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Sample records for buffel grass cenchrus

  1. Growth Response of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) to Phosphorus and Mycorrhizal Inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Ahmad Khan; Shahbaz Ahmad; Mirza, Sarwat N.; Moazzam Nizami; Mohammad Athar; Shaikh Mohammad Shabbir

    2007-01-01

    Arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although the majority of grasses form an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, little is known of the mycorrhization of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). A pot study was conducted in sterilized soil to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus amendment on the biomass production in C. ciliaris. Mycorrhizal fungi used were Gigaspora rosea, Glom...

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transient GUS gene expression in buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Shweta; Kumar, Suresh

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to standardize a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). Embryogenic calli, produced from one-year-old mature seeds of buffel grass, were used as target cells for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, harbouring pCAMBIA-1301 or pCAMBIA-2301, was used for co-cultivation with embryogenic calli from three genotypes (IG-3108, IG-9757 and IG-97101). Co-culturing of calli with Agrobacterium for 30 minutes, followed by co-cultivation with 0.1 mM acetosyringone for 3 days was found to be optimum for maximum transformation efficiency. Presence of acetosyringone during co-cultivation was found to be necessary for transformation. Transient GUS (beta-glucuronidase) gene expression was used to monitor T-DNA delivery into the target cells. Significant genotypic variations in response to transformation were observed among the tested genotypes. A very high frequency (63.3%) of GUS gene expression was obtained following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into embryogenic calli. The standardized protocol would be useful for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass with genes of agronomic importance. PMID:14617824

  3. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep=Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo da Costa Soares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.. A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel.

  4. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) grazed by goats and sheep / Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pastejada por ovinos e caprinos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Daiana Araújo da Silva, Formiga; José Morais, Pereira Filho; Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo, Silva; Nadjanara Souza, Oliveira; Diogo da Costa, Soares; Olaf Andreas, Bakke.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de [...] 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD) e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1/set. e 1/out.). A disponibilidade de matéria seca (MS) de capim buffel na área pastejadas por ovinos foi superior ao observado na área ocupada por caprinos. A oferta de MS de capim buffel não variou com os períodos de avaliações. Já para as dicotiledôneas foi observado uma redução no decorrer das épocas de avaliações na oferta de MS. O pastejo dos animais afetou a disponibilidade, taxa de acúmulo e oferta de MS das dicotiledôneas herbáceas. O período de avaliação não interferiu na disponibilidade do capim buffel. Abstract in english Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, w [...] as divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD) goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM) availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis) by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

  5. Phosphorus fertilization and growth of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliares L.) cultivars / Adubação fosfatada e crescimento de cultivares de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliares L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanderlise, Giongo; Alessandra M., Salviano; Betina R. C. dos, Santos; Emylly F., Leal.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo (P) desempenha papel importante no crescimento do sistema radicular, quanto no perfilhamento das gramíneas, fundamental para o aumento da produtividade dessas espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de cultivares (cvs.) [...] de capim-buffel e estabelecer os níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação com arranjo experimental em esquema fatorial 4 x 5 (quatro cultivares de Cenchrus ciliaris: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 e Pusa Giant e cinco doses de P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1) além de quatro repetições. Após 90 dias de cultivo foram determinadas a produção de fitomassa seca da parte áerea (MSPA) e a raiz (MSR) tal como o acúmulo de P nesses tecidos. Coletaram-se amostras de solo para determinação do teor de P e do seu nível crítico (NiCri). Em cultivares S Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus apresentaram diferentes níveis críticos de P no solo e na planta obtido na estufa demonstrando que a mesma apresentou exigência diferenciada deste nutriente para seu crescimento. A cultivar CPATSA 7754 demonstrou maior exigência em fósforo não permitindo estabelecer os níveis críticos com as doses utilizadas no presente estudo. Abstract in english Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the growth of root system as well as the tillering grass, being fundamental to increase the productivity of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of buffel grass cultivars and establ [...] ish critical values of P in plant and soil. The experimental set up was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (four Cenchrus ciliaris cvs.: Biloela, Aridus, CPATSA 7754 and Pusa Giant, and five doses of P2O5 - 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) with four replications. After 90 days of cultivation, dry mass of shoot (DMS) and root (DMR) production and the P accumulation (Pacc) were determined. Soil samples to determine the P content and determination of the critical level (CriLev) were also collected. The cv. Biloela presented lower DMR and DMS production compared to the other cultivars. The cultivares Biloela, Pusa Giant and Aridus showed different critical levels of P in soil and plant, obtained in the greenhouse showing that they have different requirement of this nutrient for their growth. The cultivar CPATSA 7754 showed higher phosphorus requirement and did not permit to establish critical levels with doses used in the present study.

  6. Growth Response of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris to Phosphorus and Mycorrhizal Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ahmad Khan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although the majority of grasses form an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, little is known of the mycorrhization of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris. A pot study was conducted in sterilized soil to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus amendment on the biomass production in C. ciliaris. Mycorrhizal fungi used were Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum. Inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone, and combined incoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum signifi cantly (P<0.05 increased dry biomass in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum showed pronounced (P<0.05 eff ect on dry biomass compared to inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum resulted in signifi cantly (P<0.05 higher dry biomass campared to the combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Th e results clearly show that inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum is highly benefi cial for the growth and biomass production in the absence or presence of P2O5 under sterile soil conditions. Inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with these mycorrizal fungi may help in forage production in marginal and shallow soils of the rangelands of Pakistan.

  7. Clipping Effects on the Growth Variation, Water Use Efficiency and Photosynthetic Activity in Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) Poaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Issoufou, M.; Zaman Allah, M.; Ferchichi, A.; Ferjani, E.

    2008-01-01

    Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) growth, biomass allocation to root and shoot, water use efficiency and photosynthetic activity were measured in response to two defoliation heights (5 and 3 cm). Results showed that plants clipped at 5 cm showed a significant increase of diameter and water use efficiency as well as higher leaf water potential with a subsequent increase of stomatal conductance and photosynthetic activity. On the other hand, plants clipped at 3 cm presented an increase in...

  8. Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Maya Beudel

    2012-01-01

    This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histor...

  9. Do Additional Bands (coastal, NIR-2, Red-Edge and Yellow) in WORLDVIEW-2 Multispectral Imagery Improve Discrimination of AN Invasive Tussock, Buffel Grass (cenchrus Ciliaris)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, V.; Lewis, M.; Ostendorf, B.

    2012-07-01

    Our goals is to determine if Worldview-2 8-band multispectral imagery can be used to discriminate an invasive grass species namely, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in the subtropical arid parts of central Australia and whether it offers a tangible improvement on 4-band (visible and near infra red) multispectral imagery. A Worldview-2 scene was acquired for a 10*10km area just west of Alice Springs in central Australia following heavy rains of early Summer. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering was used to classify the image. Target and background spectra were selected in the field and extracted from the image. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) was used to examine the spectral separability of each group of the target/ background spectra. The importance of the additional spectral bands on the image classification was assessed by running LDA for both 8 and 4 bands (red, green, blue and NIR). LDA did not indicate improved separability between groups when additional spectral bands were applied. Preliminary classification results indicate that Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is detected with an omission error 44%, commission error of 11.8% and overall accuracy of 59.5%. We were surprised that the additional spectral bands did not improve spectral separability and in part attribute this to the high degree of variance we observed within groups of spectra, which was particularly observable in the NIR2 and Yellow bands. The analyses may be significantly improved by acquiring imagery following the first big rains at the end of the dry season. At this time, phonological differences between our focal species and the surrounding native vegetation should be maximised. We suspect that Worldview-2 will offer even greater potential for the discrimination of Buffel grass under these conditions, being able to fully utilise the yellow-band in particular.

  10. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12548

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo da Costa Soares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

  11. Particle-inflow-gun-mediated genetic transformation of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.): optimizing biological and physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V; Dalton, S J; Kumar, S; Bhat, B V; Gupta, M G; Morris, P

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to optimize various biological and physical parameters for developing an efficient and reproducible gene transfer method for genetic transformation of buffel grass. Transformation was carried out using a helium-driven particle inflow gun (PIG). Embryogenic calli produced from mature seeds of buffel grass cv. CC-119 were separately bombarded with four plasmids, containing Actin (pAct1DX), Ubiquitin (pAHC-25; pAHC-27) and CaMV-35S (pCaMVGUS) promoters, coated on tungsten and gold particles. The efficiency of transformation was monitored through transient GUS expression. Different parameters, viz., the type of promoter, type and size of microcarrier, helium gas pressure, distance and time of bombardment, were standardized for delivering DNA into embryogenic calli. Bombardment with plasmid DNA carrying the actin promoter coated on 1.6 micro gold particles, at a helium pressure of 4 bars, a distance of 10 cm for 10 micro sec and 28 mm Hg vacuum in the chamber, produced the best result in transient GUS expression. The Actin promoter was found to be more efficient in driving expression of the GUS gene in buffel grass, followed by Ubiquitin and CaMV-35S promoters. Lower helium pressure was found to be sub-optimal, while higher pressure produced a smaller number of blue spots, probably due to excessive damage to the cells. Maximum of 385 blue spots was observed with gold particles of 1.6 micro size, whereas only 213 blue spots were recorded for tungsten particles of 1.0 micro size. The optimized parameters can be employed for genetic transformation of buffel grass with genes of agronomic importance. PMID:14564017

  12. Utilização de adubação orgânica em pastagem de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris CV. Molopo) / Use of organic fertilizer in bufeel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris CV. Molopo) pasture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Edvan; E.M., Santos; W.A., Vasconcelos; L.T., Souto Filho; J.B., Borburema; G.R., Medeiros; A.P., Andrade.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar e comparar com outras fontes de adubo o efeito da digesta de bovinos sobre características estruturais, morfogênicas e de produção do capim buffel. O estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental do Instituto Nacional do Semi-Árido, localizado em Campina Grande, PB, Brasil. Util [...] izou-se um pasto de capim-buffel cultivar Molopo, já estabelecido. A área experimental foi dividida em 24 parcelas com 4 m² cada, sendo utilizado um delineamento de blocos completos ao acaso, arranjado em esquema de parcelas subdi-vididas no tempo. Os tratamentos consistiram da utilização de digesta ou esterco bovino (5 e 10 toneladas de matéria seca/ha para ambos) e adubação química 200 kg/ha da fórmula 40:10:40. Não houve interação entre a adubação e época de corte (p>0,10). Para a adubação houve efeito (p0,10) da adubação para a relação lâmina foliar/colmo, taxa de aparecimento de folhas e número de folhas vivas por perfilhos basais, porém observou-se efeito (p Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to compare with other fertilizer sources the effect of bovine digestive content on structural, morpho-genetic and production characteristics of buffel grass. The study was carried out at Estação Experimental do Instituto Nacional do Semi-árido, located in Campina [...] Grande, PB, Brazil. A previously implanted pasture of buffel grass, cultivar Molopo was used. Experimental area was split in 24 (4 m²) experimental unities and a completely randomized block in a split plot scheme, split at time. Treatments were 5 and 10 ton of dry matter per ha of digestive content or bovine manure. For mineral fertilizer treatment 40:10:40 formule was used applying 200 kg of mix per ha. There was not interaction between fertilization and time cut (p>0.10). Fertilization influenced (p0.10) of fertilization for leaf/steam ratio, leaf appearence rate and number of green leafes per tiller, whereas effect (p

  13. Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Maya Beudel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris, in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histories of seeds, among others. While the article does not explicitly discuss Clifford’s argument, it is an attempt to explore similarly diverse histories including those generated by arid zone scientists, Albert Namatjira’s efforts to gain a grazing licence, environmental impact of settlement (including erosion, dust storms and species extinction, along with personal narratives impelled by engagement with place. The article does not aim to theorise its content, rather to elaborate knowledge of landscape along with that elusive quality, a ‘sense of place’, through connecting disparate things.

  14. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert / Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erick, De la Barrera.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura [...] de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda. Abstract in english The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activ [...] ity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.

  15. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El área basal de plantas de esta especie osciló desde menos de 1 cm² hasta casi 1 m². El número de hojas vivas por planta aumentó con la precipitación, con un máximo de 199 hojas en Marzo de 2005, y no se encontraron hojas vivas después de 103 días sin lluvia. Las condiciones ambientales del Centro Ecológico son muy favorables para C. ciliaris, cuyo establecimiento en este sitio aparentemente fue inducido por un disturbio causado por la construcción de vivienda.

  16. Morphogenetical, structural and access to productive buffel grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando de Sousa Moreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the buffel grass is so important to the productive systems in the semiarid Brazilian studies with this forage are still scarce and diffused, so this experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphogenesis, structural and productive six accessions of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. belonging to the active germplasm bank (BAG Embrapa semiarid. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Technology and Social Sciences (DTCS University of Bahia (UNEB, from December 2008 to January 2009. The experimental design was completely randomized with six accessions of buffel grass (Tanzania, Pusa Giant, Aridus, Buchuma, Iran and Biloela and five replicates, totaling 30 experimental units. Regarding the results, the accessions differed significantly in most variables, especially in morphogenetic and structural variables. It was observed that the buffel grass provides a mean rate of appearance of one sheet every four days in each tiller, with a lifetime of sheet 17 days, keeping ten per tiller. Although they found morphogenetic and structural differences between accessions of buffel grass they did not affect the production parameters.

  17. Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Conde-Lozano; Abelardo José, Saldívar-Fitzmaurice; Florencio, Briones-Encinia; Juan Carlos, Martínez-González.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Autopolinización en la producción de semilla de pasto Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria [...] Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC) en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable) las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto). Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil) y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54), pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P Abstract in english Self-pollination in the production of seed of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.). The objective of this study was to compare different forms of pollination on the characteristics of seed of four varieties of Buffel grass. The study was carried out in the greenhouse and in the field of UAM Agronomia [...] y Ciencias in the Municipa ity of Victoria, Tamaulipas. We used four varieties of Buffel grass (Comun, Nueces, T-1754 and Formidable) which were subjected to two types of pollination (free and self-pollination). The design used was a completely randomized blocks design. Day at flowering of male and female organs was measured. In addition, pollen was classified (fertile, intermediate and infertile), and the effects of self-pollination and free pollination free on the characteristics of seed were recorded. No effects were observed on days at flowering of female organs (P = 0.54), but the male organs were affected (P = 0.03), so that Formidable variety plants required 2.3 days to mature. The number of fertile, intermediate and infertile pollen grains was not affected by pollination or variety. All seed components were affected (P

  18. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N; Valle-Cerdán, José L; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco; Angeles-Campos, Sergio; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4?×?4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods (n = 4). Animals were fed with BG with different levels of GS: 100% BG (T1, control), 90% BG + 10% GS (T2), 80% BG + 20% GS (T3), and 70% BG?+?30% GS (T4). Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P < 0.05) in those lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in the other treatments. CP digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in T4 compared to T1, T2, and T3. The study showed that inclusion of GS up to 30% with BG in forage-based diets of sheep does not affect DM and fiber intake nor influence DM and OM digestibilities but it increases CP intake and reduces NDF and ADF digestibilities. PMID:23420067

  19. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp / Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Márquez; T, Córdova; L, Castejón; A, Higuera.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensay [...] o con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maraca [...] ibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  20. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Márquez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6, en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor, tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1, el mejor control de malezas (72,1% y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%. Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela using cowpea mutant ON-30(6 and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor, weeds control every 15 days (three times using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1. A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1, the best weed control (72,1% and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22% were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

  1. Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?rquez, R.; Co?rdova, T.; Castejo?n, L.; Higuera, A.

    2003-01-01

    A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación ...

