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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep=Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos  

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Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.. A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel.

Diogo da Costa Soares

2012-04-01

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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) grazed by goats and sheep / Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pastejada por ovinos e caprinos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de [...] 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD) e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.). A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS) de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel. Abstract in english Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, w [...] as divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD) goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM) availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis) by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

Luiza Daiana Araújo da Silva, Formiga; José Morais, Pereira Filho; Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo, Silva; Nadjanara Souza, Oliveira; Diogo da Costa, Soares; Olaf Andreas, Bakke.

2012-06-01

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Particle-inflow-gun-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.): optimizing biological and physical parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to optimize various biological and physical parameters for developing an efficient and reproducible gene transfer method for genetic transformation of buffel grass. Transformation was carried out using a helium-driven particle inflow gun (PIG). Embryogenic calli produced from mature seeds of buffel grass cv. CC-119 were separately bombarded with four plasmids, containing Actin (pAct1DX), Ubiquitin (pAHC-25; pAHC-27) and CaMV-35S (pCaMVGUS) promoters, coated on tungsten and gold particles. The efficiency of transformation was monitored through transient GUS expression. Different parameters, viz., the type of promoter, type and size of microcarrier, helium gas pressure, distance and time of bombardment, were standardized for delivering DNA into embryogenic calli. Bombardment with plasmid DNA carrying the actin promoter coated on 1.6 micro gold particles, at a helium pressure of 4 bars, a distance of 10 cm for 10 micro sec and 28 mm Hg vacuum in the chamber, produced the best result in transient GUS expression. The Actin promoter was found to be more efficient in driving expression of the GUS gene in buffel grass, followed by Ubiquitin and CaMV-35S promoters. Lower helium pressure was found to be sub-optimal, while higher pressure produced a smaller number of blue spots, probably due to excessive damage to the cells. Maximum of 385 blue spots was observed with gold particles of 1.6 micro size, whereas only 213 blue spots were recorded for tungsten particles of 1.0 micro size. The optimized parameters can be employed for genetic transformation of buffel grass with genes of agronomic importance. PMID:14564017

Bhat, V; Dalton, S J; Kumar, S; Bhat, B V; Gupta, M G; Morris, P

2001-01-01

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Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12548  

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Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

Diogo da Costa Soares

2012-03-01

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Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape  

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Full Text Available This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris, in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histories of seeds, among others. While the article does not explicitly discuss Clifford’s argument, it is an attempt to explore similarly diverse histories including those generated by arid zone scientists, Albert Namatjira’s efforts to gain a grazing licence, environmental impact of settlement (including erosion, dust storms and species extinction, along with personal narratives impelled by engagement with place. The article does not aim to theorise its content, rather to elaborate knowledge of landscape along with that elusive quality, a ‘sense of place’, through connecting disparate things.

Saskia Maya Beudel

2012-11-01

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Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris, in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histories of seeds, among others. While the article does not explicitly discuss Clifford’s argument, it is an attempt to explore similarly diverse histories including those generated by arid zone scientists, Albert Namatjira’s efforts to gain a grazing licence, environmental impact of settlement (including erosion, dust storms and species extinction, along with personal narratives impelled by engagement with place. The article does not aim to theorise its content, rather to elaborate knowledge of landscape along with that elusive quality, a ‘sense of place’, through connecting disparate things.

Saskia Maya Beudel

2012-12-01

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Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria [...] Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC) en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable) las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto). Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil) y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54), pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P Abstract in english Self-pollination in the production of seed of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). The objective of this study was to compare different forms of pollination on the characteristics of seed of four varieties of Buffel grass. The study was carried out in the greenhouse and in the field of UAM Agronomia [...] y Ciencias in the Municipa ity of Victoria, Tamaulipas. We used four varieties of Buffel grass (Comun, Nueces, T-1754 and Formidable) which were subjected to two types of pollination (free and self-pollination). The design used was a completely randomized blocks design. Day at flowering of male and female organs was measured. In addition, pollen was classified (fertile, intermediate and infertile), and the effects of self-pollination and free pollination free on the characteristics of seed were recorded. No effects were observed on days at flowering of female organs (P = 0.54), but the male organs were affected (P = 0.03), so that Formidable variety plants required 2.3 days to mature. The number of fertile, intermediate and infertile pollen grains was not affected by pollination or variety. All seed components were affected (P

Elizabeth, Conde-Lozano; Abelardo José, Saldívar-Fitzmaurice; Florencio, Briones-Encinia; Juan Carlos, Martínez-González.

2011-06-01

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Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria [...] Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC) en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable) las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto). Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil) y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54), pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P Abstract in english Self-pollination in the production of seed of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). The objective of this study was to compare different forms of pollination on the characteristics of seed of four varieties of Buffel grass. The study was carried out in the greenhouse and in the field of UAM Agronomia [...] y Ciencias in the Municipa ity of Victoria, Tamaulipas. We used four varieties of Buffel grass (Comun, Nueces, T-1754 and Formidable) which were subjected to two types of pollination (free and self-pollination). The design used was a completely randomized blocks design. Day at flowering of male and female organs was measured. In addition, pollen was classified (fertile, intermediate and infertile), and the effects of self-pollination and free pollination free on the characteristics of seed were recorded. No effects were observed on days at flowering of female organs (P = 0.54), but the male organs were affected (P = 0.03), so that Formidable variety plants required 2.3 days to mature. The number of fertile, intermediate and infertile pollen grains was not affected by pollination or variety. All seed components were affected (P

Elizabeth, Conde-Lozano; Abelardo José, Saldívar-Fitzmaurice; Florencio, Briones-Encinia; Juan Carlos, Martínez-González.

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Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4?×?4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods (n = 4). Animals were fed with BG with different levels of GS: 100% BG (T1, control), 90% BG + 10% GS (T2), 80% BG + 20% GS (T3), and 70% BG?+?30% GS (T4). Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P < 0.05) in those lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in the other treatments. CP digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in T4 compared to T1, T2, and T3. The study showed that inclusion of GS up to 30% with BG in forage-based diets of sheep does not affect DM and fiber intake nor influence DM and OM digestibilities but it increases CP intake and reduces NDF and ADF digestibilities. PMID:23420067

Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N; Valle-Cerdán, José L; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco; Angeles-Campos, Sergio; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar

2013-08-01

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Tackling Contentious Invasive Plant Species: A Case Study of Buffel Grass in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduced plants that have both production values and negative impacts can be contentious. Generally they are either treated as weeds and their use prohibited; or unfettered exploitation is permitted and land managers must individually contend with any negative effects. Buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) is contentious in Australia and there has been no attempt to broadly and systematically address the issues surrounding it. However, recent research indicates that there is some mutual acceptance by proponents and opponents of each others' perspectives and we contend that this provides the basis for a national approach. It would require thorough and on-going consultation with stakeholders and development of realistic goals that are applicable across a range of scales and responsive to regional differences in costs, benefits and socio-economic and biophysical circumstances. It would be necessary to clearly allocate responsibilities and ascertain the most appropriate balance between legislative and non-legislative mechanisms. A national approach could involve avoiding the introduction of additional genetic material, countering proliferation in regions where the species is sparse, preventing incursion into conservation reserves where it is absent, containing strategically located populations and managing communities to prevent or reduce dominance by buffel grass. This approach could be applied to other contentious plant species.

Grice, Anthony C.; Friedel, Margaret H.; Marshall, Nadine A.; van Klinken, Rieks D.

2012-02-01

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Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida / Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta áre [...] a destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusi [...] vely for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of the experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

Walter Alves de, Vasconcelos; Albericio Pereira de, Andrade; Edson Mauro, Santos; Ricardo Loiola, Edvan; Divan Soares, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva.

2013-03-01

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Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida / Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta áre [...] a destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusi [...] vely for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of the experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

Walter Alves de, Vasconcelos; Albericio Pereira de, Andrade; Edson Mauro, Santos; Ricardo Loiola, Edvan; Divan Soares, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva.

13

Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian) were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth cham [...] bers at three temperatures (day/night): 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER), leaf appearance rate (LAR), leaf lifespan (LL) and senescence rate (SR), whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM), root mass (RM), shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

Roberta Machado, Santos; Tadeu Vinhas, Voltolini; Francislene, Angelotti; Saulo de Tarso, Aidar; Agnaldo Rodrigues de Melo, Chaves.

2014-08-01

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Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian) were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth cham [...] bers at three temperatures (day/night): 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER), leaf appearance rate (LAR), leaf lifespan (LL) and senescence rate (SR), whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM), root mass (RM), shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

Roberta Machado, Santos; Tadeu Vinhas, Voltolini; Francislene, Angelotti; Saulo de Tarso, Aidar; Agnaldo Rodrigues de Melo, Chaves.

15

Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel Use of leucaena and Cajanus cajan as protein supplements for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena, com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha. As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan as protein sources, during the dry season for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures. Nine experimental treatments resulting from the combination among three types of pasture (buffel grass, buffel grass+Cajanus cajan, and buffel grass+leucaena and three stocking rates (4, 6 and 10 lambs/ ha were tested. Eighteen paddocks (two replicates of pastures per treatment of 0.5 ha were used. Sixty lambs with 19.4 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment were allocated to pastures with water and mineral supplement offered ad libitum. Animal liveweight was recorded at 14 day-intervals after 16 hours of fasting. Lambs on the pasture of buffel grass+leucaena showed good performance with no variation in daily liveweight gain rate, when the stocking rate increased from 4 to 6 animals/ha. Buffel grass+Cajanus cajan pasture did not improve animal performance as compared to buffel grass pasture. It was concluded that leucaena, used as protein supplement, can improve the quality of buffel grass pastures.

Antônio Alves de Souza

2000-04-01

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Características de produção do capim-buffel submetido a intensidades e freqüências de corte / Characteristics of production of buffel grass as function of cutting intensity and frequency  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas, estruturais e a produção de biomassa do capim-buffel sob intensidades e freqüências de corte. Utilizou-se um pasto já implantado de capimbuffel, cultivar Molopo. A área total utilizada foi dividida em 20 parcelas de 8 m² cada com linha de bordadura [...] de 1 m entre as parcelas. Foi utilizado um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, tendo nas parcelas um arranjo fatorial 2x2 referente a combinações entre duas alturas de corte (60 e 80 cm) e duas alturas de resíduo (20 e 40 cm), em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais, que receberam as denominações 20-60, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. Houve efeito (p0,05), entre os tratamentos. A freqüência e a intensidade de corte influenciaram o perfilhamento, relação lâmina/colmo e a produção de matéria seca do capim-buffel tanto para o corte como para a produção total. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics and biomass production of buffel grass as a function of cut intensities and frequencies. A previously established pasture of buffel grass cultivar Molopo was used. Total area was splited in twenty 8 m² expe [...] rimental unities with 1 m border lines. A split plot scheme was used with plot in factorial scheme 2x2 to combination of two height of cut (60 and 80 cm) and two height post cut (20 and 40 cm). The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with five replicates named 2060, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. There (p0.05) between treatments. Cutting frequency and intensities influenced tillering, leaf/ stem ratio and dry matter production for both the cut as to the total.

R.L., Edvan; E.M., Santos; D.S., Da Silva; A.P., De Andrade; R.G., Costa; W.A., Vasconcelos.

1281-12-01

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Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.  

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We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

2014-03-01

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Environmental Impact on Biomass and Allelopathic Effect of Cenchrus ciliaris.L  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted at the GEER foundation, Gandhinagar, India to evaluate environmental impact on biomass production of Cenchrus ciliaris.L (buffel grass and its allelopathic effect on Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum. These grasses were grown in separate plots and also in combination. Growth parameters which were studied for all sets were Shoot length, Above Ground Biomass (AGB, Below Ground Biomass (BGB and number of leaves and meteorological data were also recorded. It was observed that C.ciliaris could survive through extreme climate and Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum could not flourish in the presence of Cenchrus ciliaris, which resulted in the maximum biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris. The effect of different seasons on biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris was observed over a year. Statistical analysis of the data showed significant variation in biomass.

RAJKUMARI PARWANI

2013-06-01

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Efeito da adubação orgânica e altura de resíduo sobre a produção de fitomassa do capim-buffel / Effect of organic fertilization and stubble height on the production biomass of buffel grass  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de níveis de adubação orgânica utilizando esterco caprino e duas alturas de resíduo, sobre a produção de fitomassa do capim-buffel. Utilizou-se parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. As parcelas consistira [...] m de doses de esterco caprino (0; 5; 10; 15 e 20t/ha), e as subparcelas consistiram em duas alturas de resíduo (10 e 20cm). Para produção de matéria verde houve efeito de ciclo, como também houve interação entre altura de resíduo e adubação. Com relação à produção de matéria seca, houve efeito de altura de resíduo, de adubação e da época de corte, sendo que verificou diferenças entre alturas somente quando o capim recebeu doses 10 e 20t/ha de adubo orgânico. O acúmulo total de colmo apresentou incremento de forma linear, com a utilização das doses de adubação quando o capim foi colhido na altura de 10cm, não havendo ajustes de modelos quando o mesmo foi colhido a 20cm. Foi observado um aumento linear do acúmulo líquido na altura de 10cm conforme o acréscimo das doses de adubo. A adubação orgânica eleva a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel quando é cortado na altura de resíduo de10cm. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate effect of organic fertilization levels using goat manure and two stubble heights, on the biomass production of buffel grass. We used a split plot in a randomized complete block design with five replications. The plots consisted of doses of goat manure (0; 5 [...] ,;10, 15 and 20t/ha) and the subplots consisted of two heights of residue (10 and 20cm). In the production of green matter of buffel grass, had effect, as well as an interaction effect between stubble heights and fertilization. With respect to dry matter production of buffel grass, there was also an effect of stubble heights, fertilizer and cut time, and there were differences between heights only when the grass to received 10 and 20t/ha doses organic fertilizer. The total accumulation of stem showed a linear increase, using doses of fertilizer when the grass was harvested at the height of 10cm, without adjustments even when the templates were harvested at 20cm. There was a linear increase accumulation of liquid at the height of 10cm as the higher doses of fertilizer. The organic fertilization increases the biomass production of buffel grass is cut when the height of 10cm residue.

Poliane Meire Dias de, Freitas; Edson Mauro, Santos; João Paulo de Farias, Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra; Divan Soares, Silva; Ivandro de França da, Silva; Alexandre Fernandes, Perazzo; Gildênia Araújo, Pereira.

2013-09-01

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Discriminating tropical grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) canopies grown under different nitrogen treatments using spectroradiometry  

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Techniques for estimating and mapping pasture quality are critical for a better understanding of wildlife and livestock grazing patterns. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements that determine quality in plants. We assessed the potential to discriminate differences in nitrogen concentration using high-resolution reflectance by growing Cenchrus ciliaris grass with different fertilization treatments in a greenhouse. Canopy spectral measurements from each treatment were taken under controlled laboratory conditions within a period of 4 weeks using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer. Results show that there were statistically significant differences in spectral reflectance between treatments within certain wavelength regions—an encouraging result for classifying and mapping grasslands with different levels of nutrients using hyperspectral remote sensing. We further investigated the effect of varying nitrogen supply to a specific absorption feature in the visible between 550 and 750 nm (R 550- 750) using continuum-removed spectra. Results show that the high nitrogen treatment had deeper and wider absorption pits as compared to the low nitrogen treatment as well as the control (no nitrogen), which is important for the prediction of nitrogen in grass canopies. This is a promising result for the remote sensing of canopy chemistry since emphasis can be shifted from the mid-infrared region (which is highly masked by water absorption) to the visible region. Overall, the results provide the possibility to map variation in pasture quality using hyperspectral remote sensing.

Mutanga, Onisimo; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van Wieren, Sipke

 
 
 
 
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Microbial and fermentation profiles, losses and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass harvested at different cutting heights  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study evaluated the microbial population, fermentation profile, losses and dry matter recovery, and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass at different cutting heights. To evaluate the microbial fermentation dynamics, the treatments resulted from?a 4 × 5 factorial combination co [...] nsisting of 4 cutting heights and 5 fermentation periods, in a completely randomized design with three replications. The fermentation was evaluated at the end of 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. The other characteristics of silages with 30 days were evaluated following a completely randomized design with four treatments, consisting of 4 cutting heights (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm), and five replications. Fermentation period and cutting height effects and interaction between both factors were observed on the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterobacteria and molds and yeasts. The peak of development of LAB populations was observed on the seventh day of fermentation for the heights of 40 and 50 cm, with 8.25 and 8.30 log cfu/g, respectively. The pH values of silages ranged with different cutting heights, in which at the height of 50 cm the decrease was most pronounced. However, the pH values were similar between the cutting heights at the end of 30 days of fermentation. Quadratic relationship was observed between lactic acid concentrations and cutting heights. The crude protein content behaved linearly, initially showing 128.5 g/kg DM at 30 cm, decreasing as the cutting heights increased. The neutral detergent fiber and ether extract contents increased linearly with the cutting heights. Based on microbial populations, fermentation, losses and chemical composition, it is recommended to harvest buffel grass for silage from 50 cm on.

Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Edson Mauro, Santos; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Ana Paula Gomes da, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva; Fleming Sena, Campos; Carlos Henrique Oliveira, Macedo.

2013-12-01

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Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus) and evaluation of their bioactivity  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids) of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and [...] carotenoids) of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E)-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%), ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one) (4.31%), fagarsterol (lupeol) (1.25%) and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%). Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

Premlata, Singariya; Padma, Kumar; Krishan Kumar, Mourya.

2014-02-01

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Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus) and evaluation of their bioactivity  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids) of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and [...] carotenoids) of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E)-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%), ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one) (4.31%), fagarsterol (lupeol) (1.25%) and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%). Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

Premlata, Singariya; Padma, Kumar; Krishan Kumar, Mourya.

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Producción de materia seca en una asociación Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaenaleucocephala al aplazar su utilización durante la época seca / Dry matter production in an association of Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaena leucocephala subjected to a deferring use during the dry season  

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Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En una región semiárida del occidente de Venezuela en el estado Zulia, se estudió el efecto de cuatro períodos de aplazamiento de utilización (PAU: 42, 84, 126 y 168 días) después del primer corte sobre la acumulación de biomasa en una asociación pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) y leucaena (Leucaena [...] leucocephala), estimándose la producción de sus componentes en la gramínea (hojas, tallos y material muerto) y la leguminosa conformada por la fracción fina (hojas, pecíolos y tallos menores de 5 mm de diámetro) y la fracción gruesa (tallos mayores de 5 mm de diámetro), a través del perfil del pastizal donde se consideraron tres estratos en el pasto buffel (0-15, 15-30 y >30 cm) y en leucaena (0-60, 60-120 y >120 cm). En ambas especies, después del corte de cada PAU, las parcelas se cosecharon cada 42 días para evaluar el rebrote. El diseño experimental usado fue de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se observaron rendimientos para ambas especies de 1.146 y 1.925 kg MS/ha para el pasto buffel y la leucaena, respectivamente. Solo en la leguminosa se encontraron diferencias (P>0,05) entre tratamientos siendo los PAU sobresalientes los de 42 y 0 días. La mayor proporción de hoja y el menor contenido de material muerto (P Abstract in english In a semi-arid region in western Venezuela at Zulia state, we studied the effect of four periods of deferment of use (PDU: 42, 84, 126, and 168 days) after the first cut on the accumulation of biomass in an association of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), estimat [...] ing production of its components in the grass (leaves, stems, and dead material) and the legume fine fraction (leaves, leaf stalk, and stems with diameter less than 5 mm) and thick fraction (stems with diameter above 5 mm). Plant samples were taken at three strata for buffel (0-15, 15-30, and > 30 cm) and leucaena (0-60, 60-120, and > 120 cm). After every PDU cut, plots were harvested every 42 days to evaluate regrowth. A randomized block experimental design with three replicates was used. Results indicated yields for both species with values of 1,146 and 1,925 kg DM/ha for buffel and leucaena, respectively. There were found differences among treatments (P>0.05) only on the legume being the best PDU 42 and 0 days. The highest leaf proportion and the lowest dead material content (P

Alexander, Sánchez; Jesús Faria, Mármol; Cesar, Araque.

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Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN e hídrico (BH, de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2 e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9. De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia e Biloela (3,9g/dia, e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia. Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal.The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB and water balances (WB of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred Santa Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2 and % of body weight (2.9. In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day and Biloela (3.9g/day and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day. All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

R.A. Souza

2013-04-01

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Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel / Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN) e hídrico (BH), de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. [...] Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2) e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9). De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia) e Biloela (3,9g/dia), e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia) e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia). Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal. Abstract in english The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB) and water balances (WB) of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred San [...] ta Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2) and % of body weight (2.9). In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day) and Biloela (3.9g/day) and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day) and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day). All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela) presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

R.A., Souza; T.V., Voltolini; G.G.L., Araújo; L.G.R., Pereira; S.A., Moraes; C., Mistura; K.V.J., Belem; G.M.B., Moreno.

2013-04-01

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COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY  

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Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

Singariya P.

2012-04-01

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Nutrient Balance of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement  

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Full Text Available In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

A.A. Aganga

2006-01-01

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Tizón foliar del pasto buffel: su presencia en Tamaulipas, México / Buffelgrass leaf blight: its precence in Tamaulipas, Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la región semiárida del norte de Tamaulipas México, el pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), var. Común, predomina en un área de 260 000 ha y existen otras 302 000 con potencial para ser aprovechadas con este pasto. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución, severidad de ataque y [...] pérdidas en la producción que ocasiona el tizón foliar (Pyricularia grisea) sobre el pasto buffel. Se realizaron muestreos en praderas del norte de Tamaulipas del 13 al 18 de octubre en 15 sitios en 2002 y 12 en 2003. En cada sitio se determinó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque del tizón foliar. La pérdida de rendimiento se estimó en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2004 y otoño-invierno de 2005, mediante la comparación de plantas con y sin la protección de fungicidas. Además, se evaluó la reacción al tizón foliar en 16 cultivares de buffel introducidos. La presencia del tizón se observó en todos los sitios muestreados con una severidad promedio de 5.3 en una escala de 0-9. La mayor severidad de ataque se asoció a plantas estresadas por sequía o condiciones edáficas adversas, mientras que lamenor se observó en sitios que presentaron condiciones favorables para el desarrollo de la planta o cuando el pasto se encontró en la etapa de prefloración. La mayor severidad de Pyricularia grisea se observó en el ciclo primavera-verano (2004), comparado con el ciclo otoño-invierno (2005), debido a las condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa favorable s para el patógeno. Las pérdidas en el ciclo primavera-verano fueron de 11% en clorofila, 20-26% en biomasa y 13% en proteína; por el contrario, no se registraron pérdidas significativas en otoño-invierno. Los 16 cultivares introducidos mostraron resistencia a Pyricularia grisea. Los resultados indicaron que el tizón del pasto buffel es una enfermedad epifítica en la var. Común, en Tamaulipas, con mayor prevalencia en el ciclo primavera-verano y resistencia en cultivares introducidos. Abstract in english In the semiarid region of northern Tamaulipas, Mexico, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) var, Comun predominate in 260 000 ha and there are 360 000 additional suitable to be sown with this grass. The objective of this study was to determinate the distribution, severity and production loss caused by [...] the leaf blight (Piricularia grisea) on buffelgrass. Samples were taken from northern Tamaulipas range lands at 15 sites on 2002 and 12 sites on 2003. The incidence and severity of leaf blight was registered for every site with three replications from 8/13 to 8/18 for both years. Yield loss was determinate at spring-summer season 2004 and fall-winter 2005 by means of comparison between fungicide protected and unprotected plants. The reaction of buffelgrass to foliar blight was determinated on 16 introduced cultivars. Leaf blight presence was detected at all sites with an average severity of 5.3 in a scale from 0 to 9 .The highest attack severity was observed on plants stressed by drought or adverse edafic conditions; while the lower severity was observed on sites where favorable conditions occurred or when the grass was at the preflowering stage. At the spring-summer 2004 season losses were 11% in chlorophyll content, 20-26% in biomass and 13% in protein content; on the contrary, no significant reduction of these parameters was observed at the fall-winter season 2005. The 16 introduced cultivars showed resistance to Pyricularia gricea. Results demonstrated that buffelgrass leaf blight is an epidemic disease in the Comun var., in Tamaulipas, with high prevalence at the spring-summer season and there is resistance to the disease in introduced cultivars.

Arturo, Díaz Franco; Asunción, Méndez Rodríguez; Rubén, Garza Cedillo.

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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel / Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pel [...] o sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simula [...] ted by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E, SILVA; DERMEVAL ARAÚJO, FURTADO; JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE, MATOS.

1867-18-01

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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel / Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pel [...] o sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simula [...] ted by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E, SILVA; DERMEVAL ARAÚJO, FURTADO; JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE, MATOS.

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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

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Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

2000-09-01

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Avaliação de fenos de capim-buffel colhido em diferentes alturas de corte / Evaluation of buffelgrass hay harvested at different cutting heights  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, composição bromatológica e recuperação de matéria seca do feno de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), colhido em diferentes alturas de corte. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental Pendência, da Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da [...] Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA), situada no Município de Soledade-PB. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro alturas de corte (30; 40; 50 e 60cm) e cinco repetições. O rendimento forrageiro foi influenciado pela altura de colheita, com aumento linear alcançando produção de matéria seca de 7206,78kg/ha a 60cm de altura. Observou-se efeito de altura de colheita para os conteúdos de lâmina, colmo e relação lâmina:colmo na matéria seca, em que os valores da relação lâmina:colmo diminuíram com o aumento da altura de colheita, obtendo valores de 0,87 e 0,48 quando colhidos aos 30 e 60cm de altura, respectivamente. Obteve-se efeito quadrático de altura de colheita apenas para o teor de fibra em detergente neutro, com teores variando de 71,82 a 77,08% na matéria seca. Os valores médios de matéria seca do feno variaram entre 82,44 e 84,48%. A recuperação de matéria seca durante a desidratação diminuiu em função das alturas de colheita, apresentando comportamento linear com menor média observada no capim colhido a 60cm de altura (76,58%). A ausência de variação nos constituintes bromatológicos e nas perdas de matéria seca final e as maiores produções de biomassa nas maiores alturas de colheita permite concluir que o capim-buffel seja colhido nas alturas de colheita que possibilite maior produção. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the forage yield, chemical composition and dry matter recovery of buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), at different cutting heights. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Pendência of Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A (EMEPA) [...] , located in city of Soledade-PB. A randomized complete block design was used, with four cutting heights (30; 40; 50 and 60cm) with five replicates. The forage yield had effect with a linear increase in values achieving dry matter yield 7206.78kg/ha for 60cm height. There was harvesting height effect for leaf, stem and leaf:stem ratio in dry matter, wherein the values of leaf:stem ratio decreased with increasing harvesting height, getting values of 0.87 to 0.48 when harvested at 30 and 60cm height, respectively. Quadratic effect was observed in harvesting height only to the neutral detergent fiber, with contents ranging from 71.82 to 77.08% in dry matter. The average values of dry matter of hay were between 82.44 and 84.48%. The dry matter recovery in dehydration decreased in function of harvesting heights, showing linear behavior, with the smallest average observed for the grass to 60cm (76.58%). The absence of variation in the bromatological constituents and dry matter final losses and higher biomass production in the highest cutting harvest may conclude that buffel grass is to be harvested in the cutting height that enable greater production.

Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Edson Mauro, Santos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Fleming Sena, Campos; Gildenia Araujo, Pereira; Robervânia Maria, Correia.

