Silage Ensiled with Black Tea Waste  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical compositions and nutrient degradation during ensiling of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum silage with black tea waste (BTW addition. Four silage treatments were elephant grass (S0; elephant grass + 100 g BTW/ kg fresh matter (S1; elephant grass + 200 g BTW/kg fresh matter (S2; elephant grass + 300 g BTW/kg fresh matter. About 220 g of silage material were ensiled for 30 days at room temperature (approximately 28°C. Three replicates were prepared for each treatment. Results showed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein contents of silages increased linearly (P<0.01 with increasing black tea waste. There were linear decreases in dry matter and crude protein degradations (P<0.01 and organic matter degradation (P<0.05 during ensiling with increased black tea waste addition. Dry matter degradation values varied from 15.03 to 30.71% and were higher than degradation value of ideal silage. It was concluded that black tea waste has potential as a silage additive to improve nutritive value and fermentation quality of elephant grass silage. (Animal Production 9(2: 160-165 (2007Key Words: Elephant grass, black tea waste, silage additive, degradation

B Santoso

2007-11-01

339

MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears

340

DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA  

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Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

1980-01-01

342

MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears.

Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; No, In Gye; Chin, Seoung Bum; Kim, Joon Sik; Choi, Jae Yeul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-04-01

343

Temperature and functional traits influence differences in nitrogen uptake capacity between native and invasive grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance differences between native and exotic invasive plants are often considered static, but invasive grasses may achieve growth advantages in western North America shrublands and steppe under only optimal growing conditions. We examine differences in N uptake and several morphological variables that influence uptake at temperatures between 5 and 25 °C. We contrast two native perennial grasses in western North America: Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata; two invasive annual grasses: Bromus tectorum and Taeniatherum caput-medusae; and one highly selected non-native perennial grass: Agropyron cristatum. The influence of temperature on N uptake is poorly characterized, yet these invasive annual grasses are known to germinate in warm soils in the autumn, and both experience cool soils during the short growing season following snowmelt in the spring. To further explore the influence of temperature on the correlation between morphological variables and N uptake, our data are applied to a previously published path model and one proposed here. Differences in N uptake between native and invasive grasses were small at the lowest temperature, but were large at the highest temperature. At lower temperatures, uptake of N by annuals and perennials was correlated with leaf N and mass. At higher temperatures, uptake by annuals was correlated only with these leaf traits, but uptake by perennials was correlated with these leaf traits as well as root N and mass. Consequently, our results imply that annual grasses face fewer morphological constraints on N uptake than perennial grasses, and annual grasses may gain further advantage in warmer temperature conditions or during more frequent warm periods. PMID:22744743

Leffler, A Joshua; James, Jeremy J; Monaco, Thomas A

2013-01-01

344

Silicon, endophytes and secondary metabolites as grass defenses against mammalian herbivores  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasses have been considered to primarily employ tolerance in lieu of defense in mitigating damage caused by herbivory. Yet a number of mechanisms have been identified in grasses, which may deter feeding by grazers. These include enhanced silicon uptake, hosting of toxin-producing endophytic fungi and induction of secondary metabolites. While these mechanisms have been individually studied, their synergistic responses to grazing, as well as their effects on grazers, are poorly known. A field experiment was carried out in 5 × 5 m outdoor enclosures to quantify phytochemical changes of either endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis) in response to medium intensity (corresponding with densities of ca. 1200 voles/ha for 5 weeks during 3 months) or heavy intensity (ca. 1200 voles/ha for 8 weeks during 3 months) grazing by a mammalian herbivore, the field vole (Microtus agrestis). A laboratory experiment was then conducted to evaluate the effects of endophyte infection status and grazing history of the grass diet on vole performance. As predicted, grazing increased foliar silicon content, by up to 13%. Grazing also increased foliar levels of phosphorous and several phenolic compounds, most notably those of the flavonols isorhamnetin-diglycoside and rhamnetin derivative. Silicon concentrations were consistently circa 16% higher in E+ grasses than in E-grasses, at all levels of grazing. Similarly, concentrations of chlorogenic acid derivative were found to be consistently higher in E+ than in E- grasses. Female voles maintained on heavily grazed grasses suffered higher mortality rates in the laboratory than female voles fed ungrazed grass, regardless of endophyte infection status. Our results conclusively demonstrate that, in addition to tolerance, grasses employ multi-tiered, effective defenses against mammalian grazers. PMID:25278951

Huitu, Otso; Forbes, Kristian M.; Helander, Marjo; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Lambin, Xavier; Saikkonen, Kari; Stuart, Peter; Sulkama, Sini; Hartley, Sue