  2. Colonización micorrízica arbuscular y crecimiento de genotipos de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo D\\u00EDaz Franco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la efectividad de la simbiosis por hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA en el crecimiento de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., se hizo un estudio en invernadero en el que las líneas ?PI- 409443?, ?PI-409275?, y las variedades ?Formidable?, ?Zaragoza 115? y ?Común? (testigo, fueron inoculadas o no con el HMA Glomus intraradices. Se realizaron dos muestreos, el 25 de julio y el 8 de noviembre. En el primer muestreo, el índice de clorofila y las biomasas fresca y seca de los genotipos no mostraron efectos significativos de micorrización. En el muestreo final, la simbiosis causó incrementos significativos en índice de clorofila, contenido de proteína foliar, y biomasa seca y radical. La colonización micorrízica final promedió 42 %. Los genotipos de buffel ?PI-409443? y ?Formidable? registraron los valores más altos en biomasa seca e índice de clorofila en el primero y en el último muestreo, y de biomasa radical en el final. G. intraradices fue capaz de incrementar significativamente el contenido de proteína foliar en ?PI-409443? y ?Formidable? y ?Común?. El porcentaje de colonización micorrízica radical se correlacionó con el índice de clorofila (r2=0.82 y con el contenido de proteína (r2=0.92. Los resultados indicaron que la micorrización promovió mayores valores en producción de biomasa, índice de clorofila y contenido de proteína, en tres de los cinco genotipos del pasto buffel, en el segundo muestreo.

  3. Tackling Contentious Invasive Plant Species: A Case Study of Buffel Grass in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Anthony C.; Friedel, Margaret H.; Marshall, Nadine A.; van Klinken, Rieks D.

    2012-02-01

    Introduced plants that have both production values and negative impacts can be contentious. Generally they are either treated as weeds and their use prohibited; or unfettered exploitation is permitted and land managers must individually contend with any negative effects. Buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) is contentious in Australia and there has been no attempt to broadly and systematically address the issues surrounding it. However, recent research indicates that there is some mutual acceptance by proponents and opponents of each others' perspectives and we contend that this provides the basis for a national approach. It would require thorough and on-going consultation with stakeholders and development of realistic goals that are applicable across a range of scales and responsive to regional differences in costs, benefits and socio-economic and biophysical circumstances. It would be necessary to clearly allocate responsibilities and ascertain the most appropriate balance between legislative and non-legislative mechanisms. A national approach could involve avoiding the introduction of additional genetic material, countering proliferation in regions where the species is sparse, preventing incursion into conservation reserves where it is absent, containing strategically located populations and managing communities to prevent or reduce dominance by buffel grass. This approach could be applied to other contentious plant species.

  4. Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida / Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter Alves de, Vasconcelos; Albericio Pereira de, Andrade; Edson Mauro, Santos; Ricardo Loiola, Edvan; Divan Soares, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta áre [...] a destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusi [...] vely for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of the experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

  5. Fenos de capim-buffel amonizados com ureia / Buffel grass hays ammoniated with urea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra; Edson Mauro, Santos; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Alexandre Fernandes, Perazzo; Ana Paula Gomes da, Silva; João Paulo de Farias, Ramo; Gildenia Araújo, Pereira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se quantificar a população de mofos e leveduras, avaliar as perdas de matéria seca e a composição bromatológica de fenos de capim-buffel amonizados com ureia. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos compreenderam aos ní [...] veis de ureia (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0%), que foram adicionados aos fardos de feno com base na matéria seca. A inclusão de 1,0% de ureia elevou a recuperação de matéria seca (93,21%) em relação ao feno não amonizado. Observou-se efeito quadrático para o pH, com o maior valor observado no nível de 0,5% de ureia (8,88), reduzindo nos demais níveis de ureia. A adição de níveis de ureia foi eficiente em reduzir a população de mofos e leveduras, reduzindo de 6,50 log UFC/g no feno sem tratamento com ureia para 3,65 log UFC/g quando adicionados 4% de ureia no feno. A adição de ureia proporcionou aumento nos teores de matéria orgânica e proteína bruta dos fenos de capim-buffel, atingindo os maiores valores com a utilização de 4,0% de ureia, com 90,96% e 14,03% para matéria orgânica e proteína bruta, respectivamente. A aplicação de ureia não proporciona diminuição em relação às perdas de matéria seca, exceto na dose de 1,0%, no entanto, é eficiente em reduzir a população de mofos e leveduras e elevar os teores de proteína bruta de fenos de capim-buffel. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to quantify the population of molds and yeasts, evaluate losses dry matter and chemical composition of buffelgrass hay ammoniated with urea. We used a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted the urea levels (0, 0 [...] .5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0%) that were added to the hay bales based on dry matter. The inclusion of 1.0% of urea increased dry matter recovery (93.21%) compared to non-ammoniated hay. There was quadratic effect for the pH with highest value observed at the level of 0.5% of urea (8.88), reducing the other levels of urea. The addition of urea levels was efficient to reduce the population of molds and yeasts, reducing from 6.50 log CFU/g in untreated hay with urea to 3.65 log CFU/g when added 4% of urea in the hay. The addition of urea resulted in increased contents of organic matter and crude protein hay buffelgrass, reaching the highest values with the use de 4.0% of urea, with 90.96% and 14.03%, respectively. The application of urea does not provide decreased in respect losses of dry matter, except at a level of 1.0%, however it is efficient in to reduce the population of molds and yeasts and elevate the crude protein of buffel grass hay.

  6. AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

  7. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Machado, Santos; Tadeu Vinhas, Voltolini; Francislene, Angelotti; Saulo de Tarso, Aidar; Agnaldo Rodrigues de Melo, Chaves.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian) were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth cham [...] bers at three temperatures (day/night): 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER), leaf appearance rate (LAR), leaf lifespan (LL) and senescence rate (SR), whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM), root mass (RM), shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

  8. Características de produção do capim-buffel submetido a intensidades e freqüências de corte / Characteristics of production of buffel grass as function of cutting intensity and frequency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Edvan; E.M., Santos; D.S., Da Silva; A.P., De Andrade; R.G., Costa; W.A., Vasconcelos.

    1281-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas, estruturais e a produção de biomassa do capim-buffel sob intensidades e freqüências de corte. Utilizou-se um pasto já implantado de capimbuffel, cultivar Molopo. A área total utilizada foi dividida em 20 parcelas de 8 m² cada com linha de bordadura [...] de 1 m entre as parcelas. Foi utilizado um esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, tendo nas parcelas um arranjo fatorial 2x2 referente a combinações entre duas alturas de corte (60 e 80 cm) e duas alturas de resíduo (20 e 40 cm), em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais, que receberam as denominações 20-60, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. Houve efeito (p0,05), entre os tratamentos. A freqüência e a intensidade de corte influenciaram o perfilhamento, relação lâmina/colmo e a produção de matéria seca do capim-buffel tanto para o corte como para a produção total. Abstract in english The objective of this experiment was to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics and biomass production of buffel grass as a function of cut intensities and frequencies. A previously established pasture of buffel grass cultivar Molopo was used. Total area was splited in twenty 8 m² expe [...] rimental unities with 1 m border lines. A split plot scheme was used with plot in factorial scheme 2x2 to combination of two height of cut (60 and 80 cm) and two height post cut (20 and 40 cm). The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with five replicates named 2060, 20-80, 40-60, 40-80. There (p0.05) between treatments. Cutting frequency and intensities influenced tillering, leaf/ stem ratio and dry matter production for both the cut as to the total.

  9. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3–5 years, 45.4?±?4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad li...

  10. In vitro Studies of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extracts of the Indian Grasses Dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Kala-Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singariya, Premlata; Mourya, K K; Kumar, Padma

    2012-05-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Crude extracts of the stem of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were evaluated against some medically important pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Raoultella planticola, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The dried and powdered stems were successively extracted with hexane, toluene, isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol using soxhlet assembly. The antimicrobial activity assay was done by both disc diffusion and serial dilution methods. Isopropyl alcohol extract of Cenchrus setigerus showed highest activity against Escherichia coli. The test pathogens were more sensitive to the isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol extracts than to the hexane and toluene extracts except against Bacillus subtilis. Result reveals that the most bioactive compound was cycloleucolenol-9,19-cycloergost-24 (28)-en-3-ol, 4, 14-dimethyl acetate in both the species of Cenchrus grass, (19.15%) in isopropanol extract of Cenchrus setigerus whereas, (14.03%) in acetone extract of Cenchrus ciliaris. PMID:23439788

  11. Environmental Impact on Biomass and Allelopathic Effect of Cenchrus ciliaris.L

    OpenAIRE

    RAJKUMARI PARWANI; ARCHANA MANKAD

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at the GEER foundation, Gandhinagar, India to evaluate environmental impact on biomass production of Cenchrus ciliaris.L (buffel grass) and its allelopathic effect on Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum. These grasses were grown in separate plots and also in combination. Growth parameters which were studied for all sets were Shoot length, Above Ground Biomass (AGB), Below Ground Biomass (BGB) and number of leaves and meteorological data were also recorded. It was...

  12. Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

  13. Ruminal digestion and chemical composition of new genotypes of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) under irrigation and fertilization / DIGESTÃO RUMINAL E COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA DE NOVOS GENOTIPOS DE CAPIM BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) SOB IRRIGAÇÃO E FERTILIZAÇÃO / Digestión ruminal y composición química de nuevos genotipos de pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) bajo irrigación y fertilización

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Juan, García-Dessommes; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez-Lozano; Rocío, Morales-Rodríguez; Graciela, García-Díaz.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo se realizou com o objetivo de avaliar e comparar o conteúdo nutritivo e degradabilidade efetiva da matéria seca (DEMS), proteína crua (DEPC) e parede celular (DEFDN) do híbrido Nozes e cinco novas linhas (PI 1, PI 2, PI 3, PI 4, PI 5) de capim buffel no noroeste do México. Todos os capins s [...] e estabeleceram usando um desenho completamente aleatório com três repetições. Foram regados e fertilizados com 100 kg·ha-1 de uréia-N e recolhidos manualmente em 5 de junho de 2000 em Nuevo León, México. A produção de matéria seca foi significativamente diferente entre os capins. O conteúdo de proteína crua, parede celular e seus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulose e lignina) foram significativamente diferentes entre os capins avaliados. Assim mesmo, DEMS, DEPC e DEFDN foram significativamente diferentes entre capins. Os conteúdos de P, Na, Cu e Zn não foram suficientes para satisfazer os requerimentos do gado de carne em crescimento. Dados de produção de matéria seca e dinâmica nutricional sugerem que os novos genótipos PI 3 e PI 4 podem ser considerados como boas fontes de nutrientes para o gado em pastoreio em regiões do noroeste do México. Abstract in spanish El estudio se llevó a cabo con el objetivo de evaluar y comparar el contenido nutritivo y degradabilidad efectiva de la materia seca (DEMS), proteína cruda (DEPC) y pared celular (DEFDN) del híbrido Nueces y cinco nuevas líneas (PI 1, PI 2, PI 3, PI 4, PI 5) de pasto buffel en el noreste de México. [...] Todos los pastos se establecieron usando un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. Fueron regados y fertilizados con 100kg·ha-1 de úrea-N y cosechados manualmente el 5 de junio de 2000 en Nuevo León, México. La producción de materia seca fue significativamente diferente entre los pastos. El contenido de proteína cruda, pared celular y sus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los pastos evaluados. Asimismo, DEMS, DEPC y DEFDN fueron significativamente diferentes entre pastos. Los contenidos de P, Na, Cu y Zn no fueron suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos del ganado de carne en crecimiento. Datos de producción de materia seca y dinámica nutricional sugieren que los nuevos genotipos PI 3 y PI 4 pueden ser considerados como buenas fuentes de nutrientes para el ganado en pastoreo en regiones del noreste de México. Abstract in english The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating and comparing the total dry matter production (TDMP), chemical composition and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), crude protein (EDCP) and neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF) of the Nueces hybrid and five new genotypes (PI 1, PI 2, PI 3, PI 4 [...] , PI 5) of buffelgrass. Grasses were irrigated and fertilized with 100kg·ha-1 of urea-N, and hand harvested on June 5, 2001 at Nuevo Leon, Mexico. All grasses were established on a completely randomized design with three replicates. The TDMP was significantly different among genotypes. The crude protein content and cell wall components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were significantly different among grasses. Moreover, EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF were significantly different among genotypes. The P, Na, Cu and Zn contents, in all grasses, were insufficient to meet growth requirements of beef cattle. Data of dry matter production and nutritional dynamics suggest that the new genotypes PI 3 and PI 4 could be considered good sources of nutrients for grazing ruminants in Northeastern Mexico.

  14. Environmental Impact on Biomass and Allelopathic Effect of Cenchrus ciliaris.L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJKUMARI PARWANI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the GEER foundation, Gandhinagar, India to evaluate environmental impact on biomass production of Cenchrus ciliaris.L (buffel grass and its allelopathic effect on Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum. These grasses were grown in separate plots and also in combination. Growth parameters which were studied for all sets were Shoot length, Above Ground Biomass (AGB, Below Ground Biomass (BGB and number of leaves and meteorological data were also recorded. It was observed that C.ciliaris could survive through extreme climate and Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum could not flourish in the presence of Cenchrus ciliaris, which resulted in the maximum biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris. The effect of different seasons on biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris was observed over a year. Statistical analysis of the data showed significant variation in biomass.

  15. Efeito da adubação orgânica e altura de resíduo sobre a produção de fitomassa do capim-buffel / Effect of organic fertilization and stubble height on the production biomass of buffel grass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Poliane Meire Dias de, Freitas; Edson Mauro, Santos; João Paulo de Farias, Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra; Divan Soares, Silva; Ivandro de França da, Silva; Alexandre Fernandes, Perazzo; Gildênia Araújo, Pereira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de níveis de adubação orgânica utilizando esterco caprino e duas alturas de resíduo, sobre a produção de fitomassa do capim-buffel. Utilizou-se parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. As parcelas consistira [...] m de doses de esterco caprino (0; 5; 10; 15 e 20t/ha), e as subparcelas consistiram em duas alturas de resíduo (10 e 20cm). Para produção de matéria verde houve efeito de ciclo, como também houve interação entre altura de resíduo e adubação. Com relação à produção de matéria seca, houve efeito de altura de resíduo, de adubação e da época de corte, sendo que verificou diferenças entre alturas somente quando o capim recebeu doses 10 e 20t/ha de adubo orgânico. O acúmulo total de colmo apresentou incremento de forma linear, com a utilização das doses de adubação quando o capim foi colhido na altura de 10cm, não havendo ajustes de modelos quando o mesmo foi colhido a 20cm. Foi observado um aumento linear do acúmulo líquido na altura de 10cm conforme o acréscimo das doses de adubo. A adubação orgânica eleva a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel quando é cortado na altura de resíduo de10cm. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate effect of organic fertilization levels using goat manure and two stubble heights, on the biomass production of buffel grass. We used a split plot in a randomized complete block design with five replications. The plots consisted of doses of goat manure (0; 5 [...] ,;10, 15 and 20t/ha) and the subplots consisted of two heights of residue (10 and 20cm). In the production of green matter of buffel grass, had effect, as well as an interaction effect between stubble heights and fertilization. With respect to dry matter production of buffel grass, there was also an effect of stubble heights, fertilizer and cut time, and there were differences between heights only when the grass to received 10 and 20t/ha doses organic fertilizer. The total accumulation of stem showed a linear increase, using doses of fertilizer when the grass was harvested at the height of 10cm, without adjustments even when the templates were harvested at 20cm. There was a linear increase accumulation of liquid at the height of 10cm as the higher doses of fertilizer. The organic fertilization increases the biomass production of buffel grass is cut when the height of 10cm residue.