2013-09-01

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Faecal Microbial Flora of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia sericea or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement  

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Full Text Available Fifteen female and ten castrated yearling Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into five groups of five goats of which 3 were females and 2 were males. The objectives of the project was to determine effects of T. serecia and B. albitrunca at two levels on faecal egg worm count, bacterial count and bacterial identification. All the goats were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris as a basal diet, while Medicago sativa (0% tannin content was fed to the control group as a supplements. The other four groups were fed low B. albitrunca (0.267% tannin in diet, high B. albitrunca (0.497% tannin in diet, Low T. serecia (0.342% tannin in diet and high T. serecia (0.497% tannin in diet as a supplement. The basal diet comprised of 60% of the ration, while Lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Wheat bran was provided at 250 g to provide energy for the goats. Water was provided daily. The study lasted for 60 days and faecal sampling was done fortnightly from the rectum of the goats in the morning. The faecal samples which were collected fortnightly from rectum of the goats were used for evaluation of egg worm count and bacterial identification. After a week of feeding T. sericea there was significant reduction on egg worm count (p<0.05, while on other treatments there were no significant differences in all faecal sampling dates (p>0.05.

A.A. Aganga

2006-01-01

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Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman Under Barani Conditions  

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Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/determined at the end of spring season. The different growing season (spring summer is lacking. Estimation of shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant in two growing different seasons is essential in grazing management studies. At the beginnings of spring season reserve carbohydrates are used for the production of new shoots. The shoot biomass at the end of spring season is generally less compared to the end of summer season. The shoot and root biomass estimating of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of two different growing season is required to devise the grazing management programme. This study is proposed to quantify the shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of spring and summer growing seasons.

M. Umar Farooq

2003-01-01

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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómic [...] a del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación) permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth. Abstract in english Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of specie [...] s of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation). To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Hugo F, Gutiérrez; Osvaldo, Morrone.

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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae  

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Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Hugo F Gutiérrez

2012-06-01

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Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm, number of tillers per plant (96, dry matter yield (22 t ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forage yield and crude protein content in the Pothwar plateau conditions.

Maria Ali

2001-01-01

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Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection / Obtención de nuevo germoplasma en Cenchrus ciliaris L. a través de mutaciones inducidas y selección in vitro  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cenchrus ciliaris L., una forrajera subtropical de amplia distribución en la zona noroeste de Argentina, es un especie tetraploide (4x = 36) y apomíctica obligada. Una forma de obtener nuevo germoplasma es mediante mutaciones inducidas. En este trabajo, mutaciones físicas y químicas se combinaron co [...] n técnicas de selección in vitro a fin de obtener nuevo germoplama, con énfasis en tolerancia a salinidad y sequía. Semillas maduras de Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela fueron tratadas con rayos X (400 Gray) y con una solución de etil metano sulfonato (5,5 mM EMS durante 24 h). Para realizar la selección in vitro, las plántulas que germinaron 7 días después de los tratamientos mutagénicos fueron transferidas a tubos que contenían medio basal Murashige y Skoog, suplementado con NaCl o manitol para simular condiciones de salinidad y sequía, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron cincuenta y cuatro plantas selectas que toleraron 200 mM NaCl y 100 mM de manitol. Ambos agentes mutagénicos exhibieron similares porcentajes de variación genética medida a través de RAPDs. Este trabajo demostró que es posible generar variabilidad genética en Cenchrus ciliaris L. mediante el uso de agentes mutagénicos y selección in vitro. Abstract in english Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedu [...] res seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays treatments, germinated seeds were transferred to tubes containing Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with NaCl or mannitol to simulate salinity and drought conditions, respectively. Fifty-four selected plants were isolated which tolerated 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM mannitol. Both mutagenic agents exhibited similar percentages of induced genetic variation measured through RAPD polymorphisms. This work demonstrated that genetic variability can be generated in Cenchrus ciliaris L. using mutagenic agents and in vitro selection.

E, López Colomba; A, Prina; S, Griffa; AN, Ribotta; E, Carloni; E, Tommasino; C, Luna; E, Biderbost; K, Grunberg.

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Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection / Obtención de nuevo germoplasma en Cenchrus ciliaris L. a través de mutaciones inducidas y selección in vitro  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish Cenchrus ciliaris L., una forrajera subtropical de amplia distribución en la zona noroeste de Argentina, es un especie tetraploide (4x = 36) y apomíctica obligada. Una forma de obtener nuevo germoplasma es mediante mutaciones inducidas. En este trabajo, mutaciones físicas y químicas se combinaron co [...] n técnicas de selección in vitro a fin de obtener nuevo germoplama, con énfasis en tolerancia a salinidad y sequía. Semillas maduras de Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela fueron tratadas con rayos X (400 Gray) y con una solución de etil metano sulfonato (5,5 mM EMS durante 24 h). Para realizar la selección in vitro, las plántulas que germinaron 7 días después de los tratamientos mutagénicos fueron transferidas a tubos que contenían medio basal Murashige y Skoog, suplementado con NaCl o manitol para simular condiciones de salinidad y sequía, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron cincuenta y cuatro plantas selectas que toleraron 200 mM NaCl y 100 mM de manitol. Ambos agentes mutagénicos exhibieron similares porcentajes de variación genética medida a través de RAPDs. Este trabajo demostró que es posible generar variabilidad genética en Cenchrus ciliaris L. mediante el uso de agentes mutagénicos y selección in vitro. Abstract in english Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedu [...] res seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays treatments, germinated seeds were transferred to tubes containing Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with NaCl or mannitol to simulate salinity and drought conditions, respectively. Fifty-four selected plants were isolated which tolerated 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM mannitol. Both mutagenic agents exhibited similar percentages of induced genetic variation measured through RAPD polymorphisms. This work demonstrated that genetic variability can be generated in Cenchrus ciliaris L. using mutagenic agents and in vitro selection.

E, López Colomba; A, Prina; S, Griffa; AN, Ribotta; E, Carloni; E, Tommasino; C, Luna; E, Biderbost; K, Grunberg.

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

2013-01-01

42

Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

2011-12-01

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Ruminal digestion and chemical composition of new genotypes of buffelgrass (cenchrus ciliaris l.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho avalia e compara a produção de matéria seca (MST), conteúdo nutricional e capacidade de degradação efetiva da matéria seca (DEMS), proteína crua (DEPC) e parede celular (DEFDN) de cinco novas líneas e um híbrido de pasto buffel no nordeste do México. O consumo potencial de minerais con [...] tidos nos novos genótipos por bovinos também foi estimado. Todos os pastos se estabeleceram sob condições de temporal usando um desenho completamente ao azar com três repetições. A colheita manual de plantas foi levada adiante em 14 nov., 2000, em Nuevo León, México. A produção de MST não foi significativamente diferente entre pastos. No entanto, a proteína crua, parede celular e seus componentes (celulosa, hemi-celulosa e lignina) foram significativamente diferentes entre os pastos avaliados. Assim mesmo, DEMS, DEPC e DEFDN foram significativamente diferentes entre pastos. A híbrida "Nozes" teve os valores mais altos para degrabilidade, enquanto que a línea PI 2 teve os valores mais baixos. Ao parecer o alto conteúdo de lignina nos novos genótipos pode ter influído na baixa degradação dos nutrientes no rúmen dos borregos. Só K, Fe e Co, em todos os pastos, tiveram concentrações suficientes para satisfazer os requerimentos de gado de carne. Os resultados de produção de matéria seca e dinâmica nutricional sugerem que as novas líneas PI 1 e PI 4 podem ser consideradas como bons substitutos do híbrido Nozes para ruminantes em pastoreio no nordeste do México. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo evalúa y compara la producción de materia seca (MST), el contenido nutrimental y degradabilidad efectiva de la materia seca (DEMS), proteína cruda (DEPC) y pared celular (DEFDN) de cinco nuevas líneas y un híbrido de pasto buffel en el noreste de México. El consumo potencial de minerale [...] s contenidos en los nuevos genotipos por bovinos también fue estimado. Todos los pastos se establecieron bajo condiciones de temporal usando un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. La colecta manual de plantas fue llevada a cabo el 14 nov., 2000, en Nuevo León, México. La producción de MST no fue significativamente diferente entre zacates. Sin embargo, la proteína cruda, pared celular y sus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los pastos evaluados. Asimismo, DEMS, DEPC y DEFDN fueron significativamente diferentes entre pastos. El híbrido Nueces tuvo los valores más altos para degrabilidad, mientras la línea PI 2 tuvo los valores más bajos. Al parecer el alto contenido de lignina en los nuevos genotipos pudo haber influido en la baja degradación de los nutrientes en el rumen de los borregos. Solo K, Fe y Co, en todos los zacates, tuvieron concentraciones suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos de ganado de carne. Los resultados de producción de materia seca y dinámica nutricional sugieren que las nuevas líneas PI 1 y PI 4 pueden ser consideradas como buenos substitutos del híbrido Nueces para rumiantes en pastoreo en el noreste de México. Abstract in english This study evaluates and compares the dry matter production (TDM), chemical composition and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), crude protein (EDCP) and neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF) of the Nueces hybrid and five new genotypes of buffelgrass growing in Northeastern Mexico. Potential inta [...] ke of minerals by cattle consuming the new genotypes was also estimated. All grasses were established in a completely randomized design with three replicates in a rain fed experiment. Plants were hand harvested on Nov. 14, 2000 at Nuevo Leon, Mexico. TDM was not significantly different among genotypes. Crude protein content and cell wall and its components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were significantly different among grasses. Also, EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF were significantly different among the buffelgrass genotypes. The Nueces hybrid had the highest degradability values

Guillermo Juan, García Dessommes; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Rahim, Foroughbackhch P.; Rocío, Morales Rodríguez; Graciela, García Díaz.

2003-04-01

44

Nutritional Evaluation of Major Range Grasses from Cholistan Desert  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritional status of ten grass species from Cholistan desert. The evaluated species were: Aeluropus lagopoides, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Lasiurus scindicus, Ochthochloa compressa, Panicum antidotale, Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum divisum, Sporobolus iocladus and Stipagrostis plumosa. Proximate analysis showed that the investigated grasses have deficient levels of crude protein and ether extract to meet the requirements of ruminants being reared there but have sufficient supplies of dry matter, crude fiber and ash. However, fiber analysis reflected that all the ten investigated grasses have high levels of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemi-cellulose and lignin.

Shahid Yaqoob

2013-01-01

45

Kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe inname van staandehooi van twee Cenchrus ciliaris kultivars (Afrikaans)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to determine if significant differences, in terms of grazing parameters, intake, animal performane and digestibility, existed between foggage of Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo and Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Gayndah. A grazing trial as well as a partial digestibility study was done with sheep. The following parameters were used: grazing parameters (dry matter availability and structure of the grazing), qualitative and quantitative intake, animal production and partial digesti...

Jacobs, Salmon Stephanus

2006-01-01

46

Kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe inname van staandehooi van twee Cenchrus ciliaris kultivars (Afrikaans)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to determine if significant differences, in terms of grazing parameters, intake, animal performane and digestibility, existed between foggage of Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo and Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Gayndah. A grazing trial as well as a partial digestibility study was done with sheep. The following parameters were used: grazing parameters (dry matter availability and structure of the grazing), qualitative and quantitative intake, animal production an...

Jacobs, Salmon Stephanus

2007-01-01

47

Mycorrhizas in the Perennial Grasses of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Roots of eleven perennial grass species and their associated rhizosphere soil samples were collected from different rangeland habitats of Cholistan desert and studied for the occurrence of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM associations of Glomalean fungi with their roots and AM fungal propagules in their rhizospheres. Panicum antidotale roots showed highest percentage of AMF colonization (i.e., 92.75% while lowest percentage (43.5% was recorded in the roots of Cyprus conglomeratus. Roots of all the grasses studied had vesicular infection whereas only 27.27% grass species exhibited arbuscular infection. Except Cenchrus biflorus, Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE fungal hyphae were always present concurrently with the AMF hyphae in the cortices of all the root samples of the grass species studied. Average number of AMF propagules recovered from the rhizospheres of the grasses examined in the present study ranged from 19.33 in Ochthochloa compressa to 356.32 in Cenchrus biflorus. Spores belonging to the Glomus sp. such as G. fasciculatus, G. deserticola and G. agrigatum were the dominant ones among the AMF species encountered in this study. Maximum number of AMF species were recovered from the rhizospheres of Cymbopogon jwarancusa. The potential significance of AMF in the development of mycorrhiza dependent perennial grasses of Cholistan desert is discussed. Researchers could use this knowledge in the revegetation attempts to put a green mantle on the desertified land and to stabilize sand dunes.

M.S. Chaudhry

2006-01-01

48

Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris. PMID:23553451

Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

2013-07-01

49

Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae  

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Full Text Available The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of C. ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S, displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level. For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes.

Amina Kharrat-Souissi

2012-08-01

50

Allelopathic Effect of Seed and Leaf Aqueous Extracts of Datura stramonium on Leaf Chlorophyll Content, Shoot and Root Elongation of Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii  

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Full Text Available Pot experiment was carried out to determine the allelopathic effects of Datura stramonium on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot elongation, fresh and dry weight of two wild plant species: Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii. Different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% from seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium were used to investigate the allelopathic effects of D. stramonium on growth of tested species. The total chlorophyll content of N. wightii was significantly reduced in all plants treated with both aqueous seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium. In C. ciliaris, the total chlorophyll content was also significantly reduced for those plants treated with aqueous seed extract and leaf extract from D. stramonium. Relative to the control treatments, there was greater reduction in root and shoot length which was observed in higher concentrations of aqueous seed and leaf extracts. Fresh and dry weight of tested species significantly decreased after being treated with both seed and leaf aqueous extracts of D. stramonium. It was found that the allelopathic effect of aqueous seed and leaf extracts from D. stramonium on tested species was concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effects on all tested species increased as the concentration of both extracts increased from 0% to 100%. This study concluded that aqueous seed and leaf extract of D. stramonium have allelopathic effects on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of grass (C. ciliaris and legume (N. wightii species.

Filemon Elisante

2013-11-01

51

Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine  

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Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicações em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1, combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas.Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. This work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 , combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers. Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

H.A. Dan

2011-03-01

52

Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine / Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicaçõ [...] es em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1), combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos) por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas. Abstract in english Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. Thi [...] s work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 ), combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers). Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

H.A., Dan; L.G.M., Dan; A.L.L., Barroso; R.S., Oliveira JR.; D.G., Alonso; T.R., Finotti.

53

Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

2010-12-01

54

Grass Lignocellulose  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

Akin, Danny E.

55

Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco / Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de [...] amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS)/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), fibras em detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), material mineral (MM), carboidratos totais (CHOT) e não-fibrosos (CNF), respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), respectivamente. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determinati [...] on. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth.), ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ashes (ASH), total carbohydrates (TCH) and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC), respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

Gladston Rafael de Arruda, Santos; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos, Santos; Marcelo de Andrade, Ferreira; Mário de Andrade, Lira; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Júnior; Maria José da, Silva.

2005-04-01

56

Ecophysiology of the invader Pennisetum setaceum and three native grasses in the Canary Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass) is an aggressive invader in the arid and semi-arid habitats of the tropics and subtropics. In the last twenty years the spread of fountain grass in the Canary Islands has been very rapid. We compared its ecophysiological, architectural and reproductive traits with those of three native grasses ( Hyparrhenia hirta, Cenchrus ciliaris and Aristida adscensionis) in two habitats of Tenerife Island which differ in rainfall. The detection of traits that differ between native and invader grasses may provide information for the improved control and eradication of the latter contributing to protect the native plant diversity. P. setaceum and the native grasses differed in all measured traits and in their response to water availability which is more restricted in the southern site. Specific leaf area was lower in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. Although this reduces carbon assimilation per unit area, it also reduces transpiration, increasing water use efficiency and contributes to the maintenance of high relative water content. Leaf N in P. setaceum was lower than in the native grasses indicating higher nitrogen use efficiency. The activity of photosystem II was higher and lasted longer in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. The ecophysiological traits of P. setaceum support its large size, extensive canopy and shorter leaf senescence period. They confer considerable competitive advantage to the invader and partially explain its success in the Canary Islands. The differences between the invader and the native grasses were maintained in both sites revealing a good adaptation of P. setaceum to the low resource local habitats in the Canary Islands and confirms its large plasticity. The large invasive potential of P. setaceum, in concert with the projected global changes, forecast eventual risks for the conservation of the endemic flora and remaining native communities in the Canary Islands.

González-Rodríguez, Agueda M. a.; Baruch, Zdravko; Palomo, Debora; Cruz-Trujillo, Gilberto; Jiménez, M. a. Soledad; Morales, Domingo

2010-03-01

57

Wheat grass selection  

Science.gov (United States)

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA;ARS)

2006-09-25

58

Biocontrol Ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Different Growth Stages of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the biological control ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola infected to parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. at different stages of growth in a glasshouse. The study also investigated the combined effect of the infection and the competitor plant, i.e. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., a pasture species usually found in the weed habitat in Central Queensland. The 2 x 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates in each treatment. The parthenium weeds were planted with or without buffel grass. The plants were inoculated with P. abrupta var. partheniicola urediniospores either at the rosette, flowering or mature growth stage of development. As controls, an additional six non inoculated plants with and without buffel grass were planted. The results showed that P. abrupta var. partheniicola affected more on the younger plants than on the older ones. Its infection decreased the plant height. A higher reduction in plant above ground biomass was recorded because of the rust when the plants were inoculated at the rosette growth stage of development in the presence of competition. The impact of the rust was greatest on the ability of parthenium to produce seeds.

MOHAMAD TAUFIK FAUZI

2009-09-01

59

ESTUDIOS EN GRAMÍNEAS (POACEAE) DE COLOMBIA: VEINTE NOVEDADES COROLÓGICAS / Studies on Colombian grasses (Poaceae): Twenty chorological novelties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se dan a conocer veinte novedades para la flora de Colombia: Agrostis mertensii, Agrostis perennans, Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis subrepens, Agrostis tolucensis, Aristida schiedeana, Arundo donax, Bouteloua aristidoides, Bouteloua simplex, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cortaderia selloana, Cynodon dactylon, [...] Cynodon nlemfuensis, Heteropogon contortus, Microchloa kunthii, Paspalidium geminatum, Pharus parvifolius, Tragus berteronianus, Urochloa distachya y Zoysia matrella. Se presentan la distribución geográfica, las preferencias ecológicas, los nombres comunes, los usos y las afinidades morfológicas para cada una de las especies. Asimismo, se excluyen de la flora de Colombia las siguientes especies: Agrostis araucana (= Agrostis magellanica), Agrostis foliosa (= Agrostis pallens), Agrostis haenkeana (= Polypogon exasperatus) y Agrostis turrialbae. Abstract in english As result of recent studies of Colombian grasses, 20 new records of Poaceae are given: Agrostis mertensii, Agrostis perennans, Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis subrepens, Agrostis tolucensis, Aristida schiedeana, Arundo donax, Bouteloua aristidoides, Bouteloua simplex, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cortaderia se [...] lloana, Cynodon dactylon, Cynodon nlemfuensis, Heteropogon contortus, Microchloa kunthii, Paspalidium geminatum, Pharus parvifolius, Tragus berteronianus, Urochloa distachya, and Zoysia matrella. The geographical distribution, ecological preferences, vernacular names, uses, and the morphological relationships are presented under each species. Agrostis araucana (= Agrostis magellanica), Agrostis foliosa (= Agrostis pallens), Agrostis haenkeana (= Polypogon exasperatus), and Agrostis turrialbae are excluded from Colombian flora.

JOHN ALEJANDRO, GARCÍA-ULLOA; CAMILO, LASTRA; CÉSAR, SALAS; MÓNICA, MEDINA MERCHÁN.

2005-06-30

60

Grass Wave (Perconia strigillaria)  

...Nature ReservesResearchSurveillance and MonitoringNatural Heritage Grant ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkGrass Wave (Perconia strigillaria)Last updated: 31 December 2010Description: Wingspan 36-41mm. Adults...

 
 
 
 
61

Diversidad de las gramíneas de Durango, México / Diversity of the grasses from Durango, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estado de Durango, México, cuya posición geográfica se ubica en la región centro-norte del país, presenta una topografía rugosa y un clima y geología variables, lo que le confiere una riqueza florística relativamente alta en comparación con otras entidades de México. La presencia de gramíneas var [...] iadas en este estado le ha permitido ser productor de ganado de exportación durante el último siglo, Herrera (2001) reporta 97 géneros y 338 especies de gramíneas para Durango, que comparadas con otras entidades resulta ser tan sólo superada por cinco estados mexicanos: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca y Sinaloa por el número de especies (Dávila y col., 2006). En este trabajo se muestra la distribución de los taxa que se encuentran creciendo en respuesta a las condiciones climáticas del estado, así como otros grupos de especies interesantes por su condición para subsistir: 1) especies endémicas [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] y especies raras o escasas [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) especies adaptadas a suelos salinos, alcalinos o yesosos [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) especies introducidas para ser cultivadas y escapadas de cultivo [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Megathyrsus maximus]; 4) especies que requieren ambientes acuáticos y subacuáticos [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum]. Abstract in english Durango is a state located at the north-central part of Mexico, because of its geographical position it has a rugose topography, a variable climate and geology which confers to it a relatively high floristic richness compared to other Mexican states. The presence of varied grasses in this area has p [...] ermitted to it being a cattle production in the last century, Herrera (2001) reported 97 genera and 338 species of grasses from Durango, that compared with other entities results to be surpassed only for 5 Mexican states: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca and Sinaloa based on the number of species (Dávila y col., 2006). The distribution of grasses growing in response to the climatic conditions of the State is shown, as well as other species which are interesting because of the condition to subsist: 1) endemic species [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] and rare species [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) species adapted to saline, alcaline or gypsofile soils [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) introduced species to be cultivated and escaped from cultivars [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Urochloa máxima]; 4) species which are aquatic or subaquatic [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum].

Yolanda, Herrera Arrieta; Armando, Cortés Ortiz.

62

GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7  

Science.gov (United States)

The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the new Python interface allows to directly access functions provided by the underlying C library; this combines the ease of writing Python scripts with the power of optimized C functionality in the library backend.

Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

2014-05-01

63

Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramíneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto / Effect of polycropping on the establishment of three tropical grasses, on a Vertisol soil of the Cauto Valley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramíneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramíneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide) y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino [...] ; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz) en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro réplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interacción altamente significativa (p Abstract in english In order to evaluate the influence of polycropping on the establishment of grasses, on a Vertisol soil, three tropical grasses (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela and Chloris gayana cv. Callide) and five legumes (Vigna radiata, variety mung bean; and Vigna unguiculata, varieti [...] es: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 and IITA precoz) were sown in polycrop and monocrop systems. The design was split plots, with four replications and 18 treatments. The crop combinations did not affect the pasture establishment. There was highly significant interaction (p

I, Gómez; J. L, Fernández; L. L, Estrada; Yuseika, Olivera; A, Botello.

2014-03-01

64

Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

65

Germinación de cuatro pastos bajo condiciones de estrés salino / Germination of four grasses under salt stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las forrajeras cultivadas son en Argentina el sustento fundamental de los sistemas ganaderos tradicionales. Actualmente, la implantación de pasturas en zonas cada vez más áridas es uno de los principales desafíos para la ganadería. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la germinación de cuatro esp [...] ecies forrajeras: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas y Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino. Se utilizaron soluciones de NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 y Manitol como soluto inerte, obteniéndose potenciales osmóticos (?o) de -0,5, -1, -1,5, -2,0 y -2,5 MPa. Las semillas se sembraron en cajas de Petri sobre papel de germinación, se regaron con 4 mL de solución y se incubaron a 25 °C. El diseño fue al azar con 4 repeticiones. Diariamente, durante 10 días, se contó el número de semillas germinadas y con los datos obtenidos se calculó el porcentaje, la velocidad de germinación (ERI) y el tiempo medio de germinación (MT). Los datos se analizaron con el software estadístico Infostat. A medida que se incrementó la concentración de la solución se observó que la germinación disminuyó en las cuatro especies. En general las sales de SO4-2 resultaron más perjudiciales para la germinación que las de Cl-. Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas resultó la especie más tolerante al estrés hídrico inducido con manitol, registrando porcentajes de germinación cercanos al 50% aún en ?o de -2,5 MPa. En contraste, Panicumcoloratun cv Klein verde fue la especie menos tolerante a condiciones de estrés, presentando bajos porcentajes de germinación a -1 MPa y ninguna respuesta a -1.5 MPa o potenciales hídricos menores, independientemente del soluto utilizado. Abstract in english In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubesce [...] ns, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (?o) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of deionized water and incubated to 25 °C. We used a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. During 10 days, the number of sprouted seeds was counted daily, and the percentage of germination, the speed of germination (ERI) and the mean time to germination (MTG), were calculated. Data were analyzed with the statistical software Infostat. Germination declined with increasing concentration of the solution in the four species. In general, salts of SO4-2 proved more damaging to the germination than those of Cl-.Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas was the most water stress tolerant species, with percentages of germination close to 50% even in ?o of -2.5 MPa. On the contrary, Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde was the less tolerant, with low percentages of germination at -1 MPa, and no response to ?o of -1.5 MPa or lower.

M, Ruiz; O, Terenti.

66

Germinación de cuatro pastos bajo condiciones de estrés salino / Germination of four grasses under salt stress  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las forrajeras cultivadas son en Argentina el sustento fundamental de los sistemas ganaderos tradicionales. Actualmente, la implantación de pasturas en zonas cada vez más áridas es uno de los principales desafíos para la ganadería. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la germinación de cuatro esp [...] ecies forrajeras: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas y Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino. Se utilizaron soluciones de NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 y Manitol como soluto inerte, obteniéndose potenciales osmóticos (?o) de -0,5, -1, -1,5, -2,0 y -2,5 MPa. Las semillas se sembraron en cajas de Petri sobre papel de germinación, se regaron con 4 mL de solución y se incubaron a 25 °C. El diseño fue al azar con 4 repeticiones. Diariamente, durante 10 días, se contó el número de semillas germinadas y con los datos obtenidos se calculó el porcentaje, la velocidad de germinación (ERI) y el tiempo medio de germinación (MT). Los datos se analizaron con el software estadístico Infostat. A medida que se incrementó la concentración de la solución se observó que la germinación disminuyó en las cuatro especies. En general las sales de SO4-2 resultaron más perjudiciales para la germinación que las de Cl-. Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas resultó la especie más tolerante al estrés hídrico inducido con manitol, registrando porcentajes de germinación cercanos al 50% aún en ?o de -2,5 MPa. En contraste, Panicumcoloratun cv Klein verde fue la especie menos tolerante a condiciones de estrés, presentando bajos porcentajes de germinación a -1 MPa y ninguna respuesta a -1.5 MPa o potenciales hídricos menores, independientemente del soluto utilizado. Abstract in english In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubesce [...] ns, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (?o) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of deionized water and incubated to 25 °C. We used a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. During 10 days, the number of sprouted seeds was counted daily, and the percentage of germination, the speed of germination (ERI) and the mean time to germination (MTG), were calculated. Data were analyzed with the statistical software Infostat. Germination declined with increasing concentration of the solution in the four species. In general, salts of SO4-2 proved more damaging to the germination than those of Cl-.Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas was the most water stress tolerant species, with percentages of germination close to 50% even in ?o of -2.5 MPa. On the contrary, Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde was the less tolerant, with low percentages of germination at -1 MPa, and no response to ?o of -1.5 MPa or lower.

M, Ruiz; O, Terenti.

2012-12-01

67

Grass and grain seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

68

Use of Grasses and Mixtures of Grasses for Energy Purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As levels of agricultural productivity increase, there is also an increase in land area not utilized for food production. This area can be used for growing energy crops, including grasses. When land is set aside for grassing, or when the potential of perennial grasses is not utilized due to reductions in cattle herds, there is also an increased amount of grass that can be utilized for energy purposes. Experiments were carried out on the principle of single-stage anaerobic digestion within the mezophyle range. During the experiments, we measured the cumulative production of biogas and its composition. The processed grass was disintegrated by pressing and cutting. This adaptation of the material resulted in increased biogas production. The optimum proportion of grass dry matter is from 35 to 50 % in the total d.m. The results of the experiments proved the suitability of grass phytomass as a material for biogas production.

David Andert

2012-01-01

69

Native Utah Grasses for Biomass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considerable breeding and genetic research is currently dedicated to the development of warm-season perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as dedicated biomass crops. However, the Great Basin and other large regions of the western United States and World are dominated by cool-season grasses with special adaptations to salinity, drought, and other harsh conditions. A project was initiated to identify perennial grass species, genes, and traits needed for low-input bio...