2014-01-01

345

Evaluation of Processing Methods on the Feeding Value of Grass Pea to Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grass pea is a widely available grain legume that contains a neurotoxin ODAP that has negative effects in humans and animals. Various treatment methods were tested to select methods that are more effective. Socking and cooking at 60, 75, 90oC and boiling temperatures were found to be relatively effective. Diets containing grass pea prepared using these methods along with diets that contained untreated grass pea and a control that did not contain any grass pea were tested in a broiler trial. Grass pea was included by replacing Noug (Guizotia abyssinica cake. Four hundred twenty unsexed one day old Cobb broiler chicks of similar body weight were divided into seven groups of 60 and further randomly sub-divided into three replicates of 20 chicks and placed in the experimental pens were used. The study showed that total replacement of Noug cake by boiled grass pea is possible without significantly reducing performance (gain and feed efficiency. Cooking at 90oC can also be considered pending economic evaluation since it was also similar results to the control diet (p>0.05 in terms of feed efficiency. Performance of broilers on the rations containing grass pea treated using the other methods seem to have depressed performance too much. Comparison of performance during the starter and finisher phases indicates that most of the depressing effects seem to have occurred during the starter phase. There was no visible sign of lathyrism in any of the treatment groups in this study. It is suggested that further economic analysis of using the methods be conducted. Further work on the possibility of using grass pea only during the finisher phase following the apparent reduction of the negative impacts of feeding grass pea at this stage observed in this study is also proposed.

D. Tadelle

2003-01-01

346

The Effect of Integrated Grasses in Controlling Soil, Nutrient and Organic Matter in Loess Plateau, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil and nutrient loss is one of a serious problem in Loess plateau china. The eroded materials are directly transported to the lakes and rivers specifically yellow river in China, this might lead to eutrophication if no prevention measures will be taken. The experiment was conducted on soil, and nutrient loss from 5º slope. Individual grasses plots for rye grass(Lolium, white clover(Trifolium repens and integrated grass (rye + white clover plots were prepared with a percentage cover of 25, 50, 80 and 100 in each treatment. Bare land was used as a reference plot. The results show that, the sediment loss in a bare land reported to be 1.5, 3, 2.7 and 1.3, 2.1, 1.9 in 100 % and 80 % cover plots. The runoff rate as compared to bare land, shown to be about 2 times less for white clover and rye grass plots, while more than 2 times less for integrated grasses plots. The total nitrogen and organic matter loss the results were in the order bare land white clover rye grasses and integrated grasses in which 100 %, 80 % and 50 % vegetative cover shown to perform better. On average enrichment ratio range was 40 % to 90 % for nutrient loss, and 50 % to 85 % for organic matter for all plots in comparison with soil origin. The enrichment ration significantly shown to be high from bare land> rye and white clover plots> integrated grasses plot. It has been concluded that integrated grasses is more effective measure over others in controlling both soil, nutrient and organic matter loss in the soil. This study contributed some information on the erosion modeling and improvement of soil and grassland conservation techniques for better land use for sustainable development

Honest Augustine Mosha

2013-01-01

347

Natural radioactivity in grass and maize grown in fly ash amended soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the results of the estimation of natural radioactivity in the Grass and Maize (Var.Pragati.) grown in coal Fly ash and soil mixture. Fly ash was tested upto 30 % by volume with clay loam soil for growing grass and maize (Var.Pragati.) without any observable negative effect on the growth and the natural radioactivity in grass and maize samples was found due to 40K and it is also observed below the WHO/ FAO permissible radioactivity levels in feeds. (author)

348

Activated carbon from grass - A green alternative catalyst support for water electrolysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass blades (turf grass) have been selected as a cheap biomass source of producing activated carbon for supporting Pt particles for utilizing as electrocatalyst for H2 generation through electrolysis of water. Activation is done using ZnCl2 followed by thermal processing at 250 °C. 1% Pt was supported over the grass derived activated biomass carbon (G-ABC) powder to result in Pt@G-ABC. After physical characterization, Pt@G-ABC sample has been tested for its catalytic activity in 1 M sulfuri...

Kalyani, Palanichamy; Ariharaputhiran, Anitha; Darchen, Andre?

2013-01-01

349

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL) 16S rRNA gene s...

Nang Kyu Kyu Win; Hee-Young Jung

2012-01-01

350

Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

Kerlen, Dirk

2014-02-01

351

Guard ropes of mixes kinds grasses is effectual countermeasures a decrease accumulations of radionuclides in forages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established of kinds cereals and leguminous grass, which one accumulate low quantities of radionuclides and the mixes of grasses for native born improvement of haymakings and pastures in collective farms arranged on are offered is radioactive the contaminated area. The intrusion of these mixes grasses will allow to receive forages, which is adequate to established permissible levels: 'Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages'. (Authors)

352

Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

Maréchal, PY.