  16. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3-5 years, 45.4?±?4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad libitum whereas the concentrate mixture was fed at the rate of 1% LW. Nutrient digestibility did not differ among the groups while N balance data showed reduced utilization in G3. However, the animals in G1, G2 and G3 maintained LW and their nutritional profile indicated surplus of energy and protein with comparable feed value of all the three diets. Rumen pH decreased and volatile fatty acids increased (P?Prosopis juliflora pods can replace concentrate mixture up to 40% in sheep feeding without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization as well as rumen fermentation characteristics. PMID:24294546

  17. Concentrate levels for lambs grazing on buffel grass Doses de concentrado para cordeiros mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of concentrate for lambs grazing buffel grass may improve animal performance and animal traits. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain and carcass traits (cold and hot carcass weights, cold and hot dressing percentages of lambs grazing buffel grass and receiving different concentrate levels (0; 0.33; 0.66 and 1.0% of dry matter in relation to body weight. Forty lambs were used, ten animals by treatment, with 16.5 ± 2.0 kg of initial body weight, distributed in four groups. Experimental design was a completely randomized with ten replicates. Concentrate levels did not influence the final body weight, the average daily gain, total weight gain and cold and hot carcass weights. However, the increase of concentrate levels promoted higher cold and hot carcass yields.O uso de concentrados para ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-bufel pode melhorar o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros de carcaça dos mesmos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário e ganho de peso total além dos parâmetros de carcaça (pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria de ovinos mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel recebendo doses crescentes de suplemento concentrado (0; 0,33; 0,66 e 1,0% na matéria seca do suplemento em relação ao peso corporal dos animais. Foram utilizados 40 ovinos machos, dez animais por tratamento, com peso corporal inicial médio de 16,5 ± 2,0 kg, distribuídos em quatro grupos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições. As doses de concentrado não influenciaram o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de total, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria. Entretanto, o aumento nas doses de concentrado proporcionaram maiores rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria.

  18. Microbial and fermentation profiles, losses and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass harvested at different cutting heights

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Edson Mauro, Santos; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Ana Paula Gomes da, Silva; Thiago Carvalho da, Silva; Fleming Sena, Campos; Carlos Henrique Oliveira, Macedo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the microbial population, fermentation profile, losses and dry matter recovery, and chemical composition of silages of buffel grass at different cutting heights. To evaluate the microbial fermentation dynamics, the treatments resulted from?a 4 × 5 factorial combination co [...] nsisting of 4 cutting heights and 5 fermentation periods, in a completely randomized design with three replications. The fermentation was evaluated at the end of 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. The other characteristics of silages with 30 days were evaluated following a completely randomized design with four treatments, consisting of 4 cutting heights (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm), and five replications. Fermentation period and cutting height effects and interaction between both factors were observed on the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterobacteria and molds and yeasts. The peak of development of LAB populations was observed on the seventh day of fermentation for the heights of 40 and 50 cm, with 8.25 and 8.30 log cfu/g, respectively. The pH values of silages ranged with different cutting heights, in which at the height of 50 cm the decrease was most pronounced. However, the pH values were similar between the cutting heights at the end of 30 days of fermentation. Quadratic relationship was observed between lactic acid concentrations and cutting heights. The crude protein content behaved linearly, initially showing 128.5 g/kg DM at 30 cm, decreasing as the cutting heights increased. The neutral detergent fiber and ether extract contents increased linearly with the cutting heights. Based on microbial populations, fermentation, losses and chemical composition, it is recommended to harvest buffel grass for silage from 50 cm on.

  19. In vitro Studies of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extracts of the Indian Grasses Dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Kala-Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus)

    OpenAIRE

    Singariya, Premlata; Mourya, K. K.; Kumar, Padma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Crude extracts of the stem of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were evaluated against some medically important pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Raoultella planticola, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  20. Efecto del aplazamiento de utilización sobre el contenido de nutrientes y digestibilidad de la materia orgánica de la asociación buffel - leucaena / Effect of deferment of utilization on the nutrient content and organic matter digestibility of buffel - leucaena association / Efeito do adiamento de utilização sobre o conteúdo de nutrientes e digestibilidade da materia orgânica da associação buffel - leucaena

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Faría Mármol; Alexander, Sánchez.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma região semi-árida do estado Zulia, Venezuela (10º32’N, 71º42’O), com 600mm precipitação média anual e solos de textura franco-arenosa, pH 5,5 com valores de Ca, Mg, Na, K e P de 0,6; 0,3; 0,1 e 0,17 mg/100g de solo e 6 ppm, respectivamente, se estudou o efeito de quatro idades de utilização ( [...] 42, 84, 126, e 168 dias) sobre o conteúdo de proteína crua (PC), digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO) e minerais de uma associação buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) - leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). Mostras compostas de folhas e caules para buffel e fração fina (pinna, pecíolos e caules Abstract in spanish En una región semiárida del estado Zulia, Venezuela (10º32’N, 71º42’O), con 600mm de precipitación promedio anual y suelos de textura franco-arenosa, pH 5,5 con valores de Ca, Mg, Na, K y P de 0,6; 0,3; 0,1 y 0,17mg/100g de suelo y 6 ppm, respectivamente, se estudió el efecto de cuatro edades de uti [...] lización (42, 84, 126, y 168 días) sobre el contenido de proteína cruda (PC), digestibilidad in vitro de la materia orgánica (DIVMO) y minerales de una asociación buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) - leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). Muestras compuestas de hojas y tallos para buffel y fracción fina (pinna, pecíolos y tallos Abstract in english An experiment was conducted in a semi-arid region of the Zulia State, Venezuela (10º32’N, 71º42’W), with a 600mm average annual rainfall, where the soil is a sandy-loam Aridisol, pH 5.5 and average Ca, Mg, Na, K and P content of 0.6, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.17mg/100gsoil and 6 ppm, respectively. The purpose [...] was to evaluate in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), crude protein (CP) and macroelement concentration of a buffel (Cenchrus Ciliaris) - leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) association as affected by deferment at four utilization ages (42, 84, 126, and 168 days). A randomized block experimental design with three replicates was used. Samples consisting of leaf and stems of buffel grass and fine fraction (pinnae, petioles and stems

  1. Hyperspectral band depth analysis for a better estimation of grass biomass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) measured under controlled laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Onisimo; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2004-05-01

    Remote sensing of grass quantity is important for providing information about the productivity and functioning of rangelands. Existing indices used to estimate grass quantity, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are of limited value due to the saturation problem, especially in dense vegetation with 100% leaf area cover. Therefore, there is need to explore new techniques to resolve the saturation problem. In this study we tested the utility of band depth analysis to estimate grass quantity in dense vegetation. Band depth indices calculated from continuum-removed spectra of Cenchrus ciliaris grass, measured at canopy level in the visible spectral domain (550-750 nm) were used to estimate biomass. Band depth analysis results were compared to two narrow band NDVIs calculated using near-infrared and red bands. Results indicate that, the band depth analysis methodology could estimate quantity with a high coefficient of determination of 0.81, 0.83, 0.86 and 0.85 for band depth (BD), band depth ratio (BDR), normalized band depth index (NBDI) and band depth normalized to area (BNA), respectively. Narrow band NDVIs yielded lower correlations (0.31 and 0.32 for NDVI 1 and NDVI 2, respectively). Thus, band depth can estimate quantity in densely vegetated areas where NDVI values reach an asymptote.

  2. Producción de materia seca en una asociación Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaenaleucocephala al aplazar su utilización durante la época seca / Dry matter production in an association of Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaena leucocephala subjected to a deferring use during the dry season

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexander, Sánchez; Jesús Faria, Mármol; Cesar, Araque.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En una región semiárida del occidente de Venezuela en el estado Zulia, se estudió el efecto de cuatro períodos de aplazamiento de utilización (PAU: 42, 84, 126 y 168 días) después del primer corte sobre la acumulación de biomasa en una asociación pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) y leucaena (Leucaena [...] leucocephala), estimándose la producción de sus componentes en la gramínea (hojas, tallos y material muerto) y la leguminosa conformada por la fracción fina (hojas, pecíolos y tallos menores de 5 mm de diámetro) y la fracción gruesa (tallos mayores de 5 mm de diámetro), a través del perfil del pastizal donde se consideraron tres estratos en el pasto buffel (0-15, 15-30 y >30 cm) y en leucaena (0-60, 60-120 y >120 cm). En ambas especies, después del corte de cada PAU, las parcelas se cosecharon cada 42 días para evaluar el rebrote. El diseño experimental usado fue de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se observaron rendimientos para ambas especies de 1.146 y 1.925 kg MS/ha para el pasto buffel y la leucaena, respectivamente. Solo en la leguminosa se encontraron diferencias (P>0,05) entre tratamientos siendo los PAU sobresalientes los de 42 y 0 días. La mayor proporción de hoja y el menor contenido de material muerto (P Abstract in english In a semi-arid region in western Venezuela at Zulia state, we studied the effect of four periods of deferment of use (PDU: 42, 84, 126, and 168 days) after the first cut on the accumulation of biomass in an association of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), estimat [...] ing production of its components in the grass (leaves, stems, and dead material) and the legume fine fraction (leaves, leaf stalk, and stems with diameter less than 5 mm) and thick fraction (stems with diameter above 5 mm). Plant samples were taken at three strata for buffel (0-15, 15-30, and > 30 cm) and leucaena (0-60, 60-120, and > 120 cm). After every PDU cut, plots were harvested every 42 days to evaluate regrowth. A randomized block experimental design with three replicates was used. Results indicated yields for both species with values of 1,146 and 1,925 kg DM/ha for buffel and leucaena, respectively. There were found differences among treatments (P>0.05) only on the legume being the best PDU 42 and 0 days. The highest leaf proportion and the lowest dead material content (P

  3. Isolation of new steroids of Kala Dhaman grass (Cenchrus setigerus) and evaluation of their bioactivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Premlata, Singariya; Padma, Kumar; Krishan Kumar, Mourya.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components (steroids) of Cenchrus setigerus using GC-MS analysis and in vivo estimation of metabolites (total soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and total phenolics), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and [...] carotenoids) of seedlings and antimicrobial activity of extracts in various polar solvents from the leaves of C. setigerus. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three Gram-negative bacteria, including Proteusmirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens andone fungus Aspergillus niger using 'disc diffusion' method, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by broth dilution method. Results revealed the presence of some steroids in the isopropyl alcohol extract of C. setigerus:which are (22E)-stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one(4.93%), ?4-sitosterol-3-one (stigmast-4-en-3-one) (4.31%), fagarsterol (lupeol) (1.25%) and ethyl iso-allocholate (0.32%). Total soluble sugars and chlorophyll-a were also recorded to be highest. The highest activity was exhibited by the isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate extract against P. mirabilis.

  4. Comparative physical mapping of the apospory-specific genomic region in two apomictic grasses: Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Akiyama, Yukio; Conner, Joann A; Basu, Manojit; Gualtieri, Gustavo; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2006-05-01

    In gametophytic apomicts of the aposporous type, each cell of the embryo sac is genetically identical to somatic cells of the ovule because they are products of mitosis, not of meiosis. The egg of the aposporous embryo sac follows parthenogenetic development into an embryo; therefore, uniform progeny result even from heterozygous plants, a trait that would be valuable for many crop species. Attempts to introgress apomixis from wild relatives into major crops through traditional breeding have been hindered by low or no recombination within the chromosomal region governing this trait (the apospory-specific genomic region or ASGR). The lack of recombination also has been a major obstacle to positional cloning of key genes. To further delineate and characterize the nonrecombinant ASGR, we have identified eight new ASGR-linked, AFLP-based molecular markers, only one of which showed recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones identified with the ASGR-linked AFLPs or previously mapped markers, when mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, showed almost complete macrosynteny between the two apomictic grasses throughout the ASGR, although with an inverted order. A BAC identified with the recombinant AFLP marker mapped most proximal to the centromere of the ASGR-carrier chromosome in P. squamulatum but was not located on the ASGR-carrier chromosome in C. ciliaris. Exceptional regions where synteny was disrupted probably are nonessential for expression of the aposporous trait. The ASGR appears to be maintained as a haplotype even though its position in the genome can be variable. PMID:16547108

  5. Faecal Microbial Flora of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia sericea or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Aganga, A. A.; Omphile, U. J.; Sebolai, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen female and ten castrated yearling Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into five groups of five goats of which 3 were females and 2 were males. The objectives of the project was to determine effects of T. serecia and B. albitrunca at two levels on faecal egg worm count, bacterial count and bacterial identification. All the goats were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while Medicago sativa (0% tannin content) was fed to the control group as a supplemen...

  6. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN e hídrico (BH, de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2 e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9. De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia e Biloela (3,9g/dia, e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia. Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal.The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB and water balances (WB of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred Santa Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2 and % of body weight (2.9. In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day and Biloela (3.9g/day and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day. All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

  7. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel / Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.A., Souza; T.V., Voltolini; G.G.L., Araújo; L.G.R., Pereira; S.A., Moraes; C., Mistura; K.V.J., Belem; G.M.B., Moreno.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN) e hídrico (BH), de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. [...] Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2) e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9). De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia) e Biloela (3,9g/dia), e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia) e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia). Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal. Abstract in english The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB) and water balances (WB) of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred San [...] ta Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2) and % of body weight (2.9). In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day) and Biloela (3.9g/day) and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day) and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day). All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela) presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

  8. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS) AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY)

    OpenAIRE

    Singariya P.; Kumar P.; Mourya K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed) of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358) and (root, stem, leaf and flower) of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668) and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene) using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens) and ...

  9. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

  10. Hyperspectral band depth analysis for a better estimation of grass biomass (Cenchrus ciliaris) measured under controlled laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mutanga, O.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of grass quantity is important for providing information about the productivity and functioning of rangelands. Existing indices used to estimate grass quantity, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are of limited value due to the saturation problem, especially in dense vegetation with 100% leaf area cover. Therefore, there is need to explore new techniques to resolve the saturation problem. In this study we tested the utility of band depth analysis to estimate ...

  11. Nutrient Balance of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Aganga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  12. Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman) Under Barani Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Farooq, M.; Rashid Saleem; Abdul Razzaq

    2003-01-01

    Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/de...

  13. Tizón foliar del pasto buffel: su presencia en Tamaulipas, México / Buffelgrass leaf blight: its precence in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Díaz Franco; Asunción, Méndez Rodríguez; Rubén, Garza Cedillo.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región semiárida del norte de Tamaulipas México, el pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), var. Común, predomina en un área de 260 000 ha y existen otras 302 000 con potencial para ser aprovechadas con este pasto. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución, severidad de ataque y [...] pérdidas en la producción que ocasiona el tizón foliar (Pyricularia grisea) sobre el pasto buffel. Se realizaron muestreos en praderas del norte de Tamaulipas del 13 al 18 de octubre en 15 sitios en 2002 y 12 en 2003. En cada sitio se determinó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque del tizón foliar. La pérdida de rendimiento se estimó en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2004 y otoño-invierno de 2005, mediante la comparación de plantas con y sin la protección de fungicidas. Además, se evaluó la reacción al tizón foliar en 16 cultivares de buffel introducidos. La presencia del tizón se observó en todos los sitios muestreados con una severidad promedio de 5.3 en una escala de 0-9. La mayor severidad de ataque se asoció a plantas estresadas por sequía o condiciones edáficas adversas, mientras que lamenor se observó en sitios que presentaron condiciones favorables para el desarrollo de la planta o cuando el pasto se encontró en la etapa de prefloración. La mayor severidad de Pyricularia grisea se observó en el ciclo primavera-verano (2004), comparado con el ciclo otoño-invierno (2005), debido a las condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa favorable s para el patógeno. Las pérdidas en el ciclo primavera-verano fueron de 11% en clorofila, 20-26% en biomasa y 13% en proteína; por el contrario, no se registraron pérdidas significativas en otoño-invierno. Los 16 cultivares introducidos mostraron resistencia a Pyricularia grisea. Los resultados indicaron que el tizón del pasto buffel es una enfermedad epifítica en la var. Común, en Tamaulipas, con mayor prevalencia en el ciclo primavera-verano y resistencia en cultivares introducidos. Abstract in english In the semiarid region of northern Tamaulipas, Mexico, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) var, Comun predominate in 260 000 ha and there are 360 000 additional suitable to be sown with this grass. The objective of this study was to determinate the distribution, severity and production loss caused by [...] the leaf blight (Piricularia grisea) on buffelgrass. Samples were taken from northern Tamaulipas range lands at 15 sites on 2002 and 12 sites on 2003. The incidence and severity of leaf blight was registered for every site with three replications from 8/13 to 8/18 for both years. Yield loss was determinate at spring-summer season 2004 and fall-winter 2005 by means of comparison between fungicide protected and unprotected plants. The reaction of buffelgrass to foliar blight was determinated on 16 introduced cultivars. Leaf blight presence was detected at all sites with an average severity of 5.3 in a scale from 0 to 9 .The highest attack severity was observed on plants stressed by drought or adverse edafic conditions; while the lower severity was observed on sites where favorable conditions occurred or when the grass was at the preflowering stage. At the spring-summer 2004 season losses were 11% in chlorophyll content, 20-26% in biomass and 13% in protein content; on the contrary, no significant reduction of these parameters was observed at the fall-winter season 2005. The 16 introduced cultivars showed resistance to Pyricularia gricea. Results demonstrated that buffelgrass leaf blight is an epidemic disease in the Comun var., in Tamaulipas, with high prevalence at the spring-summer season and there is resistance to the disease in introduced cultivars.