Larson, Steve

2011-01-01

70

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em...

Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; Saulo Leme Amstalden; Dionísio Luis Piza Gazziero; Michel Alex Raimondi; Gesley Ramos Guimarães Lima; Antônio Mendes de Oliveira Neto; Naiara Guerra; Wagner Justiniano

2011-01-01

71

WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

Akula Annapurna

2013-10-01

72

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01

73

Meadow-grass gall midge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes place after the pupa-ries have obtained 114 ± 21 day-degrees calculated from 1. January, with a biologi-cal development zero at 5 °C. The top of the flying curve achieves after 179 ± 29 day-degrees. With this information, the farmers can fairly accurately spray just before the flight curve has its maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticideapplication in meadow-grass every year.

Hansen, Lars Monrad

2012-01-01

74

GRASS Image Processing Environment: Gearing to Grass 7  

Science.gov (United States)

The GRASS Image Processing Environment is an effort to improve the remote sensing capabilities of GRASS GIS within its future incarnation as in version 7. The remote sensing capacities of GRASS GIS have always been limited to the minimum, i.e. georeferencing, classification, filtering and transform. The prevailing assumption was that scripting was largely used for most of the processing of satellite imagery. With the enhanced number of sensor types, and complexity of scientific applications related to satellite processing, having simplified ways of producing some imagery products became paramount. This took form in a set of modules written in C. Due to the author specialisation, the modules are so far only about the use of public domain common sensors (MODIS, Landsat, etc...), and generic land and water related parameters (water, vegetation, etc.). This article presents the integration, porting and homogenizing of 50+ modules, all related to exploiting commonly used, freely downloadable satellite imagery. Selected suites of models, chained together are presented as an example of analysis of water consumption through the processing of evapotranspiration models.

Chemin, Yann

2013-04-01

75

Grass phenylpropanoids: regulate before using!  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the synthesis of lignin as well as a large number of compounds of fundamental importance for the biology of plants. Over the years, important knowledge has accumulated on how dicotyledoneous plants control various branches of phenylpropanoid accumulation, but comparable information on the grasses is lagging significantly behind. In addition to playing fundamental roles in biotic and abiotic interactions, phenylpropanoids in the grasses play a very important function in the reinforcement of cell wall components. Understanding how phenylpropanoid metabolism is controlled in the grasses has been complicated by recent genome duplications, the difficulties in making transgenic plants and the absence of mutants in many genes. Recent studies in a particular subgroup of R2R3-MYB transcription factors suggest that they might play a central role in regulating a small set of phenylpropanoid genes, opening the door for the identification of other related regulators, and perhaps also finding out which combinations of biosynthesis genes function in particular cell types for the formation of specific compounds. This information will be essential for the rational metabolic engineering of this pathway, either to increase biomass or decrease phenolic accumulation for better accessibility of polysaccharides for forage quality and biofuel production. PMID:22284715

Gray, John; Caparrós-Ruiz, David; Grotewold, Erich

2012-03-01

76

Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

77

Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-07-01

78

The Physical Analyze of Local Grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research has been conducted to analyze physical characteristics of local grass. The aimed of this research was to observe grass physical characteristics, which are bulkiness, water regain capacity and water solubility. Also to observe correlation of water regain capacity to dry matter and organic matter digestibility as well as its degradation rate during 0, 12, 18 and 24 h incubation, in sacco, using 2 fistulae cows. Five local grass were tested in this research, which are field grass, elephant grass, brachiaria grass, king grass and setaria. Fistulae cows consumed forages and concentrates with ratio of 70:30, minimum protein level of 12% and minimum TDN of 60%. Physical characteristics data that obtained then analyzed using analysis of variance. Furthermore, honestly significant different was also performed. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility data that obtained were analyzed with regression of physical characteristics. Result showed that brachiaria grass has poor water regain capacity and water solubility. There are positive linear correlation between water regains capacity with dry matter and organic matter digestibility. (Animal Production 6(1: 37-42 (2004 Key Words: Bulkiness, Water Regain Capacity, Water Solubility, Dry Matter and Organic Matter Digestibility

FM Suhartati

2004-01-01

79

Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

Coaldrake, J.E.

1978-03-01

80

Biological nitrogen fixation in grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation in grassAbstractNitrogen (N due to their role in plant metabolism is the nutrient that most limits crop production. It ispresent in large quantities in air, primarily as di-nitrogen, but unfortunately the plants are not able to 8 Evidência, Joaçaba v. 12 n. 1, p. 7-18, janeiro/junho 2012directly use the nutrient in that form, requiring it to be fixed in the form of ammonia. In soil, the fixed N isconverted to nitrate by nitrification process (mediated by Nitrossomonas sp. and Nitrobacter sp. bacteria,thus becomes available for plants. The N fixation may occur via atmospheric, biological and industrial, andthe last was and still is a pillar in the construction and maintenance of modern agriculture. The biologicalnitrogen fixation (BNF provides economic and environmental advantages, being characterized asan important tool in achieving a more sustainable crop production. Plants of the family Fabaceae (legumeshas the efficiency in the process of BNF known and consecrated, however, four more crops produced inthe world (sugar cane, corn, rice and wheat are of the family Poaceae (grass, and exploitation of BNF inplants of this family is a recent possibility, with relatively low efficiency, however, the optimization ofthese processes can bring significant benefits, since plants of this family are of paramount importance inproducing food, fiber and energy. Based on the above, this review summarizes knowledge regarding theprocess and efficiency of non-nodulating diazotrophs in Poaceae, in order to assess the state of the scienceof BNF this plants family.

, Julierme Zimme rBarbosa; Rangel Consalter; , Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales: Revisión / Apomixis importance for tropical forage grass selection and breeding: Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Apomixis es un tipo reproductivo donde la producción de semilla ocurre sin fusión de gametos, resultando por generaciones, en descendencia que genéticamente, es copia fiel del progenitor materno. La apomixis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida entre las gramíneas forrajeras tropicales: Bothriochloa [...] , Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. Las especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México. Abstract in english Apomixis is a reproductive system resulting in seed production without gametes fusion, and produces, through generations, offspring that is a genetic copy from the maternal progenitor. Apomixis importance is widespread among tropical grasses: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchru [...] s, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum, Urochloa, among the most important. Apomictic species contain diploid as well as polyploid individuals conforming "agamic complexes" and reproductive barriers limited both by apomixis as well as ploidy level which has a great impact on apomictic species utilization. Diploid individuals maintain active the sexuality and these are rare out of the center of specie's genetic origin center. Polyploid individuals in nature are apomictic, and sexual individuals may be induced to polyploidy in the laboratory, allowing hybrid descendants production. Genetic richness originated within the specie's center of diversity is the basis to overcome productive challenges and ecological stability: dry season productivity, nitrogen fixation, forage quality, pest and disease resistance, etc.; as it has been shown by successful breeding programs for Brachiaria and Panicum, between the most recognized for Latin America, and Cenchrus in USA. Apomixis research advancements has elucidated the biology for this reproductive process as well as the techniques for its manipulation; however, the impact of this advancements on forage research in México has promoted a critical review on forage genetic resources utilization, resulting in an increased interest on hybrid material production to face the requirements for extensive grazing production systems in Mexico.

Adrián R., Quero Carrillo; Javier F., Enríquez Quiroz; Carlos R., Morales Nieto; Leonor, Miranda Jiménez.

2010-03-01

82

Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales: Revisión / Apomixis importance for tropical forage grass selection and breeding: Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Apomixis es un tipo reproductivo donde la producción de semilla ocurre sin fusión de gametos, resultando por generaciones, en descendencia que genéticamente, es copia fiel del progenitor materno. La apomixis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida entre las gramíneas forrajeras tropicales: Bothriochloa [...] , Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. Las especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México. Abstract in english Apomixis is a reproductive system resulting in seed production without gametes fusion, and produces, through generations, offspring that is a genetic copy from the maternal progenitor. Apomixis importance is widespread among tropical grasses: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchru [...] s, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum, Urochloa, among the most important. Apomictic species contain diploid as well as polyploid individuals conforming "agamic complexes" and reproductive barriers limited both by apomixis as well as ploidy level which has a great impact on apomictic species utilization. Diploid individuals maintain active the sexuality and these are rare out of the center of specie's genetic origin center. Polyploid individuals in nature are apomictic, and sexual individuals may be induced to polyploidy in the laboratory, allowing hybrid descendants production. Genetic richness originated within the specie's center of diversity is the basis to overcome productive challenges and ecological stability: dry season productivity, nitrogen fixation, forage quality, pest and disease resistance, etc.; as it has been shown by successful breeding programs for Brachiaria and Panicum, between the most recognized for Latin America, and Cenchrus in USA. Apomixis research advancements has elucidated the biology for this reproductive process as well as the techniques for its manipulation; however, the impact of this advancements on forage research in México has promoted a critical review on forage genetic resources utilization, resulting in an increased interest on hybrid material production to face the requirements for extensive grazing production systems in Mexico.

Adrián R., Quero Carrillo; Javier F., Enríquez Quiroz; Carlos R., Morales Nieto; Leonor, Miranda Jiménez.

83

Grass Pollen Count and Grass group 5-allergen Release across Eight European Countries: results from HIALINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Grass pollen is considered to be the most important outdoor aeroallergen in Europe. The grass ‘pollen count’ is usually used as a proxy for exposure. However, HIALINE has shown that the birch and olive pollen count is not always congruent with allergen concentrations. We therefore simultaneously measured daily exposure to grass pollen and the concentration of group 5 major allergens across eight countries in Europe during 2009– 2011. Metho...

Buters, Jeroen M.; Albertini, Roberto; Annesi-maesano, Isabella; Antunes, Celia M.; Berger, Uwe; Brandao, Rui M.; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Celenk, Sevcan; Gala?n, Carmen; Grewling, Lukazs; Kennedy, Roy; Prank, Marje; Rantio-lehtimaki, Auli; Reese, Gerald; Sauliene, Ingrida

2013-01-01

84

Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein (CP) after passing the rumen, the intestines and the total gastro-intestinal (GI) tract in grass and grass silages were determined with the two-step mobile nylon bag technique and a two-step in vitro...

Cone, J. W.; Gelder, A. H.; Mathijssen-kamman, A. A.; Hindle, V. A.

2006-01-01

85

Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

Laats, Alar

2006-01-01

86

Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP) of carpet ...

Chima Ngumah; Jude Ogbulie; Justina Orji; Ekperechi Amadi

2014-01-01

87

Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. PMID:24471834

Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

2014-01-01

88

Morphogenetic characteristics and management of Tanzania grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing interval and period of evaluation over tissue turnover in Tanzania grass pastures (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania and to ascertain if herbage accumulation rate can be used as a criterion to establish a defoliation schedule for this grass in Southeast of Brazil. A randomized block design with a split-plot arrangement was used. The effect of three grazing intervals was evaluated within seven periods between October 1995 and September 1996. Responses monitored were leaf and stem elongation rates, leaf senescence rate, stem length, and tiller density. Net herbage accumulation rate was calculated using tissue turnover data. The grazing intervals for Tanzania grass should be around 38 days between October and April (spring and early autumn and 28 days during the reproductive phase of the grass (April/May. Between May and September (late autumn and winter, grazing interval should be around 48 days. Herbage accumulation rate is not a good criterion to establish defoliation time for Tanzania grass. Studies on the effects of stem production in grazing efficiency, animal intake and forage quality are needed to improve Tanzania grass management.

Santos Patricia Menezes

2003-01-01

89

Afforestation of degraded grass land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

Basappa, B.

1983-01-01

90

Branching of tillers in some grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In investigations on the grass regeneration biology a special attention was paid to the formation of aerial tillers and branching pseudostolons in Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Festuca pratensis Huds., Festuca rubra L., Phleum pratense L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., Lolium perenne L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Arrhenatherum elatius (L. P. B., Holcus lanatus L., Agropyron repens (L. P. B., Avenastrum pubescens (Huds Opiz and Agrostis alba L. Aerial tillers, vegetative short ones and with partly elongated internodes as well as generative tillers formed in tufted and rhizomatous grasses. Parental raised tillers, on which aerial tillers developed, had the anatomical structure specific for grass stems. In tufted grasses, moreover, parental branching pseudostolons developed; in their cross section the arrangement of tissues specific for stolons was observed. They constituted the starting point for agglomerations of new plants rooting in soil, contrary to raised tillers. In some grass species, beside pendant roots, shorter roots grew at the base of aerial tillers; they surrounded with a ring the parent shoot in the node, thus reinforcing the connection of aerial tillers with the stem. An attention was paid to the favourable role of branching pseudostolons in the sward thickness formation. Conditions of the arrangement of tissues in the stem cross section, owing to which the rhizomatous form is developed, are discussed. The fertilization with compost or the covering with sand results in the formation of tillers resembling pseudorhizomes.

Leontyna Olszewska

1981-06-01

91

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L., erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L. e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1; glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1 e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens.Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Commelina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1; glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1 and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel

2011-02-01

92

Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

93

Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology in agronomy and anaerobic digestion sectors and the need for rural development and sustainable energy production, is an attractive solution that fulfils many legislative, agronomic and environmental requirements.

Singh, Anoop

2011-01-01

94

Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species

Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno

2012-01-01

95

Project work: »From grass to ice cream«  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma thesis presents the process of the research of a closed-ended problem, namely on the subject of “From Grass to Ice Cream”. The children’s own activity in the research of the “milk path” (grass-cow-milk-dairy-dairy products-ice cream-shop) is presented. The first part of the theoretical part summarises what natural science for children should be like, presents learning according to High/Scoop’s preschool curriculum, and describes the closed-ended research method. The...

Klemenc?ic?, Alenka

2013-01-01

96

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days ...

Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos; Mário de Andrade Lira; Adriana Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos Santos; José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello

2013-01-01

97

PURPLE GUINEA GRASS: PRETREATMENT AND ETHANOL FERMENTATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Treatment with dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at 121?C and 103.4 kPa was used to improve the efficiency of the cellulose digestion of purple guinea grass. Cellulase hydrolysis of the dilute H2SO4-pretreated purple guinea grass under optimized conditions (6% (w/v) in 3% (w/v) H2SO4 for 30 min) yielded a slightly higher level of reducing sugars than that from the Ca(OH)2 pretreatment under optimized conditions (6% (w/v) in 4% (w/v) Ca(OH)2 for 5 min). However, the...

Suvapatr Ratsamee,; Ancharida Akaracharanya,; Natchanun Leepipatpiboon; , Teerapatr Srinorakutara,; Vichien Kitpreechavanich,; Vasana Tolieng

2012-01-01

98

Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

99

Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1, clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1, tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1, haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones, applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 , clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 , tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 , fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 , haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 and control (no herbicide. In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

A.L.L. Barroso

2010-01-01

100

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Rearing larval grass shrimp in the laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two inexpensive methods were developed for rearing grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) in the laboratory. A total of 70% of the 144 larvae reared in individual compartments lived to 21 days of age. About 56% of the 379 raised in groups survived to a like age. The method of rearing larvae in a group had the advantage of easier maintenance.

Hall, L.W. Jr.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.

1977-07-01

102

Salt Tolerance in Short Stature Grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project, researchers used extensive laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies to determine the relative salt tolerance of select native grasses and forbs used to re-vegetate rights-of-ways within four meters of the pavement edge. The studies found...

D. D. Biesboer, S. Neid, B. Darveaux

1998-01-01

103

INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

104

Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and fermentation kinetics were determined using the gas production technique, in vitro techniques, and the nylon bag technique. Two silage samples were also investigated in vivo. Maturation caused a decrease in crude protein content and organic matter degradability and an increase in neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents. Degradation rates were highest for the youngest samples and decreased as grass and silage matured. This result could be observed from the first derivative of the cumulative gas production curves (i.e., the rate of gas production) and from the gas production parameters. The rate of degradation of the nonsoluble fraction of the young samples, determined using the gas production technique, was relatively higher in rumen fluid from a cow fed silage from grass cut at a young stage. More mature samples were degraded relatively faster in rumen fluid from a cow fed mature grass silage, suggesting a specific adaptation of the rumen microorganisms to the grass properties. There was a good relationship among the second phase of gas production (i.e., fermentation of the nonsoluble fraction), maturity of the grass and grass silage samples, degradability determined with the Tilley and Terry technique, and degradability determined after 46 h of incubation in rumen fluid. Results obtained with both of the different in vitro techniques and the nylon bag technique were confirmed by the in vivo experiments involving the two silage samples. PMID:10342234

Cone, J W; Van Gelder, A H; Soliman, I A; De Visser, H; Van Vuuren, A M

1999-05-01

105

Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods  

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Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

Danijel Karolyi

2010-01-01

106

Catalytic characteristics of peroxidase from wheat grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crude enzyme extract of wheat grass was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and isoelectric chromatofocusing on Polybuffer exchanger (PBE 94) for purification. The purified peroxidase was then characterized for its catalytic characteristics. It was found that AgNO3 at a concentration of 0.25 mM and MnSO4 and EDTA at concentrations of 5 mM significantly inhibited the activity of wheat grass peroxidase. However, KCl, NaCl, CuCl2, CaCl2, ZnCl2, and MgCl2 at concentrations of 5.0 mM and HgCl2 at a concentration of 0.25 mM enhanced enzyme activity. Chemical modification significantly influenced the activity of wheat grass peroxidase. Particularly, N-bromosuccinimide (5 mM) inhibited 16% of the enzyme activity, whereas N-acetylimidazole (2.5 mM), diethyl pyrocarbonate (2.5 mM), and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (2.5 mM) enhanced by 18-29% of the enzyme activity. Such results implied that tryptophan, histidine, tyrosine, and serine residues are related to enzyme activity. The pH optima for wheat grass peroxidase to catalyze the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (OPD), catechol, pyrogallol, and guaiacol were 5.0, 4.5, 6.5, and 5.0, respectively. The apparent Km values for OPD, catechol, pyrogallol, and guaiacol were 2.9, 18.2, 2.5, and 3.8 mM, respectively. Under optimal reaction conditions, wheat grass peroxidase catalyzed the oxidation of OPD (an aromatic amine substrate) 3-11 times more rapidly than guaiacol, catechol, and pyrogallol (phenolic substrates containing one to three hydroxy groups in the benzene ring). PMID:17061841

Lai, Lih-Shiuh; Wang, Dai-Jung; Chang, Chen-Tien; Wang, Cheng-Hsin

2006-11-01

107

Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius  

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Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel. 42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively. The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.

Chima Ngumah

2013-12-01

108

Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius  

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Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

Chima Ngumah

2014-01-01

109

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pen [...] nisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p

Rerisson José Cipriano dos, Santos; Mário de Andrade, Lira; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos, Santos; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de, Mello.

2013-02-01

110

Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda / In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilid [...] ad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ruminal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag techn [...] ique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

Jaime, Salinas-Chavira; Juan Carlos, Gutiérrez-González; Ramón, García-Castillo; Ramiro, López-Trujillo; Arturo, Duarte-Ortuño.

111

Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda / In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilid [...] ad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ruminal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag techn [...] ique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

Jaime, Salinas-Chavira; Juan Carlos, Gutiérrez-González; Ramón, García-Castillo; Ramiro, López-Trujillo; Arturo, Duarte-Ortuño.

2011-12-01

112

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

Hussein, Nagwa R. A.; Hamed, Sohir T.; Zaki, Muhammed A.; Osman, Ahmed K.

2012-01-01

113

Invasive warm-season grasses reduce mycorrhizal root colonization and biomass production of native prairie grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil organisms play important roles in regulating ecosystem-level processes and the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with a plant species can be a central force shaping plant species' ecology. Understanding how mycorrhizal associations are affected by plant invasions may be a critical aspect of the conservation and restoration of native ecosystems. We examined the competitive ability of old world bluestem, a non-native grass (Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa bladhii]), and the influence of B. bladhii competition on AM root colonization of native warm-season prairie grasses (Andropogon gerardii or Schizachyrium scoparium), using a substitutive design greenhouse competition experiment. Competition by the non-native resulted in significantly reduced biomass production and AM colonization of the native grasses. To assess plant-soil feedbacks of B. bladhii and Bothriochloa ischaemum, we conducted a second greenhouse study which examined soil alterations indirectly by assessing biomass production and AM colonization of native warm-season grasses planted into soil collected beneath Bothriochloa spp. This study was conducted using soil from four replicate prairie sites throughout Kansas and Oklahoma, USA. Our results indicate that a major mechanism in plant growth suppression following invasion by Bothriochloa spp. is the alteration in soil microbial communities. Plant growth was tightly correlated with AM root colonization demonstrating that mycorrhizae play an important role in the invasion of these systems by Bothriochloa spp. and indicating that the restoration of native AM fungal communities may be a fundamental consideration for the successful establishment of native grasses into invaded sites. PMID:21845465

Wilson, Gail W T; Hickman, Karen R; Williamson, Melinda M

2012-07-01

114

Is grass biomethane a sustainable transport biofuel?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grassland is a beneficial landscape for numerous reasons including potential to sequester carbon in the soil. Cross compliance dictates that grassland should not be converted to arable land; this is particularly interesting in Ireland where 91% of agricultural land is under grass. Biogas generated from grass and further upgraded to biomethane has been shown to offer a better energy balance than first-generation liquid biofuels indigenous to Europe. The essential question is whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings. The base-case scenario investigated included: utilization of electricity from the grid; over-sizing heated digestion tanks to hold digestate in the winter period; vehicular efficiency 82% of that of a diesel vehicle; and no allowance for carbon sequestration. The analysis of the base case showed a reduction in emissions of 21.5%. However by varying the system, using electricity from wind, improving digester configuration, and by using avehicle optimized for gaseous fuel, a reduction of 54% was evaluated. Furthermore allowing for 0.6 t carbon sequestration per hectare per annum the reduction increased to 75%. Keyword: greenhouse gas emissions,life cycle assessment,grass silage,biomethane

Korres, NE; Singh, Anoop

2010-01-01

115

Grass lignocellulose: strategies to overcome recalcitrance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion. PMID:18478372

Akin, Danny E

2007-04-01

116

Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

Luciano S. Lima

2013-03-01

117

Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

2014-08-01

118

Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization (15N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization (15N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm3 of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg-1 as NH4NO3 enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of 15N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg-1 and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

119

Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

2005-07-01

120

Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. ? Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. ? The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. ? The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr-1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

 
 
 
 
121

MR imaging of lumbar spine using GRASS technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The axial images of 107 lumbar disks imaged by gradient recalled acquistion in the steady status (GRASS) and spin echo (SE) sequences of high field strength were compared for diagnostic quality. In GRASS images, focal pathways of the herniated nucleus pulposus and the bulging annulus fibrosus were often clearly distinguished because margins of the vertebrae were conspicuous due to their low intensities. The post-laminectomy bone defects were better outlined by GRASS images than by SE images. Axial GRASS images are therefore an important adjunct to SE images for effective MRI of the lumbar spine at high field strength. (author)

122

MR imaging of lumbar spine using GRASS technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The axial images of 107 lumbar disks imaged by gradient recalled acquistion in the steady status (GRASS) and spin echo (SE) sequences of high field strength were compared for diagnostic quality. In GRASS images, focal pathways of the herniated nucleus pulposus and the bulging annulus fibrosus were often clearly distinguished because margins of the vertebrae were conspicuous due to their low intensities. The post-laminectomy bone defects were better outlined by GRASS images than by SE images. Axial GRASS images are therefore an important adjunct to SE images for effective MRI of the lumbar spine at high field strength.

Murayama, Sadayuki; Numaguchi, Yuji; Robinson, A.E.

1988-07-01

123

Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m. They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.

A.A. Aganga

2005-01-01

124

Behavioural effects of mercury on grass shrimp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subacute exposure (0.05 ppM) to mercuric chloride significantly impairs the conditioned avoidance responses of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis, when tested in an aquatic avoidance apparatus. Control animals learn to avoid a shock after the onset of a light which followed a period of dark-adaptation. A third group of shrimp, which establish an avoidance curve similar to the controls, quickly lose its ability to avoid being shocked when exposed to mercury in the final days of the experiment. These experiments demonstrate the value of a simple behavioural index for establishing subacute toxicity standards for organisms in aquatic ecosystems.

Barthalmus, G.T.

1977-04-01

125

Behavioral effects of mercury on grass shrimp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subacute exposure (0.05 ppM) to mercuric chloride significantly impairs the conditioned avoidance responses of grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, when tested in an aquatic avoidance apparatus. Control animals learn to avoid a shock after the onset of a light which followed a period of dark-adaptation. A third group of shrimp, which establish an avoidance curve similar to the controls, quickly lose its ability to avoid being shocked when exposed to mercury in the final days of the experiment. These experiments demonstrate the value of a simple behavioral index for establishing subacute toxicity standards for organisms in aquatic ecosystems.

1977-01-01

126

Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

127

Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the identification of the investigated taxa based on fruit characters is provided.

Nagwa R.A. Hussein

2012-01-01

128

Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 µg major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhinoconjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment of rhino-conjunctivitis due to grass pollen allergy.Keywords: sublingual immonotherapy, grass pollen allergy, rhinoconjunctivitis, immunotherapy, tablet

Moisés Calderón

2008-11-01

129

Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

Máikal S. Borja

2012-08-01

130

Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

2005-04-01

131

Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. PMID:15948597

Czakó, Mihály; Feng, Xianzhong; He, Yuke; Liang, Dali; Márton, László

2005-01-01

132

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

2013-02-01

133

From pasture grass to cattle milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131I in milk were also presented. (author)

134

GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS  

Science.gov (United States)

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

135

The development of reed canary grass fuel chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel chain of reed canary grass was studied. The objective was to find machinery combinations and working methods which could reduce the harvesting losses and transport cost of the bales. The crushing, feeding properties and the effects of reed canary grass on boiler operation were also studied. In earlier experiments it was noticed that disc mower and silage windrowers produced the lowest harvest losses (20 - 30 %). In this study it was shown that also silage mower with conditioner can reach low losses (20 %) if the adjustments are in optimum. A new type big square baler reached maximum bale density 201 kg/m3 (moisture content 15 %). Reed canary grass is supplied mainly in bales to power plants. Agricultural choppers and sometimes also stationary crushers are not suitable or effective enough for chopping of reed canary grass. Slow-speed two-rotor crushers can be on certain conditions appropriate for chopping. Reed canary grass is co-combusted with peat and wood fuels. Higher shares than 5 - 10 % of energy in the fuel blend can cause blockages on conveyor systems. Reed canary grass should be properly mixed with primary fuels and the chop should be as short as possible. Preliminary results indicate that there were no major changes in fouling or high temperature corrosion during the co-combustion tests of reed canary grass at 295 MWth bubbling fluidised-bed boiler with relatively low proportions of reed canary grass. (orig.)

Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J.; Impola, R.; Paappanen, T.; Leino, T.; Kallio, E. (VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Rinne, S. (YTY konsultointi, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Loetjoenen, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Ruukki (Finland)); Kirkkari, A. (TTS Research, Work Efficiency Institute, Rajamaeki (Finland))

2007-07-01

136

26 CFR 56.4911-2 - Lobbying expenditures, direct lobbying communications, and grass roots lobbying communications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...more lenient, definitions for certain communications from an electing...Direct lobbying communication —(i) Definition. A direct lobbying...Grass roots lobbying communication —(i) Definition. A grass...