2012-01-01

353

Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased the solubilization of dry matter (DM) during HTT and gave increased glucan content, but lower lignin in the insoluble fiber fraction. Ensiling improved glucose yields in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed solid fiber fraction at the lower HTT temperatures. At 170°C glucose yield improved from 17 to 24 (w/w)% (45 to 57% cellulose convertibility), and at 180°C glucose yield improved from 22 to 29 (w/w)% (54 to 69% cellulose convertibility). Direct HTT of grass at 190°C gave the same high glucose yield as for grass silage (35 (w/w)% (77% cellulose convertibility)) and improved xylan yields (27% xylan convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar for HTT of grass and grass silage at both 170 and 180°C, but at 190°C the overall sugar yield was better for HTT of dry grass. Conclusions: This study unequivocally establishes that ensiling of grass as a biomass pretreatment method comes with a loss of WSC. The loss of WSC by ensiling is not necessarily compensated for by providing a lower temperature requirement for HTT for high enzymatic monosaccharide release. However, ensiling can be an advantageous storage method prior to grass processing. © 2014 Ambye-Jensen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon

2014-01-01

354

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF JUMBO GRASS (SORGHUM BICOLOUR SORGHUM SUDANEFE) SILAGE IN LACTATING NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Jambo grass (Sorghum bicolour Sorghum sudanefe) silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (Jambo grass; JG) in the diet of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Jumbo grass was ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM) on large scale in bunker silos for 30 days. Two experimental iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets were formulated with 75:25% of forage to concentrate ratio on DM basis that contained 75% of JG fodde...

N A Tauqir, M. Sarwar

2009-01-01

355

Fire Control - A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis wedd and lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identified as fire threatened species and it has been observed that their sociological attributes were hampered severely by fire. Hence, the conservation of such species is needed through effective fire control measures. PMID:22557019

Paulsamy, S; Sivakumar, R; Balasubramaniam, V; Arumugasamy, K; Nagarajan, N

2001-04-01

356

Fire Control – A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis wedd and lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identified as fire threatened species and it has been observed that their sociological attributes were hampered severely by fire. Hence, the conservation of such species is needed through effective fire control measures. PMID:22557019

Paulsamy, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramaniam, V.; Arumugasamy, K.; Nagarajan, N.

2001-01-01

357

Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive plants are a growing concern worldwide for conservation of native habitats. In endangered wet meadow habitat in the Upper Midwestern United States, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a recognized problem and its prevalence is more widespread than the better-known invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Although resource managers are concerned about the effect of reed canary grass on birds, this is the first study to report how common wet meadow birds use habitat in relation to reed canary grass cover and dominance. We examined three response variables: territory placement, size of territories, and numbers of territories per plot in relation to cover of reed canary grass. Territory locations for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) were positively associated with reed canary grass cover, while those for Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) were not. Only Swamp Sparrow (M. georgiana) territory locations were negatively associated with reed canary grass cover and dominance (which indicated a tendency to place territories where there was no reed canary grass or where many plant species occurred with reed canary grass). Swamp Sparrow territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and litter depth. Common Yellowthroat territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and shrub cover. Song Sparrow territories were negatively associated with litter depth. Reed canary grass cover within territories was not associated with territory size for any of these four bird species. Territory density per plot was not associated with average reed canary grass cover of plots for all four species. Sedge Wrens and Song Sparrows may not respond negatively to reed canary grass because this grass is native to wet meadows of North America, and in the study area it merely replaces other tall lush plants. Avoidance of reed canary grass by Swamp Sparrows may be mediated through their preference for wet areas where reed canary grass typically does not dominate. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Kirsch, E.M.; Gray, B.R.; Fox, T.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

2007-01-01

358

History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

359

Liveweight performance of crossbred and Zebu cattle grazing on native or Rhodes grass pastures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments are described involving 33 crossbred (mainly Simmental and Jersey X Zebu) and 33 Zebu (Horro and Boran) bulls and steers. In experiment I, growth rates of crossbred and Zebu cattle rotationally grazed on either native pasture or Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) were compared during a 140 day grazing period at a stocking rate of 2.4 animals/ha. In experiment II, growth rate of cattle rotationally grazed for 140 days on native pasture was compared with that of a similar group grazed on Rhodes grass either rotationally or continuously at a stocking rate of seven animals/ha. On native pasture the average daily gain by Zebu animals was similar to that of the crossbreds whilst on Rhodes grass liveweight gain of Zebu animals was lower than that of the crossbreds. Daily gains of cattle were significantly (P less than 0.01) greater on continuous compared with rotationally grazed Rhodes grass. PMID:746593