  14. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ DANTAS NETO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1 ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta.The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

  15. Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel / Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ, DANTAS NETO; FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E, SILVA; DERMEVAL ARAÚJO, FURTADO; JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE, MATOS.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pel [...] o sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simula [...] ted by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

  16. Avaliação de fenos de capim-buffel colhido em diferentes alturas de corte / Evaluation of buffelgrass hay harvested at different cutting heights

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Martins Araujo, Pinho; Edson Mauro, Santos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de, Carvalho; Fleming Sena, Campos; Gildenia Araujo, Pereira; Robervânia Maria, Correia.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o rendimento forrageiro, composição bromatológica e recuperação de matéria seca do feno de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), colhido em diferentes alturas de corte. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental Pendência, da Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da [...] Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA), situada no Município de Soledade-PB. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro alturas de corte (30; 40; 50 e 60cm) e cinco repetições. O rendimento forrageiro foi influenciado pela altura de colheita, com aumento linear alcançando produção de matéria seca de 7206,78kg/ha a 60cm de altura. Observou-se efeito de altura de colheita para os conteúdos de lâmina, colmo e relação lâmina:colmo na matéria seca, em que os valores da relação lâmina:colmo diminuíram com o aumento da altura de colheita, obtendo valores de 0,87 e 0,48 quando colhidos aos 30 e 60cm de altura, respectivamente. Obteve-se efeito quadrático de altura de colheita apenas para o teor de fibra em detergente neutro, com teores variando de 71,82 a 77,08% na matéria seca. Os valores médios de matéria seca do feno variaram entre 82,44 e 84,48%. A recuperação de matéria seca durante a desidratação diminuiu em função das alturas de colheita, apresentando comportamento linear com menor média observada no capim colhido a 60cm de altura (76,58%). A ausência de variação nos constituintes bromatológicos e nas perdas de matéria seca final e as maiores produções de biomassa nas maiores alturas de colheita permite concluir que o capim-buffel seja colhido nas alturas de colheita que possibilite maior produção. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the forage yield, chemical composition and dry matter recovery of buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), at different cutting heights. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Pendência of Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A (EMEPA) [...] , located in city of Soledade-PB. A randomized complete block design was used, with four cutting heights (30; 40; 50 and 60cm) with five replicates. The forage yield had effect with a linear increase in values achieving dry matter yield 7206.78kg/ha for 60cm height. There was harvesting height effect for leaf, stem and leaf:stem ratio in dry matter, wherein the values of leaf:stem ratio decreased with increasing harvesting height, getting values of 0.87 to 0.48 when harvested at 30 and 60cm height, respectively. Quadratic effect was observed in harvesting height only to the neutral detergent fiber, with contents ranging from 71.82 to 77.08% in dry matter. The average values of dry matter of hay were between 82.44 and 84.48%. The dry matter recovery in dehydration decreased in function of harvesting heights, showing linear behavior, with the smallest average observed for the grass to 60cm (76.58%). The absence of variation in the bromatological constituents and dry matter final losses and higher biomass production in the highest cutting harvest may conclude that buffel grass is to be harvested in the cutting height that enable greater production.

  17. Ecological Study of Two Grasses: Cenchrus ciliaris and Digitaria commutate Endangered Autochthonous of the Dry Zone of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Imen Dhib; Abdessalem Abdessamad; Mustapha Ksontini; Ali Ferchichi

    2014-01-01

    The Saharian ecosystems present an important intensity of rising sensitization to: Erosion, and desertification whose impacts are irreversible. On the one hand, the weakness of the yield and the poverty of soil lead to a limited biodiversity. In addition to these difficulties, hydra is the main cause of the rarification of certain pastoral species such as Cenchrus ciliaris and Digitaria commutata. The ecological study underlines a distribution of these species which are...

  18. Anti-tick effects of Melinis minutiflora and Andropogon gayanus grasses on plots experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Ruvalcaba, Manuel; Preciado-De-La Torre, Francisco; Cruz-Vazquez, Carlos; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino

    2004-01-01

    Our objective in this trial was to investigate the anti-tick effects of molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora) and gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) against Boophilus microplus, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a control. During a 3-year-period fieldwork was carried out in the tropical, subhumid climate at Progreso, Municipality of Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico. Experimental plots were established for three treatments with six replicates under a random factorial design in order to evaluate each of the four seasons. Additional work was developed for two more consecutive autumn seasons to evaluate the anti-tick effects of these grasses. Once the plots were established they were infested with 5000 B. microplus larvae and sampled by dragging flannel cloths. The anti-tick effects were measured by counting the number of larvae recovered from each of the experimental plots. Both grasses, M. minutiflora and A. gayanus, demonstrated anti-tick effects; however, M. minutiflora grass had the greatest anti-tick effects through the seasons studied and in the three consecutive autumns evaluated. PMID:15176734

  19. Faecal Microbial Flora of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia sericea or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Aganga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen female and ten castrated yearling Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into five groups of five goats of which 3 were females and 2 were males. The objectives of the project was to determine effects of T. serecia and B. albitrunca at two levels on faecal egg worm count, bacterial count and bacterial identification. All the goats were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris as a basal diet, while Medicago sativa (0% tannin content was fed to the control group as a supplements. The other four groups were fed low B. albitrunca (0.267% tannin in diet, high B. albitrunca (0.497% tannin in diet, Low T. serecia (0.342% tannin in diet and high T. serecia (0.497% tannin in diet as a supplement. The basal diet comprised of 60% of the ration, while Lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Wheat bran was provided at 250 g to provide energy for the goats. Water was provided daily. The study lasted for 60 days and faecal sampling was done fortnightly from the rectum of the goats in the morning. The faecal samples which were collected fortnightly from rectum of the goats were used for evaluation of egg worm count and bacterial identification. After a week of feeding T. sericea there was significant reduction on egg worm count (p<0.05, while on other treatments there were no significant differences in all faecal sampling dates (p>0.05.

  20. Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman Under Barani Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/determined at the end of spring season. The different growing season (spring summer is lacking. Estimation of shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant in two growing different seasons is essential in grazing management studies. At the beginnings of spring season reserve carbohydrates are used for the production of new shoots. The shoot biomass at the end of spring season is generally less compared to the end of summer season. The shoot and root biomass estimating of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of two different growing season is required to devise the grazing management programme. This study is proposed to quantify the shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of spring and summer growing seasons.

  1. Identification of species-specific RAPD markers in genus Cenchrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amaresh; Dubey, Archana

    2010-07-01

    Cenchrus is an important component of major grass cover of world. Similar to the other major tropical grasses most of the species in genus Cenchrus are also apomictic in nature hence correct and precise identification of accessions and species are problematic and dubious. In the present study 187 decamer oligonucleotide primers were tested for PCR-based DNA amplification of six prominent species of genus Cenchrus. Of these, 32 potential repetitive and polymorphic primers were tested for identification of species-specific markers for C. ciliaris, C. setigerus, C. pennisetiformis, C. prieurri, C. biflorus and C. myosuroides. These primers yielded 51 unique RAPD markers either specific to a species (37) or shared by two or more species (14). Maximum markers were shared between C. ciliaris and C. setigerus confirming theirmore closeness to each other Primers like OPF09, OPF11, OPR15, OPAJ11, OPQ10 and OPAK20 generated strong intense bands can be used on priority in identifying the species from their natural habitat for the development of species-specific core germplasm. Due to apomictic nature this is the prime method of developing cultivars, as morphological characters are largely unable to distinguish them. The level of variation observed clearly suggest RAPD as an appropriate marker for genetic studies and in identifying the lines with species-specific markers for Cenchrus germplasm management activity and also maintaining identity and purity for proprietary reasons. PMID:21186710

  2. / Animal bait effect on the recovery of Boophilus microplus larvae from experimentally infested grass in Morelos, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL, FERNÁNDEZ-RUVALCABA; JESUS F, PRECIADO-DE LA TORRE; GLORIA, CORDOBA-JUAREZ; ZEFERINO, GARCÍA-VAZQUEZ; RODRIGO, ROSARIO-CRUZ; JORGE, SALTIJERAL-OAXACA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para cuantificar la influencia de la presencia animal en la recuperación de larvas de pastos infestados experimentalmente, se realizó un ensayo en otoño 1999 e invierno 1999-2000. Para ello se compararon 4 formas de muestreo y 3 tipos de pastos. No hubo diferencias en la recuperación de larvas entre [...] las 4 formas, pero si, entre los tipos de pastos (p Abstract in english To quantify the influence of the animal presence on the percentage of Boophilus microplus larvae recovery from plots experimentally infested with this tick, it was carried out a trial in Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico, during autumn 1999 and winter 1999-2000. For this purpose there were compared four sam [...] pling methods: human walking with chaps, bovine dressed walking, double walking flagging and double walking with baited flagging. The comparison was made on tree grasses: Andropogun gayanus(gamba), Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel) and Melinis minutiflora (molasses). It was observed the same recovery efficiency of B. microplus larvae in the four sampling methods studied in the two seasons. There were no statistical differences, although, there were differences (P

  3. Evaluation of Tropical Grasses for Forage Yield and Crude Protein Content in the Pothwar Plateau of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Yield and forage quality was estimated for buffel grass, blue panic grass, love grass, napier grass and mott grass was estimated. Mott grass out-yielded all other grasses in terms of plant height (248 cm, number of tillers per plant (96, dry matter yield (22 t ha -1 while love grass was least productive with plant height of 121 cm, dry matter yield of 2.9 t ha -1 and crude protein of 75.3 kgha -1. Mott grass may be regarded as the best choice for high forage yield and crude protein content in the Pothwar plateau conditions.

  4. Nutritional Evaluation of Major Range Grasses from Cholistan Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Yaqoob; Rashid Ahmad Khan; Muhammad Rafay; , Munir Ahmad2

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritional status of ten grass species from Cholistan desert. The evaluated species were: Aeluropus lagopoides, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Lasiurus scindicus, Ochthochloa compressa, Panicum antidotale, Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum divisum, Sporobolus iocladus and Stipagrostis plumosa. Proximate analysis showed that the investigated grasses have deficient levels of crude protein and ether extract to meet the requirement...

  5. NUTRIENT ACQUISITION IN DIFFERENTIALLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD ASHRAF; MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ; NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM

    2008-01-01

    The water famine is one of the major factors for converting huge cultivated land into deserts all over the world. Likewise, in Pakistan, Salt Range due to low rainfall is also converting into uncultivable area. In the present study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to assess the extent of water stress toleranc in terms of mineral nutrient status. Two populations of each of two grass species i.e., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris ...

  6. EL ZACATE BUFFEL COMO UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA INCREMENTAR LA RENTABILIDAD DE LOS RANCHOS EN LA ZONA SERRANA DE SONORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ibarra Flores

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis económico comparativo para evaluar la rentabilidad actual en producción de carne de un rancho con agostaderos deteriorados y poco productivos en la zona serrana de Sonora, comparado con dos opciones que incluyen la siembra del zacate buffel [Cenchrus ciliaris (L. Link], como una alternativa para incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne. Se consideraron tres ranchos de 1,000 ha, similares en cuanto a manejo de ganado e índices reproductivos, uno de los cuales trabaja de acuerdo a su capacidad actual de producción, sin planes de mejoras a futuro. En las otras dos opciones se mejora el agostadero anualmente mediante la intersiembra de 200 ha de zacate buffel, con la variante que el primero trabaja con recursos propios y el segundo con financiamiento externo y apoyo gubernamental. Se utilizó un programa financiero con una proyección a 14 años para determinar la rentabilidad en los diversos escenarios. En todos los casos se calcularon costos reales, incluyendo los costos fijos y los de manejo, medicinas, suplementación, inversión para la siembra y compra de animales; así como las ganancias generadas por venta de crías y desechos. Los resultados muestran que el rancho deteriorado presenta una capacidad de mantenimiento constante anual de 40 Unidades Animal (U.A., mientras que el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios y financiamiento externo alcanzan una capacidad de mantenimiento máxima anual de 333 U.A. a partir del sexto año, respectivamente. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en el rancho con pastizal deteriorado varió de $ 10.85 a 22.19 por hectárea y se mantuvo relativamente estable durante los catorce años proyectados. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con recursos propios fue negativa durante los primeros cinco años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el onceavo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. La rentabilidad en el rancho rehabilitado con financiamiento fue negativa durante los primeros seis años, hasta que se pagó la inversión de la siembra y del ganado y fue hasta el décimo año cuando alcanzó el punto de estabilización. El rendimiento económico promedio anual en los ranchos rehabilitados al punto de estabilidad fluctuó de $ 435.09 a 449.03 por hectárea y resultó 25.7 veces superior en comparación con el rancho deteriorado sin rehabilitación. Se concluye que los productores en ranchos con pastizales en condición pobre deben de incrementar la capacidad de producción de forraje y carne para hacer la actividad ganadera más rentable. El mejoramiento de agostaderos mediante la siembra de zacate buffel es una buena alternativa para rehabilitar agostaderos deteriorados en ranchos con poca capacidad de producción en la Sierra de Sonora. Los apoyos externos vía financiamiento o programas de gobierno juegan un papel muy importante en la aplicación de prácticas de rehabilitación de agostaderos y pudiera ser la única opción para la mayoría de los productores.

  7. Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.; Nyangito, M. M.; Mwangombe, A. W.; Ekaya, W. N.; Clavel, D.; Francis, J.; Von Kaufmann, R.; Verhagen, J.; Muiri, W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall ...

  8. Variability among germplasm collections for high biomass traits in Cenchrus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalamani A, Ameena Premnath And G. Vijayakumar

    2011-01-01

    Sixty germplasm accessions of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were collected from different habitats in and aroundCoimbatore and Erode districts and planted in field trials. Based on initial morphological evaluation, four accessions fromCenchrus setigerus and three accessions from Cenchrus ciliaris showed better biomass. Among the collected germplasmaccessions, one among the Cenchrus setigerus accessions showed prostrate behaviour which would be of great use in thegreening of degrade...