2010-04-01

137

Germination of native grasses with potential application in the recovery of degraded areas in Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil / Germinação de gramíneas nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero com potencial aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As gramíneas nativas apresentam potencial para revegetação de áreas degradadas, no entanto, devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre sua biologia, dá-se preferência ao uso de espécies exóticas, que podem ser invasoras, afetando assim a biodiversidade local. No intuito de ampliar o conhecimento acerca da p [...] ropagação via sementes de espécies nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), e desta forma, indicar possíveis candidatas a aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas da região, este trabalho objetivou avaliar os padrões germinativos das seguintes gramíneas: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.). Chase e Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. As espiguetas (com presença ou não das estruturas que envolviam a cariopse, dependendo da espécie) foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1-controle; T2-umedecimento do substrato com 0,2% de nitrato de potássio, T3-aquecimento a 80 ºC por 2 minutos, T4-escarificação com ácido sulfúrico (exceto gênero Andropogon) e para os gêneros Andropogon e Setaria, T5-armazenamento a temperatura ambiente e T6-armazenamento sob refrigeração. Os tratamentos foram realizados em 4 repetições de 25 cariopses colocadas para germinar a temperatura de 25 ºC e iluminação constante. Variação significativa foi observada quando comparadas as quantidades de germinações ocorridas entre as semanas, entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies. Para o gênero Andropogon o tratamento mais eficiente foi T6, seguido por T2 em A. bicornis e T3 em A. leucostachyus. T6 também foi o tratamento mais eficiente para S. parviflora, seguido por T5 e T2. C. brownii apresentou resultados próximos sob T1, T2 e T3 (média 39%). E. inflexa e A. euprepes apresentaram altos índices de dormência que não foram superadas pelos tratamentos propostos. A. bicornis, A. leucostachyus, S. parviflora e C. brownii apresentaram maiores potenciais de germinação, sendo possíveis candidatas para recuperação de áreas degradas no QF. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos complementares com os tratamentos mais eficientes e testes de germinação e estabelecimento em condições de campo. Abstract in english Native grasses are potential species to be used in land rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of better knowledge of their performance, preference is given to exotic plants, which may be invasive and negatively affect the local biodiversity. In order to better understand the propagation of native [...] species of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using their seeds, and in so doing, indicate possible candidates for land rehabilitation, this study investigated the germination patterns of the following grasses: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen; Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, and Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. The spikelets (depending on the species, removing or not the structures that surround the caryopsis) were treated as follows: T1-Control, T2-moistening with 0.2% potassium nitrate, T3-heating at 80 ºC for 2 minutes, T4-scarification with sulfuric acid (except genus Andropogon) and, for genera Andropogon and Setaria T5-storage at room temperature and T6- refrigerated storage. The treatment was repeated four times for 25 caryopses incubated at 25 ºC and constant light. Significant variation was observed when comparing germination rates from week to week, treatment to treatment and species to species. The most efficient treatment for genus Andropogon was T6, followed by T2 for A. bicornis and T3 for A. leucostachyus. T6 was also the most effective treatment for S. parviflora, followed by T5 and T2. C. brownii showed similar results when applying T1, T2 and T3 (mean 39%). E. inflexa and A. euprepes showed high levels of dormancy that were not overco

Maurílio Assis, Figueiredo; Hudson Eustáquio, Baêta; Alessandra Rodrigues, Kozovits.

138

Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

2007-06-01

139

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond releasetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

140

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
141

Cerebrovascular enhancement in spoiled GRASS images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper defines the patterns of gadolinium-enhanced vascular signal in normal cerebral blood vessels with use of a new three-dimensional Fourier transform T1-weighted pulse sequence SPGR (spoiled GRASS [gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state]). Twenty patients undergoing cranial MR imaging were studied before and after Gd-DTPA administration with use of two techniques: (1) conventional two-dimensional Fourier transform spin echo (TR 600, TE 15) and (2) three-dimensional Fourier transform SPGR (TR 24, TE 5,035 degrees). The patterns of contrast material enhancement in the cerebral vessels were reviewed. Before Gd-DTPA administration, SPGR images commonly show uniform high signal in the internal carotid and vertebrobasilar system to the level of the circle of Willis. The only venous signal is inconstant posterosuperior sagittal sinus signal

142

A new grass frog from Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A new species of grass frog of the genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs in advisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that Ptychadena floweri must be regarded as a junior synonym of P. schillukorum.******* AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Nuwe graspadda-spesies van die genus Ptychadena word van noordelike Namibia beskryf. Alhoewel dit oppervlakkig soortgelyk is aan Ptychadena schillukorum en Ptychadena mossambica, is daar duidelike verskille in advertensieroep en eksterne kenmerke. 'n Ondersoek van 'n reeks sonagramme toon dat Ptychadena floweri 'n junior sinoniem van P. schillukorum is. 

A. Channing

2012-01-01

143

Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine. PMID:18362477

Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

2008-01-01

144

Analysis of Fusarium causing dermal toxicosis in marram grass planters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum dominated the mycoflora of those marram grass culms that were used for planting. This plant material had been cut and stored for more than one week in the open. The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected in the suspect marram grass culms. Isolated F. culmorum strains were able to produce DON in vitro in liquid culture as well as in experimentally inoculated wheat heads. Pathogenicity tests, toxin test as well as RAPD analysis showed that the F. culmorum strains were not specialized for marram grass but may form part of the West-European F. culmorum population infecting cereals and grasses. Storage on old sand-dunes with plant debris may have led to the high occurrence of F. culmorum and contamination with DON. Marram grass culms should be obtained from young plantings on dunes on the seaward slopes and cut culms should not be stored. PMID:9063007

Snijders, C H; Samson, R A; Hoekstra, E S; Ouellet, T; Miller, J D; de Rooij-van der Goes, P C; Baar, A J; Dubois, A E; Kauffman, H F

1996-01-01

145

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

146

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2005-07-01

147

Study on contamination of grass by caesium isotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 134Cs and 85Sr uptake by Rye-grass is studied in a pot experiment. The influence of some important factors like type of soil, applied chemicals and level of soil contamination is examined. The radioactivity measurements are carried out separately in each sample collected at different time. The following conclusions are drown: 1. Radioactivity of the first samples of Rye-grass are lowest in case of Chernozem soil compared to Podzolic and Meadow soils. 2. The applied chemicals (zeolite and Ca-bentonite) significantly decrease radioactivity of all plant samples compared to the control. 3. Radioactivity of grass samples increases parallelly to the increase in soil contamination level. (author)

148

Trees improve grass quality for herbivores in African savannas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tree-grass interactions of African savannas are mainly determined by varying rainfall patterns and soil fertility. Large savanna trees are known to modify soil nutrient conditions, but whether this has an impact on the quality of herbaceous vegetation is unclear. However, if this were the case, then the removal of trees might also affect the structure and quality of the grass layer. We studied the impact of large nitrogen- and non-nitrogen fixing trees on the sub-canopy (SC) grass layer i...

Treydte, A. C.; Heitkonig, I. M. A.; Prins, H. H. T.; Ludwig, F.

2007-01-01

149

Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

150

INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

151

Methane production by anaerobic digestion of Bermuda grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of the high-yield warm-season grasses that has been suggested as a promising raw material for conversion to methane. Experimental work performed with laboratory digesters to study the anaerobic digestion of Coastal Bermuda grass harvested in Louisiana and having a C/N ratio of 24 is described. Methane yields of about 1.9 SCF/lb of volatile solids( VS) added were observed under conventional mesophilic high-rate conditions. When supplemental nitrogen additions were made, the yields increased up to 3.5 SCF/lb of VS added indicating that the nitrogen content of the grass examined was insufficient to sustain high-rate digestion at the higher yield level. Thermophilic digestion with supplemental nitrogen additions afforded methane yields of about 2.7 SCF/lb VS added. Carbon and energy balances were calculated and the relative biodegradabilities of the organics were estimated.

Klass, D.L.; Ghosh, S.

1979-01-01

152

How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

Nugent, Christina M.

2006-01-01

153

Scientists Trace Corn Ancestry from Ancient Grass to Modern Crop  

Science.gov (United States)

... Scientists Trace Corn Ancestry from Ancient Grass to Modern Crop Indigenous farmers bred the plant ... corn on the cob. To analyze the genes of modern corn and its ancestral teosinte, Gaut and his ...

154

1.5-T GRASS imaging of benign extradural disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors compared gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) with standard spin-echo sequences and CT myelography in 31 patients with surgically confirmed disease at 45 spinal levels (23 lumbar, four thoracic, 18 cervical). GRASS was highly accurate in identifying the level, causative agent (disk vs bone), and severity of spinal canal compromise at all levels operated on. GRASS detected 16 of 18 sites of foraminal encroachment (89%), demonstrated accurately the degree of foraminal narrowing in 78% (14/18), and correctly differentiated bone from soft-tissue foraminal narrowing in 67% (12/18). In five instances, the entity (disk vs bone) responsible for foraminal stenosis was correctly diagnosed only with CT myelography. The noninvasive nature, sensitivity, ease of interpretation, and shorter acquisition time of GRASS MR imaging make it the preferred screening examination. However, CT myelography more reliably defines the cause and degree of foraminal stenosis

155

Maize and sorghum: genetic resources for bioenergy grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The highly photosynthetic-efficient C4 grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and maize (Zea mays), are expected to provide abundant and sustainable resources of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels. A deeper understanding of the synthesis, deposition and hydrolysis of the distinctive cell walls of grasses is crucial to gain genetic control of traits that contribute to biomass yield and quality. With a century of genetic investigations and breeding success, recently completed genome sequences, well-characterized cell wall compositions, and a close evolutionary relationship with future bioenergy perennial grasses, we propose that maize and sorghum are key model systems for gene discovery relating to biomass yield and quality in the bioenergy grasses. PMID:18650120

Carpita, Nicholas C; McCann, Maureen C

2008-08-01

156

Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded daily. Per treatment a number of parameters relating to the composition of the grass, characteristics of the animals, and composition of the total diet were determined. The correlation between each of...

Bruinenberg, M. H.; Zom, R. L. G.; Valk, H.

2002-01-01

157

A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichloë Endophytes of Grasses? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosyn...

Fleetwood, Damien J.; Scott, Barry; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Tanaka, Aiko; Johnson, Richard D.

2007-01-01

158

Determination of Nutritional Value of Some Legume and Grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of legumes and grasses for productivity of livestock. Vicia sativa, Pisum arvense, Lathrus sativus, Vicia narbonensis, Dactylis glomerata, Chrysopogon gryllus and Festuca ovina were taken as plant materials from field and rangeland Koseilyas village Tekirdag, Turkey. The results of present examination showed large differences in nutritive value between grass and legumes. The nutritional value and digestibility of forag...

Canan Tuna; Levent Coskuntuna; Fisun Koc

2004-01-01

159

Productivity of perennial grass mixtures on the Žemaitija hillslope pasture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture's Kaltin?nai Experimental Station during the period 1999-2004. The experiment was established on a medium heavy loam Eutric Albeluvisol and involved perennial grass mixtures composed of the Lithuanian white clover cv. (Trifolium repens L.) 'S?duviai', red clover cv. (Trifolium pratense L.) 'Arimai?iai', perennial ryegrass cv. (Lolium perenne L.) 'Veja' and smooth-stalked meadow grass cv. (Poa pratinsis L.) 'Danga...

Zableckiene?, Dz?ena; Butkute?, Bronislava

2006-01-01

160

The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

162

Synergism of Wild Grass and Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria in Petroleum Biodegradation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of plants and microbes utilization for remediation measure of pollutant contaminated soil is the newest development in term of petroleum waste management technique. The research objective was to obtain wild grass types and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria which are capable to synergize in decreasing petroleum concentration within petroleum contaminated soil. This research was conducted in a factorial by using a randomized completely block design. The first factor was wild grass type which were without plant, Tridax procumbens grass and Lepironia mucronata grass. The second factor was hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria type which were without bacterium, single bacterium of Alcaligenes faecalis, single bacterium of Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and mixed bacteria of Alcaligenes faecalis with P. alcaligenes. The results showed that mixed bacteria (A. faecalis and P. alcaligenes were capable to increase the crown and roots dry weights of these two grasses and bacteria population, decreased percentage of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon and had better pH value than that of single bacterium. The highest TPH decrease with magnitude of 70.1% was obtained on the treatment of L. mucronata grass in combination with mixed bacteria.

Nuni Gofar

2013-05-01

163

MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF SOME GRASSES FROM THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three potential salt tolerant forage grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Sporobolus arabicus were collected from the salt affected habitats in the Salt Range, Pakistan. Ecotypes of all the three grasses were also collected from normal non-saline habitats within the Faisalabad region. Mechanism of adaptation to saline environments is very specific, which is not only for grass species but also for ecotypes. Ecotypes of all three grasses from Faisalabad showed stunted growth under salt stress, perhaps to save energy for normal developmental and other metabolic processes. Salt tolerant ecotypes from the Salt Range had better growth and survival under saline conditions and had less reduction in shoot growth at the highest salt level as compared to those collected from non-saline habitats. Leaf area of tolerant genotypes was less affected by salinity than salt sensitive genotypes. Increased root growth as observed in C. dactylon and S. arabicus, can be attributed to better salt tolerance in the populations from the Salt Range. The ecotypes of all three grasses, C. dactylon, I. cylindrica and S. arabicus from the Salt Range performed better under high salinities than their counterparts from the Faisalabad region. On the basis of various morphological characteristics and growth attributes, the ecotype of S. arabicus from the Salt Range has been categorized the most tolerant among all the grasses and ecotypes. It was followed by the ecotypes of C. dactylon and I. cylindrica from the Salt Range.

ATIF RIAZ

2008-08-01

164

Repeated evolution of salt-tolerance in grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of salt-affected agricultural land is increasing globally, so new crop varieties are needed that can grow in salt-affected soils. Despite concerted effort to develop salt-tolerant cereal crops, few commercially viable salt-tolerant crops have been released. This is puzzling, given the number of naturally salt-tolerant grass species. To better understand why salt-tolerance occurs naturally but is difficult to breed into crop species, we take a novel, biodiversity-based approach to its study, examining the evolutionary lability of salt-tolerance across the grass family. We analyse the phylogenetic distribution of naturally salt-tolerant species on a phylogeny of 2684 grasses, and find that salt-tolerance has evolved over 70 times, in a wide range of grass lineages. These results are confirmed by repeating the analysis at genus level on a phylogeny of over 800 grass genera. While salt-tolerance evolves surprisingly often, we find that its evolution does not often give rise to a large clade of salt-tolerant species. These results suggest that salt-tolerance is an evolutionarily labile trait in grasses. PMID:23445947

Bennett, T. H.; Flowers, T. J.; Bromham, L.

2013-01-01

165

Nitrogen cycle in pure grass and grass/legume pastures. Evaluation of pasture sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

pth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportion (20%) was derived from grass at 5-15 cm. Analysis of the 13C abundance of cattle faeces indicated that the proportion of legume consumed by cattle in the mixed sward was between 10 and 37%. The data indicate that selection of an appropriate grazing pressure can greatly influence recycling. Therefore, presumably pasture sustainability and the introduction of a legume in the pasture are beneficial to both animal production and pasture sustainability. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

166

Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405 to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405, and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405, G2 (V 14406 and G3 (V 14337, V 14404. Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

Cristiano Reschke Lajús

2011-11-01

167

Development of reed canary grass fuel chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cultivation area of reed canary grass (RCG) has rapidly increased during last years. In 2008 the total area is estimated to be almost 21,000 ha. Due to experience from RCG there are deficiencies on the harvesting, delivery and use chain, which limit the use of RCG in technical and economical sense. The aim of the project was to improve the competitiveness of RCG as a solid fuel. The targets of development have been harvesting, long-distance transport, crushing and mixing, experiences from use on power plants, combustion, improve the use by pneumatic conveying and cost calculations of production supply chains as well as development of business concepts. Harvesting losses can be reduced by using right and correctly adjusted machines for mowing. The costs of long-distance transport can be lowered by increasing bale densities, if baler adjustments and driving style is correct, using square bales and making transports with largest available trucks. For power plants using sufficient large quantities of RCG, it may be reasonable to build a separate feeding line, which also removes the present fuel handling problems. One aim of the future is to develop the power plant technology, which enables the bale transports directly to the plant. According to combustion tests the use of RCG does not increase fouling and high-temperature corrosion of a boiler, if share is low, 1-2%. Also the properties of ash did not changed when burning RCG. (orig.)

Paappanen, T.; Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J.; Impola, R.; Taipale, R.; Leino, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Rinne, S. (YTY-Konsultointi, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), email: samuli.rinne@suomi24.fi; Loetjoenen, T. (AgriFood Research Finland, MTT, Jokioinen (Finland)), email: timo.lotjonen@mtt.fi; Kirkkari, A.-M. (Work Efficiency Institute, TTS, Rajamaeki (Finland)), email: anna-maija.kirkkari@tts.fi

2009-07-01

168

Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  coordinates, the mean altitude, the mean of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to wood, trees and hedge close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the factors time of: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; 

Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

2010-01-01

169

Methane production by anaerobic digestion of Bermuda grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of the high-yield warm-season grasses that has been suggested as a promising raw material for conversion to methane. Experimental work performed with laboratory digesters to study the anaerobic digestion of Coastal Bermuda grass harvested in Louisiana and having a C/N ratio of 24 is described. Methane yields of about 1.9 SCF/lb of volatile solids (VS) added were observed under conventional mesophilic high-rate conditions. When supplemental nitrogen additions were made, the methane yields increased. This observation along with the compositional data compiled on the grass used in this work indicated that the nitrogen content of the unsupplemented grass was insufficient to sustain high-rate digestion at the higher yield level. However, as the C/N ratio was reduced by addition of ammonium chloride, the methane yield continually increased up to 3.5 SCF/lb added at the lowest C/N ratio examined (6.3) even after relatively high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen were measured in the effluent. It appears that the added nutrient had a stimulatory effect on methane production above the point where nitrogen was not limiting. Thermophilic digestion with supplemental nitrogen additions afforded methane yields of about 2.7 SCF/lb VS added. Carbon and energy balances were calculated and the relative biodegradabilities of the organics were estimated. It was concluded from this work that Coastal Bermuda grass can be converted to high-methane gas under conventional anaerobic digestion conditions. The performance of the particular lot of grass studied was substantially improved by supplemental nitrogen additions. (Refs. 12).

Klass, D.L.; Ghosh, S.

1981-01-01

170

Combining Ability in Mixtures of Prairie Grass and Clovers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the combining ability among cultivars of forage species, commonly sown in temperate regions of Argentina using a short rotation system. Three genetically diverse cultivars of prairie brome grass (Bromus catharticus, cv Copetona, cv Ñandú and cv Tango, a white clover cultivar (Trifolium repens, cv Lucero and a red clover cultivar (T. pratense, cv Tropero were evaluated. A randomized complete block design experiment was established in 2005. The treatments included five monocultures and ten binary mixtures. The experiment was harvested 6 times over an 18-month period. Cumulative dry matter yield (kg?ha–1 was calculated as the sum of the six individual harvests. Diallel analysis provided estimates of the general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA. Red clover in monoculture and mixtures produced the highest yields, with significant positive GCA effects (P < 0.01. Lucero white clover, and Copetona and Tango prairie grasses had significant negative GCA effects (P < 0.05. In mixtures, red clover with each of the three grass cultivars and white clover with Tango had significant and outstanding SCA effects (P < 0.01. Grass/grass mixtures and the legume/legume mixture showed non-significant SCA effects, while the grass/legume mixtures generally had higher yield than either component sown as a monoculture (P < 0.01. Given the short-term nature of this study, we must limit our inference to short-term pastures (<2 years. Under these conditions, red clover had the best combination with prairie brome grass.

Miguel Jacinto Arturi

2012-10-01

171

Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

2011-12-01

172

Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

Heiskanen, V.P.

1995-12-31

173

Silicified structures affect leaf optical properties in grasses and sedge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicon (Si) is an important structural element that can accumulate at high concentrations in grasses and sedges, and therefore Si structures might affect the optical properties of the leaves. To better understand the role of Si in light/leaf interactions in species rich in Si, we examined the total Si and silica phytoliths, the biochemical and morphological leaf properties, and the reflectance and transmittance spectra in grasses (Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia cespitosa) and sedge (Carex elata). We show that these grasses contain >1% phytoliths per dry mass, while the sedge contains only 0.4%. The data reveal the variable leaf structures of these species and significant differences in the amount of Si and phytoliths between developing and mature leaves within each species and between grasses and sedge, with little difference seen among the grass species. Redundancy analysis shows the significant roles of the different near-surface silicified leaf structures (e.g., prickle hairs, cuticle, epidermis), phytoliths and Si contents, which explain the majority of the reflectance and transmittance spectra variability. The amount of explained variance differs between mature and developing leaves. The transmittance spectra are also significantly affected by chlorophyll a content and calcium levels in the leaf tissue. PMID:24231391

Klan?nik, Katja; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Gaberš?ik, Alenka

2014-01-01

174

Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

2010-12-01

175

Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally-averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors – directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in Aarhus – a twin peak profile in the early season, a single evening profile in the mid-season, and a single midday peak in the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that the variation was driven by a succession of different grass species with different diurnal flowering patterns dominating atmospheric pollen loads as the season progressed. The potential for exposure was found to be significantly greater during the late season period than during either the early or mid season periods.

R. G. Peel

2013-09-01

176

Rhizoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil using Australian native grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoremediation involves the breakdown of contaminants in soil resulting from microbial activity that is enhanced in the plant root zone. The objective of this study was to assess Australian native grasses for their ability to stimulate removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons from a mine site soil. Time-course pot experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with three grass species (Cymbopogon ambiguus, Brachiaria decumbens, and Microlaena stipoides) in a mine site soil experimentally contaminated with a 60:40 diesel:oil mixture at 1% (w/w) concentration. Plants were cultivated for 100days with periodic evaluation of changes in soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration, soil lipase activity, and abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. Results were compared to unplanted control treatments. Significantly lower endpoint TPH concentrations were recorded in planted soil compared to unplanted soil (p=0.01). Final TPH concentrations and rates of TPH removal varied between grass species, with total TPH removal of between 50% and 88% achieved in planted treatments. The presence of grasses significantly increased the abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and soil lipase activity relative to unplanted soil (p<0.05). Residual TPH concentration was found to be closely (negatively) correlated with abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and to a lesser extent with soil lipase activity. Australian native grass species were identified that effectively enhance the remediation of diesel/oil contaminated soil, without any requirement for nutrient supplementation. Results may have extensive application to the nationwide problems associated with hydrocarbon contaminated sites. PMID:20569970

Gaskin, Sharyn E; Bentham, Richard H

2010-08-01

177

Intercropping with grasses helps to reduce iron chlorosis in olive  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Grasses are more efficient than dicots in acquiring Fe from calcareous soils. We studied whether intercropping with grasses alleviates Fe chlorosis in olive and whether the effect persists in succeeding dicot crops. Three different pot experiments were conducted. In the first, olive plants were inte [...] rcropped with 6 different grass species (purple false brome, annual ryegrass, compact brome, goatgrass, barley and red fescue); in the second, the two species best performing in the previous experiment were studied in various calcareous soils and; in the third, chickpea and peanut were grown in pots previously used to cultivate the two grasses. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and/or boosted growth of olive trees on three different calcareous soils. Olive growth was adversely affected by intercropping in one soil as a result of competition for water. Intercropping increased Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn leaf contents in olive. Also, grass cropping generally raised available levels of soil Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn; this effect, however, resulted in no substantial alleviation of Fe chlorosis in succeeding chickpea or peanut crops. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley appears to be a promising remedy for Fe chlorosis in olive orchards affected by Fe chlorosis.

J.C, Cañasveras; M. C, del Campillo; V, Barrón; J, Torrent.

178

Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves. PMID:24420892

Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

1994-01-01

179

9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...  

Science.gov (United States)

... Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area... Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter...

2010-01-01

180

MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these histopathological lesions were absent in all the groups in all the organs. But after 96 hours, these respective lesions in respective organs were usually of mild, moderate and severe nature in groups B, C and D, respectively. It was concluded that mercury intoxication not only resulted in marked histopathological changes and abnormal clinical signs but also depressed growth rate of fish.

M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater. PMID:23488000

Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

182

The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds. The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

Vu?kovi? Savo

2003-01-01

183

Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

184

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DITHIOCARBAMATE TOXICITY TO THE GRASS SHRIMP, 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO'  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate formulations caused a dose...

185

26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. 56.4911-6 Section 56.4911-6... Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity must...

2010-04-01

186

Evaluation of Native Grasses for Highway Slope Stabilization and Salt Tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate grass species native to New England for potential use on roadsides. We examined salt tolerance, rooting depth, and ability to establish and survive under roadside conditions. The grasses evaluated for all charac...

B. Maynard, R. N. Brown

2010-01-01

187

26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. 56...EXCISE TAXES § 56.4911-6 Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public...

2010-04-01

188

Rumen escape protein in grass and grass silage deterimened with a nylon bag and an enzymatic technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for six grasses and 16 grass silages using a nylon bag technique and an in vitro technique using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation observed between percentage REP (%REP), determined with the nylon bag technique, and the in vitro undegradable fraction (U) occurred at 24 h of incubation (%U24; R2=0.71). Shorter incubation periods weakened the relat...

Cone, J. W.; Gelder, A. H.; Mathijssen-kamman, A. A.; Hindle, V. A.

2004-01-01

189

Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

2010-01-01

190

Mass balance of metolachlor in a grassed phytoremediation system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metolachlor is a point-source pollutant at agrochemical dealerships in the Midwest, as well as a non point-source contaminant of surface waters caused by runoff. Prairie grasses have been used in filter strips to control runoff and are also useful for phytoremediation; however, little is known about the fate of metolachlor and its metabolites within a grassed system. Effects of uptake by prairie grasses on the formation and fate of degradation products are not known. In this study, [U-ring-14C]metolachlor was added to enclosed systems to determine the fate of the parent compound and its metabolites in soil and plants. Mineralization and volatilization were monitored over the 97 day study and found to be 1.05 and 0.2%, respectively, for vegetated systems. At the end of the study, soil and plant material was evaluated for the presence of parent metolachlor and selected metabolites, as well as bound residues. Metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid was the dominant metabolite in soil and plant tissue. Over 7% of applied radioactivity was taken up by the grasses, and plant uptake/metabolism appeared to be the main mechanism for phytoremediation of metolachlor. Vegetation significantly reduced the amount of metolachlor in soil by 9%, indicating potential success as a remediation tool. PMID:17612194

Henderson, Keri L; Belden, Jason B; Coats, Joel R

2007-06-01

191

Salt flat and salt grass habitat at the Mojave desert  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt flat/ grass habitat provides shade and shelter for desert organisms. This habitat is found at a higher elevation than the sand and rock habitats and has slightly cooler temperatures and more moisture, which accounts for the abundance of vegetation.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-06

192

Neurological disorders in sheep during signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe neurological dysfunction was observed in sheep 4 weeks after grazing on Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens). These neurological disorders included the stamping of forelegs, star-gazing, incoordination, head-pressing against the fence and circling movements. Histologically, numerous vacuolations of various sizes were observed in the white matter of the brain giving rise to a spongy appearance. PMID:2929118

Abdullah, A S; Noordin, M M; Rajion, M A

1989-04-01

193

Perennial fodder grasses as intercrop in Areca and Coconut gardens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to encourage the farmers to cultivate fodder grasses as an intercrop in the areca and coconut gardens. A live demonstration of fodder crops was under taken in 12 villages of Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga district, Karnataka, to educate the farmers in cultivating perennial fodder grasses in their areca and coconut gardens as inter crops.100 farmers were selected randomly from the 12 villages for demonstration of intercropping of fodder grass. Amongst these 58% of the farmers could achieve success by transplanting the fodder grass seedlings to areca & coconut gardens as intercrop. In 6 villages the success rate was to the tune of 60-80%, 4 villages were in the range of 40-60% and the remaining 2 villages showed less than 40% success. The success of the program depended on the necessity for fodder crops or the association of the farmers with Dairy co-operative societies. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 68-70

R.Jayashree and A.Suneetha

2010-04-01

194

Climate Change Will Boost Grass Pollen Production, Study Contends  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Climate Change Will Boost Grass Pollen Production, Study Contends The ... Wednesday, November 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Allergy Climate Change Hay Fever WEDNESDAY, Nov. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

195

Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conservation considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass, a warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soil by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season grasses

196

MR imaging of cervical disc disease; Value of GRASS imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology has been greatly improved, MRI for cervical disc disease has become widely used in many facilities. Among non-invasive procedures, MRI is regarded as one of the most useful ones. Conventional myelography, CT myelography, and MRI were performed on 10 patients with cervical disc disease. The authors discussed the correlation between conventional myelography, CT myelography, and MRI as regards their ability to determine the localization and the laterality of disc protrusion and osteophyte. In our MRI study, we use both short-echo (SE) images and GRASS images. The parameters of our GRASS included 5 mm-thick sections. TR=200, TE=20, and flip angles of 10deg. This pulse sequence generates images with high signal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in a high-contrast CSF-spinal cord, osteophyte, and disc protrusion. As yet, although it easily shows the localization and laterality of the disc and/or osteophyte, image quality of the GRASS is not yet sufficient to allow us to evaluate detailed deformity of the spinal cord and nerve root. The authors stress the usefulness of this GRASS image for the evaluation of suspected cervical disc disease. (author).