O'Donovan, P B; Woldegebriel, A; Taylor, M S; Gebrewolde, A

1978-11-01

360

Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

 
 
 
 
361

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2004-07-01

362

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael; Aultman, Terry

2010-03-01

363

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961. In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

Nang Kyu Kyu Win

2012-02-01

364

Growth response of some cultivars of bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon L.) to salt stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turfgrasses range from extremely salt sensitive to highly salt tolerant. Turf grass improvement for salinity tolerance requires reliable assessment for their adaptability to saline conditions, which vary among grasses. In the present study, four Bermuda grass cultivars - Tifway, Tifdwarf, Dacca and Khabbal (local ecotype) were assessed for salinity tolerance using half-strength Hoagland's solution culture system under green house conditions. The cultivars were exposed to five salinity levels viz., 2.4 (control) 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl). Increasing salt concentration in the nutrient media caused: (a) a reduction in number of stolons/plug, number of roots/plug, length of shoot, dry weights of root and shoot, turf quality, and potassium content in stolons, (b) increase in sodium and chloride content in stolons. Overall, cv. Tifway was found to be the most tolerant to salinity while Khabbal the most sensitive, among all four grass cultivars. (author)

365

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and [...] part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL) 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961). In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

Nang Kyu Kyu, Win; Hee-Young, Jung.

2012-02-01

366

The chemical control of Shorgum halepense (Johnson grass) in soybean culture in the Danube meadow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soybean cultures, especially those from the Danube Meadow, are very strongly infested with Johnson grass, which causes big damages, by the reduction of production with 40-85%, depending on the infestation degree. Before the synthesis of special herbicides for Johnson grass control, this species was controlled by practicing deep tilling, repeated operations with the disk, and, after the sprouting of soy plants, by mechanical and manual hoeings. In the Danube Waterside, the lack of labour force for the manual hoeing is very sharp. For this reason, it was generalized the enlarged use of herbicides for annual weed control (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous), including Johnson grass. For the control of Johnson grass species, in the conditions of the Danube Meadow, the best results were obtained with the herbicides Fusilade Super, Targa Super, Agil and Select, and for the control of annual dicotyledonous species, with the herbicide Pivot 100LC. PMID:16637215

Poienaru, S; Sarpe, N; Sarpe, I

2005-01-01

367

Solar Grass Cutter With Linear Blades By Using Scotch Yoke Mechanism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Solar grass cutter is a machine that uses sliding blades to cut a lawn at an even length. Even more sophisticated devices are there in every field. Power consumption becomes essential for future. Solar grass cutter is a very useful device which is very simple in construction. It is used to maintain and upkeep lawns in gardens, schools, college’s etc. We have made some changes in the existing machine to make its application easier at reduced cost. Our main aim in pollution control is attained through this. Unskilled operation can operate easily and maintain the lawn very fine and uniform surface look. In our project, ?Solar grass cutter? is used to cut the different grasses for the different application.

P.Amrutesh

2014-09-01

368

Ferulic acid: a key component in grass lignocellulose recalcitrance to hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the near future, grasses must provide most of the biomass for the production of renewable fuels. However, grass cell walls are characterized by a large quantity of hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic and p-coumaric acids, which are thought to reduce the biomass saccharification. Ferulic acid (FA) binds to lignin, polysaccharides and structural proteins of grass cell walls cross-linking these components. A controlled reduction of FA level or of FA cross-linkages in plants of industrial interest can improve the production of cellulosic ethanol. Here, we review the biosynthesis and roles of FA in cell wall architecture and in grass biomass recalcitrance to enzyme hydrolysis. PMID:25417596

Matias de Oliveira, Dyoni; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Rodrigues Mota, Thatiane; Salvador, Victor Hugo; Moreira-Vilar, Flávia Carolina; Correa Molinari, Hugo Bruno; Craig Mitchell, Rowan Andrew; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo; Dantas Dos Santos, Wanderley

2014-11-21

369

Book review: Research at grass roots: For the social sciences and human services professions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research at Grass Roots: For the social sciences and human services professions. De Vos, A.S. (ed, Strydom, H., Fouche, C.B. & Delport, C.S.L. (2002. Published by Van Schaik Publishers, Pretoria

Mike Greyling

2004-10-01

370

The Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility of Some Tropical Grasses at Different Stage of Maturity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD) was determined by Telly and Terry methods in vitro on 5 tropical grasses species, Sorghum, Themeda, Iseilema, Brachyacne and Dicanthium. Stem and leaf samples were harvested at different maturity stages, started from early flowering stage to the stage when the grasses were dried. In general, IVNDFD ranged from 22% to 41%. Stages of maturity affected IVNDFD in 4 species; IVNDFD was higher in the stems than in the leaves for 2 species out of...