  9. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

  10. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo F, Gutiérrez; Osvaldo, Morrone.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómic [...] a del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación) permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth. Abstract in english Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of specie [...] s of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation). To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

  11. Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection / Obtención de nuevo germoplasma en Cenchrus ciliaris L. a través de mutaciones inducidas y selección in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, López Colomba; A, Prina; S, Griffa; AN, Ribotta; E, Carloni; E, Tommasino; C, Luna; E, Biderbost; K, Grunberg.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris L., una forrajera subtropical de amplia distribución en la zona noroeste de Argentina, es un especie tetraploide (4x = 36) y apomíctica obligada. Una forma de obtener nuevo germoplasma es mediante mutaciones inducidas. En este trabajo, mutaciones físicas y químicas se combinaron co [...] n técnicas de selección in vitro a fin de obtener nuevo germoplama, con énfasis en tolerancia a salinidad y sequía. Semillas maduras de Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela fueron tratadas con rayos X (400 Gray) y con una solución de etil metano sulfonato (5,5 mM EMS durante 24 h). Para realizar la selección in vitro, las plántulas que germinaron 7 días después de los tratamientos mutagénicos fueron transferidas a tubos que contenían medio basal Murashige y Skoog, suplementado con NaCl o manitol para simular condiciones de salinidad y sequía, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron cincuenta y cuatro plantas selectas que toleraron 200 mM NaCl y 100 mM de manitol. Ambos agentes mutagénicos exhibieron similares porcentajes de variación genética medida a través de RAPDs. Este trabajo demostró que es posible generar variabilidad genética en Cenchrus ciliaris L. mediante el uso de agentes mutagénicos y selección in vitro. Abstract in english Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedu [...] res seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays treatments, germinated seeds were transferred to tubes containing Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with NaCl or mannitol to simulate salinity and drought conditions, respectively. Fifty-four selected plants were isolated which tolerated 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM mannitol. Both mutagenic agents exhibited similar percentages of induced genetic variation measured through RAPD polymorphisms. This work demonstrated that genetic variability can be generated in Cenchrus ciliaris L. using mutagenic agents and in vitro selection.

  12. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

  13. Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

  14. NUTRIENT ACQUISITION IN DIFFERENTIALLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L. PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The water famine is one of the major factors for converting huge cultivated land into deserts all over the world. Likewise, in Pakistan, Salt Range due to low rainfall is also converting into uncultivable area. In the present study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to assess the extent of water stress toleranc in terms of mineral nutrient status. Two populations of each of two grass species i.e., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. were used in this experiment. One population of each of two grass species was collected from drought-hit area ‘‘Salt Range’’ and other from often irrigated Faisalabad. Each population of these of grass species were subjected to three different levels of water stress (control, 75% and 50% of field capacity. Imposition of water stress markedly decreased the shoot fresh and dry biomasses, shoot, P, N and Ca2+. However, populations of both grasses collected from the Salt Range were better in growth than Faisalabad region. Each population of both grasses collected from Salt Range accumulated high K+, Ca2+, N and P concentrations. The higher growth of the Salt Range populations of both grass species could be related to the greater accumulation of K+, N, and Ca2+ in the shoots as compared with the populations from Faisalabad.

  15. Soil feedback of exotic savanna grass relates to pathogen absence and mycorrhizal selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Putten, W.H., van der; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Brinkman, E.P.; Doodeman, G.T.A.; Kraaij, R.M., van der; Kamp, A.F.D.; Menting, F.B.J.; Van Veenendaal, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Enemy release of exotic plants from soil pathogens has been tested by examining plant¿soil feedback effects in repetitive growth cycles. However, positive soil feedback may also be due to enhanced benefit from the local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Few studies actually have tested pathogen effects, and none of them did so in arid savannas. In the Kalahari savanna in Botswana, we compared the soil feedback of the exotic grass Cenchrus biflorus with that of two dominant native grasses, ...

  16. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Kharrat-Souissi; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Fatima Pustahija; Mohamed Chaieb

    2012-01-01

    The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaplo...

  17. Water use of perennial summer grasses in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Five subtropical perennial grass species, Cenchrus ciliaris, a Cynodon hybrid, Digitaria eriantha subsp. eriantha, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum clandestinum, were subjected to four levels of water availability in a small plot trial under a rainshelter during the summer growing seasons of 1996/97 and 1997/98. This work was carried out on the Hatfield Experimental Farm of the University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. The average yields for the tufted species (C. ciliaris...

  18. Ruminal digestion and chemical composition of new genotypes of buffelgrass (cenchrus ciliaris l.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Juan, García Dessommes; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Rahim, Foroughbackhch P.; Rocío, Morales Rodríguez; Graciela, García Díaz.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia e compara a produção de matéria seca (MST), conteúdo nutricional e capacidade de degradação efetiva da matéria seca (DEMS), proteína crua (DEPC) e parede celular (DEFDN) de cinco novas líneas e um híbrido de pasto buffel no nordeste do México. O consumo potencial de minerais con [...] tidos nos novos genótipos por bovinos também foi estimado. Todos os pastos se estabeleceram sob condições de temporal usando um desenho completamente ao azar com três repetições. A colheita manual de plantas foi levada adiante em 14 nov., 2000, em Nuevo León, México. A produção de MST não foi significativamente diferente entre pastos. No entanto, a proteína crua, parede celular e seus componentes (celulosa, hemi-celulosa e lignina) foram significativamente diferentes entre os pastos avaliados. Assim mesmo, DEMS, DEPC e DEFDN foram significativamente diferentes entre pastos. A híbrida "Nozes" teve os valores mais altos para degrabilidade, enquanto que a línea PI 2 teve os valores mais baixos. Ao parecer o alto conteúdo de lignina nos novos genótipos pode ter influído na baixa degradação dos nutrientes no rúmen dos borregos. Só K, Fe e Co, em todos os pastos, tiveram concentrações suficientes para satisfazer os requerimentos de gado de carne. Os resultados de produção de matéria seca e dinâmica nutricional sugerem que as novas líneas PI 1 e PI 4 podem ser consideradas como bons substitutos do híbrido Nozes para ruminantes em pastoreio no nordeste do México. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo evalúa y compara la producción de materia seca (MST), el contenido nutrimental y degradabilidad efectiva de la materia seca (DEMS), proteína cruda (DEPC) y pared celular (DEFDN) de cinco nuevas líneas y un híbrido de pasto buffel en el noreste de México. El consumo potencial de minerale [...] s contenidos en los nuevos genotipos por bovinos también fue estimado. Todos los pastos se establecieron bajo condiciones de temporal usando un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. La colecta manual de plantas fue llevada a cabo el 14 nov., 2000, en Nuevo León, México. La producción de MST no fue significativamente diferente entre zacates. Sin embargo, la proteína cruda, pared celular y sus componentes (celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina) fueron significativamente diferentes entre los pastos evaluados. Asimismo, DEMS, DEPC y DEFDN fueron significativamente diferentes entre pastos. El híbrido Nueces tuvo los valores más altos para degrabilidad, mientras la línea PI 2 tuvo los valores más bajos. Al parecer el alto contenido de lignina en los nuevos genotipos pudo haber influido en la baja degradación de los nutrientes en el rumen de los borregos. Solo K, Fe y Co, en todos los zacates, tuvieron concentraciones suficientes para satisfacer los requerimientos de ganado de carne. Los resultados de producción de materia seca y dinámica nutricional sugieren que las nuevas líneas PI 1 y PI 4 pueden ser consideradas como buenos substitutos del híbrido Nueces para rumiantes en pastoreo en el noreste de México. Abstract in english This study evaluates and compares the dry matter production (TDM), chemical composition and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM), crude protein (EDCP) and neutral detergent fiber (EDNDF) of the Nueces hybrid and five new genotypes of buffelgrass growing in Northeastern Mexico. Potential inta [...] ke of minerals by cattle consuming the new genotypes was also estimated. All grasses were established in a completely randomized design with three replicates in a rain fed experiment. Plants were hand harvested on Nov. 14, 2000 at Nuevo Leon, Mexico. TDM was not significantly different among genotypes. Crude protein content and cell wall and its components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were significantly different among grasses. Also, EDDM, EDCP, and EDNDF were significantly different among the buffelgrass genotypes. The Nueces hybrid had the highest degradability values; in contrast, PI 2 had the lowest values. It seems that hig

  19. Relationship between seed yield and its component characters in Cenchrus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    S Griffa, M. Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Cenchrus setigerus, C. sp., eleven obligate apomictic cultivars and a sexual line of Cenchrus ciliaris L. were studied to determinethe relationship between seed production and its component characters, through principal component analysis, path correlationanalysis and analysis of variance. A completely randomized field design was used. Ten vegetative and reproductivemorphological characters were measured. Seed production was influenced directly by panicle weight and indirectly by paniclelengt...

  20. Variability among germplasm collections for high biomass traits in Cenchrus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamani.A, Ameena Premnath and G. Vijayakumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty germplasm accessions of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were collected from different habitats in and aroundCoimbatore and Erode districts and planted in field trials. Based on initial morphological evaluation, four accessions fromCenchrus setigerus and three accessions from Cenchrus ciliaris showed better biomass. Among the collected germplasmaccessions, one among the Cenchrus setigerus accessions showed prostrate behaviour which would be of great use in thegreening of degraded lands where with few plants entire area can be covered and utilized for grazing. With its high soil bindingcapacity due to its clustered root system, it will reduce soil erosion also. The germplasm accessions from Sulur and Kangeyamrecorded high single plant green fodder yield of 545g and 500 g respectively in single cut compared to the control CO1 (262.5g.Further evaluation is in progress. Variations among the accessions collected from different habitats will be useful to evolve bettergenotypes than CO-1.

  1. Relationship between seed yield and its component characters in Cenchrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Griffa*, M. Quiroga, A. Ribotta, E. López Colomba, E. Carloni, E. Tommasino, C. Luna and K. Grunber

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus setigerus, C. sp., eleven obligate apomictic cultivars and a sexual line of Cenchrus ciliaris L. were studied to determinethe relationship between seed production and its component characters, through principal component analysis, path correlationanalysis and analysis of variance. A completely randomized field design was used. Ten vegetative and reproductivemorphological characters were measured. Seed production was influenced directly by panicle weight and indirectly by paniclelength, 1000 seed weight, length and width of flag leaf lamina and length of flag leaf sheath. Panicle weight showed highheritability and variability among genotypes. Hence, panicle weight can be considered a selection criterion to obtain increasedseed production in Cenchrus. The cultivar Lucero INTA PEMAN exhibited the highest panicle weight and, therefore, greatestseed production, which makes it suitable for selection as parental cultivar to obtain new germplasm in Cenchrus with high seedyield.

  2. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  3. Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia / Levels of nitrates in a urea fertilized Kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) pasture on the high plains of Antioquia, Colombia / Niveles de nitrato en pasto Kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus (Hochst. ex Chiov.) Morrone) fertilizado con urea en el antiplano de Antioquia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jhon Didier, Ruiz Buitrago; David, Villar Argaiz; Héctor Jairo, Correa; Manuela, Roldán; Juan Camilo, Ríos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A adubação é um dos fatores que contribuem na acumulação de nitratos da pastagem kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) do trópico. Este estudo foi realizado entre dezembro de 2012 e junho de 2013 na fazenda Paysandu da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia, localizada no corregimento Santa Elena da cida [...] de de Medellín, Antioquia. Avaliou-se a influência da adubação com nitrogênio sobre a produção e as concentrações de nitratos. O desenho experimental foi de blocos de 4 x 4 com quatro repetições nas parcelas da monocultura de pastagem kikuyo. Os tratamentos foram quatro níveis de nitrogênio aplicado como grânulos de uréia sobre a superfície (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg/ha por safra). As amostras da pastagem completa (folhas e talhos) coletaram-se aos 42 dias após adubação, com o intuito de simular a exposição ao pastoreio com gado. A biomassa mediou-se com a produção de matéria seca por hectare; os nitratos mediram-se por cromatografia iônica, expressada em partes por milhão (ppm) sobre o conteúdo de matéria seca. Não houve diferença significativa na produção de biomassa entre as diferentes taxas de aplicação de uréia; embora, todas as parcelas experimentais produziram maior biomassa comparada com as parcelas não tratadas (media 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in spanish Resumen La fertilización es uno de los factores que contribuye a la acumulación de nitratos en el pasto kikuyo (Cenchrus clandestinus) en el trópico. Este estudio, realizado entre diciembre de 2012 y junio de 2013 en la Hacienda Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional, ubicada en Santa Elena-Medellín (A [...] ntioquia), evaluó la influencia de la fertilización con nitrógeno sobre la producción y las concentraciones de nitratos. El diseño experimental fue en bloques de 4 x 4 con cuatro repeticiones de parcelas monocultivo de pasto kikuyo. Los tratamientos fueron cuatro niveles de nitrógeno aplicado como gránulos de urea sobre la superficie (0, 50, 100 y 200 kg/ha por corte). Las muestras de pasto completo (hojas y tallos) se colectaron a los 42 días posfertilización, con el fin de simular la exposición al pastoreo con ganado. La biomasa se midió como la producción de materia seca por hectárea; los nitratos se midieron por cromatografía iónica, expresada en partes por millón (ppm) sobre el contenido de materia seca. No hubo diferencia significativa en la producción de biomasa entre las diferentes tasas de aplicación de urea; sin embargo todas las parcelas tratadas produjeron más biomasa comparadas con las parcelas no tratadas (promedio 2.14 vs 1.12 ton/ha, p Abstract in english Abstract Fertilization is one of the factors that can contribute to build-up of nitrates in kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus) pastures of the tropics. Field studies to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrate concentrations were conducted between December 2012 and June 2013 [...] at the Agricultural Station of the National University at Santa Elena (Antioquia). The experimental design was a 4 x 4 block design with four replications in a monoculture paddock of kikuyu grass. Treatments were four levels of nitrogen applied as topdressing urea granules (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg/ha per plot). Whole grass samples (blades and stems) were collected at 42 days post-fertilization to mimic cattle grazing exposure. Biomass was estimated as dry matter yield per hectare and nitrates were measured by ion chromatography and expressed as parts per million (ppm) on dry matter content. No significant difference in biomass was observed between urea application rates; however, all treated plots produced more biomass than non-treated plots (mean 2.14 vs 1.12 Tons/ha, p

  4. Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2013-07-01

    Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris. PMID:23553451

  5. Short Communication: An apospory-specific genomic region is conserved between Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche; Cong; Chen; Hanna; Gustine; Sherwood; Ozias-Akins

    1999-07-01

    Twelve molecular markers linked to pseudogamous apospory, a form of gametophytic apomixis, were previously isolated from Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen. No recombination between these markers was found in a segregating population of 397 individuals (Ozias-Akins et al. 1998, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 5127-5132). The objective of the present study was to test if these markers were also linked to the aposporous mode of reproduction in two small segregating populations of Cenchrus ciliaris (= Pennisetum ciliare (L.)Link), another apomictic grass species. Among 12 markers (sequence characterized amplified regions, SCARs), six were scored as dominant markers between aposporous and sexual C. ciliaris genotypes (presence/absence, respectively). Five were always linked to apospory and one showed a low level of recombination in 84 progenies. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were observed between sexual and apomictic phenotypes for three of the six remaining SCARs from P. squamulatum when used as probes. No recombination was observed in the F1 progenies. Preliminary data from megabase DNA analysis and sequencing in both species indicate that an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) is highly conserved between the two species. Although C. ciliaris has a smaller genome size to P. squamulatum, a higher copy number for markers linked to apospory found in the former may impair the progress of positional cloning of gene(s) for apomixis in this species. PMID:10476067

  6. Aboveground Biomass Production of Cenchrus ciliaris in Tunisian Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idi Abdelkader

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish a non destructive method for estimating the aboveground biomass of a plant species in the Tunisian arid area. We attempted to establish some models that could be used to predict the species biomass production. Field experiments were carried out on a Poaceae of a high range value Cenchrus ciliaris. The allometric relationships between the plant volume and aerial biomass were studied in autumn 2005 and spring 2006 seasons in southern Tunisia. Linear and nonlinear regressions were tested to establish the best correlations between individual aboveground biomass and plant volume parameters. Measured parameters were the plant height (H and canopy diameters. Firstly, a model of volume (canopy elliptical cylinder was tested as a predictor of plant biomass using nonlinear regression. Secondly, It was tested various relationships between the plant biomass and the mean canopy diameter (as the average of the longest canopy diameters maintained perpendicular to each other. Correlations between the aerial biomass production of individuals and their volumes produced a relatively high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.68. Also, correlations between the mean canopy diameter and the biomass production of individuals produced the best significant relationships with the highest R2. The use of the mean canopy diameter seems to be more practical for the plant biomass prediction.