Hida, Kazutoshi; Akino, Minoru; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Isu, Toyohiko; Abe, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Matsuzawa, Hitoshi; Nomura, Mikio; Saitoh, Hisatoshi

1990-02-01

197

Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

2006-05-01

198

The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

2013-01-01

199

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, and Phleum pratense were present in both mixtures. Although Anthoxanthum odoratum and Secale cereale were absent from the mixture of five, IgG responses to Ant o V and Sec c V were comparable in both patient groups. This reactivity was inhibited for 92-99% with L. perenne extract, illustrating the cross-reactive nature of the IgG antibodies. The presence of A. odoratum and S. cereale in the mixture resulted in only minor amounts of species-specific anti-group V IgG. These results indicate that application of just one grass species in immunotherapy might be sufficient to induce an IgG response that covers other relevant Gramineae species as well. PMID:7677246

van Ree, R; Brewczy?ski, P Z; Tan, K Y; Mulder-Willems, H J; Widjaja, P; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C; Kroon, A M

1995-03-01

200

Effect of surface-specific training on 20-m sprint performance on sand and grass surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the effect of an 8-week preseason conditioning program conducted on a sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surface on 20-m sprint performance. Twelve team-sport athletes were required to attend three 1-hour training sessions per week, including 2 surface-specific sessions (SAND, n = 6 or GRASS, n = 6) and 1 group session (conducted on grass). Throughout the training period, 20-m sprint times of all athletes were recorded on both sand and grass surfaces at the end of weeks 1, 4, and 8. Results showed a significant improvement in 20-m sand time in the SAND group only (p < 0.05), whereas 20-m grass time improved equally in both training subgroups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that surface-specificity is essential for 20-m speed improvements on sand and also that there is no detriment to grass speed gains when incorporating sand surfaces into a preseason program. PMID:23478471

Binnie, Martyn J; Peeling, Peter; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu [...] ), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85). The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE). The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

Edilane Aparecida da, Silva; Wilson Jesus da, Silva; Antônio Carlos, Barreto; Antonio Barbosa de, Oliveira Junior; José Mauro Valente, Paes; José Reinaldo Mendes, Ruas; Domingos Sávio, Queiroz.

202

Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk, Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu, Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes, Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85. The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE. The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

Edilane Aparecida da Silva

2012-03-01

203

Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu [...] ), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85). The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE). The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

Edilane Aparecida da, Silva; Wilson Jesus da, Silva; Antônio Carlos, Barreto; Antonio Barbosa de, Oliveira Junior; José Mauro Valente, Paes; José Reinaldo Mendes, Ruas; Domingos Sávio, Queiroz.

2012-03-01

204

Changes in organic matter (C, N and P) of soils under subsistence agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the 0-7.5 cm layer rather than the 0-15 cm layer. Interrelationships between C and P in the dry forest areas suggested that P availability and water controlled C accumulation in these soils. In the second part of this work two experiments were conducted. The first one included a preliminary phase, comparing four methods in their capacity to detect changes in soil organic matter quality. Eighty samples that maximized the variability in C content of the whole set (n=160), were analyzed for: C in the light SOM fraction (density -3) (C-lf); C-CO2 produced during three days of incubation (C-min3d); C oxidized with 333 mM (C-ox 333) and 16,5 mM (C-ox16) KMnO4. The only fraction that did not correlate with total C was C-fl. Average proportions of total C extracted by C-mins3d, C-ox 16 were 1.5%, 24% and 7.2 %, respectively. In the second phase, the whole sample set (n=160) was analyzed for C-ox16. This C fraction decreased from 1.65 g kg-1 under UDF to 0.70 in DC (P-1, in a pot experiment. Total C correlated significantly with N mineralized in 60 d (N-min60d) (r=0.79***) while N-min60 and P-Mehlich-1 explained 80% of the variation in dry matter production by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Low P availability, C and N losses, limited water availability and sometimes-inappropriate land management techniques, are considered strong limiting conditions for the recovery of degraded soils by traditional bush fallow techniques. (author)

205

Developmental arrest in grass shrimp embryos exposed to selected toxicants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Excised embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to single pulse concentrations of selected pollutants for 4 days. The following toxicity endpoints were monitored: rate of embryonic development, embryo mortality, and types of embryo malformation. Each endpoint exhibited concentration--response relationships which were modified by the embryonic age at which exposure commenced. Developmental retardation of up to 3 days was effected by phenol at 0.01% (V/V) and complete developmental arrest occurred at 0.05% and 0.1% (V/V). Similarly for methylene chloride, developmental retardation of 1003 days were observed at 0.1% (V/V) depending on the age of the embryos at the start of the tests. The morphological abnormalities of the embryos are described. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for the development of short-term toxicity tests using grass shrimp embryos are discussed.

Wilson, J.E.H. [Morgan State Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

1998-12-31

206

Diversity of Puccinia striiformis on cereals and grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yellow (stripe) rust is a common fungal disease on cereals and grasses. It is caused by Puccinia striiformis sensu lato, which is biotrophic and heteroecious. The pathogen is specialized on the primary host at both species and cultivar levels, whereas several Berberis spp. may serve as alternate hosts. One lineage infects mainly cereals and at least two lineages are restricted to grasses. P. striiformis on cereals has a typical clonal population structure in many areas, resulting from asexual reproduction, but high diversity, suggesting frequent recombination, has been observed in certain areas in Asia. Yellow rust is spreading by airborne spores potentially across long distances, which may contribute to sudden disease epidemics in new areas. This has been the case since 2000, where large-scale epidemics in warmer wheat-growing areas have been ascribed to the emergence of two closely related yellow rust strains with increased aggressiveness and tolerance to warm temperatures. PMID:21599494

Hovmøller, Mogens S; Sørensen, Chris K; Walter, Stephanie; Justesen, Annemarie F

2011-01-01

207

Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H2SO4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

208

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrog [...] en (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Juliana Medianeira, Machado; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de, Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato, Confortin; Aline Bosak dos, Santos; Maria José de Oliveira, Sichonany; Laila Arruda, Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da, Rosa.

2013-01-01

209

Utilization of fast-scanning techniques (GRASS) in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) is a fast-scanning MR imaging technique (General Electric Signa) that permits very short acquisition times. To optimize imaging time in the pediatric population, the authors utilized echo times of 12 msec and repetition times of 21 msec, with pulse flip angles of 30 degrees, to obtain relatively T2-weighted images. This technique was particularly useful in evaluating vascular structures (''angiogram effect''), joint space pathology (''arthrogram effect''), spinal tract abnormalities (''myelogram effect'') and for ''localizing'' scans. GRASS scanning is useful in evaluating children for preoperative liver transplantation, abdominal tumors, nonthoracic vascular lesions, joint space disease, and congenital as well as acquired disease of the spine

210

In situ spectral reflectance studies of tidal wetland grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Field measurements of wetland spectral canopy reflectance in the Landsat-MSS wavebands were correlated with biotic factors. The highest single band correlations were observed between visible (MSS Band 4: 0.5 to 0.6 micron and Band 5: 0.6 to 0.7 micron) canopy reflectance and the percentage, by weight, of live (green) vegetation in the canopies of Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow grass), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass). Infrared canopy reflectance displayed significant but weaker dependence on canopy parameters such as live and total biomass and canopy height. The Band 7 (0.8 to 1.1 microns)/Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron) reflectance ratio was found to be highly correlated with green biomass for S. alterniflora. Highest spectral separability between the 'low marsh' S. alterniflora and the 'high marsh' Salt Hay (S. patens and D. spicata) communities in Delaware occurs during December.

Bartlett, D. S.; Klemas, V.

1981-01-01

211

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Juliana Medianeira Machado

2013-01-01

212

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrog [...] en (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Juliana Medianeira, Machado; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de, Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato, Confortin; Aline Bosak dos, Santos; Maria José de Oliveira, Sichonany; Laila Arruda, Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da, Rosa.

213

Emerging technologies advancing forage and turf grass genomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grassland is of major importance for agricultural production and provides valuable ecosystem services. Its impact is likely to rise in changing socio-economic and climatic environments. High yielding forage grass species are major components of sustainable grassland production. Understanding the genome structure and function of grassland species provides opportunities to accelerate crop improvement and thus to mitigate the future challenges of increased feed and food demand, scarcity of natural resources such as water and nutrients, and high product qualities. In this review, we will discuss a selection of technological developments that served as main drivers to generate new insights into the structure and function of nuclear genomes. Many of these technologies were originally developed in human or animal science and are now increasingly applied in plant genomics. Our main goal is to highlight the benefits of using these technologies for forage and turf grass genome research, to discuss their potentials and limitations as well as their relevance for future applications. PMID:24309540

Kopecký, David; Studer, Bruno

2014-01-01

214

Study of some biochemical parameters in the grass carp  

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Full Text Available The experimental investigations were devoted to some biochemical parameters (glycogen, catalase, alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferase in three summer-old representatives of grass carp, at the level of the hepatic and muscular tissue. The results obtained evidenced significant differences between the tissues under analysis, both in the concentration of the main reserve polyglucides, as a supplier of circulating glucose, and in the enzymatic activity, in close correlation with the physiological and biochemical role of each tissue in part.

Sabina-Ioana Cojocaru

2009-12-01

215

Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

2008-12-01

216

Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation induced sexuality in this apomictic grass. Sexual strains were isolated and selected individuals were crossed. Polycross and recurrent single cross methods allowed restoring apomixis. The resulting apomictic strains showed excellent traits and transgressed hereditary potentials of parental components. The method is described of breeding and the productivity of individual breeding techniques is discussed. It is shown that the number of strains should be reduced and the most productive strains should be used for the formation of synthetic cultivars. (author)

217

Induced mutations in highly heterozygous vegetatively propagated grasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience with mutation induction of turf and forage grasses indicates that much progress can be achieved by this method. More than 300 mutations have been produced in our laboratory in the cultivars Tifgreen and Tifdwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). In the Tifway and Tifcote bermudagrasses we have demonstrated similar mutation responses. The first three clones are triploids and Tifcote is a probable tetraploid. No seeds are set on these clones. Two clones of bermudagrass, Coastal and Coastcross-1, occupy millions of hectares in the USA. Both are mutable and are known to be hybrids with 36 chromosomes. Biotypes of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) exist with 40 and 50 chromosomes and reproduce as sexual and obligate apomictic forms. Gamma-ray and thermal-neutron treatment of seed of these biotypes produced mutants that maintained the maternal characteristics in subsequent generations. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) also has sexual and apomictic biotypes. Some success was indicated for increased seed set by mutagen treatment. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a facultative apomict with varying numbers of chromosomes in different cultivars. Gamma-ray mutagen treatment of rhizomes produced numerous mutations for plant type and disease reaction. Most mutations perpetuate themselves through the seed. The characteristic in common with all these grasses is their heterozygosity, which is maintained by the vegetative propagation or apomictic mode of reproduc propagation or apomictic mode of reproduction. The experience in using ionizing radiation to induce heritable changes in these vegetatively propagated grasses is one of considerable success. Mutation rates in some of these irradiated grasses exceeded 65% and aberrant plants with characteristics previously never observed were found. Numerous hemizygous and heterozygous loci seem to be a sensitive target for mutagens. (author)

218

THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P<0.05) overall prevalence (7.54%), followed by L. cy...

Z Tasawar, S. Zafar

2009-01-01

219

Nutrient supply to reed canary grass as a bioenergy crop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of renewable energy from herbaceous crops on agricultural land is of great interest since fossil fuels need to be replaced with sustainable energy sources. Reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea L. is an interesting species for this purpose. The aim of this thesis was to study different approaches to reduce the requirement of mineral fertilizers in RCG production for bioenergy purposes. Paper I describes a study where fertilization effects and risk of heavy metal enrichme...

Lindvall, Eva

2012-01-01

220

Epichloë endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

Li, Tao; Blande, James D; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia La Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria Del Mar

2008-01-01

222

Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

Vuuren, A. M.

1993-01-01

223

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

A. Priolo

2011-03-01

224

The hydrothermal system in southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

Science.gov (United States)

Southern Grass Valley is typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163-173C. This report discusses results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations used in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system. (USGS)

Welch, Alan H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

1981-01-01

225

Abiotic constraints on the competitive ability of exotic and native grasses in a Pacific Northwest prairie.  

Science.gov (United States)

In prairie ecosystems, abiotic constraints on competition can structure plant communities; however, the extent to which competition between native and exotic plant species is constrained by environmental factors is still debated. The objective of our study was to use paired field and greenhouse experiments to evaluate the competitive dynamics between two native (Danthonia californica and Deschampsia cespitosa) and two exotic (Schedonorus arundinaceus and Lolium multiflorum) grass species under varying nutrient and moisture conditions in an upland prairie in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. We hypothesized the two invasive, exotic grasses would be more competitive under high-nutrient, moderate-moisture conditions, resulting in the displacement of native grasses from these environments. In the field, the experimental reduction of competition resulted in shorter, wider plants, but only the annual grass, Lolium multiflorum, produced more aboveground biomass when competition was reduced. In the greenhouse, the two exotic grasses produced more total biomass than the two native grasses. Competitive hierarchies were influenced by nutrient and/or moisture treatments for the two exotic grasses, but not for the two native grasses. L. multiflorum dominated competitive interactions with all other grasses across treatments. In general, S. arundinaceus dominated when in competition with native grasses, and D. cespitosa produced the most biomass in monoculture or under interspecific competition with the other native grass, D. californica. D. californica, D. cespitosa, and S. arundinaceus all produced more biomass in high-moisture, high-nutrient environments, and D. cespitosa, L. multiflorum, and S. arundinaceus allocated more biomass belowground in the low nutrient treatment. Taken together, these experiments suggest the competitive superiority of the exotic grasses, especially L. multiflorum, but, contrary to our hypothesis, the native grasses were not preferentially excluded from nutrient-rich, moderately wet environments. PMID:18030496

Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Cole, Esther M; Roy, Bitty A; Bridgham, Scott D

2008-03-01

226

Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species.

Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M

2004-08-01

227

Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

228

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

Dornelas Marcelo C.

2001-01-01

229

Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices to remove pesticides that may be entrained in agricultural runoff. However, buffer system efficacy in pesticide runoff mitigation varies widely due to a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, pesticide chemistry, vegetation composition, and hydrology. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetland buffer system, were evaluated for their ability to retain diazinon and permethrin associated with a simulated storm runoff. The two systems were equally inefficient at retaining diazinon (mean 9.6 % retention for control and buffer). Grass-wetland buffers retained 83 % and 85 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively, while the control only retained 39 % and 44 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively. Half-distances (the distance required to decrease pesticide concentration by one-half) for both permethrin isomers were 26 %-30 % shorter in grass buffers (22-23 m) than in the control (32 m). The current study demonstrates treatment efficacy was a function of pesticide properties with the more strongly sorbing permethrin retained to a greater degree. The study also demonstrates challenges in remediating multiple pesticides with a single management practice. By using suites of management practices, especially those employing vegetation, better mitigation of pesticide impacts may be accomplished. PMID:25145638

Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Locke, M A; Lizotte, R E; Testa, S; Cooper, C M

2014-11-01

230

Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a). PMID:25168231

Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

2015-01-25

231

EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site. PMID:19297989

Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

2008-11-01

232

Optimization of the operating parameters of a grass trimming machine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very common among the workers operating power tools and doing similar nature of work for long hours. Grass trimming is one of the operations that involves use of vibrating cutter, and results in hand-arm vibration among workers. In this study, the influence of several operating parameters (length of nylon cutting thread, engine speed and handle material) is investigated in terms of HAV. Data are analyzed via orthogonal array, main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance to determine the appropriate operating parameter levels to minimize HAV. Operating parameters under investigation are found to be influential in controlling HAV generation during grass trimming operation. Experiments are carried out for measuring hand-arm vibration using tri-axial accelerometer conforming the effectiveness of this approach. Results show that 100mm length of nylon thread, 3000+/-400rpm of engine speed and ABS handle material combination results in minimum HAV (HARM) of magnitude 2.76m/s(2). Through this study not only the optimal operating parameter levels for GTM are obtained, but also the main process parameters that affect the HAV are determined. The optimum HAV obtained through appropriate level selection of operating parameters, significantly reduces the occurrence of HAVS among the grass trimmers. PMID:19762006

Mallick, Zulquernain

2010-03-01

233

Radioactive isotope uptake in a grass-legume association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive uptake of Medicago sativa and Rye grass in a pasture exposed to the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, was determined in four consecutive harvests covering a period of one year after the accident. In plants of Medicago sativa, inoculated with an effective Rhizobia meliloti strain isolated from Greek soils, a high degree of biological nitrogen fixation was observed at all harvests using N-15 techniques. At the second and third harvests, the percentage nitrogen derived from fixation (%NdfF), the percentage nitrogen derived from soil (%NdfS), as well as the radioactive uptake from the soil remained stable. At the fourth harvest, however, the %NdfF decreased while the %NdfS and the radioactive uptake from soil significantly increased. At the first harvest the radioactivity in both plants, caused mainly by direct fallout contamination, was considerably higher than that observed at the later harvests. Medicago sativa contained significantly less radioactivity than the grass at all harvests, although both plants were grown under the same environmental conditions. Even at the fourth harvest, almost one year after the initial contamination, the radioactivity of grass remained at high levels (20 Bq g-1 of protein) while in Medicago sativa it assumed considerably lower values (3.6 Bq g-1 of protein). A possible involvement of biological nitrogen fixation in the reduction of radioactive uptake is discussed. Finally, certain practical conclusions are drawn with respect to a safer management of pastures exposed to radioactivity. (author)

234

Radioactive isotope uptake in a grass-legume association  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactive uptake of Medicago sativa and Rye grass in a pasture exposed to the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident, was determined in four consecutive harvests covering a period of one year after the accident. In plants of Medicago sativa, inoculated with an effective Rhizobia meliloti strain isolated from Greek soils, a high degree of biological nitrogen fixation was observed at all harvests using N-15 techniques. At the second and third harvests, the percentage nitrogen derived from fixation (%NdfF), the percentage nitrogen derived from soil (%NdfS), as well as the radioactive uptake from the soil remained stable. At the fourth harvest, however, the %NdfF decreased while the %NdfS and the radioactive uptake from soil significantly increased. At the first harvest the radioactivity in both plants, caused mainly by direct fallout contamination, was considerably higher than that observed at the later harvests. Medicago sativa contained significantly less radioactivity than the grass at all harvests, although both plants were grown under the same environmental conditions. Even at the fourth harvest, almost one year after the initial contamination, the radioactivity of grass remained at high levels (20 Bq g{sup -1} of protein) while in Medicago sativa it assumed considerably lower values (3.6 Bq g{sup -1} of protein). A possible involvement of biological nitrogen fixation in the reduction of radioactive uptake is discussed. Finally, certain practical conclusions are drawn with respect to a safer management of pastures exposed to radioactivity. (author).

Douka, C.E.; Xenoulis, A.C. (National Centre for Scientific Research, Demokritos (Greece))

1991-01-01

235

Microwave backscattering and emission model for grass canopies  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave radar and radiometer measurements of grasslands indicate a substantial reduction in sensor sensitivity to soil moisture in the presence of a thatch layer. When this layer is wet it masks changes in the underlying soil, making the canopy appear warm in the case of passive sensors (radiometer) and decreasing backscatter in the active case (scatterometer). A model for a grass canopy with thatch will be presented in this paper to explain this behavior and to compare with observations. The canopy model consists of three layers: grass, thatch, and the underlying soil. The grass blades are modeled by elongated elliptical discs and the thatch is modeled as a collection of disk shaped water droplets (i.e., the dry matter is neglected). The ground is homogeneous and flat. The distorted Born approximation is used to compute the radar cross section of this three layer canopy and the emissivity is computed from the radar cross section using the Peake formulation for the passive problem. Results are computed at L-band (1.4 GHz) and C-band (4.75 GHz) using canopy parameters (i.e., plant geometry, soil moisture, plant moisture, etc.) representative of Konza Prairie grasslands. The results are compared to C-band scatterometer measurements and L-band radiometer measurements at these grasslands.

Saatchi, Sasan S.; Levine, David M.; Lang, Roger H.

1994-01-01

236

Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

1993-02-01

237

Effect of Cutting Heights on Productivity and Quality of King Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King Grass under Irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment to study the effect of cutting heights on yield and nutritive values of King napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass was conducted on sandy loam, Korat soil series (Oxic Paleustults under irrigation during June 2006 to November 2007 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Development Research Center, Thailand. Four treatments of cutting height at 0 (T1, 5 (T2, 10 (T3 and 15 (T4 cm above ground level in randomized complete block design with 4 replications were employed. The results showed that the Total Dry Matter Yield (TDMY and Average Dry Matter Yield (ADMY (65,707.5, 67,070.0, 69,697.5 and 71,403.1 kg/ha/year ; 5,973.4, 6,096.4, 6,336.2 and 6,491.2 kg/ha/cut, respectively were significantly higher (p<0.05 in T4 than T1. There were no significant differences in CP and DMD among treatments, ranging from 12.1-12.9 and 75.5-76.6%, respectively but the percentage of ADF, NDF and ash were highly significantly different (41.7-43.5, 64.6-66.2 and 13.1-14.7%, respectively. Based on this research, it can be concluded that cutting height can affect the forage DM yield and nutritive values of King Napier grass. Cutting 35 day interval at 15 cm height above ground level could be the optimal level for harvesting King Napier grass in Northeast of Thailand.

Sumran Wijitphan

2009-01-01

238

A guardian of grasses: specific origin and conservation of a unique disease-resistance gene in the grass lineage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maize Hm1 gene provides protection against a lethal leaf blight and ear mold disease caused by Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 (CCR1). Although it was the first disease-resistance (DR) gene to be cloned, it remains a novelty because, instead of participating in the plant recognition and response system as most DR genes do, Hm1 disarms the pathogen directly. It does so by encoding an NADPH-dependent reductase, whose function is to inactivate Helminthosporium carbonum (HC) toxin, an epoxide-containing cyclic tetrapeptide, which the pathogen produces as a key virulence factor to colonize maize. Although CCR1 is strictly a pathogen of maize, orthologs of Hm1 and the HC-toxin reductase activity are present in the grass family, suggesting an ancient and evolutionarily conserved role of this DR trait in plants. Here, we provide proof for such a role by demonstrating its involvement in nonhost resistance of barley to CCR1. Barley leaves in which expression of the Hm1 homologue was silenced became susceptible to infection by CCR1, but only if the pathogen was able to produce HC toxin. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hm1 evolved exclusively and early in the grass lineage. Given the devastating ability of CCR1 to kill maize, these findings imply that the evolution and/or geographical distribution of grasses may have been constrained if Hm1 did not emerge. PMID:18230731

Sindhu, Anoop; Chintamanani, Satya; Brandt, Amanda S; Zanis, Michael; Scofield, Steven R; Johal, Gurmukh S

2008-02-01

239

Germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of selected grass species under the influence of blastokolins from germinating grass seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions in Department of Grass Science and Greenland Shaping in 2002-2004. Studies included six experiment series on Petri dishes set by means of complete randomization method in four replications. Following species were tested: Festulolium, Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis making one or two-species combinations. Fifteen seeds of two species were arranged alternately in 1- centimeter distance on a Petri dish. Objects where seeds germinated with no neighborhood of other species (30 seeds on a dish, were control. The filter's humidity on Petri dishes was maintained by wetting it with distilled water. Achieved results revealed significant influence of blastokolins of tested grass species on seed germination and initial seedling growth. Secretion of germinating Festulolium seeds showed the highest activity. Reaction of tested grass species to allelochemicals varied. In reference to control objects, Phleum pratense among tested species was distinguished with the highest susceptibility to allelochemicals released during seed germination.

Halina Lipi?ska

2006-12-01

240

Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administration produced dose related significant (P < 0.05 reduction in total chloesterol,triglycerides,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in normal rats as compared to control.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids,tannins, saponins and sterols in Triticum aestivum grass. Conclusion: The results of the present study lndicate hypolipidemic activity of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice.

Kothari Saroj

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ergovaline occurrence in grasses infected by fungal endophytes of semi-arid pastures in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ergovaline is a mycotoxin produced by fungal endophytes belonging to Neotyphodium and Epichloë spp in several host grass species. Due to the production of this alkaloid, the ingestion of endophyte infected grasses cause toxicosis in grazing animals. The aim of this work was to determine if ergovaline is produced in several grasses (Agrostis castellana Boiss and Reuter, Brachypodium phoenicoides (L) Roemer and Schultes, Dactylis glomerata L, Festuca arundinacea Schreb, Festuca arundinacea Sch...

Va?zquez Aldana, Beatriz R.; Zabalgogeazcoa, I.; Garci?a Ciudad, A.; Garci?a Criado, B.

2003-01-01

242

Ruminal disappearance of PAHs in contaminated grass using the nylon bag technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are deposited on agricultural grasses. In turn, PAHs enter the food chain through animals eating grasses. However, the risk of food contamination, e.g. of milk, is unknown because mechanisms ruling the fate of PAHs during digestion by cows are not understood, especially in the rumen. Here, we studied the disappearance rate of phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, n-alkanes, and dry matter from contaminated grass samples in the rumen, the fir...