Mahyuddin, P.; Nd, Purwantari

2009-01-01

371

Poultry manure enhances grass establishment at a quarry rehabilitation site in subtropical South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rehabilitation of a quarry was conducted with selected grass species in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The seed cocktail applied contained Chloris gayana, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis curvula, Panicum maximum and Paspalum distichum. Three treatments used were: No soil enhancement (control), poultry manure application, and commercial fertilizer application. Four months after sowing, the percentage grass cover per 1 m2 of treatment was 33% for the control, 65% whe...

Siebert, Stefan John; Maliba, Bheki G.; Zobolo, Alpheus M.

2011-01-01

372

Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp.) in winter cereals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp.) was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone) was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam) offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high depende...

Gehring, Klaus; Festner, Thomas; Thyssen, Stefan; Wo?ppel, Hans-ju?rgen

2014-01-01

373

Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxyci...

Li Muyang; Foster Cliff; Kelkar Shantanu; Pu Yunqiao; Holmes Daniel; Ragauskas Arthur; Saffron Christopher M; Hodge David B

2012-01-01

374

The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, including important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons so that flowering and seed production coincide with favorable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can...

Fjellheim, Siri; Boden, Scott; Trevaskis, Ben

2014-01-01

375

Nutritional and Antinutritional Components of Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Roberty at Different Stages of Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vetiver grass was harvested at 4, 6 and 8-week old re-growth. The chemical composition and quantitative analyses of anti-nutritional components were determined. The result showed that dry matter and fiber content increased with age while crude protein, mineral content and anti-nutritional components reduced with age. It was concluded that age of re-growth significantly affect the nutrient and anti-nutrients contents of vetiver grass.

O.O. Falola

2013-01-01

376

Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) In Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro...

Al-khalifah, Nasser S.

2000-01-01

377

Detection of accase target-site resistant Alopecurus myosuroides huds (black-grass) in Belgian populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. The first case of resistance in Belgium was reported in 1996 by Robert Bulcke (Eelen et al., 1996). Yet the resistance mechanism was not specified. Since then, no more information was published about the evolution Belgium, while research continued in the United Kingdom and in France. Moreover, ...

Mare?chal, Pierre-yves; Henriet, Franc?ois; Bodson, Bernard

2009-01-01

378

Assessing veld condition in the Kruger National Park using key grass species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Veld condition refers to the condition of the vegetation in relation to some functional characteristic. In the Kruger National Park important functional characteristics are the potential of the veld to produce grass forage and fuel and to resist soil erosion. Consequently a simplified technique based on 18 key grass species was developed for assessing veld conditon and monitoring the effects of wild life management practices like veld burning, development of watering points and culling. The t...

Potgieter, A. L. F.; Trollope, W. S. W.; Zambatis, N.

1989-01-01

379

Studies of bio fertilizers in grass -legume mixed swards in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experience with commercial Uruguayan rhizobia strains and forage species: tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae cv. Tacuab , white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Zapic ) and birdsfoot t refoil (Lotus corniculatus cv. San Gabriel) was established to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation in the legumes and nitrogen transfer to the grass. Biological nitrogen fixation ranged 60 to 90% and the contribution of nitrogen derived from legumes to grasses in mixed swards reached 30% during the experience

380

Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H) – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), brome grass (Bromus spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of s...

Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Functionality of grass software for topographic analysis for the methodology of tracking water flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the thesis I thoroughly examined the free and open-source software package GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System), which is considered as being one of the most comprehensive and multi-purpose »Desktop« GIS (Geographic Information System). I focused on the review of GRASS software modules for carrying out topographical analyses, which are based on the methodology of tracking or routing of water flow, and on the display of their functionality in a real case. The thesis i...

Poljans?ek, Sas?o

2012-01-01

382

Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square des [...] ign.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB). There was no difference in dry matter (DM) intake between diets EGS and CS in g d?1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM) intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg?1 d?1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

Jacianelly Karla da, Silva; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de, Medeiros; Edson Mauro, Santos; Tamires da Silva, Magalhães; Alenice Ozino, Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra.

2014-11-01

383

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

Li Jiale

2010-02-01

384

Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea  

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Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

Kenneth J Knoespel

2013-04-01

385

Effects of Levels of Sulfur Fertilizer on Growth of Digitaria eriantha Grass  

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This study was aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of sulfur fertilizer application on the quantity and chemical composition of Digitaria eriantha grass. The experiment was conducted at Petchaburi Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Petchaburi, Thailand, during August to October, 2006. Treatments consisted of 0, 12 and 24 kgS/rai applications in the form of ammonium sulfate and were arranged in randomized complete block with 4 field blocks as replication. Grass was sampl...