  7. Biocontrol Ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Different Growth Stages of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMAD TAUFIK FAUZI

    2009-01-01

    A research was conducted to investigate the biological control ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola infected to parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) at different stages of growth in a glasshouse. The study also investigated the combined effect of the infection and the competitor plant, i.e. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), a pasture species usually found in the weed habitat in Central Queensland. The 2 x 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a completely randomized des...

  8. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) in pots Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) en macetas

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, A.; Medrano, C.; Del Villar, A.; Paz, V.; Pa?ez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass...

  9. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required. PMID:21506487

  10. Grass allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people are allergic to pollens from grass and weeds. Such allergies usually occur in the late spring and summer. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If ...

  11. Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladston Rafael de Arruda Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibras em detergente neutro (FDN e ácido (FDA, material mineral (MM, carboidratos totais (CHOT e não-fibrosos (CNF, respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, respectivamente.The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determination. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth., ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, ashes (ASH, total carbohydrates (TCH and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC, respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

  12. Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

  13. Aboveground Biomass Production of Cenchrus ciliaris in Tunisian Arid Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Idi Abdelkader; Ali Ferchichi; Mohamed Chaieb

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to establish a non destructive method for estimating the aboveground biomass of a plant species in the Tunisian arid area. We attempted to establish some models that could be used to predict the species biomass production. Field experiments were carried out on a Poaceae of a high range value Cenchrus ciliaris. The allometric relationships between the plant volume and aerial biomass were studied in autumn 2005 and spring 2006 seasons in southern Tunisia. Li...

  14. Moringa oleifera leaf extract: An innovative priming tool for rangeland grasses

    OpenAIRE

    NOUMAN, Wasif; SIDDIQUI, Muhammad Tahir; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in amino acids, ascorbate, zeatin, minerals, and many other compounds known for their growth-promoting potential. This study was planned to explore the potential of MLE as a seed priming agent to increase the germination rate and plant vigor of 3 range grasses, i.e. Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale, and Echinochloa crusgalli. The priming strategies used were hydropriming, CaCl2, PEG-8000 (-1.1 M Pa), MLE (concentrate; 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40...

  15. Allelopathic Effect of Seed and Leaf Aqueous Extracts of Datura stramonium on Leaf Chlorophyll Content, Shoot and Root Elongation of Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemon Elisante

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was carried out to determine the allelopathic effects of Datura stramonium on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot elongation, fresh and dry weight of two wild plant species: Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii. Different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% from seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium were used to investigate the allelopathic effects of D. stramonium on growth of tested species. The total chlorophyll content of N. wightii was significantly reduced in all plants treated with both aqueous seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium. In C. ciliaris, the total chlorophyll content was also significantly reduced for those plants treated with aqueous seed extract and leaf extract from D. stramonium. Relative to the control treatments, there was greater reduction in root and shoot length which was observed in higher concentrations of aqueous seed and leaf extracts. Fresh and dry weight of tested species significantly decreased after being treated with both seed and leaf aqueous extracts of D. stramonium. It was found that the allelopathic effect of aqueous seed and leaf extracts from D. stramonium on tested species was concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effects on all tested species increased as the concentration of both extracts increased from 0% to 100%. This study concluded that aqueous seed and leaf extract of D. stramonium have allelopathic effects on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of grass (C. ciliaris and legume (N. wightii species.

  16. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Kharrat-Souissi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of C. ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S, displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level. For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes.

  17. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) in pots / Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) en macetas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Vera; C, Medrano; A, del Villar; V, Paz; A, Páez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimenta [...] l de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta), y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta), en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta), revelando diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very [...] Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (P

  18. Ecophysiology of the invader Pennisetum setaceum and three native grasses in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Agueda M. a.; Baruch, Zdravko; Palomo, Debora; Cruz-Trujillo, Gilberto; Jiménez, M. a. Soledad; Morales, Domingo

    2010-03-01

    Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass) is an aggressive invader in the arid and semi-arid habitats of the tropics and subtropics. In the last twenty years the spread of fountain grass in the Canary Islands has been very rapid. We compared its ecophysiological, architectural and reproductive traits with those of three native grasses ( Hyparrhenia hirta, Cenchrus ciliaris and Aristida adscensionis) in two habitats of Tenerife Island which differ in rainfall. The detection of traits that differ between native and invader grasses may provide information for the improved control and eradication of the latter contributing to protect the native plant diversity. P. setaceum and the native grasses differed in all measured traits and in their response to water availability which is more restricted in the southern site. Specific leaf area was lower in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. Although this reduces carbon assimilation per unit area, it also reduces transpiration, increasing water use efficiency and contributes to the maintenance of high relative water content. Leaf N in P. setaceum was lower than in the native grasses indicating higher nitrogen use efficiency. The activity of photosystem II was higher and lasted longer in P. setaceum than in the native grasses. The ecophysiological traits of P. setaceum support its large size, extensive canopy and shorter leaf senescence period. They confer considerable competitive advantage to the invader and partially explain its success in the Canary Islands. The differences between the invader and the native grasses were maintained in both sites revealing a good adaptation of P. setaceum to the low resource local habitats in the Canary Islands and confirms its large plasticity. The large invasive potential of P. setaceum, in concert with the projected global changes, forecast eventual risks for the conservation of the endemic flora and remaining native communities in the Canary Islands.

  19. Comparative Physical Mapping of the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in Two Apomictic Grasses: Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Akiyama, Yukio; Conner, Joann A.; Basu, Manojit; Gualtieri, Gustavo; Hanna, Wayne W.; Ozias-akins, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    In gametophytic apomicts of the aposporous type, each cell of the embryo sac is genetically identical to somatic cells of the ovule because they are products of mitosis, not of meiosis. The egg of the aposporous embryo sac follows parthenogenetic development into an embryo; therefore, uniform progeny result even from heterozygous plants, a trait that would be valuable for many crop species. Attempts to introgress apomixis from wild relatives into major crops through traditional breeding have ...

  20. Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae in pots Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae en macetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (PSe evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimental de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta, y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta, en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta, revelando diferencias significativas (P<0,01 entre ambos grupos poblacionales. El número de hojas fue relativamente mayor a baja densidad de plantas, y la floración se presentó en la cosecha de los 30 días. El valor del coeficiente reveló una limitada capacidad competitiva para la cosecha de los 15 días, mientras que para el segundo periodo de evaluación resultó una interacción más intensa. Se concluye que existe una fuerte competencia intraespecífica a medida que incrementa la densidad poblacional y la relación de los coeficientes (A1/Ao corroboran la presencia de esta interacción ecológica. Se recomienda continuar los estudios de competencia vegetal con otras especies de malezas de importancia agroecológica en la Planicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela.

  1. Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine / Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.A., Dan; L.G.M., Dan; A.L.L., Barroso; R.S., Oliveira JR.; D.G., Alonso; T.R., Finotti.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicaçõ [...] es em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1), combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos) por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas. Abstract in english Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. Thi [...] s work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 ), combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers). Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

  2. Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Dan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicações em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvimento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1, combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas.Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. This work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 , combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers. Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

  3. Wheat grass selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Wang (USDA; ARS)

    2006-09-25

    The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

  4. Biocontrol Ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Different Growth Stages of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD TAUFIK FAUZI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the biological control ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola infected to parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. at different stages of growth in a glasshouse. The study also investigated the combined effect of the infection and the competitor plant, i.e. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., a pasture species usually found in the weed habitat in Central Queensland. The 2 x 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates in each treatment. The parthenium weeds were planted with or without buffel grass. The plants were inoculated with P. abrupta var. partheniicola urediniospores either at the rosette, flowering or mature growth stage of development. As controls, an additional six non inoculated plants with and without buffel grass were planted. The results showed that P. abrupta var. partheniicola affected more on the younger plants than on the older ones. Its infection decreased the plant height. A higher reduction in plant above ground biomass was recorded because of the rust when the plants were inoculated at the rosette growth stage of development in the presence of competition. The impact of the rust was greatest on the ability of parthenium to produce seeds.

  5. An analysis of the temperature response curves of CO2 exchange in the leaves of two temperate and one tropical grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Edwards, D A; Charles-Edwards, J

    1970-06-01

    The temperature dependence of carbon dioxide exchange in two temperate grass species, Lolium perenne (S.23) and Lolium multiflorum (S.22), and one tropical grass species, Cenchrus ciliaris, have been examined. It has been shown that the decline in the net CO2 exchange rate above the optimum temperature is caused, in the case of C. ciliaris, by denaturation, and, in the case of L. perenne and L. multiforum by the greater response to temperature of respiration compared with photosynthesis.Activation energies have been obtained for both photosynthetic and respiratory systems. For both systems the values fall into discrete groups, and it is postulated that each group may be characteristic of a particular rate-limiting process. The distribution of values changes with changes in experimental conditions, there being marked differences in the distribution of values obtained for light-limited and CO2-limited photosynthesis. PMID:24496908

  6. ESTUDIOS EN GRAMÍNEAS (POACEAE) DE COLOMBIA: VEINTE NOVEDADES COROLÓGICAS / Studies on Colombian grasses (Poaceae): Twenty chorological novelties

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOHN ALEJANDRO, GARCÍA-ULLOA; CAMILO, LASTRA; CÉSAR, SALAS; MÓNICA, MEDINA MERCHÁN.

    2005-06-30

    Full Text Available Se dan a conocer veinte novedades para la flora de Colombia: Agrostis mertensii, Agrostis perennans, Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis subrepens, Agrostis tolucensis, Aristida schiedeana, Arundo donax, Bouteloua aristidoides, Bouteloua simplex, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cortaderia selloana, Cynodon dactylon, [...] Cynodon nlemfuensis, Heteropogon contortus, Microchloa kunthii, Paspalidium geminatum, Pharus parvifolius, Tragus berteronianus, Urochloa distachya y Zoysia matrella. Se presentan la distribución geográfica, las preferencias ecológicas, los nombres comunes, los usos y las afinidades morfológicas para cada una de las especies. Asimismo, se excluyen de la flora de Colombia las siguientes especies: Agrostis araucana (= Agrostis magellanica), Agrostis foliosa (= Agrostis pallens), Agrostis haenkeana (= Polypogon exasperatus) y Agrostis turrialbae. Abstract in english As result of recent studies of Colombian grasses, 20 new records of Poaceae are given: Agrostis mertensii, Agrostis perennans, Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis subrepens, Agrostis tolucensis, Aristida schiedeana, Arundo donax, Bouteloua aristidoides, Bouteloua simplex, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cortaderia se [...] lloana, Cynodon dactylon, Cynodon nlemfuensis, Heteropogon contortus, Microchloa kunthii, Paspalidium geminatum, Pharus parvifolius, Tragus berteronianus, Urochloa distachya, and Zoysia matrella. The geographical distribution, ecological preferences, vernacular names, uses, and the morphological relationships are presented under each species. Agrostis araucana (= Agrostis magellanica), Agrostis foliosa (= Agrostis pallens), Agrostis haenkeana (= Polypogon exasperatus), and Agrostis turrialbae are excluded from Colombian flora.

  7. Use of Grasses and Mixtures of Grasses for Energy Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    David Andert; Jan Frydrych; Ilona Gerndtová

    2012-01-01

    As levels of agricultural productivity increase, there is also an increase in land area not utilized for food production. This area can be used for growing energy crops, including grasses. When land is set aside for grassing, or when the potential of perennial grasses is not utilized due to reductions in cattle herds, there is also an increased amount of grass that can be utilized for energy purposes. Experiments were carried out on the principle of single-stage anaerobic digestion within the...

  8. Diversidad de las gramíneas de Durango, México / Diversity of the grasses from Durango, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda, Herrera Arrieta; Armando, Cortés Ortiz.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Durango, México, cuya posición geográfica se ubica en la región centro-norte del país, presenta una topografía rugosa y un clima y geología variables, lo que le confiere una riqueza florística relativamente alta en comparación con otras entidades de México. La presencia de gramíneas var [...] iadas en este estado le ha permitido ser productor de ganado de exportación durante el último siglo, Herrera (2001) reporta 97 géneros y 338 especies de gramíneas para Durango, que comparadas con otras entidades resulta ser tan sólo superada por cinco estados mexicanos: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca y Sinaloa por el número de especies (Dávila y col., 2006). En este trabajo se muestra la distribución de los taxa que se encuentran creciendo en respuesta a las condiciones climáticas del estado, así como otros grupos de especies interesantes por su condición para subsistir: 1) especies endémicas [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] y especies raras o escasas [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) especies adaptadas a suelos salinos, alcalinos o yesosos [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) especies introducidas para ser cultivadas y escapadas de cultivo [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Megathyrsus maximus]; 4) especies que requieren ambientes acuáticos y subacuáticos [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum]. Abstract in english Durango is a state located at the north-central part of Mexico, because of its geographical position it has a rugose topography, a variable climate and geology which confers to it a relatively high floristic richness compared to other Mexican states. The presence of varied grasses in this area has p [...] ermitted to it being a cattle production in the last century, Herrera (2001) reported 97 genera and 338 species of grasses from Durango, that compared with other entities results to be surpassed only for 5 Mexican states: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca and Sinaloa based on the number of species (Dávila y col., 2006). The distribution of grasses growing in response to the climatic conditions of the State is shown, as well as other species which are interesting because of the condition to subsist: 1) endemic species [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] and rare species [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) species adapted to saline, alcaline or gypsofile soils [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) introduced species to be cultivated and escaped from cultivars [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Urochloa máxima]; 4) species which are aquatic or subaquatic [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum].

  9. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Use of Grasses and Mixtures of Grasses for Energy Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As levels of agricultural productivity increase, there is also an increase in land area not utilized for food production. This area can be used for growing energy crops, including grasses. When land is set aside for grassing, or when the potential of perennial grasses is not utilized due to reductions in cattle herds, there is also an increased amount of grass that can be utilized for energy purposes. Experiments were carried out on the principle of single-stage anaerobic digestion within the mezophyle range. During the experiments, we measured the cumulative production of biogas and its composition. The processed grass was disintegrated by pressing and cutting. This adaptation of the material resulted in increased biogas production. The optimum proportion of grass dry matter is from 35 to 50 % in the total d.m. The results of the experiments proved the suitability of grass phytomass as a material for biogas production.

  11. Efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de tres gramíneas tropicales, en un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto / Effect of polycropping on the establishment of three tropical grasses, on a Vertisol soil of the Cauto Valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I, Gómez; J. L, Fernández; L. L, Estrada; Yuseika, Olivera; A, Botello.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia del policultivo en el establecimiento de gramíneas, en un suelo Vertisol, se sembraron tres gramíneas tropicales (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela y Chloris gayana cv. Callide) y cinco leguminosas (Vigna radiata, variedad frijol chino [...] ; y Vigna unguiculata, variedades: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 y IITA precoz) en sistemas de policultivo y monocultivo. El diseño fue de parcelas divididas, con cuatro réplicas. Las combinaciones de cultivos no afectaron el establecimiento de los pastos. Hubo interacción altamente significativa (p Abstract in english In order to evaluate the influence of polycropping on the establishment of grasses, on a Vertisol soil, three tropical grasses (Panicum maximum cv. Likoni, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela and Chloris gayana cv. Callide) and five legumes (Vigna radiata, variety mung bean; and Vigna unguiculata, varieti [...] es: Cubanita-666, Lina, INIFAT-93 and IITA precoz) were sown in polycrop and monocrop systems. The design was split plots, with four replications and 18 treatments. The crop combinations did not affect the pasture establishment. There was highly significant interaction (p

  12. Delineation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a single hemizygous chromosomal region associated with aposporous embryo sac formation in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Conner, Joann A.; Akiyama, Yukio; Hanna, Wayne W.; Ozias-akins, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    Apomixis is a means of asexual reproduction by which plants produce embryos without meiosis and fertilization; thus the embryo is of clonal, maternal origin. We previously reported molecular markers showing no recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, and the collective single-dose alleles defined an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm that the ASGR is a...