Costera, Adria?n; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril; Soligot, Claire; Jurjanz, Stefan

2010-01-01

243

Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10?2 d L?1 and 4.6 × 10?2 d L?1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10?2 d L?1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10?3 d L?1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of 137Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y?1 and 0.04 ?Sv y?1,while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y?1 and 0.05 ?Sv y?1, respectively. -- Highlights: • This is a detailed study on Fv and Fm for 137Cs and stable Cs around the Kaiga nuclear power plant, India. • The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. • The Fm value for 137Cs for the local breed cows was estimated to be 2.4 × 10?2 d L?1. • The Fm value for dairy farm cows (4.0 × 10?3 d L?1) was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. • The reasons for the higher Fm values for 137Cs for the local breed cows are identified

244

Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affects the grass yield negatively and more than the tire pressure

Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

2009-01-01

245

Characterisation of dog sensitisation to grass pollen in western France from 1999 to 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few studies have investigated the seasonal aspect of grass pollen sensitisation or its evolution in the allergic canine population. The aim of this study was to evaluate both these aspects. A study of canine grass pollen sensitisation was performed throughout the statistical analysis of 261 intradermal skin testings (IDT=25 allergens tested on average) performed from January 1999 to December 2010. IDTs were performed on dogs with pruritic allergic skin disease. ?(2) Tests were used for statistical analysis. Two hundred and thirteen dogs (81.6 per cent) were sensitised to at least one allergen, and 56 (21.5 per cent) to at least one grass pollen. No increase in the rate of positive IDT was recorded over three periods: 1999-2002, 2003-2006 and 2007-2010. No statistical correlation was detected between sex, age or birth month and grass sensitisation. Moreover, no link was found between the season in which the IDT was performed and sensitisation, indicating that there is no seasonality to the sensitisation. However, considering the grasses tested over these three periods (grass mix and rye grass), a clear and significant increase in the percentage of dogs sensitised to grass pollen was observed between 1999-2002 and 2007-2010 (14.4 per cent and 27.7 per cent, respectively). The possible reasons for this sensitisation increase of dogs to grass pollen are discussed. PMID:23748582

Roussel, A J J; Bruet, V; Bourdeau, P J

2013-06-29

246

ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done using a suction sampler worn on the chest or lapel that measures breathing zone concentration; a more useful exposure parameter for pollen allergy sufferers is the amount of pollen inhaled, i.e. the dose. The objective of this study was to investigate how well monitoring station data reflect actual exposure, something that is currently not well understood. Methods: Exposure samples were collected during the 2011 grass pollen season in an area of abundant unmaintained grass coverage close to the centre of Aarhus, Denmark. Sampling was performed at two-hourly intervals between 12:00 and 20:00 on 14 separate days whilst walking a set route. Journey times were in the region of 28 minutes. Nasal Air Samplers (small impaction devices worn inside the nostrils that capture inhaled particles) were used. The number of inhaled grass pollen grains was counted under a light microscope and compared with concurrent concentrations recorded at a nearby roof level pollen monitoring station. The relationship between these two data sets was also compared with local meteorological variables (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). Results: The number of grass pollen grains inhaled during individual exposure episode ranged from 6 -127 (median 34), and inhalation rates were between 0.23 - 4.83 (median 1.20) grains min-1. Corresponding concentrations recorded at the monitoring station lay within the range 0 - 311 (median 56) grains m-3. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the exposure and monitoring station data was 0.65 (p<0.001). Exposure was disproportionately high relative to monitoring station data in 15% of the dataset, with these occurring close to midday (12:00-14:00). On no occasion was exposure disproportionately low. Correlation coefficients for the ‘early’ (12:00-14:00) and ‘late’ (18:00-20:00) periods differ considerably (rs=0.51 and rs=0.82 respectively). The mean profile of monitoring station concentrations shows a persistent increase from 12:00-20:00 whilst for the exposure data the opposite is true. No relationship was observed between the standardised ratio of exposure to monitored data and any of the available weather data. Conclusions: Whilst the monitoring station data is a reasonable proxy for exposure, the quality of the relationship depends upon the time of day. Within the study area the risk of exposure decreases between noon and mid-evening, likely reflecting diurnal variation in the emission of grass pollen. This trend is contrary to what the monitoring station predicts, and this has implications where allergen avoidance is being advocated as a method for controlling symptoms. An exposure model for grass pollen is currently being developed for Aarhus. Model performance will be tested against the empirical exposure data described here, the ultimate aim being to build upon this study by using the model to assess the importance of source proximity to exposure.

Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole

247

Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb. PMID:21411942

Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

2011-01-01

248

Determination of Nutritional Value of Some Legume and Grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of legumes and grasses for productivity of livestock. Vicia sativa, Pisum arvense, Lathrus sativus, Vicia narbonensis, Dactylis glomerata, Chrysopogon gryllus and Festuca ovina were taken as plant materials from field and rangeland Koseilyas village Tekirdag, Turkey. The results of present examination showed large differences in nutritive value between grass and legumes. The nutritional value and digestibility of forages is related to stages of maturity at harvest, such as vegetative, heading and flowering. It was determined that grasses had lower concentration of CP but higher CF, DM, NDF and ADF concentration than legumes. The highest protein content was determined as 16.35% for Lathyrus sativus. Chrysopogon gryllus had the lowest content of protein (3.85%, but higher CF (39.17%, NDF(77.04% and ADF(45.27% values than other species. CF is negatively correlated to CP (r=-0.833 and positively correlated to ADF (r=0.972 and NDF (r=0.912. DM is positively correlated to CF (r=0.609, ADF (r=0.972, NDF (r=0.912 and negatively correlated to CP (r=-0.552.There are negative correlations between CP and ADF (r=-0.811 and NDF(r=-0.888 and positive correlated to ash (r=0.542. There are negative correlations between ash and NDF (r=-0.325, ADF (r=-0.439 and there are positive correlations between NDF and ADF (r=0.823.

Canan Tuna

2004-01-01

249

Torrefaction of pellets from reed canary grass and softwood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work an energy crop, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied in comparison with Norway Spruce (NS ) when treated in a torrefaction process. In the torrefaction process biomass is heated in an inert atmosphere (250-340 deg C) and physical and chemical characteristics are then enhanced and the product becomes more similar to coal. Co-firing of torrefied biomass with coal in existing CHP plants, and gasification of torrefied biomass has recently been demonstrated in industrial scale with positive results.

Oerberg, Haakan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Pommer, Linda; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

2012-11-01

250

Evaluation of Annual Wild Grass Species for Leaf Rust Resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual wild grass species of wheat i.e. Aegilops tauschii, Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta, Ae. variables, Ae. speltoids and Ae. triunciallis were screened against leaf rust Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desmaz.f.sp. tritici (Eriks. &E.henn. D.M. Henderson . The frequency of immune and resistant accessions was fairly high in Ae. geniculata, Ae. variables and Ae. tauschii while low in the accessions of Ae. neglecta. No accession of Ae. geniculata were found to be susceptible. All the tested accessions of Ae. variables, Ae. speltoides and Ae. triunciallis were immune to the prevalent races of leaf rust in this region.

Tariq M.Shah

2000-01-01

251

Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

252

Radon transport through a cool-season grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

222Rn released by mature tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) growing on uranium mill wastes in a controlled environment was a direct function of leaf area and essentially unrelated to the quantity of water transpired by the plants. The quantity of 222Rn released by the grass blades at maturity was approximately 0.01 Bq m-2 s-1. We suggest that the radioactive gas is transported from the rooting medium to leaves by mass flow in liquid water, but from leaves to the atmosphere by a path generally independent of water, i.e., primarily through the leaf cuticle and epicuticular wax. (author)

253

Identification of radical scavengers in sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers. The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing radical scavenging activity were isolated, and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS. They were identified as 5,8-dihydroxybenzopyranone and 5-hydroxy-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-benzopyranone. Activities of the compounds isolated were tested by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays, and compared with the known natural antioxidant rosmarinic acid and Trolox. PMID:11982419

Pukalskas, Audrius; van Beek, Teris A; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Linssen, Jozef P H; van Veldhuizen, Albertus; de Groot, Aede

2002-05-01

254

Prevalence of Copepod Ectoparasites of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and twenty grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, were examined over a period of one year from March 1998 to February 1999 at Government Fish Hatchery, Mian Channu, Punjab, Pakistan. Four species of copepod ectoparasites recovered were Lernaea (L. polymorpha (Yu, 1938, L. cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1761, L. lophiara (Harding, 1950 and L. ctenopharyngodonis. The parasitic infestation was low during the summer months when temperature ranged between 30-32?C and highest in winter months when temperature was between 13 -23?C.

Zahida Tasawar

1999-01-01

255

A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed. PMID:17234253

Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

2007-04-01

256

Pretratamiento Alcalino de Pasto Elefante (Pennisetum sp) y King Grass (Pennisetum hybridum) Cultivados en Colombia para la Producción de Bioetanol / Alkaline Pretreatment of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum Sp) and King Grass (Pennisetum Hybridum) Cultured in Colombia for Ethanol Production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes condiciones del pretratamiento con hidróxido de sodio (NaOH) en la recuperación de la fracción celulósica, remoción de lignina y producción de etanol mediante fermentación y sacarificación simultáneas de los pastos elefante y king grass (Pennisetum purpureum [...] and Pennisetum hybridum). Estos pastos son materias primas potenciales para la obtención de bioetanol a partir de la fracción celulósica. Los resultados obtenidos en producción de etanol muestran que bajo condiciones de pretratamiento de 120ºC, 60 minutos, NaOH al 2% (w/w) y una relación líquido a sólido de 20 (w/w) se obtienen las más altas concentraciones de etanol: 27.7 g/L para king grass y 26.1 g/L para pasto elefante en 24 horas de fermentación. Además, bajo las condiciones evaluadas se pudo observar remociones de lignina de 88.4% y 94.0% para pasto elefante y pasto king grass respectivamente. La etapa de desintoxicación permite eliminar inhibidores formados durante el pretratamiento, los cuales afectan la hidrólisis y fermentación. Abstract in english Abstract The effect of different alkaline pretreatment conditions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the recuperation of cellulosic fraction, lignin removal and ethanol production was evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of elephant grass and king grass ((Pennisetum purpureu [...] m and Pennisetum hybridum). These types of grass are potential raw materials for bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction. Results obtained in ethanol production show that under pretreatment conditions of 120ºC, 60 minutes, 2%(w/w) of NaOH and a liquid to solid ratio of 20 (w/w), the highest ethanol concentrations are obtained: 27.7 g/L and 26.1 g/L for king grass and elephant grass respectively, in 24 hours of fermentation. Furthermore, under the evaluated conditions it was observed that lignin removal was 88.4% for elephant grass and 94.0% for king grass. The detoxification stage eliminates inhibitors formed during pretreatment, which affects the hydrolysis and fermentation.

Eliana M, Cardona; Jorge A, Rios; Juan D, Peña; Luis A, Rios.

257

Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter) when sward light interception reached 95% durin [...] g regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

Denise Baptaglin, Montagner; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Valéria Pacheco Batista, Euclides; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Marciele Neves, Carloto.

258

A complex ergovaline gene cluster in epichloe endophytes of grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosynthesis containing a single-module NRPS gene, lpsB, and other genes orthologous to genes in the ergopeptine gene cluster of Claviceps purpurea and the clavine cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus. Despite conservation of gene sequence, gene order is substantially different between the N. lolii, C. purpurea, and A. fumigatus ergot alkaloid gene clusters. Southern analysis indicated that the N. lolii cluster was linked with previously identified ergovaline biosynthetic genes dmaW and lpsA. The ergovaline genes are closely associated with transposon relics, including retrotransposons and autonomous and nonautonomous DNA transposons. All genes in the cluster were highly expressed in planta, but expression was very low or undetectable in mycelia from axenic culture. This work provides a genetic foundation for elucidating biochemical steps in the ergovaline pathway, the ecological role of individual ergot alkaloid compounds, and the regulation of their synthesis in planta. PMID:17308187

Fleetwood, Damien J; Scott, Barry; Lane, Geoffrey A; Tanaka, Aiko; Johnson, Richard D

2007-04-01

259

A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichloë Endophytes of Grasses? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosynthesis containing a single-module NRPS gene, lpsB, and other genes orthologous to genes in the ergopeptine gene cluster of Claviceps purpurea and the clavine cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus. Despite conservation of gene sequence, gene order is substantially different between the N. lolii, C. purpurea, and A. fumigatus ergot alkaloid gene clusters. Southern analysis indicated that the N. lolii cluster was linked with previously identified ergovaline biosynthetic genes dmaW and lpsA. The ergovaline genes are closely associated with transposon relics, including retrotransposons and autonomous and nonautonomous DNA transposons. All genes in the cluster were highly expressed in planta, but expression was very low or undetectable in mycelia from axenic culture. This work provides a genetic foundation for elucidating biochemical steps in the ergovaline pathway, the ecological role of individual ergot alkaloid compounds, and the regulation of their synthesis in planta. PMID:17308187

Fleetwood, Damien J.; Scott, Barry; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Tanaka, Aiko; Johnson, Richard D.

2007-01-01

260

Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov., associated with the phyllosphere of grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three isolates obtained from grass samples were investigated by means of a polyphasic taxonomic study and were shown to represent a novel species within the genus Chryseobacterium. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic features indicated that the three isolates belonged to a single species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Chryseobacterium shigense and Chryseobacterium vrystaatense, which formed a stable cluster with the isolates; this phylogeny was supported by a high bootstrap value and was obtained using different treeing methods. A DNA-DNA hybridization study with the closest neighbour, C. shigense DSM 17126(T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), clearly demonstrated a separate species status for the grass isolate strain P 456/04(T). Comparisons involving physiological properties and whole-cell fatty acid profiles confirmed this result at the phenotypic level. On the basis of these results, strain P 456/04(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P 456/04(T) (=DSM 18605(T) =LMG 23785(T)). PMID:17684275

Behrendt, Undine; Ulrich, Andreas; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter

2007-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Report on the grass ecosystem project: results for 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the Chernobyl accident, some 20 grass samples were collected over a wide area of Europe by a carefully prescribed protocol. The samples were dried, homogenized, and distributed by the IAEA to Member States who had expressed an interest in participating in their analysis. Thirteen radionuclides were measured in these samples, and the range in activity ratios for some radionuclides was over a hundredfold. This variability appears to be associated with particulate versus vaporized radionuclide releases from the reactor core, and/or the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide source term at the time of the release. The radionuclide concentrations observed by the various laboratories generally indicated good analytical consistency, and the few cases where consistency does not seem to hold may possibly be attributed to inhomogeneity of aliquots (hot particles) of the grass samples. The wide geographic coverage of this sampling programme, together with multiple laboratory analyses, provides a data resource which should be valuable for comparing and understanding the nature of Chernobyl fallout which was deposited at selected sites throughout Europe. (author). Figs and tabs

262

Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

263

GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA  

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Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

C. D. A. Moreira

2014-07-01

264

Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?  

Science.gov (United States)

In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment. PMID:24037300

Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

2014-08-01

265

Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

Denise Baptaglin Montagner

2012-04-01

266

Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter) when sward light interception reached 95% durin [...] g regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

Denise Baptaglin, Montagner; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Valéria Pacheco Batista, Euclides; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Marciele Neves, Carloto.

2012-04-01

267

Red edge shift and biochemical content in grass canopies  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of foliar nitrogen in tropical grass is one of the factors that explain the distribution of wildlife. Therefore, the remote sensing of foliar nitrogen contributes to a better understanding of wildlife feeding patterns. This study evaluated changes in the red edge position of the 680 nm continuum removed chlorophyll feature in the reflectance spectra of samples of Cenchus ciliaris grass grown in a greenhouse under three levels of nitrogen supply. Canopy spectral measurements from each treatment were recorded under controlled laboratory conditions over a four-week period using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer. Results indicate that the mean wavelength positions of the three fertilization treatments were statistically different. An increase in nitrogen supply yielded a shift in the red edge position to longer wavelengths. The red edge position, amplitude, slope at 713 nm and slope at 725 nm were significantly correlated to measured nitrogen concentration (bootstrapped r = 0.89, - 0.28, 0.63 and 0.75, respectively) even at canopy level. Based on these results, the red edge position is strongly correlated with biochemical concentration in plants compared to the other methods tested. The study provides conclusive evidence that confirms the strength of a red edge-nitrogen relationship that remains underused in remote sensing. This method is promising for estimating nutrient content in grasslands.

Mutanga, Onisimo; Skidmore, Andrew K.

268

An animal model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome: Nile grass rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent and complex disease, characterized by the variable coexistence of obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and hypertension. The alarming rise in the prevalence of metabolic disorders makes it imperative to innovate preventive or therapeutic measures for MetS and its complications. However, the elucidation of the pathogenesis of MetS has been hampered by the lack of realistic models. For example, the existing animal models of MetS, i.e., genetically engineered rodents, imitate certain aspects of the disease, while lacking other important components. Defining the natural course of MetS in a spontaneous animal model of the disease would be desirable. Here, we introduce the Nile grass rat (NGR), Arvicanthis niloticus, as a novel model of MetS. Studies of over 1100 NGRs in captivity, fed normal chow, revealed that most of these animals spontaneously develop dyslipidemia (PHafezi-Moghadam, A. An animal model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome: Nile grass rat. PMID:20335226

Noda, Kousuke; Melhorn, Mark I.; Zandi, Souska; Frimmel, Sonja; Tayyari, Faryan; Hisatomi, Toshio; Almulki, Lama; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Hayes, K. C.; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

2010-01-01

269

Estimating dry grass residues using landscape integration analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The acreage of grassland and grassland-savannah is extensive in California, making direct measurement and assessment logistically impossible. Grasslands cover the entire Central Valley up to about 1200 m elevation in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada Range. Kuchler's map shows 5.35 M ha grassland with an additional 3.87 M ha in Oak savannah. The goal of this study was to examine the use of high spectral resolution sensors to distinguish between dry grass and soil in remotely sensed images. Spectral features that distinguish soils and dry plant material in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) region are thought to be primarily caused by cellulose and lignin, biochemicals which are absent from soils or occur as breakdown products in humid substances that lack the narrow-band features. We have used spectral mixing analysis (SMA) combined with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis to characterize plant communities and dry grass biomass. The GIS was used to overlay elevation maps, and vegetation maps, with the SMA results. The advantage of non-image data is that it provides an independent source of information for the community classification.

Hart, Quinn J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Duan, Lian; Scheer, George

1993-01-01

270

Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant toxins are the chemical defenses of plants against herbivory. Grasses have relatively few intrinsic toxins, relying more on growth habit to survive defoliation and endophytic fungal toxins as chemical defenses. Forage grasses that contain intrinsic toxins include Phalaris spp. (tryptamine and carboline alkaloids), sorghums (cyanogenic glycosides), and tropical grasses containing oxalates and saponins. Toxic effects of these grasses include neurological damage (Phalaris staggers), hypoxia (sudangrass), saponin-induced photosensitization (Brachiaria and Panicum spp.), and bone demineralization (oxalate-containing grasses). Endophytic toxins in grasses include ergot alkaloids in tall fescue and tremorgens (e.g., lolitrem B) in perennial ryegrass. Lolitrems cause neurological effects, producing the ryegrass staggers syndrome. Annual ryegrass toxicosis is caused by corynetoxins, which are chemically similar to tunicamycin antibiotics. Corynetoxins are produced by Clavibacter bacteria that parasitize a nematode, Anguina agrostis, that may infect annual ryegrass. Corynetoxins inhibit glycoprotein synthesis, causing defective formation of various blood components of the reticulo-endothelial system. Another mycotoxin in ryegrass is sporidesmin, which causes liver damage and secondary photosensitization (facial eczema). Fusarium toxins such as zearalenone and trichothecenes also occur in forage grasses. Kikuyugrass poisoning results in severe damage to the ruminal epithelium and omasal mucosa, and neurological signs. The causative agent, which may be associated with army worm predation of the grass, has not been identified. The properties and significance of these toxins are reviewed. PMID:7608026

Cheeke, P R

1995-03-01

271

Sod-seeding to modify coastal bermuda grass on reclaimed lignite overburden in Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted to investigate the ability of nine low-maintenance species to establish and persist with Coastal bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) established on reclaimed lignite overburden; to evaluate the establishment and persistence of seventeen low-maintenance species seeded in overburden with no vegetation cover; and to examine seeding mixtures and rates for establishing low-maintenance species into three cover types (bermuda grass, oats, (Avena fatua L.) and no cover). Seventeen low-maintenance species established and persisted in overburden without fertilization during years of low precipitation. Several seeded grasses showed sufficient stand development in monoculture for erosion control. Most of the other seeded species were slower in establishment, yet persisted on the site and promoted multiple use of the reclaimed area. Recommended seeding rates were generally adequate for seedling establishment in oat, bermuda grass, and no vegetation cover types. Sod-seeding into bermuda grass resulted in higher seedling densities than those in oats and no cover because of stored moisture beneath the sod during bermuda grass dormancy. Using /sup 15/N-labelled fertilizer, Coastal bermuda grass demonstrated the ability to rapidly recovery applied N. Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani Schrad.) was suppressed by Coastal bermuda grass in mixture at all fertilizer N rates.

Skousen, J.G.

1986-01-01

272

Estimation of grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for emergency situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies have been reported on soil to grass equilibrium transfer factors and grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for 137Cs for the environs of different nuclear power plants of both India and other parts of the world. In such studies, the activity concentration of 137Cs is measured in grass collected from different places. Cow's milk samples are collected from nearby localities or from milk dairies and analyzed for 137Cs and the grass to cow's milk transfer coefficient is estimated. In situation where 137Cs is not present in measurable activity concentrations, its stable counterpart (Cs) is measured for the estimation of transfer coefficients. These transfer coefficient values are generally used in theoretical models to estimate the dose to the population for hypothetical situation of emergency. It should be noted that the transfer coefficients obtained for equilibrium conditions may not be totally applicable for emergency situation. However, studies aimed at evaluating transfer coefficients for emergency situations are sparse because nuclear power plants do not release 137Cs during normal operating situations and therefore simulating situation of emergency release is not possible. Hence, the only method to estimate the grass to milk transfer coefficient for emergency situation is to spike the grass with small quantity of stable Cs. This paper reports the results of grass to milk transfer coefficientults of grass to milk transfer coefficients for stable isotope of Cesium (Cs) for emergency situation

273

26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. 56.4911-3 Section...Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition of term...allocation rules regarding what portion of a lobbying communication's costs is a...

2010-04-01

274

AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER: TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION ABOVE A GRASS SEED FIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oregon, in the summer of 1993. he report describes the changes in the atmospheric surface layer over a grass seed field ...

275

Grass pea and neurolathyrism: farmers' perception on its consumption and protective measure in North Shewa, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as water logging and frost hazards) influence consumption of grass pea. Most of the respondents have the idea that some chemical contained in grass pea causes a health problem. Different processing and preparation methods are used to prepare grass pea into different food forms. The major processing methods include washing and soaking, as the farmers apply these methods mainly because they assume that the chemical that causes lathyrism, scientifically known as ?-ODAP (?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid) is reduced through washing and soaking. The farmers adopt different strategies to avoid the problem of lathyrism such as avoiding consumption of grass pea in the form that they suspect to cause the problem, blending/mixing with other crops, applying different processing/detoxification methods. Since grass pea is consumed with a fear of lathyrism, future research should concentrate either on developing grass pea varieties with safe level of ?-ODAP content or improving the traditional/indigenous processing methods. PMID:20850494

Girma, Anteneh; Tefera, Beneberu; Dadi, Legesse

2011-03-01

276

EFFECTS OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND REPRODUCTION OF THE GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO: A LABORATORY STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass shrimp are abundant, ecologically important inhabitants of estuarine ecosystems; adults and embryos have been used extensively in laboratory experiments, including studies of the impacts of environmental toxicants. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions for grass sh...

277

Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n< 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The as grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

278

A Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial Assessing Compliance, Tolerability, Safety, and Efficacy to Treatment with Grass Allergy Tablets in 261 Patients with Grass Pollen Rhinoconjunctivitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is considered a causal treatment of respiratory allergies. Compliance to the SLIT is an important aspect for a positive clinical outcome. Study Aim. To evaluate if compliance with grass Allergy Immunotherapy Tablet (AIT) can be increased by providing an electronic compliance device (CED) (Memozax; a tablet-container with a programmable daily acoustic alarm). Patients and Methods. 261 patients with grass allergy were enrolled and ra...

Silvia Pecora; Massimo Milani; Roberta Alesina

2012-01-01

279

Yield and Chemical Composition of Common Roadside Grasses Available in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to estimate the yield and nutritive value of common roadside grasses available in Bangladesh. A land was developed as an experimental plot and made for growing roadside grasses and was partitioned into four quarters each of 200 sq.m. Pasture was established as a grazing land. The average herbage yield (DM and OM recorded in the month of November was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that of August, September or February. The fresh yield (P<0.05 and CP yield of Phaseolus mungo were significantly higher than that of other grass species. The OM content of Imperata cylindrica was significantly (P<0.05 than other grasses. The DM content of Cynodon dactylon and Imperata cylindrica, NDF content of Cynodon dactylon and CP content of Phaseolus mungo were significantly (P<0.01 higher than other grass species.

F. Kabir

2002-01-01

280

Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional ?-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency. PMID:22939601

Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

Bureenok, S.; Yuangklang, C.; Vasupen, K.; Schonewille, J. T.; Kawamoto, Y.

2012-01-01

282

Comparing relative feed value with degradation parameters of grass and legume forages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative feed value (RFV) was evaluated relative to in situ degradation parameters of grass and legume forages. Early-cut alfalfa (n = 20), late-cut alfalfa (n = 26), cool-season grass (n = 11), warm-season grass (n = 4), and grass-legume (n = 20) samples were collected from duplicate hay bales submitted to the 2002 and 2003 Missouri State Fair Hay Contests. Subsamples were incubated in the rumen of 2 lactating Holstein cows for 0, 6 or 8, 12, 24, and 48 h to determine in situ degradation of DM, ADF, NDF, CP, and hemicellulose over time. Degradation data were fit to a variety of candidate models to estimate degradation parameters. Correlation coefficients between degradation parameter estimates [sorted according to forage (early-cut alfalfa, late-cut alfalfa, grass, or grass-legume)] and RFV were determined. For further comparison, correlations between NDF degradation parameter estimates and digestible DMI were determined with data from a previous study. Degradation data were best fit to a single, gamma 2-distributed pool model without a lag phase. Relative feed value was significantly correlated (P grass-legume. The percentage of significant correlations (10.7%) across the entire data set was low and no correlations were significant for grass. Relative feed value did not account for the variation in degradation parameters, especially for grasses. A further correlation analysis, which compared digestible DMI with degradation parameter estimates reported from another data set, revealed that digestible DMI and degradation parameter estimates were related for grass but not for alfalfa forages. These results suggest that RFV is limited by its failure to include degradation parameters. PMID:18441075

Hackmann, T J; Sampson, J D; Spain, J N

2008-09-01

283

On the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in Melbourne, Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In Melbourne, Australia, airborne grass pollen is the predominant cause of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) during late spring and early summer, with levels of airborne grass pollen also influencing hospital admissions for asthma. In order to improve predictions of conditions that are potentially hazardous to susceptible individuals, we have sought to better understand the causes of diurnal, intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability of atmospheric grass pollen concentrations (APC) by analysing grass pollen count data for Melbourne for 16 grass pollen seasons from 1991 to 2008 (except 1994 and 1995). Some of notable features identified in this analysis were that on days when either extreme (>100 pollen grains m-3) or high (50-100 pollen grains m-3) levels of grass pollen were recorded the winds were of continental origin. In contrast, on days with a low (pollen grains m-3) concentration of grass pollen, winds were of maritime origin. On extreme and high grass pollen days, a peak in APC occurred on average around 1730 hours, probably due to a reduction in surface boundary layer turbulence. The sum of daily APC for each grass pollen season was highly correlated ( r = 0.79) with spring rainfall in Melbourne for that year, with about 60% of a declining linear trend across the study period being attributable to a reduction of meat cattle and sheep (and hence grazing land) in rural areas around Melbourne. Finally, all of the ten extreme pollen events (3 days or more with APC > 100 pollen grains m-3) during the study period were characterised by an average downward vertical wind anomaly in the surface boundary layer over Melbourne. Together these findings form a basis for a fine resolution atmospheric general circulation model for grass pollen in Melbourne's air that can be used to predict daily (and hourly) APC. This information will be useful to those sectors of Melbourne's population that suffer from allergic problems.

de Morton, Julian; Bye, John; Pezza, Alexandre; Newbigin, Edward

2011-07-01

284

An Invasive Grass Species Alters Carbon Cycling in Hawaiian Dry Forest  

Science.gov (United States)

At lower elevations on the leeward side of the island of Hawaii, remnant native forests are heavily invaded by an introduced African bunchgrass, Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass). Our research is designed to determine the consequences of this invasion for carbon (C) cycling in Hawaiian dry forests. We examined above- and belowground C pools and fluxes in 400 m2 replicated forest plots (n = 4) with fountain grass (grass plots) and in areas where fountain grass had been removed for ˜3 years (removal plots). C pools were estimated with direct sampling and allometric equations developed in situ for the dominant tree species. Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was estimated as aboveground biomass increment plus litterfall minus loss from mortality (trees) and with clip plots (grass and herbaceous species); total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) was estimated using a conservation of mass, C balance approach. Our results indicate that the invasion of a non-native grass in this ecosystem has considerable impacts on both C pools and fluxes. Aboveground, tree biomass did not differ between treatments (P = 0.57) but the presence of fountain grass led to a 7.5-fold increase in understory biomass in grass plots compared to removal plots (P TBCA was significantly higher in grass plots (1.21 kg C m-2 yr-1) than in removal plots (0.97 kg C m-2 yr-1; P = 0.04). Tropical dry forests globally, and Hawaiian dry forests in particular, are among the most threatened terrestrial ecosystems. Our results indicate that the presence of an invasive, non-native grass species changes both ecosystem structure and function in these forests. These changes in above- and belowground C pools and fluxes are particularly important in light of the ubiquitous presence of invasive species in most terrestrial ecosystems and the need for a better understanding of the role that they will play in global C cycling and climate change.