Auraiwan Isuwan; Jeerasak Saelim; Somsak Paothong

2007-01-01

386

Piata palisade grass deferred with two distinct initial heights: luminous environment and tillering dynamics  

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The study was carried out between March 1st and July 1st, 2011, in order to evaluate the tillering pattern of the deferred Piata palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata). Three sward heights were evaluated in the beginning of the period of deferment: lower (20 cm), medium (30 cm) and higher (40 cm). The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with three replications. The Piata palisade grass deferred with low initial height presented lower leaf area index, lower light i...

Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa; Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da Silveira; Gabriel de Oliveira Rocha; Cássia Aparecida Soares Freitas; Natascha Almeida Marques da Silva; Domicio do Nascimento Júnior

2013-01-01

387

BIOLOGIC POLLUTION WITH GRASSES’S POLLEN IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available Among airborne allergens, a frequent cause of sensibilisation is grasses pollen. In big cities, because of the high buildings, which restrict air circulation, little pollen grains deposit is bigger than in the rural uninhabited areas, where pollen dispersion is easier. The purpose of the present study is that of establishing the level of the biologic air pollution in Timisoara and the limitrophe areas with grasses pollen for the year 2000.

A. Faur

2001-01-01

388

Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses  

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Abstract Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. Species of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes wheat, barley and important forage grasses, have evolved extreme frost tolerance. A class of ice binding proteins that inhibit ice re-crystallisation, specific to the Pooideae subfamily lineage, have been identified in perennial ryegrass and wheat, and these proteins are thought to have evolved from a leucine-rich repeat phytosulfokine receptor kin...

Asp Torben; Rudi Heidi; Sandve Simen R; Rognli Odd

2008-01-01

389

BIOLOGIC POLLUTION WITH GRASSES’S POLLEN IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among airborne allergens, a frequent cause of sensibilisation is grasses pollen. In big cities, because of the high buildings, which restrict air circulation, little pollen grains deposit is bigger than in the rural uninhabited areas, where pollen dispersion is easier. The purpose of the present study is that of establishing the level of the biologic air pollution in Timisoara and the limitrophe areas with grasses pollen for the year 2000.

Faur, A.; Nicoleta Ianovici

2001-01-01

390

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban) its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed  

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Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.per...

Maria Pro?czuk

2002-01-01

391

Water deficit and induction of summer dormancy in perennial Mediterranean grasses  

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Background and Aims: Summer dormancy is a trait conferring superior drought survival in Mediterranean perennial grasses. As the respective roles of environmental factors and water deficit on induction of summer dormancy are unclear, the effect of intense drought were tested under contrasting day lengths in a range of forage and native grasses. Methods: Plants of Poa bulbosa, Dactylis glomerata ‘Kasbah’ and Lolium arundinaceum ‘Flecha’ were grown in pots (a

Volaire, Florence; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Ledda, Luigi; Lelievre, Franc?ois

2009-01-01

392

Horizontal gene transfer of a bacterial insect toxin gene into the Epichloë fungal symbionts of grasses  

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Horizontal gene transfer is recognized as an important factor in genome evolution, particularly when the newly acquired gene confers a new capability to the recipient species. We identified a gene similar to the makes caterpillars floppy (mcf1 and mcf2) insect toxin genes in Photorhabdus, bacterial symbionts of nematodes, in the genomes of the Epichloë fungi, which are intercellular symbionts of grasses. Infection by Epichloë spp. often confers insect resistance to the grass hosts, largely ...

Ambrose, Karen V.; Koppenho?fer, Albrecht M.; Belanger, Faith C.

2014-01-01

393

Molecular Determinants of T Cell Epitope Recognition to the Common Timothy Grass Allergen  

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We investigated the molecular determinants of allergen-derived T cell epitopes in humans utilizing the Phleum pratense (Timothy grass) allergens (Phl p). PBMCs from allergic individuals were tested in ELISPOT assays with overlapping peptides spanning known Phl p allergens. A total of 43 distinct antigenic regions were recognized, illustrating the large breadth of grass-specific T cell epitopes. Th2 cytokines (as represented by IL-5) were predominant, whereas IFN-?, IL-10, and IL-17 were dete...

Oseroff, Carla; Sidney, John; Kotturi, Maya F.; Kolla, Ravi; Alam, Rafeul; Broide, David H.; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Weiskopf, Daniela; Mckinney, Denise M.; Chung, Jo L.; Petersen, Arnd; Grey, Howard; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

2010-01-01

394

Above-ground herbivory causes rapid and sustained changes in mycorrhizal colonization of grasses  

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This study investigated the effects of grazing by rabbit and insect herbivores on root-colonization of grasses by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in two lowland grasslands in southern England, UK. A temporal assessment from grazing exclosures was also made. Root samples from three grass species at each site were analyzed in terms of total mycorrhizal colonization and proportional colonization by individual mycorrhizal structures. Colonization was increased by moderate levels of rabbit g...