  13. Germinación de cuatro pastos bajo condiciones de estrés salino / Germination of four grasses under salt stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Ruiz; O, Terenti.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las forrajeras cultivadas son en Argentina el sustento fundamental de los sistemas ganaderos tradicionales. Actualmente, la implantación de pasturas en zonas cada vez más áridas es uno de los principales desafíos para la ganadería. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la germinación de cuatro esp [...] ecies forrajeras: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas y Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino. Se utilizaron soluciones de NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 y Manitol como soluto inerte, obteniéndose potenciales osmóticos (?o) de -0,5, -1, -1,5, -2,0 y -2,5 MPa. Las semillas se sembraron en cajas de Petri sobre papel de germinación, se regaron con 4 mL de solución y se incubaron a 25 °C. El diseño fue al azar con 4 repeticiones. Diariamente, durante 10 días, se contó el número de semillas germinadas y con los datos obtenidos se calculó el porcentaje, la velocidad de germinación (ERI) y el tiempo medio de germinación (MT). Los datos se analizaron con el software estadístico Infostat. A medida que se incrementó la concentración de la solución se observó que la germinación disminuyó en las cuatro especies. En general las sales de SO4-2 resultaron más perjudiciales para la germinación que las de Cl-. Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas resultó la especie más tolerante al estrés hídrico inducido con manitol, registrando porcentajes de germinación cercanos al 50% aún en ?o de -2,5 MPa. En contraste, Panicumcoloratun cv Klein verde fue la especie menos tolerante a condiciones de estrés, presentando bajos porcentajes de germinación a -1 MPa y ninguna respuesta a -1.5 MPa o potenciales hídricos menores, independientemente del soluto utilizado. Abstract in english In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubesce [...] ns, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2 SO4, K2 SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (?o) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of deionized water and incubated to 25 °C. We used a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions. During 10 days, the number of sprouted seeds was counted daily, and the percentage of germination, the speed of germination (ERI) and the mean time to germination (MTG), were calculated. Data were analyzed with the statistical software Infostat. Germination declined with increasing concentration of the solution in the four species. In general, salts of SO4-2 proved more damaging to the germination than those of Cl-.Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas was the most water stress tolerant species, with percentages of germination close to 50% even in ?o of -2.5 MPa. On the contrary, Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde was the less tolerant, with low percentages of germination at -1 MPa, and no response to ?o of -1.5 MPa or lower.

  14. Impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion and water quality for field plots on a range of soil and spoil materials on central Queensland coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, C.; Merton, L.; Burger, P. [Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Emerald, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    In 1993, a field study commenced to determine the impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion, and water quality at 3 open-cut coal mine sites. Runoff, sediment, and water quality were measured on 0.01-ha field plots from 3 slope gradients (10, 20 30%), with pasture and tree treatments imposed on soil and spoil material, and 2 soil and spoil plots left bare. The greatest soil erosion occurred before pasture cover established, when a large surface area of soil ({gt} 0.5 plot area) was exposed to rainfall and overland flow. Once buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) colonised soil plots, there were negligible differences in soil erosion between slope gradients. On spoil, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) reduced in situ soluble salt content, and reduced runoff electrical conductivity to levels measured in surrounding creeks. Where spoil crusted there was poor vegetative growth and unacceptably large runoff and erosion rates throughout the study

  15. Segmental allotetraploidy and allelic interactions in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.) as revealed by genome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, R W; Burson, B L; Burow, O; Wang, Y W; Chang, C; Li, Z; Paterson, A H; Hussey, M A

    2003-04-01

    Linkage analyses increasingly complement cytological and traditional plant breeding techniques by providing valuable information regarding genome organization and transmission genetics of complex polyploid species. This study reports a genome map of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.). Maternal and paternal maps were constructed with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) segregating in 87 F1 progeny from an intraspecific cross between two heterozygous genotypes. A survey of 862 heterologous cDNAs and gDNAs from across the Poaceae, as well as 443 buffelgrass cDNAs, yielded 100 and 360 polymorphic probes, respectively. The maternal map included 322 RFLPs, 47 linkage groups, and 3464 cM, whereas the paternal map contained 245 RFLPs, 42 linkage groups, and 2757 cM. Approximately 70 to 80% of the buffelgrass genome was covered, and the average marker spacing was 10.8 and 11.3 cM on the respective maps. Preferential pairing was indicated between many linkage groups, which supports cytological reports that buffelgrass is a segmental allotetraploid. More preferential pairing (disomy) was found in the maternal than paternal parent across linkage groups (55 vs. 38%) and loci (48 vs. 15%). Comparison of interval lengths in 15 allelic bridges indicated significantly less meiotic recombination in paternal gametes. Allelic interactions were detected in four regions of the maternal map and were absent in the paternal map. PMID:12723046

  16. Sequence analysis of bacterial artificial chromosome clones from the apospory-specific genomic region of Pennisetum and Cenchrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Joann A; Goel, Shailendra; Gunawan, Gunawati; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michele; Johnson, Virgil Ed; Liang, Chun; Wang, Haiming; Pratt, Lee H; Mullet, John E; DeBarry, Jeremy; Yang, Lixing; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Klein, Patricia E; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2008-07-01

    Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seed, is widespread among angiosperm families. Gametophytic apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris is controlled by the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR), which is highly conserved and macrosyntenic between these species. Thirty-two ASGR bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) isolated from both species and one ASGR-recombining BAC from P. squamulatum, which together cover approximately 2.7 Mb of DNA, were used to investigate the genomic structure of this region. Phrap assembly of 4,521 high-quality reads generated 1,341 contiguous sequences (contigs; 730 from the ASGR and 30 from the ASGR-recombining BAC in P. squamulatum, plus 580 from the C. ciliaris ASGR). Contigs containing putative protein-coding regions unrelated to transposable elements were identified based on protein similarity after Basic Local Alignment Search Tool X analysis. These putative coding regions were further analyzed in silico with reference to the rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genomes using the resources at Gramene (www.gramene.org) and Phytozome (www.phytozome.net) and by hybridization against sorghum BAC filters. The ASGR sequences reveal that the ASGR (1) contains both gene-rich and gene-poor segments, (2) contains several genes that may play a role in apomictic development, (3) has many classes of transposable elements, and (4) does not exhibit large-scale synteny with either rice or sorghum genomes but does contain multiple regions of microsynteny with these species. PMID:18508959

  17. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, Habtamu T; Madakadze, I C; Angassa, A; Hassen, A

    2013-03-01

    We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species' preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists' claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists' experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (p<0.05) varied between and within sites. The ranking of species by pastoralists according to their preferences by cattle was highly correlated with the chemical composition of laboratory results of individual grass species with 'r' values for CP (0.94), ash (0.95), NDF (-0.98), ADF (-0.93) and ADL (-0.93). We suggest the complimentary use of LEBHP and laboratory techniques in evaluating the nutritive quality of rangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID:25049799

  18. Equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. PMID:24580639

  19. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  20. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  1. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

  2. Local de ação de trifluralin na germinação de capim-carrapicho Site of action of trifluralin on germinating Cenchrus echinatus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Deuber

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos estudos em vasos e no campo, para conhecer até que profundidade ocorria germinação de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.. Em vasos esta ocorreu até 11 cm de profundidade e no campo até 9 cm em solo argiloso, e 10 cm em solo barrento. Foi frequente a germinação de duas ou mais cariopses por infrutescência. Em dois outros testes em vasos foi estudado o local de ação do trifluralin na dose de 0,84 kg/ha de i.a., em solo barrento. Verificou-se ação do herbicida nas zonas meristemáticas da raiz e do coleóptilo, causando inibição de desenvolvimento longitudinal do mesocótilo e da raiz. Na ponta da raiz primária, no primeiro nó e nó coleoptilar verificou-se aumento pronunciado de diâmetro.Studies were performed in pots and in field to know the capacity of germination of Cenchrus echinatus L. at different depths. In pots the seeds germinated from 1 to 11 cm and in the field from 1 to 9 cm in clay soil and from 1 to 10 cm in loamy soil. The germination of two or three seeds from the same fructescence was frequent. In two other tests the side of action of trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, in loamy soil, was studied. The herbicide showed activity on the meristematic zones of the root and coleoptile, inhibiting the growth of the shoot and root. The affected regions showed an increase in diameter.

  3. Local de ação de trifluralin na germinação de capim-carrapicho / Site of action of trifluralin on germinating Cenchrus echinatus L

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Deuber; Reinaldo, Forster; Lúcia Helena, Signori.

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos estudos em vasos e no campo, para conhecer até que profundidade ocorria germinação de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.). Em vasos esta ocorreu até 11 cm de profundidade e no campo até 9 cm em solo argiloso, e 10 cm em solo barrento. Foi frequente a germinação de duas ou mais [...] cariopses por infrutescência. Em dois outros testes em vasos foi estudado o local de ação do trifluralin na dose de 0,84 kg/ha de i.a., em solo barrento. Verificou-se ação do herbicida nas zonas meristemáticas da raiz e do coleóptilo, causando inibição de desenvolvimento longitudinal do mesocótilo e da raiz. Na ponta da raiz primária, no primeiro nó e nó coleoptilar verificou-se aumento pronunciado de diâmetro. Abstract in english Studies were performed in pots and in field to know the capacity of germination of Cenchrus echinatus L. at different depths. In pots the seeds germinated from 1 to 11 cm and in the field from 1 to 9 cm in clay soil and from 1 to 10 cm in loamy soil. The germination of two or three seeds from the sa [...] me fructescence was frequent. In two other tests the side of action of trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, in loamy soil, was studied. The herbicide showed activity on the meristematic zones of the root and coleoptile, inhibiting the growth of the shoot and root. The affected regions showed an increase in diameter.

  4. Valor nutritivo da vegetação herbácea de caatinga enriquecida e pastejada por ovinos e caprinos Nutritive value of herbaceous vegetation of caatinga enriched and grazed by sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fontes Cézar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química, digestibilidade e o consumo da vegetação herbácea de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos. Foram utilizados 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês com peso vivo médio de 15kg. Os dados da vegetação foram analisados através de delineamento inteiramente casualizado com observações repetidas no tempo, e os de consumo dos animais foram em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e 12 repetições. O pastejo não afetou a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da vegetação herbácea. Em avaliação do dia 01 de junho os três componentes florísticos apresentaram os menores percentuais de matéria seca e os maiores de teores de proteína bruta e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. Entretanto ocorreu o inverso em 01 de agosto, que diferiu até mesmo do observado em 01 de setembro e 01 de outubro. Os caprinos apresentaram consumo de 437,47g de matéria seca, superior aos 331,78g de matéria seca ingerida pelos ovinos. Embora a matéria seca disponível da Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel apresentasse baixos teores de proteína bruta e de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, os caprinos conseguiram selecionar uma dieta capaz de permitir um consumo superior a 2% do peso vivo.The objective of this word was to evaluate the chemical composition, digestibility and intake of herbaceous vegetation in a thinned and enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. Caatinga grazed by sheeps and goats. 12 goats F1 (Boer x SRD and 12 Santa Inês sheeps with live weight of 15,00kg were used. The vegetation data were analyzed using a completely randomized design with repeated observations over time, and the animals intake of was also a completely randomized design with two treatments and twelve repetitions. Grazing did not affect the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of herbaceous vegetation. On the evaluation on june 1st the three floristic components had the lowest percentage of dry matter and the higherest percentages of crude protein and in vitro digestibility of dry matter, while the opposite occurred in august 1st, differing even from that observed in september 1st and october 1st. The goats intake was 437.47 of dry matter, compared to 331.78g of dry matter intake by sheep. Although the available dry matter from thinned and enriched caatinga with buffel grass presented low levels of crude protein and in vitro digestibility of dry matter, the goats were able to select a diet that allowed intake of more than 2% of body weight.

  5. Use of browses (Terminalia serecia, Combretum apiculatum or Euclea schimperi) as a supplement for growing Tswana goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganga, A A; Monyatsiwa, C B

    1999-10-01

    Twenty yearling male castrated Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals. All the animals were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while lucerne (Medicago sativa) was fed to the control group as supplement. The other three groups were fed either Combretum apiculatum, Terminalia serecia or Euclea schimperi as a supplement. The basal diet comprised 60% of the ration, while the lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Water was provided daily. Leftover water and feed were measured daily. The goats were weigted every 2 weeks, prior to the morning feed. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The average daily dry matter intake of the lucerne, C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi supplements was 702.17, 769.91, 776.68 and 752.50 g, respectively, and was not significantly different between treatments (p > 0.05). The average daily water intake was significantly different (p 0.05). Differences in feed conversion ratio were not significant (p > 0.05), but the ratio was lower for the goats on lucerne at 9.00 compared to 10.41, 11.98, and 11.23 for C. apiculatum, T. serecia and E. schimperi, respectively. The study demonstrated that these browses can be used to replace lucerne as a supplement for Tswana goats fed on buffel grass hay as the basal diet. PMID:10509422

  6. Toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala for steers in the wet tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J H

    1981-05-01

    Brahman crossbred steers grazed Leucaena leucocephala (cv Peru) for 0, 1/2, 1 1/2, 2 1/2, 3 1/2, 4 1/2, 5 1/2, or 6 1/2 days per week grazing Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) for the 1 1/2, remainder, for at least 50 weeks. Animals grazing Buffel grass only or Leucaena for 1/2 day only grew faster than all other groups in the wet season (0.75 dg/day) but not in the dry season (0.44 dg/day) and had normal thyroxine concentrations in blood. All other groups grew more slowly, had reduced blood thyroxine, fatter carcasses and in some cases showed alopecia, excessive salivation and goitre; 1 steer died. Poorest growth rates in the wet season (0.44 dg/day) were achieved with signs occurred with 4 1/2, 5 1/2 or 6 1/2 days of Leucaena. The frequent observation of toxicity of Leucaena when grazed by cattle under irrigated or wet tropical conditions suggests that its use as a browse legume under these conditions needs further examination. PMID:7233563

  7. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    2012-01-01

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes place after the pupa-ries have obtained 114 ± 21 day-degrees calculated from 1. January, with a biologi-cal development zero at 5 °C. The top of the flying curve achieves after 179 ± 29 day-degrees. With this information, the farmers can fairly accurately spray just before the flight curve has its maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticideapplication in meadow-grass every year.

  8. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Sabulal Baby; Anil John Johnson; Balaji Govindan; Sujith Lukose; Bhaskaran Gopakumar; Konnath Chacko Koshy

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules,...

  9. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Hildemar

    2000-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  10. Construction of BAC libraries from two apomictic grasses to study the microcolinearity of their apospory-specific genomic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, D.; Conner, A.; Budiman, A.; Frisch, D.; Wing, R.; Hanna, W.; Ozias-Akins, P.