Litton, C. M.; Sandquist, D. R.; Cordell, S.

2004-12-01

285

Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

Judith L. Capper

2012-04-01

286

Round baled grass silage as food for reindeer in winter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Round baled silage of mixed grasses was tested as emergency food for reindeer in winter. The silage was made of leaf rich regrowth of Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis and Poa spp. It contained 33-3% dry matter (DM, and 14.8 % crude protein, 24.5% cellulose and 26.7% hemicellulose on a DM basis. Palatability, food intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, body mass (BM, carcass weight and gastrointestinal (GI anatomy were investigated. A group of adult female reindeer (n = 38, were taken from natural winter pasture and fed grass silage ad libitum. The majority (78% of the animals were eating silage after two days and 95% of the animals ate silage after five days. Five reindeer calves were taken from natural winter pasture and fed lichens ad libitum for 14 days after which they were starved for two days before being offered silage adlibitum. The median daily DM food intake was 370 g (range 250-610 g on the first day increasing to 810 g (range 530-1100 g at days 16 to 20. Median apparent digestibility coefficient (DC of DM was 64.3% (range 62.4-66.2%. The median in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD of the silage after 72 h of microbial digestion was 68.3 % (range 66.6-71.3 % (Ws=30, n,=5, n2=4, P<0.01. Median ruminal VFA concentration and pH were 48.2 mM (range 38.4-52.5 mM and 7.0 (range 6.95-7.17, respectively, in the reindeer calves (n=5. BM initially increased when the reindeer calves were fed silage, but stabilised after 11 days. The increased BM may have been due to an increased recticulo-rumen digesta load, which amounted to 19.6-23.7 % of BM (n=3. The carcass weight of the reindeer calves was 42.6-44.2% of the BM (n=3 after 47 days of silage feeding. The results indicate that although the round bale silage of mixed grasses of medium quality was highly palatable to reindeer it was apparantly of only limited value as an emergency food for the reindeer calves, as indicated by low DC of DM and low ruminal VFA concentration.

Tove H. Aagnes

1995-12-01

287

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Como na maior parte das gramíneas, num determinado momento do seu ciclo de vida, o meristema vegetativo da cana-de-açúcar é convertido em meristema reprodutivo. Em cana-de-açúcar há pelo menos duas conversões meristemáticas distintas entre a indução para o florescimento e a formação do florete. Em e [...] spécies dicotiledôneas modelo, a conversão sucessiva das identidades dos meristemas, bem como o arranjo concêntrico de órgãos florais são controlados geneticamente. Todos os genes e/ou proteínas sabidamente envolvidos no desenvolvimento floral foram anotados e identificados no banco de dados do SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project). Comparações de seqüências entre genes reconhecidamente envolvidos no controle do desenvolvimento floral revelaram a conservação evolutiva entre os mecanismos de formação do padrão de desenvolvimento floral entre mono- e dicotiledôneas, bem como entre as gramíneas. Nossos estudos se concentraram na análise das famílias multigênicas dos fatores de transcrição do tipo MADS-box e AP2, uma vez que estes têm um papel importante na regulação do desenvolvimento reprodutivo vegetal. Também são apresentadas considerações sobre a genética evolutiva do desenvolvimento das flores de gramíneas e sua relação com o modelo ABC do desenvolvimento floral. Abstract in english In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (f [...] loret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Project (SUCEST) database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2) family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

Marcelo C., Dornelas; Adriana P.M., Rodriguez.

288

Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high initial N2O emission from simulated urine patches. The results are discussed in relation to the national N2O inventory guidelines issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the environmental impact of organic farming practises are also considered. Suggestions for future research are outlined. (au)

289

Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB: 1 49% alfalfa hay; 2 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB. In trial 1, four lactating Holstein cows (475 kg with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the treatments effects on digestive function. In trial 2, eight multiparous Holstein cows (567 kg with 80 ? 8 DIM were utilized in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects of on DMI and lactational performance. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10 on ruminal digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 51 and 31%, respectively. Microbial efficiency (g microbial N/ kg OM fermented was greater (20%, P = 0.07 for alfalfa (30 than for grass hay substituted diets (25. Nonammonia N flow to the small intestine, as a percentage of N intake (ruminal N efficiency averaged 101%, and was lower (linear effect, P 0.10 on total tract digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 70 and 43%, respectively. Digestible energy content of the diet was lower (5%, P 0.20 on DMI, milk yield, averaging 21.8 and 32.2 kg, respectively. Body condition scores were greater (linear, P > 0.05 for cows fed elephant grass than for cows fed sudangrass. Substituting grass hay for a portion of the alfalfa hay increased (1.2%, P < 0.10 milk fat percentage. We conclude that although substitution of a portion (40% of alfalfa hay with grass hay in diets for lactating cows may slightly decrease ruminal microbial efficiency, the impact on ruminal and total tract digestion of OM and NDF are small. The feeding value of elephant grass is at least equivalent to that of sudangrass in diets for lactating dairy cows. Grass hay can replace up to 40% of the forage in lactation diets without detrimentally affecting fat corrected milk yield, and milk yield efficiency.

A. Plascencia

2005-01-01

290

Convergent and Contingent Community Responses to Grass Source and Dominance During Prairie Restoration Across a Longitudinal Gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

Restoring prairie on formerly cultivated land begins by selecting propagule seed sources and the diversity of species to reintroduce. This study examined the effects of dominant grass propagule source (cultivar vs. non-cultivar) and sown propagule diversity (grass:forb sowing ratio) on plant community structure. Two field experiments were established in Kansas and Illinois consisting of identical split plot designs. Dominant grass source was assigned as the whole-plot factor, and sown dominance of grasses (five levels of seeded grass dominance) as the subplot factor. Species density, cover, and diversity were quantified for 5 years. The effect of dominant grass source on the cover of focal grasses, sown species, and volunteer species was contingent upon location, with variation between dominant grass sources observed exclusively in Kansas. Species density and diversity showed regionally convergent patterns in response to dominant grass source. Contrary to our hypotheses, total species density and diversity were not lower in the presence of grass cultivars, the grass source we had predicted would be more competitive. Sown grass dominance effects on the cover of the focal grass species were contingent upon location resulting from establishment corresponding better to the assigned treatments in Illinois. All other cover groups showed regionally convergent patterns, with lower cover of volunteers and higher cover of sown forbs, diversity, and species density in the lowest sown grass dominance treatment in both sites. Thus, decisions regarding the diversity of propagules to reintroduce had more consequence for plant community structure than cultivar or non-cultivar source of dominant grasses.

Klopf, Ryan P.; Baer, Sara G.; Gibson, David J.

2014-02-01

291

The epichloae: alkaloid diversity and roles in symbiosis with grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species; Clavicipitaceae) are fungi that live in systemic symbioses with cool-season grasses, and many produce alkaloids that are deterrent or toxic to herbivores. The epichloae colonize much of the aerial plant tissues, and most benignly colonize host seeds to transmit vertically. Of their four chemical classes of alkaloids, the ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes are active against mammals and insects, whereas peramine and lolines specifically affect insects. Comparative genomic analysis of Clavicipitaceae reveals a distinctive feature of the epichloae, namely, large repeat blocks in their alkaloid biosynthesis gene loci. Such repeat blocks can facilitate gene losses, mutations, and duplications, thus enhancing diversity of alkaloid structures within each class. We suggest that alkaloid diversification is selected especially in the vertically transmissible epichloae. PMID:23850071

Schardl, Christopher L; Florea, Simona; Pan, Juan; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Bec, Sladana; Calie, Patrick J

2013-08-01

292

Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The objective function of the optimisation is the maximisation of the profit which means the maximization of the difference between revenue and cost. The objective function trades off the income of the assigned transportation demands against the logistic costs. The constraints are the followings: (1) the free capacity of the assigned transportation resource is more than the re-quested capacity of the transportation demand; the calculated arrival time of the transportation resource to the harvesting place is not later than the requested arrival time of them; (3) the calculated arrival time of the transportation demand to the processing and production facility is not later than the requested arrival time; (4) one transportation demand is assigned to one transportation resource and one resource is assigned to one transportation resource. The decision variable of the optimisation problem is the set of scheduling variables and the assignment of resources to transportation demands. The evaluation parameters of the optimised system are the followings: total costs of the collection process; utilisation of transportation resources and warehouses; efficiency of production and/or processing facilities. However the multidimensional heuristic optimisation method is based on genetic algorithm, but the routing sequence of the optimisation works on the base of an ant colony algorithm. The optimal routes are calculated by the aid of the ant colony algorithm as a subroutine of the global optimisation method and the optimal assignment is given by the genetic algorithm. One important part of the mathematical method is the sensibility analysis of the objective function, which shows the influence rate of the different input parameters. Acknowledgements This research was implemented within the frame of the project entitled "Development and operation of the Technology and Knowledge Transfer Centre of the University of Miskolc". with support by the European Union and co-funding of the European Social Fund. References [1] P. R. Daniel: The Economics of Harvesting and Transporting Corn St

Bányai, Tamás.

2010-05-01

293

Warm season grass establishment (in one year without the weeds)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Native warm season grasses, big bluestem and indian, were established by the broadcast method on a relatively large area (130 acres) of reclaimed coal surface-mined land in Perry County, Illinois. Existing vegetation was controlled using two quarts of Round-Up and 12 ounces of Plateau per acre the first week of May. Five pounds of pure live seed of both species were applied by airflow using 100 pounds per acre of 0-46-0 and 100 pounds per acre of 0-0-60, primarily to carry the seed. The surface was cultipacked to insure good seed to soil contact. Planting was initiated and completed the last week of June. An estimated 95% to 100% ground cover was evident by mid to late August. By mid September, numerous big blue stem flower/seed stalks were noticeable

294

Inter-sexual competition in a dioecious grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial segregation of the sexes (SSS) occurs in many dioecious angiosperms, but little data are available on the fitness advantages, if any, for males and females. We examined whether reciprocally transplanted male and female seedlings of Distichlis spicata, a dioecious grass species that exhibits extreme SSS, differed in their responses to microhabitats and competition treatments. Plants grown without conspecific competitors grew equally well in both male- or female-majority habitats, suggesting that male and female plants do not have differential resource needs at the juvenile life-history stage. However, plants subject to intra-sexual competition were significantly larger than plants subject to inter-sexual competition, suggesting that niche partitioning may occur in D. spicata. PMID:20532917

Mercer, Charlene A; Eppley, Sarah M

2010-11-01

295

Warm season grass establishment (in one year without the weeds)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Native warm season grasses, big bluestem and indian, were established by the broadcast method on a relatively large area (130 acres) of reclaimed coal surface-mined land in Perry County, Illinois. Existing vegetation was controlled using two quarts of Round-Up and 12 ounces of Plateau per acre the first week of May. Five pounds of pure live seed of both species were applied by airflow using 100 pounds per acre of 0-46-0 and 100 pounds per acre of 0-0-60, primarily to carry the seed. The surface was cultipacked to insure good seed to soil contact. Planting was initiated and completed the last week of June. An estimated 95% to 100% ground cover was evident by mid to late August. By mid September, numerous big blue stem flower/seed stalks were noticeable.

Downing, D. [ARCH Reclamation Services, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1998-12-31

296

Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) and its neurotoxin ODAP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a high-yielding, drought-resistant legume consumed as a food in Northern India and neighboring countries as well as in Ethiopia. Its development into an important food legume, however, has been hindered by the presence of the neurotoxin - beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in seeds which, if consumed in large quantities for prolonged periods, can cause irreversible paralysis. Recently, some low-toxin lines have been developed that may prove safe for both animal and human foods. Cultivation of L. sativus should thus be considered in suitable regions because the demand for legume animal feed protein products is expected to increase. This paper addresses advances in understanding L. sativus from the perspective of its taxonomy, genetics, ecology, chemistry, nutrition, medicine, biology and for animal nutrition. PMID:16332380

Yan, Ze-Yi; Spencer, Peter S; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Liang, Yong-Min; Wang, Ya-Fu; Wang, Chun-Ying; Li, Fen-Min

2006-01-01

297

Low frequency electromagnetic prospecting system. [Grass Valley, KGRA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prototype portable electromagnetic sounding system was assembled and depth sounding survey was conducted in Grass Valley, Nevada, as a part of a program to evaluate geophysical techniques in geothermal exploration. A horizontal loop transmitter of radius 50 meters operating between .01 Hz and 100 Hz was used in conjunction with a SQUID magnetometer. A digital synchronous detector was used for on site processing of magnetometer output. This detector allowed useful data acquisition with transmitter-receiver separation of up to 2 km with power requirements of less than 72 watts. Conductive sediments (1 to 10 ohm-m) of thicknesses of up to 1.5 km were well resolved with this system, and the interpreted sections compared very well with dc resistivity measurements made with much heavier equipment and larger arrays in the same area.

Jain, B.K.

1978-04-01

298

C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

Kurschner, Wolfram M.

2010-05-01

299

Nitric oxide accelerates seed germination in warm-season grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly promoted germination of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv Kanlow) in the light and in the dark at 25 degrees C, across a broad range of concentrations. SNP also promoted seed germination in two other warm-season grasses. A chemical scavenger of NO inhibited germination and blocked SNP stimulation of seed germination. The phenolic (+)-catechin acted synergistically with SNP and nitrite in promoting seed germination. Acidified nitrite, an alternate NO donor also significantly stimulated seed germination. Interestingly, sodium cyanide, potassium ferricyanide and potassium ferrocyanide at 200 microM strongly enhanced seed germination as well, whereas potassium chloride was without effect. Ferrocyanide and cyanide stimulation of seed germination was blocked by an NO scavenger. Incubation of seeds with a fluorescent NO-specific probe provided evidence for NO production in germinating switchgrass seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) at 10 microM depressed germination, inhibited root elongation and essentially abolished coleoptile emergence. SNP partially overcame ABA effects on radicle emergence but did not overcome the effects of ABA on coleoptile elongation. Light microscopy indicated extension of the radicle and coleoptiles in seeds maintained on water or on SNP after 2 days. In contrast, there was minimal growth of the radicle and coleoptile in ABA-treated seeds even after 3-4 days. These data indicate that seed germination of warm-season grasses is significantly influenced by NO signaling pathways and document that NO could be an endogenous trigger for release from dormancy in these species. PMID:16369800

Sarath, Gautam; Bethke, Paul C; Jones, Russell; Baird, Lisa M; Hou, Guichuan; Mitchell, Robert B

2006-05-01

300

[Studies on guinea pig fed on Brachiaria sp. (Tanner Grass) (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation was developed with 80 female guinea pigs weighing about hundred grams. housed in groups of 15 or 20 animals. The daily treatments were: Brachiaria sp. (Tanner Grass), Brachiaria sp. (Tanner Grass) and meal, Brachiaria decumbens Stapf and the grass Napier. The guinea pigs fed on Brachiaria sp. did not show any symptomas observed in cattle grazing on that graminea. Liver and kidney damage detected upon histological investigation on those animals were different from those observed on intoxicated cattle. The metahemoglobinemic anemia also were not detected on guinea pigs feed on Brauchiaria sp. (Tanner Grass) (1, 2, 3, 7). The urine collected from these animals showed a dark colour, this pigmentation were not found in cattle urine. The dark urine colour of cattle grazing for about one month on "Tanner Grass" was due to hemoblobinuria. The survival time of the guinea pigs feed only with B. decumbens Stapf and the grass Napier was smoller as compared with the animals receiving Brachiaria sp. (Tanner Grass). The syndrome on cattle, the effect on guinea pig added to some other aspect like the fact that plant became more toxic (2) when green and luxurious suggest a similarity with the toxic activity of some species of Brassicas such as B. oleracea var. acephala D.C., B. olerace var. capitata L. and B napus L. (5, 8). PMID:1236055

Andrade, S O; Nothenberg, M S; Retz, L; Bueno, P de C

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears.

Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; No, In Gye; Chin, Seoung Bum; Kim, Joon Sik; Choi, Jae Yeul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-04-01

302

Soil phosphorus dynamics as affected by Congo grass and P fertilizer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Some plant species can change soil phosphorus (P) availability and this may be an important tool in managing tropical high fixing phosphorus soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate phosphorus transformations in the soil and phosphatase activity during periods of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruzizi [...] ensis, Germain et Evrard) growth in two tropical soils receiving 20, 40, 80, 160 mg dm-3 of inorganic P. Plants were grown for 84 days in 8-L pots. Acid phosphatase activity, P in the microbial mass, soil organic and inorganic P and P accumulation by Congo grass were evaluated. Phosphorus fertilization increased soil P availability, Congo grass yields and P accumulation in the plant. On average, less labile P forms in the soil were not changed by Congo grass; however, the P in the soil extracted with HCl (P-Ca - non labil form) decreased. This decrease may have resulted from the combination of the presence of grass and phosphatase capacity to dissolve less available P in the soil. Thus, soil exploration by Congo grass roots and the subsequent extraction of calcium phosphate may have increased the P concentration in the plant tissue. Despite the decrease in the P extracted from the soil with HCl resulting in increased labile P forms in the soil, the effect of Congo grass on the availability of P depends on the soil type.

Ciro Antonio, Rosolem; Alexandre, Merlin; Júlio Cesar Longo, Bull.

2014-08-01

303

Silicon, endophytes and secondary metabolites as grass defenses against mammalian herbivores  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasses have been considered to primarily employ tolerance in lieu of defense in mitigating damage caused by herbivory. Yet a number of mechanisms have been identified in grasses, which may deter feeding by grazers. These include enhanced silicon uptake, hosting of toxin-producing endophytic fungi and induction of secondary metabolites. While these mechanisms have been individually studied, their synergistic responses to grazing, as well as their effects on grazers, are poorly known. A field experiment was carried out in 5 × 5 m outdoor enclosures to quantify phytochemical changes of either endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis) in response to medium intensity (corresponding with densities of ca. 1200 voles/ha for 5 weeks during 3 months) or heavy intensity (ca. 1200 voles/ha for 8 weeks during 3 months) grazing by a mammalian herbivore, the field vole (Microtus agrestis). A laboratory experiment was then conducted to evaluate the effects of endophyte infection status and grazing history of the grass diet on vole performance. As predicted, grazing increased foliar silicon content, by up to 13%. Grazing also increased foliar levels of phosphorous and several phenolic compounds, most notably those of the flavonols isorhamnetin-diglycoside and rhamnetin derivative. Silicon concentrations were consistently circa 16% higher in E+ grasses than in E-grasses, at all levels of grazing. Similarly, concentrations of chlorogenic acid derivative were found to be consistently higher in E+ than in E- grasses. Female voles maintained on heavily grazed grasses suffered higher mortality rates in the laboratory than female voles fed ungrazed grass, regardless of endophyte infection status. Our results conclusively demonstrate that, in addition to tolerance, grasses employ multi-tiered, effective defenses against mammalian grazers.

Huitu, Otso; Forbes, Kristian M.; Helander, Marjo; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Lambin, Xavier; Saikkonen, Kari; Stuart, Peter; Sulkama, Sini; Hartley, Sue

2014-01-01

304

The Effect of Integrated Grasses in Controlling Soil, Nutrient and Organic Matter in Loess Plateau, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil and nutrient loss is one of a serious problem in Loess plateau china. The eroded materials are directly transported to the lakes and rivers specifically yellow river in China, this might lead to eutrophication if no prevention measures will be taken. The experiment was conducted on soil, and nutrient loss from 5º slope. Individual grasses plots for rye grass(Lolium, white clover(Trifolium repens and integrated grass (rye + white clover plots were prepared with a percentage cover of 25, 50, 80 and 100 in each treatment. Bare land was used as a reference plot. The results show that, the sediment loss in a bare land reported to be 1.5, 3, 2.7 and 1.3, 2.1, 1.9 in 100 % and 80 % cover plots. The runoff rate as compared to bare land, shown to be about 2 times less for white clover and rye grass plots, while more than 2 times less for integrated grasses plots. The total nitrogen and organic matter loss the results were in the order bare land white clover rye grasses and integrated grasses in which 100 %, 80 % and 50 % vegetative cover shown to perform better. On average enrichment ratio range was 40 % to 90 % for nutrient loss, and 50 % to 85 % for organic matter for all plots in comparison with soil origin. The enrichment ration significantly shown to be high from bare land> rye and white clover plots> integrated grasses plot. It has been concluded that integrated grasses is more effective measure over others in controlling both soil, nutrient and organic matter loss in the soil. This study contributed some information on the erosion modeling and improvement of soil and grassland conservation techniques for better land use for sustainable development

Honest Augustine Mosha

2013-01-01

305

Fire Control - A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis wedd and lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identified as fire threatened species and it has been observed that their sociological attributes were hampered severely by fire. Hence, the conservation of such species is needed through effective fire control measures. PMID:22557019

Paulsamy, S; Sivakumar, R; Balasubramaniam, V; Arumugasamy, K; Nagarajan, N

2001-04-01

306

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL) 16S rRNA gene s...

Nang Kyu Kyu Win; Hee-Young Jung

2012-01-01

307

Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

Kerlen, Dirk

2014-02-01

308

Adhesive grass spikelet with mammalian hair in Dominican amber: first fossil evidence of epizoochory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discovery of a female spikelet of the grass genus Pharus (Gramineae: Bambusoideae: Phareae) in association with mammalian hair in Dominican Republic amber provides the first fossil evidence of epizoochory. Hooked macrohairs on the lemma of the spikelet show that morphological modifications in grasses for dispersal by attachment to the surface of animals were present in the Late Eocene. The fossil also represents 1) the second-oldest undoubted macrofossil record of the Gramineae, 2) the earliest record of a fossil grass that can be assigned to an extant genus, 3) the earliest undoubted record of a member of the bamboo subfamily and 4) the only known fossil of Pharus. PMID:1397189

Poinar, G O; Columbus, J T

1992-09-15

309

Activated carbon from grass - A green alternative catalyst support for water electrolysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grass blades (turf grass) have been selected as a cheap biomass source of producing activated carbon for supporting Pt particles for utilizing as electrocatalyst for H2 generation through electrolysis of water. Activation is done using ZnCl2 followed by thermal processing at 250 °C. 1% Pt was supported over the grass derived activated biomass carbon (G-ABC) powder to result in Pt@G-ABC. After physical characterization, Pt@G-ABC sample has been tested for its catalytic activity in 1 M sulfuri...

Kalyani, Palanichamy; Ariharaputhiran, Anitha; Darchen, Andre?

2013-01-01

310

Solar Grass Cutter With Linear Blades By Using Scotch Yoke Mechanism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Solar grass cutter is a machine that uses sliding blades to cut a lawn at an even length. Even more sophisticated devices are there in every field. Power consumption becomes essential for future. Solar grass cutter is a very useful device which is very simple in construction. It is used to maintain and upkeep lawns in gardens, schools, college’s etc. We have made some changes in the existing machine to make its application easier at reduced cost. Our main aim in pollution control is attained through this. Unskilled operation can operate easily and maintain the lawn very fine and uniform surface look. In our project, ?Solar grass cutter? is used to cut the different grasses for the different application.

P.Amrutesh

2014-09-01

311

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael; Aultman, Terry

2010-03-01

312

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CHROMIUM, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND DITHIOCARBAMATES  

Science.gov (United States)

This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...

313

REPRODUCTIVE ALTERATIONS IN ADULT GRASS SHRIMP, PALAEMONETES PUGIO, FOLLOWING SUBLETHAL, CHRONIC ENDOSULFAN EXPOSURE. (R827397)  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) populations exposed to anthropogenic contaminant sources in South Carolina (SC) have reduced densities when compared with populations at SC-reference sites. This laboratory study examined the effects of a commonly used agricultural inse...

314

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2004-07-01

315

Book review: Research at grass roots: For the social sciences and human services professions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research at Grass Roots: For the social sciences and human services professions. De Vos, A.S. (ed, Strydom, H., Fouche, C.B. & Delport, C.S.L. (2002. Published by Van Schaik Publishers, Pretoria

Mike Greyling

2004-10-01

316

Pathogenicity and tissue distribution of grass carp reovirus after intraperitoneal administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of grass carp hemorrhage and causes significant loss of fingerlings. However, little is known about how the virus is distributed in organs and tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of different GCRV stains in tissues and organs of grass carp. The pathogenicity and tissue distribution of GCRV were monitored after intraperitoneal administration. The study showed a distribution of GCRV in different tissues and organs, particularly in the liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, and muscle, which had a higher number of viral RNA copies during the sixth to ninth days. The kidney had the highest numbers of viral RNA copies, as high as 24000 copies. Until the fourteenth day, nearly no viral RNA copies could be detected. This study defined the virus distribution in different tissues of grass carp inoculated by i.p. and supplied clues for the pathogenesis of GCRV. PMID:25293723

Liang, Hong-Ru; Li, Yong-Gang; Zeng, Wei-Wei; Wang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Qing; Wu, Shu-Qin

2014-01-01

317

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and [...] part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL) 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961). In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

Nang Kyu Kyu, Win; Hee-Young, Jung.

318

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and [...] part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL) 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961). In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

Nang Kyu Kyu, Win; Hee-Young, Jung.

2012-02-01

319

Growth response of some cultivars of bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon L.) to salt stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turfgrasses range from extremely salt sensitive to highly salt tolerant. Turf grass improvement for salinity tolerance requires reliable assessment for their adaptability to saline conditions, which vary among grasses. In the present study, four Bermuda grass cultivars - Tifway, Tifdwarf, Dacca and Khabbal (local ecotype) were assessed for salinity tolerance using half-strength Hoagland's solution culture system under green house conditions. The cultivars were exposed to five salinity levels viz., 2.4 (control) 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl). Increasing salt concentration in the nutrient media caused: (a) a reduction in number of stolons/plug, number of roots/plug, length of shoot, dry weights of root and shoot, turf quality, and potassium content in stolons, (b) increase in sodium and chloride content in stolons. Overall, cv. Tifway was found to be the most tolerant to salinity while Khabbal the most sensitive, among all four grass cultivars. (author)

320

Safety and tolerability of grass pollen tablets in sublingual immunotherapy--a phase-1 study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis.