Gange, Alan; Wearn, James

2007-01-01

395

Photosynthetic light response of the C4 grasses Brachiaria brizantha and B. humidicola under shade  

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Forage grasses in tropical pastures can be subjected to considerable diurnal and seasonal reductions in available light. To evaluate the physiological behavior of the tropical forage grasses Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and B. humidicola to low light, the photosynthetic light response and chlorophyll contents of these species were compared for plants grown outdoors, on natural soil, in pots, in full sunlight and those shaded to 30 % of full sunlight, over a 30-day period. Both species sho...

Dias-Filho Moacyr Bernardino

2002-01-01

396

Monami as an oscillatory hydrodynamic instability in a submerged sea grass bed  

CERN Document Server

The onset of monami, the synchronous waving of sea grass beds driven by a steady flow, is modeled as a linear instability of the flow. Our model treats the drag exerted by the grass in establishing the steady flow profile, and in damping out perturbations to it. This damping leads to a finite threshold flow for the instability, which agrees with experimental observations. This role of vegetation drag differentiates our mechanism from the previous hypothesis that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability underlies monami.

Singh, Ravi; Bandi, M M; Mahadevan, Amala

2014-01-01

397

Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly contribute to understanding how different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic grid are regulated. Given the conservation of the selected regulators in other grasses, results derived from this project are likely to provide important tools for the manipulation of phenolic compounds in other emerging biomass producers (e.g., switchgrass or miscanthus), either through conventional breeding techniques (e.g., marker-assisted breeding) or by using transgenic approaches.

Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

2013-07-26

398

Thermal Response of Seedling Growth in Tropical Grasses in Controlled and Field Environments of Northern Kyushu, Japan  

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Full Text Available Most tropical grasses in the warm southwestern region of Japan are cultivated as annuals and can be sown from May to July, after the harvest of an alternating crop of Italian ryegrass. However, suboptimal thermal conditions in the region may affect the germination and growth of seedlings. The objective of this study was to compare the growth of seedlings of promising tropical grasses in a Controlled Environment Facility (CEF and in a Field Data (FD trial. Temperatures in the CEF averaged 17.9, 22.9 and 27.9°C for the low (LT, middle (MT and high temperature (HT regimes, respectively, while the temperature in the FD trial was higher in the June-sowing (average 23.7°C, with a range between MT and HT in the CEF than in the May sowing (average 21.2°C, between LT and MT. Favorable plant growth attributes tended to increase with the increase in air temperature in both trials. The growth rates in Guinea grass and Sudan grass exhibited a linear response to the increase in temperature from LT to HT, whereas the growth rate of Rhodes grass and colored Guinea grass showed saturation between MT and HT. Thus, for early sowing in mid-May, the prominent species judged in terms of high seedling potential were Sudan grass and Rhodes grass and for the late-sowing in early July, Sudan grass and Guinea grass.

Satoru Fukagawa

2014-01-01

399

OPTIMIZATION OF SODA PULPING PROCESS OF LIGNO-CELLULOSIC RESIDUES OF LEMON AND SOFIA GRASSES PRODUCED AFTER STEAM DISTILLATION  

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Full Text Available Sofia (Cymbopogon martini, and lemon (Cymbopogon flexuosus grasses, are exclusively cultivated for extraction of important lemongrass and palma rosa oils. Lignocellulosic residue (LCR of sofia and lemon grasses left after steam distillation can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp. Steam distillation mitigates the problem of mass transfer, and facilitates the faster penetration of cooking liquor by leaching out a part of extraneous components. Sofia grass produces a pulp yield of 43.7% of kappa number 20 at an active alkali dose of 14% (as Na2O, maximum cooking temperature of 160 oC and cooking time 90 min. Likewise, lemon grass produces a pulp yield of 41.4% of kappa number 12.5 under the same conditions except temperature (150 oC by a soda pulping process. Addition of 0.1% AQ at optimum cooking conditions reduces kappa number by 26 and 8% for sofia and lemon grasses with insignificant increase in pulp yield i.e. 0.2 and 0.4% for sofia and lemon grasses, respectively. The mechanical strength properties of lemon grass soda-AQ pulp are better than sofia grass. Bauer-McNett fiber classification further validates that +20 fractions are more (62.63% in lemon grass than in sofia grass (42.72%.

Harjeet Kaur

2011-02-01

400

Crude Protein and Crude of Fiber Benggala [Panicum Maximum] and Elephant [Pennisetum Purpureum] Grasses on Drought Stress Condition  

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Full Text Available Knowledge of crop response to water is essential for proper irrigation management. Research was conducted at Forage Crop Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Department, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry, Diponegoro University during 9 month trying two type grass that were benggala ( Panicum maximum and elephant ( Pennisetum purpureum with treatment of the following dry stres : S0 = control, without stress; S1 = 1 times drought stress, S2 = 2 times drought stress , and S3 = 3 times drought stress by lay out of complete random design( factorial pattern. Parameter perceived were( 1 forage production , (2 dry matter production, (3 percentage of crude protein, and (4 percentage of crude fibre. Data collected to be analysed by analysis of varians continued with Duncan multiple range test. Result of research indicate that forage production of elephant grass (103,79 g/pot bigger than benggala (53,08 g/pot. Dry matter production of elephant grass was 18,77 g/pot higher than benggala grass( 14,54 g/pot. Drought stres do not affect to forage production also dry matter production : Percentage of crude protein of benggala grass (9,10% higher than elephant grass (7,02%, while percentage crude fibre of benggala grass (35,64% higher than elephant grass (31,67%. Drought stres do not influence percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala and elephant grasses. Conclusion from research were (1 elephant grass have higher forage production and dry matter production than benggala grass (2 percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala grass higher than elephant grass, (3 drought stres do not affect to forage production , dry matter production, percentage of crude protein and crude fibre. (Animal Production 11(2: 109-115 (2009 Key Words : crude protein, fiber, drought stress

ED Purbajanti

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TFU, kg kg-1 ). It was found that the TFU values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

402

Response of itchgrass and johnson grass to asulam/dalapon combinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activities of asumlam [methyl[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]carbamate], dalapon (2,2-dichloropropionic acid) and asulam/dalapon combinations on itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata L.f.) and johnson grass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] were examined. When metabolism of 14C-asulam was monitored, seven days after application, 97-100% of recovered 14C co-chromatographed with 14C-asulam. Itchgrass exhibited rapid uptake of 14C-asulam within 8 hr after application. Asumlam concentrations remained constant in the plant between 8 and 72 hr. Johnson grass plants showed a differential response to asulam and asulam/dalapon treatments. Asulam-treated johnson grass absorbed 26-34% 14C within 2 hr with no future significant increase in absorption in absorption through 72 hr. Treatment of johnson grass with asulam/dalapon enhanced 14C absorption with time. At 24 and 72 hr 14C levels were double that absorbed from treatment of asulam alone. Movement of 14C-asulam in the apoplast and symplast of both itchgrass and johnson grass was noted. The highest radiolabel accumulated in the lower leaves of itchgrass and remained in the treated leaf of johnson grass

403

Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution  

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Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

Tong Jingou

2006-11-01

404

Ensilage characteristics of three tropical grasses as influenced by stage of growth and addition of molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

When molasses was added during ensilage of three tropical grasses [hamil grass (Panicum maximum cv. Hamil), pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula)] the final pH, concentration of fermentation acids (except lactic acid) and NH3-N content were all similar after 100 days of incubation. Pangola grass silage had significantly higher lactic acid content (66 g/kg dry matter) than the other two. Adding either 4 or 8% (w/w) molasses reduced NH3-N, volatile fatty acid content and pH but increased lactic acid content in the final silages. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria remained approximately constant during the course of the fermentation, although large differences were noted in the species composition of the populations. At the time of ensiling, only Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. were detected. By 5 days, the homo-fermentative population, notably Lactobacillus plantarum, dominated (43%) and remained dominant. Hetero-fermentative rods were only detected in the 100-day silage, where they represented 29% of the strains isolated. Homo-fermenters were more abundant in pangola (60%) and setaria (47%) silages than hamil (27%) silages. Homo-fermenter populations were lowest in the 12-week forage. Molasses additions increased homo-fermenter populations. Pangola grass gave the best quality silage but, since the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the grasses was insufficient to promote a strong lactic fermentation, the addition of 20 to 30 kg molasses/tonne should achieve satisfactory preservation. PMID:24420891

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

1994-01-01

405

Elevated CO2 mitigates drought and temperature-induced oxidative stress differently in grasses and legumes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing atmospheric CO2 will affect plant growth, including mitigation of stress impact. Such effects vary considerably between species-groups. Grasses (Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis) and legumes (Medicago lupulina, Lotus corniculatus) were subjected to drought, elevated temperature and elevated CO2. Drought inhibited plant growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and induced osmolytes and antioxidants in all species. In contrast, oxidative damage was more strongly induced in the legumes than in t