Larsen, T H; Poulsen, Lars K.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Food-aid cereals to reduce neurolathyrism related to grass-pea preparations during famine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurolathyrism is a spastic paraparesis that can be caused by excessive consumption of the drought-resistant grass pea (Lathyrus sativus). Devastating neurolathyrism epidemics have occurred during major famine crises in various parts of the world. We investigated in a case-control study the effects of food aid on risk of paralysis. Risk increased with consumption of boiled grass pea (adjusted odds ratio 2.78, 95% CI 1.09-7.13 with cereals; 5.22, 2.01-13.55 without cereal) and raw unripe green grass pea (1.96, 1.16-3.31; p=0.011), but not with the fermented pancake, unleavened bread, and gravy preparations. In a correlational study there was an inverse relation between the number of new cases and the amount of food-aid cereals distributed per person. During famine, cereals and nutritional information should reach people before they have grass pea as the only food. PMID:14654321

Getahun, Haileyesus; Lambein, Fernand; Vanhoorne, Michel; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

2003-11-29

322

Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

323

Distinguishing grass from ground using LiDAR: Techniques and applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard protocols exist for extracting bare-earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from LiDAR point clouds that include trees and other large woody vegetation. Grasses and other herbaceous plants can also obscure the ground surface, yet methods for optimally distinguishing grass from ground to generate accurate LiDAR-based raster products for geomorphic and ecological applications are still under development. Developing such methods is important because LiDAR-based difference products (e.g. snow thickness) require accurate representations of the ground surface and because raster data for grass height and density have important applications in ecology. In this study, we developed and tested methods for constructing optimal bare-earth and grass height raster layers from LiDAR point clouds and compared the results to high-quality field-based measurements of grass height, density, and species type for nearly 1000 precisely geo-referenced locations collected during the acquisition of a >200 km^2 airborne LiDAR flight of the Valles Caldera National Preserve (New Mexico). In cases of partially bare ground (where the skewness of return heights above a plane fit to the lowest first returns is sufficiently large), a planar fit to the lowest first returns provides a good method of producing an accurate bare-earth DEM and the statistics of the first returns above that planar fit provide good estimates of the mean and variance of grass height. In areas of relatively thick grass cover, however, a fit to the lowest first returns yields a bare-earth DEM that may be a meter or more above the actual ground surface. Here we propose a method to solve this problem using field-measured correlations among the mean, variance, and skewness of grass heights. In this method, the variance and skewness of the differences between LiDAR first returns and a 10m^2 planar fit to the lowest first returns is used, together with field-based correlations of grass height statistics, to estimate the mean grass height. A bare-earth DEM that corrects for the effects of dense vegetation can then be constructed by subtracting the estimated mean grass height from the mean of the LiDAR first returns. We illustrate two applications of this method. First, spectral analysis of grass height raster products of Valles Caldera reveal fractal patterns that reflect the roles of geomorphology (e.g. height above active channel) and small-scale disturbances on grass growth and hence on the spatial variations in grass height. Second, snow thicknesses mapped by airborne LiDAR in the Valles Caldera systematically under-predict the actual snow thickness in riparian areas because the ground-surface in the snow-off DEM fails to represent the true ground surface in areas of tall, dense grass. By comparing a grass-corrected LiDAR-derived snow thickness map to the results of snow survey data acquired during the time of the snow-on LiDAR flight, we show that the techniques we developed minimize this problem.

Pelletier, J. D.; Swetnam, T.; Papuga, S. A.; Nelson, K.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Chorover, J.

2011-12-01

324

Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxyci...

2012-01-01

325

BIOLOGIC POLLUTION WITH GRASSES’S POLLEN IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among airborne allergens, a frequent cause of sensibilisation is grasses pollen. In big cities, because of the high buildings, which restrict air circulation, little pollen grains deposit is bigger than in the rural uninhabited areas, where pollen dispersion is easier. The purpose of the present study is that of establishing the level of the biologic air pollution in Timisoara and the limitrophe areas with grasses pollen for the year 2000.

A. Faur

2001-01-01

326

Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H) – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), brome grass (Bromus spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of s...

Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

2014-01-01

327

Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on digestion processes in dairy cows.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of the introduction of a milk quota system in 1984 and the subsequent decrease of the number of dairy cows with some 25%, an increasing number of farms in the Netherlands has a surplus of grass and grass silage, which makes it interesting to increase the roughage proportion in the diet. However, roughage intake by dairy cows in early lactation is limited and the mechanisms controlling roughage intake are still insufficiently understood. Factors presumably influencing roughage intake a...

Bosch, M. W.

1991-01-01

328

Effects of feeding salt-tolerant grasses on the reproductive efficiency of dwarf goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salinity of soil and groundwater is a major agricultural problem facing several countries. Numerous approaches have been made to alleviate this situation. A biological approach has been developed at our Institute whereby salt-tolerant plants that are more suited to the environment have been grown rather than reclamation of land for conventional crops. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) has been grown on such lands using brackish water for irrigation, thus producing large amounts of biomass. Since this biomass is not usually used as forage it was necessary to evaluate its effects on the growth and reproduction of farm animals. Buffalo, cows and goats are important for providing milk and meat in Pakistan. Goats are more important in arid and semi-arid areas. Dwarf goats were selected for the study because of easier handling, a shorter maturity period, better breeding, etc. One group of goats was contained and fed only Kallar grass throughout the year. (This grass is green in summer and, although it is a perennial, it dries in winter). Another group was allowed to free graze an area where, in addition to Kallar grass, some other wild species were also available. The effects of this forage were evaluated by recording the weight of the animals, pregnancies, lamb survival and hormone levels. It was found that when dry grass was the only source of nutrition the animals lost weight and reproduction was also affected; even though conception did take place lactation was reduced, the animals had difficulty in delivery and the lambs were born weak and did not survive. The progesterone and oestradiol levels and patterns were normal. The study concludes that dwarf goats can survive even when fed dry, low protein grass and that their body weight increases when the grass is green. They can, therefore, be raised on Kallar grass if kept for meat purposes; however, if they are to be maintained for breeding some supplementary fodder is desirable. Poor nutrition did not affect the hormone levels and patterns. (author)

329

On the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in Melbourne, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Melbourne, Australia, airborne grass pollen is the predominant cause of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) during late spring and early summer, with levels of airborne grass pollen also influencing hospital admissions for asthma. In order to improve predictions of conditions that are potentially hazardous to susceptible individuals, we have sought to better understand the causes of diurnal, intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability of atmospheric grass pollen concentrations (APC) by analysing grass pollen count data for Melbourne for 16 grass pollen seasons from 1991 to 2008 (except 1994 and 1995). Some of notable features identified in this analysis were that on days when either extreme (>100 pollen grains m(-3)) or high (50-100 pollen grains m(-3)) levels of grass pollen were recorded the winds were of continental origin. In contrast, on days with a low (layer turbulence. The sum of daily APC for each grass pollen season was highly correlated (r?=?0.79) with spring rainfall in Melbourne for that year, with about 60% of a declining linear trend across the study period being attributable to a reduction of meat cattle and sheep (and hence grazing land) in rural areas around Melbourne. Finally, all of the ten extreme pollen events (3 days or more with APC?>?100 pollen grains m(-3)) during the study period were characterised by an average downward vertical wind anomaly in the surface boundary layer over Melbourne. Together these findings form a basis for a fine resolution atmospheric general circulation model for grass pollen in Melbourne's air that can be used to predict daily (and hourly) APC. This information will be useful to those sectors of Melbourne's population that suffer from allergic problems. PMID:20814699

de Morton, Julian; Bye, John; Pezza, Alexandre; Newbigin, Edward

2011-07-01

330

Studies of bio fertilizers in grass -legume mixed swards in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experience with commercial Uruguayan rhizobia strains and forage species: tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae cv. Tacuab , white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Zapic ) and birdsfoot t refoil (Lotus corniculatus cv. San Gabriel) was established to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation in the legumes and nitrogen transfer to the grass. Biological nitrogen fixation ranged 60 to 90% and the contribution of nitrogen derived from legumes to grasses in mixed swards reached 30% during the experience

331

Nutritional and Antinutritional Components of Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Roberty at Different Stages of Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vetiver grass was harvested at 4, 6 and 8-week old re-growth. The chemical composition and quantitative analyses of anti-nutritional components were determined. The result showed that dry matter and fiber content increased with age while crude protein, mineral content and anti-nutritional components reduced with age. It was concluded that age of re-growth significantly affect the nutrient and anti-nutrients contents of vetiver grass.

O.O. Falola

2013-01-01

332

A 30-day-ahead forecast model for grass pollen in north London, United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

A 30-day-ahead forecast method has been developed for grass pollen in north London. The total period of the grass pollen season is covered by eight multiple regression models, each covering a 10-day period running consecutively from 21 May to 8 August. This means that three models were used for each 30-day forecast. The forecast models were produced using grass pollen and environmental data from 1961 to 1999 and tested on data from 2000 and 2002. Model accuracy was judged in two ways: the number of times the forecast model was able to successfully predict the severity (relative to the 1961-1999 dataset as a whole) of grass pollen counts in each of the eight forecast periods on a scale of 1 to 4; the number of times the forecast model was able to predict whether grass pollen counts were higher or lower than the mean. The models achieved 62.5% accuracy in both assessment years when predicting the relative severity of grass pollen counts on a scale of 1 to 4, which equates to six of the eight 10-day periods being forecast correctly. The models attained 87.5% and 100% accuracy in 2000 and 2002, respectively, when predicting whether grass pollen counts would be higher or lower than the mean. Attempting to predict pollen counts during distinct 10-day periods throughout the grass pollen season is a novel approach. The models also employed original methodology in the use of winter averages of the North Atlantic Oscillation to forecast 10-day means of allergenic pollen counts.

Smith, Matt; Emberlin, Jean

2006-03-01

333

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

Li Jiale

2010-02-01

334

Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transportation activities can contribute to accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soil and grass, which could potentially compromise public health and the environment if the roadways cross farmland areas. Particularly, heavy metals may enter the food chain as a result of their uptake by roadside edible grasses. This research was conducted to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in roadside farmland soils and corresponding grasses around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors were considered for the experimental design, including sample type, sampling location, roadside distance, and tree protection. A total of 60 grass samples and 60 topsoil samples were collected under dry weather conditions. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA results indicate that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soil samples are significantly higher than those in the grass samples; the concentrations of Cu and Pb in the suburban roadside farmland are higher than those in the rural mountainous roadside farmland; and the concentrations of Cu and Zn at the sampling locations with roadside trees are significantly lower than those without tree protection. The analysis of transfer factor, which is calculated as the ratio of heavy-metal concentrations in grass to those in the corresponding soil, indicates that the uptake capabilities of heavy metals from soil to grass is in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. Additionally, it is found that as the soils’ heavy-metal concentrations increase, the capability of heavy-metal transfer to the grass decreases, and this relationship can be characterized by an exponential regression model.

Tandong Yao

2012-09-01

335

Monami as an oscillatory hydrodynamic instability in a submerged sea grass bed  

CERN Document Server

The onset of monami, the synchronous waving of sea grass beds driven by a steady flow, is modeled as a linear instability of the flow. Our model treats the drag exerted by the grass in establishing the steady flow profile, and in damping out perturbations to it. This damping leads to a finite threshold flow for the instability, which agrees with experimental observations. This role of vegetation drag differentiates our mechanism from the previous hypothesis that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability underlies monami.

Singh, Ravi; Bandi, M M; Mahadevan, Amala

2014-01-01

336

A New Operation for Producing Disease-Suppressive Compost from Grass Clippings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the use of grass clippings discharged from golf courses as the raw material for production of a suppressive compost to control Rhizoctonia large-patch disease in mascarene grass. Bacillus subtilis N4, a mesophilic bacterium with suppressive effects on the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, was used as an inoculum in a procedure developed with the aim of controlling composting temperatures and inoculation timing. The population density of mesophilic bacteria in th...

Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hiraoka, Sachiko; Nagata, Hiroyuki

1998-01-01

337

Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square des [...] ign.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB). There was no difference in dry matter (DM) intake between diets EGS and CS in g d?1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM) intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg?1 d?1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

Jacianelly Karla da, Silva; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de, Medeiros; Edson Mauro, Santos; Tamires da Silva, Magalhães; Alenice Ozino, Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra.

2014-11-01

338

Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi  

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Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia ber...

Rolz, C.; Leon, R.; Arriola, M. C.; Cabrera, S.

1986-01-01

339

Combination vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy consisting of genetically engineered hybrid molecules with increased immunogenicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the 400 million grass pollen-allergic patients worldwide are co-sensitized to several unrelated grass pollen allergens. Based on frequent co-sensitization patterns determined in 200 grass pollen-allergic patients, three recombinant hybrid molecules were developed by polymerase chain reaction-based mending of cDNAs coding for the major timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, Phl p 6) for vaccination against grass pollen allergy. The hybrids rP2-P6, rP6-P2, and rP5-P1 contained most of the epitopes of natural grass pollen extract and induced stronger lymphoproliferative responses in cultured mononuclear cells of grass pollen-allergic patients than did equimolar mixtures of the individual allergens. Immunization of mice with the hybrids yielded higher antibody titers than did immunization with the individual allergen components or grass pollen extract, which suggests that the individual components of the hybrids can serve as molecular scaffolds for each other to enhance their immunogenicity. Antibodies induced with the hybrids in mice inhibited the binding of grass pollen-allergic patients' immunoglobulin E to each of the individual allergens and grass pollen extract and may thus represent protective antibodies. The principle of increasing the immunogenicity of antigens by engineering hybrids thereof may be applied not only for the treatment of polysensitized allergic patients but also for general vaccine development. PMID:12154002

Linhart, Birgit; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Kraft, Dietrich; Valenta, Rudolf

2002-08-01

340

Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Porter, D.; Edwards, D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
341

Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  trial coordinates, the average altitude, the average of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to  trees and hedges close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the timing of cropand soil damage as affected by wheel load and tire pressure. However, at specific times, there was a significant effect of wheel load and secondary by the tire pressure. At all measurement times, the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key words (for Electronic Reference Library) Traffic intensities, tire load/pressure, clover/grass, yield loss, 

Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

342

Using the R statistical data analysis language on GRASS 5.0 GIS database files  

Science.gov (United States)

Many researchers wish to explore and analyse spatial data, but typical software does not readily permit such integration. This paper presents a simple interface between two open-source software systems, the GRASS geographical information system, and the R statistical data analysis language. The platform used here is GNU/Linux, because both systems compile and install cleanly; R runs cleanly in Windows environments as well. The interface allows floating point and category data to be passed both ways for raster map layers and sites files; NULL raster cells in GRASS interchange with NA (not available) values in R. Because both systems are developing rapidly and GRASS database internals change often, the interface uses ASCII transfer via temporary files generated by standard programs. The interface operates by running R from within the GRASS environment, and issues commands to GRASS programs through the R system( ) function. The accompanying code is constructed as an R package, and contains wrapper functions for R plotting, and for R analytical functions returning gridded output, such as trend surface and kriging prediction, kernel density estimation of point patterns, and bicubic spline interpolation. These typical spatial analytical techniques, also often available in some form in GIS, are amply buttressed in R by a large range of other statistical and graphical functions, giving substantial insight into the data or results being handled. The interface will be extended to vector data, and will be coordinated with other database integration packages in R and GRASS.

Bivand, Roger S.

2000-11-01

343

Grass pea consumption & present scenario of neurolathyrism in Maharashtra State of India  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: Neurolathyrism is a non progressive motor neuron disorder engendered by the prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seeds which contain a neurotoxic amino acid, ?-N oxalyl- L-?, ?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP). It is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind limbs. The present study was conducted in 105 households (HHs) of Gondia district in Maharashtra, India, where grass pea is cultivated and consumed to assess the health implication of its consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 105 HHS in five villages and grass pea samples were collected for ?-ODAP estimation. Amino acid analysis was also done, neurolathyrism cases were identified by snowball sampling method and neurological examination was carried out. Results: The study revealed that 61 per cent of population was consuming this pulse as a part of diet. ?-ODAP concentration in grass pea was high in Bora village (1254.5 ± 528.21 mg %) and less in Malgaon village (413.6±415.79 mg %). The nutritional status of the people was within the normal range (BMI 18± 3.40 kg/m2) in the surveyed households. Consumption of grass pea was observed to be less than 25g. Conclusions: The cases of neurolathyrism declined in all the studied villages due to reduced ?-ODAP exposure through Lathyrus sativus consumption, however, the grass pea was cultivated and consumed in Gondia district of Maharashtra State. PMID:25222783

Khandare, Arjun L.; Babu, J.J; Ankulu, M.; Aparna, N.; Shirfule, Amol; Rao, G. Shankar

2014-01-01

344

In vitro proteolytic inhibition, polyphenol oxidase activity, and soluble o-diphenols in grasses and cereals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Producing high quality forage remains a challenge due to potential protein degradation during ensiling. Ten grass species and four cereals were screened for proteolytic inhibition, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and the presence of soluble PPO substrates. In orchardgrass, ryegrass, smooth bromegrass, and meadow fescue extracts, the addition of caffeic acid resulted in 70-98% reduction in proteolysis for both greenhouse and field grown environments. These same grass extracts exhibited 10- to 1000-fold higher PPO activity compared to all other grasses and cereals, depending on the substrate supplied and environment grown. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the two abundant soluble o-diphenols. Tall fescue and timothy exhibiting low PPO activity contained the highest levels of chlorogenic acid (3-11 micromol g(-1) FW): 10- to 100-fold more than any o-diphenol in all other grasses. These results suggest that several grass species contain PPO activity, but may lack appropriate o-diphenol substrates to effectively inhibit proteolysis during ensiling while other grasses lack PPO activity but contain potential soluble substrate. Environmental factors appear to influence these parameters, creating an opportunity to exploit and enhance proteolytic inhibition during ensiling by genetic manipulation. PMID:20028129

Marita, Jane M; Hatfield, Ronald D; Brink, Geoffrey

2010-01-27

345

The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TFU, kg kg-1 ). It was found that the TFU values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

346

Response of itchgrass and johnson grass to asulam/dalapon combinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activities of asumlam [methyl[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]carbamate], dalapon (2,2-dichloropropionic acid) and asulam/dalapon combinations on itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata L.f.) and johnson grass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] were examined. When metabolism of 14C-asulam was monitored, seven days after application, 97-100% of recovered 14C co-chromatographed with 14C-asulam. Itchgrass exhibited rapid uptake of 14C-asulam within 8 hr after application. Asumlam concentrations remained constant in the plant between 8 and 72 hr. Johnson grass plants showed a differential response to asulam and asulam/dalapon treatments. Asulam-treated johnson grass absorbed 26-34% 14C within 2 hr with no future significant increase in absorption in absorption through 72 hr. Treatment of johnson grass with asulam/dalapon enhanced 14C absorption with time. At 24 and 72 hr 14C levels were double that absorbed from treatment of asulam alone. Movement of 14C-asulam in the apoplast and symplast of both itchgrass and johnson grass was noted. The highest radiolabel accumulated in the lower leaves of itchgrass and remained in the treated leaf of johnson grass

347

Crude Protein and Crude of Fiber Benggala [Panicum Maximum] and Elephant [Pennisetum Purpureum] Grasses on Drought Stress Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of crop response to water is essential for proper irrigation management. Research was conducted at Forage Crop Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Department, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry, Diponegoro University during 9 month trying two type grass that were benggala ( Panicum maximum and elephant ( Pennisetum purpureum with treatment of the following dry stres : S0 = control, without stress; S1 = 1 times drought stress, S2 = 2 times drought stress , and S3 = 3 times drought stress by lay out of complete random design( factorial pattern. Parameter perceived were( 1 forage production , (2 dry matter production, (3 percentage of crude protein, and (4 percentage of crude fibre. Data collected to be analysed by analysis of varians continued with Duncan multiple range test. Result of research indicate that forage production of elephant grass (103,79 g/pot bigger than benggala (53,08 g/pot. Dry matter production of elephant grass was 18,77 g/pot higher than benggala grass( 14,54 g/pot. Drought stres do not affect to forage production also dry matter production : Percentage of crude protein of benggala grass (9,10% higher than elephant grass (7,02%, while percentage crude fibre of benggala grass (35,64% higher than elephant grass (31,67%. Drought stres do not influence percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala and elephant grasses. Conclusion from research were (1 elephant grass have higher forage production and dry matter production than benggala grass (2 percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala grass higher than elephant grass, (3 drought stres do not affect to forage production , dry matter production, percentage of crude protein and crude fibre. (Animal Production 11(2: 109-115 (2009 Key Words : crude protein, fiber, drought stress

ED Purbajanti

2009-05-01

348

Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36 and control groups (n=23. BGP (1.2 g/day in the form of capsules (n=4 was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

Venugopal Shonima

2010-01-01

349

GOLDEN EYE GRASS - A MAGICAL REMEDY BY NATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the dawn of civilization, medicinal plants are known to be part of human society to combat diseases. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and various evidences have been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Curculigo orchioides, Amaryllidaceae also known as “Golden eye grass”. It possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. The rhizome is rich in Curculigoside, other glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of the rhizome shows antioxidant, anti inflammatory, spermatogenic, aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antiasthamatic, supporting its traditional uses. In this review article, we have focused our interest on phytochemistry, traditional uses, tissue culture study and its reported pharmacological properties.

Nidhi Soni et al

2012-08-01

350

Intrapopulation sex ratio variation in the salt grass Distichlis spicata.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT In many dioecious plant populations, males and females appear to be spatially segregated, a pattern that is difficult to explain given its potentially high costs. However, in asexually propagating species, spatial segregation of the sexes may be indistinguishable from superficially similar patterns generated by random establishment of a few genets followed by extensive clonal spread and by gender-specific differences in rates of clonal spread. In populations where a significant fraction of individuals are not flowering and gender cannot be assigned to this fraction, apparent spatial segregation of the sexes may be due to differential flowering between the sexes. We confirm reports that flowering ramets of the clonal, perennial grass Distichlis spicata are spatially segregated by sex. We extend these studies in two fundamental ways and demonstrate that this species exhibits true spatial segregation of the sexes. First, using RAPD markers, we estimated that at least 50% of ramets in patches with biased sex ratios represent distinct genotypes. Second, we identified a RAPD marker linked to female phenotype (eliminating the possibility that gender is environmentally determined) and used it to show that the majority of patches exhibit significantly biased sex ratios for both ramets and genets, regardless of flowering status. PMID:18811341

Eppley, S M; Stanton, M L; Grosberg, R K

1998-11-01

351

Systematic Study of Cutthroat Grass Wetland Reclamation through Ditch Filling  

Science.gov (United States)

Landscape evolution is often driven by the site hydrology, particularly in the case of wetlands. Biodiversity seems to favor slow changes in water conditions, which facilitate adaptation by a broad array of species. Restoration of impacted areas, if performed too rapidly may not result in the simple reversal of the adverse evolution. A systematic wetland reclamation study is underway to analyze the manner in which drained wetlands in the scrub area of Highlands County, Florida can be effectively rehydrated to yield properly functioning wetlands. Ten wetlands, comprising a total area of 130 acres, located in the Lake Placid Scrub Wildlife & Environmental Area (3150 acres) are involved. All but one have been drained through ditching approximately twenty years ago. The predominant species is cutthroat grass (Panicum abscissum). The drained wetlands are significantly invaded with upland species, such as slash pine (Pinus elliottii). During year one of the study, ditches affecting six of the wetlands have been filled. Water levels are being recorded daily at nine locations corresponding to groundwater wells in the scrub regions and groundwaterstilling wells inside selected wetlands, including the natural remnant, "restored" wetlands, and ditched wetlands. Ditches for the three wetlands not restored during year one will be filled during year two of the study. Hydrologic monitoring will continue at least for a period of two years. Yearly, vegetation surveys will document the progression of the ten wetlands. Initially, the metric for success will be comparison to the natural remnant wetland both for hydrologic and vegetative indicators.

Wise, W. R.

2001-12-01

352

Metabolite profiles of lactic acid bacteria in grass silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml(-1) for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

2007-09-01

353

Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage?  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml?1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Strom, Katrin; Schnurer, Johan

2007-01-01

354

Are silica defences in grasses driving vole population cycles?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the factors that drive species population dynamics is fundamental to biology. Cyclic populations of microtine rodents have been the most intensively studied to date, yet there remains great uncertainty over the mechanisms determining the dynamics of most of these populations. For one such population, we present preliminary evidence for a novel mechanism by which herbivore-induced reductions in plant quality alter herbivore life-history parameters and subsequent population growth. We tested the effect of high silica levels on the population growth and individual performance of voles (Microtus agrestis) reared on their winter food plant (Deschampsia caespitosa). In sites where the vole population density was high, silica levels in D. caespitosa leaves collected several months later were also high and vole populations subsequently declined; in sites where the vole densities were low, levels of silica were low and population density increased. High silica levels in their food reduced vole body mass by 0.5% a day. We argue that silica-based defences in grasses may play a key role in driving vole population cycles. PMID:18482904

Massey, F P; Smith, M J; Lambin, X; Hartley, S E

2008-08-23

355

Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. (Dept. of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1990-03-01

356

Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3–C4 grass grown under ambient (400 ?l l–1) and glacial (180 ?l l–1) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3–C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3–C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3–C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3–C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3–C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24723409

Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula

2014-01-01

357

Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban-scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflect the source areas identified in the inventory, and that the pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near or within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not to rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local-scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulate pollen release in order to calculate urban-scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are additionally available in tabular form.

Hertel, Ole; SkjØth, Carsten Ambelas

2013-01-01

358

Acetogenic and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Inhabiting the Rhizoplane and Deep Cortex Cells of the Sea Grass Halodule wrightii†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent declines in sea grass distribution underscore the importance of understanding microbial community structure-function relationships in sea grass rhizospheres that might affect the viability of these plants. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria and clostridia were enriched in sediments colonized by the sea grasses Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum compared to an adjacent unvegetated sediment. Most-probable-number analyses found that in contrast ...

Ku?sel, Kirsten; Pinkart, Holly C.; Drake, Harold L.; Devereux, Richard

1999-01-01

359

Feasibility of grass co-digestion in an agricultural digester, influence on process parameters and residue composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the potential of co-digestion of grass clippings in a typical Flemish agro-digester characterized by an input of 30% manure, 30% maize silage and 40% side streams. No significant adverse effects in the microbiological functioning of the reactors were detected when part of the maize input was replaced by 10???20% grass. However at the highest dosage of grass input, dry matter content and the viscosity of the reactor content increased substantially. These parameters coul...

Moor, S.; Velghe, F.; Wierinck, I.; Michels, E.; Ryckaert, B.; Vocht, Alain; Verbeke, W.; Meers, Erik

2013-01-01

360

Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense Response to Clipping and Seeding of Competitive Grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical restrictions, ecological concerns, liability issues, and public sentiment present challenges to land managers attempting to control highly invasive plants like Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense [L.] Scop.. Although herbicide application can be an effective control strategy, increasing limitations force managers of sensitive environments (e.g., national parks, wildlife refuges, protected water-bodies or waterways to search for effective control alternatives. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the effectiveness of clipping (to simulate field mowing and grass seeding as alternatives for Canada thistle control. Two native North American grasses (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii {Rydb.} A. Löve] and streambank wheatgrass [Elymus lanceolatus {Scribn. & J.G. Sm.}Gould ssp. lanceolatus] and one sterile hybrid cross between common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum [Podp.] Z.W. Liu & R.C. Wang called RegreenTM were used. The effects of clipping and grass seeding on Canada thistle growth, and the effect of Canada thistle on grass growth, were evaluated using 14 unique treatments applied to potted Canada thistle and grass plants. Clipping inhibited Canada thistle growth (by 60%, while grass seeding had no effect. Presence of Canada thistle inhibited grass growth for all seeding treatments except when RegreenTM and western wheatgrass were seeded together with Canada thistle. Planting multiple species for restoration of Canada thistle-infested sites may be important (RegreenTM + western wheatgrass treatment, and cutting Canada thistle may be useful for reducing its growth in restored areas.

Julie Knudson

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Combustion of coal/grass/grain powder; Pulvereldning kol/roerflen/mald braenslekaerna  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes two different tests, one with combustion of coal powder in mixture with beaten Reed Canary grass and another with coal powder together with beaten grains of barley. The tests have been carried out in a 186 MW dust fired combined power and heating plant in Helsingborg, Sweden, in May 1995. The grass powder is produced in a process line with a bale conveyor, a shredder and a Champion hammer mill. The grains have been beaten in a Buehler-MIAG hammer mill. In both cases the biomass powder is produced in Malmoe and transported during the test in bulk carriages to the combustion plant. The feeding of the supplementary powder to the boiler is carried out from a buffer silo with a rotary vane feeder to four ejectors and pipelines connected with the coal powder burners in each corner of the boiler. The test with coal-/grass powder has continued for 86 hours with varying boiler load, 95-160 MW. The average admixture of grass is 5,2 energy-% with a maximum of 9 %. Totally 130 t grass powder have been consumed. For the grain powder the test period was 48 hours with an average admixture of 12 % and a maximum of 22 % at a boiler effect of 70-110 MW. 152 tons of grain powder have been fired. The test shows that: - admixture of grass and barley grain powder in coal powder is possible to at least 20 %., - the handling properties of the biomass powder must be developed., - the ash behavior of grass powder must be investigated more.

Stridsberg, S. [ISSAB Engineering (Sweden); Segerud, K. [NIRAK Energikonsult (Sweden)

1996-03-01