    2002-04-01

    We have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries from two grass species that reproduce by apospory, a form of gametophytic apomixis. The library of an apomictic polyhaploid genotype (line MS228-20, with a 2C genome size of approximately 4,500 Mbp) derived from a cross between the obligate apomict, Pennisetum squamulatum, and pearl millet ( P. glaucum) comprises 118,272 clones with an average insert size of 82 kb. The library of buffelgrass ( Cenchrus ciliaris, apomictic line B-12-9, with a 2C genome size of approximately 3,000 Mbp) contains 68,736 clones with an average insert size of 109 kb. Based on the genome sizes of these two lines and correcting for the number for false-positive and organellar clones, library coverages were found to be 3.7 and 4.8 haploid genome equivalents for MS 228-20 and B12-9, respectively. Both libraries were screened by hybridization with six SCARs (sequence-characterized amplified regions), whose tight linkage in a single apospory-specific genomic region had been previously demonstrated in both species. Analysis of these BAC clones indicated that some of the SCAR markers are actually amplifying duplicated regions linked in coupling in both genomes and that restriction enzyme mapping will be necessary to sort out the duplications. PMID:12582640

  11. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion results in the most efficient use of resources to achieve lowest invaded acreage in the long-term.

  12. Nutrient Balance of Tswana Goats Fed Cenchrus ciliaris Hay as Basal Diet and Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca as Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Aganga, A. A.; Omphile, U. J.; Keitheile, F. G.

    2006-01-01

    In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided in...

  13. Allelopathic Effect of Seed and Leaf Aqueous Extracts of Datura stramonium on Leaf Chlorophyll Content, Shoot and Root Elongation of Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii

    OpenAIRE

    Filemon Elisante; Tarimo, Mokiti T.; Ndakidemi, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiment was carried out to determine the allelopathic effects of Datura stramonium on leaf chlorophyll content, root and shoot elongation, fresh and dry weight of two wild plant species: Cenchrus ciliaris and Neonotonia wightii. Different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) from seed and leaf extracts of D. stramonium were used to investigate the allelopathic effects of D. stramonium on growth of tested species. The total chlorophyll content of N. wightii was significant...

  14. Faster Rubisco is the key to superior nitrogen-use efficiency in NADP-malic enzyme relative to NAD-malic enzyme C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Oula; Evans, John R; Chow, Wah Soon; Andrews, T John; Conroy, Jann P; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2005-02-01

    In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (k(cat); 3.8 versus 5.7 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)(-1) in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster k(cat). PMID:15665246

  15. Faster Rubisco Is the Key to Superior Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in NADP-Malic Enzyme Relative to NAD-Malic Enzyme C4 Grasses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Oula; Evans, John R.; Chow, Wah Soon; Andrews, T. John; Conroy, Jann P.; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (kcat; 3.8 versus 5.7 s?1 at 25°C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)?1 in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster kcat. PMID:15665246

  16. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius)

    OpenAIRE

    Chima Ngumah; Jude Ogbulie; Justina Orji; Ekperechi Amadi

    2014-01-01

    Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP) of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic...

  17. Efeitos de herbicidas na anatomia de capim-carrapicho e amendoim-bravo / Effect of herbicides on the anatomy of Cenchrus echinatus and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Deuber; Reinaldo, Forstee; Lúcia H., Signori; Dixier M., Medina.

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de melhor conhecer a ação de herbicidas, plantas de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) foram tratadas com trifluralin, a 0,84 kg/ha, incorporado nas profundidades de 0 a 3 e 5 a 11cm, e plantas de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia hetero-phylla L.) foram tratadas com trifluralin, na mes [...] ma dose, incorporada até 8cm, pendimetalin a 1,15 kg/ha e 2,4-D amina, a 1,44 kg/ha de i.a., aplicados em pré-emergência, em vasos. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi observado a partir de sete dias da semeadura e aos 14 dias coletou-se material para observações ao microscópio. O trifluralin causou acentuado aumento de diâmetro do ápice da raiz e do coleóptilo, inibindo o crescimento dessas partes em C. echinatus. Também ocorreu aumento pronunciado das células do córtex e da epiderme e as paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas, com células plurinucleadas. Em E. heterophylla houve inibição de raízes secundárias e leve aumento do diâmetro de células do córtex. O pendimetalin causou grande aumento do diâmetro do colo da planta em E. heterophylla, devido ao aumento das células do córtex e epiderme. As paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas. Houve pequena inibição de raízes secundárias. O 2,4-D causou a formação de células no centro da medula em algumas plantas e descolamento da epiderme em outras. Abstract in english Cenchrus echinatus L., seeded in pots at a depth of four cm, was treated with trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, incorporated at depths of 0 to 3 and 5 to 11 cm. Euphorbia heterophylla L, seeded at a depth of one cm, was treated with trifluralin at the same rate, incorporated from 0 to 8 cm, pendimethalin a [...] t 1.15 kg/ha and 2.4-D, amine, at 1.44 kg/ha at surface, in preemergence. The plants were observed during the two first weeks and after this material was collected and microscopic observations were made on the affected tissues. Trifluralin enlarged the root tip and the coleoptile diameter, inhibiting their growth in C. echinatus. Swelling of cortical cells was observed. The cells had thinner walls and sometimes were multinucleate. In E. heterophylla there was lateral root inhibition and little swelling of cortical cells. Pendimethalin caused great thickening of the transition zone in E. heterophylla, due to swelling of cortical and epidermal cells, which had thinner walls. Small lateral root inhibition occured. The 2.4-D affected tissue formation, originating cells in the pith center. In some plants an epidermal dislocation was observed.

  18. Efeitos de herbicidas na anatomia de capim-carrapicho e amendoim-bravo Effect of herbicides on the anatomy of Cenchrus echinatus and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Deuber

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de melhor conhecer a ação de herbicidas, plantas de capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. foram tratadas com trifluralin, a 0,84 kg/ha, incorporado nas profundidades de 0 a 3 e 5 a 11cm, e plantas de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia hetero-phylla L. foram tratadas com trifluralin, na mesma dose, incorporada até 8cm, pendimetalin a 1,15 kg/ha e 2,4-D amina, a 1,44 kg/ha de i.a., aplicados em pré-emergência, em vasos. O desenvolvimento das plântulas foi observado a partir de sete dias da semeadura e aos 14 dias coletou-se material para observações ao microscópio. O trifluralin causou acentuado aumento de diâmetro do ápice da raiz e do coleóptilo, inibindo o crescimento dessas partes em C. echinatus. Também ocorreu aumento pronunciado das células do córtex e da epiderme e as paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas, com células plurinucleadas. Em E. heterophylla houve inibição de raízes secundárias e leve aumento do diâmetro de células do córtex. O pendimetalin causou grande aumento do diâmetro do colo da planta em E. heterophylla, devido ao aumento das células do córtex e epiderme. As paredes celulares se tornaram mais delgadas. Houve pequena inibição de raízes secundárias. O 2,4-D causou a formação de células no centro da medula em algumas plantas e descolamento da epiderme em outras.Cenchrus echinatus L., seeded in pots at a depth of four cm, was treated with trifluralin at 0.84 kg/ha, incorporated at depths of 0 to 3 and 5 to 11 cm. Euphorbia heterophylla L, seeded at a depth of one cm, was treated with trifluralin at the same rate, incorporated from 0 to 8 cm, pendimethalin at 1.15 kg/ha and 2.4-D, amine, at 1.44 kg/ha at surface, in preemergence. The plants were observed during the two first weeks and after this material was collected and microscopic observations were made on the affected tissues. Trifluralin enlarged the root tip and the coleoptile diameter, inhibiting their growth in C. echinatus. Swelling of cortical cells was observed. The cells had thinner walls and sometimes were multinucleate. In E. heterophylla there was lateral root inhibition and little swelling of cortical cells. Pendimethalin caused great thickening of the transition zone in E. heterophylla, due to swelling of cortical and epidermal cells, which had thinner walls. Small lateral root inhibition occured. The 2.4-D affected tissue formation, originating cells in the pith center. In some plants an epidermal dislocation was observed.

  19. The Physical Analyze of Local Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Suhartati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to analyze physical characteristics of local grass. The aimed of this research was to observe grass physical characteristics, which are bulkiness, water regain capacity and water solubility. Also to observe correlation of water regain capacity to dry matter and organic matter digestibility as well as its degradation rate during 0, 12, 18 and 24 h incubation, in sacco, using 2 fistulae cows. Five local grass were tested in this research, which are field grass, elephant grass, brachiaria grass, king grass and setaria. Fistulae cows consumed forages and concentrates with ratio of 70:30, minimum protein level of 12% and minimum TDN of 60%. Physical characteristics data that obtained then analyzed using analysis of variance. Furthermore, honestly significant different was also performed. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility data that obtained were analyzed with regression of physical characteristics. Result showed that brachiaria grass has poor water regain capacity and water solubility. There are positive linear correlation between water regains capacity with dry matter and organic matter digestibility. (Animal Production 6(1: 37-42 (2004 Key Words: Bulkiness, Water Regain Capacity, Water Solubility, Dry Matter and Organic Matter Digestibility

  20. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green fodder yield (2010, dry matter yield (2009 and 2010, crude protein yield (2011 and crude protein per cent (2010 while Guinea grass CO (GG 3 ranked first at All India level for green fodder yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012, dry matter yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012 and crude protein yield in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN 5 had recorded significantly higher mean green fodder yield (GFY of 1082 q/ha/year, dry matter yield (DMY of 239.03 q/ha/yr and crude protein yield (CPY of 18.32 q/ha/yr in AICRP on Forage crops trials over the qualifying and national check varieties. Similarly, Guinea grass CO (GG 3 too registered a higher mean GFY, DMY and CPY of 1082.4, 229.3 and 20.5 q/ha/year respectively over the qualifying and national check varieties.

  1. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    OpenAIRE

    Schut, A. G. T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantificationThe potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for characterisation of grass swards was explored with respect to growth monitoring, detection of nitrogen and drought stress, and assessment of dry matter yield, clover content, nutrient content, feeding value, sward...

  2. Complete Genome of Bacillus subtilis Myophage Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Stanton Y.; Colquhoun, Jennifer M.; Perl, Abbey L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram-positive model organism. Here, we describe the complete genome of B. subtilus myophage Grass. Aside from genes encoding core proteins pertinent to the life cycle of the phage, Grass has several interesting features, including an FtsK/SpoIIIE protein.

  3. Delineation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a single hemizygous chromosomal region associated with aposporous embryo sac formation in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Conner, Joann A; Akiyama, Yukio; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2003-03-01

    Apomixis is a means of asexual reproduction by which plants produce embryos without meiosis and fertilization; thus the embryo is of clonal, maternal origin. We previously reported molecular markers showing no recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, and the collective single-dose alleles defined an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm that the ASGR is a hemizygous genomic region and to determine its chromosomal position with respect to rDNA loci and centromere repeats. We also documented chromosome transmission from P. squamulatum in several backcrosses (BCs) with P. glaucum using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One to three complete P. squamulatum chromosomes were detected in BC(6), but only one of the three hybridized with the ASGR-linked markers. In P. squamulatum and in all BCs examined, the apospory-linked markers were located in the distal region of the short arm of a single chromosome. All alien chromosomes behaved as univalents during meiosis and segregated randomly in BC(3) and later BC generations, but presence of the ASGR-carrier chromosome alone was sufficient to confer apospory. FISH results support our hypotheses that hemizygosity, proximity to centromeric sequences, and chromosome structure may all play a role in low recombination in the ASGR. PMID:12663545

  4. Sequence Analysis of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region of Pennisetum and Cenchrus1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Joann A.; Goel, Shailendra; Gunawan, Gunawati; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michele; Johnson, Virgil Ed; Liang, Chun; Wang, Haiming; Pratt, Lee H.; Mullet, John E.; DeBarry, Jeremy; Yang, Lixing; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Klein, Patricia E.; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seed, is widespread among angiosperm families. Gametophytic apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris is controlled by the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR), which is highly conserved and macrosyntenic between these species. Thirty-two ASGR bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) isolated from both species and one ASGR-recombining BAC from P. squamulatum, which together cover approximately 2.7 Mb of DNA, were used to investigate the genomic structure of this region. Phrap assembly of 4,521 high-quality reads generated 1,341 contiguous sequences (contigs; 730 from the ASGR and 30 from the ASGR-recombining BAC in P. squamulatum, plus 580 from the C. ciliaris ASGR). Contigs containing putative protein-coding regions unrelated to transposable elements were identified based on protein similarity after Basic Local Alignment Search Tool X analysis. These putative coding regions were further analyzed in silico with reference to the rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genomes using the resources at Gramene (www.gramene.org) and Phytozome (www.phytozome.net) and by hybridization against sorghum BAC filters. The ASGR sequences reveal that the ASGR (1) contains both gene-rich and gene-poor segments, (2) contains several genes that may play a role in apomictic development, (3) has many classes of transposable elements, and (4) does not exhibit large-scale synteny with either rice or sorghum genomes but does contain multiple regions of microsynteny with these species. PMID:18508959

  5. Biological nitrogen fixation in grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Julierme Zimme rBarbosa; Rangel Consalter; , Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation in grassAbstractNitrogen (N due to their role in plant metabolism is the nutrient that most limits crop production. It ispresent in large quantities in air, primarily as di-nitrogen, but unfortunately the plants are not able to 8 Evidência, Joaçaba v. 12 n. 1, p. 7-18, janeiro/junho 2012directly use the nutrient in that form, requiring it to be fixed in the form of ammonia. In soil, the fixed N isconverted to nitrate by nitrification process (mediated by Nitrossomonas sp. and Nitrobacter sp. bacteria,thus becomes available for plants. The N fixation may occur via atmospheric, biological and industrial, andthe last was and still is a pillar in the construction and maintenance of modern agriculture. The biologicalnitrogen fixation (BNF provides economic and environmental advantages, being characterized asan important tool in achieving a more sustainable crop production. Plants of the family Fabaceae (legumeshas the efficiency in the process of BNF known and consecrated, however, four more crops produced inthe world (sugar cane, corn, rice and wheat are of the family Poaceae (grass, and exploitation of BNF inplants of this family is a recent possibility, with relatively low efficiency, however, the optimization ofthese processes can bring significant benefits, since plants of this family are of paramount importance inproducing food, fiber and energy. Based on the above, this review summarizes knowledge regarding theprocess and efficiency of non-nodulating diazotrophs in Poaceae, in order to assess the state of the scienceof BNF this plants family.

  6. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  7. Grass Pollen Count and Grass group 5-allergen Release across Eight European Countries: results from HIALINE

    OpenAIRE

    Buters, Jeroen M.; Albertini, Roberto; Annesi-maesano, Isabella; Antunes, Celia M.; Berger, Uwe; Brandao, Rui M.; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Celenk, Sevcan; Gala?n, Carmen; Grewling, Lukazs; Kennedy, Roy; Prank, Marje; Rantio-lehtimaki, Auli; Reese, Gerald; Sauliene, Ingrida

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grass pollen is considered to be the most important outdoor aeroallergen in Europe. The grass ‘pollen count’ is usually used as a proxy for exposure. However, HIALINE has shown that the birch and olive pollen count is not always congruent with allergen concentrations. We therefore simultaneously measured daily exposure to grass pollen and the concentration of group 5 major allergens across eight countries in Europe during 2009– 2011. Metho...

  8. Nitrogen Immobilization by Congo Grass Roots Impairs Cotton Initial Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolem, Ciro A.; Fabio Steiner; Zoca, Samuel M.; Carlos Ducatti

    2012-01-01

    In crop-livestock integration systems the presence of both grass roots in the soil and straw on the surface can temporarily immobilize nitrogen. This study examined the persistence of grass residues in the system as well as their effects on cotton response to N when grown after Congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Syn. Urochloa ruziziensis). Congo grass was grown in pots with soil. Next, cotton was grown in the same pots without residues, with whole plant residues (Congo grass roots and shoot...

  9. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  10. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  11. MoDest GrassUp

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; S Nadimi, Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    The Technology The technology is one of a kind, as there is no such mathematical model estimating animal feed uptake available today. The estimation of grass uptake, is based on real time wireless sensor data, cow merit and climate data. Relevant cow behaviour data (such as location, movement velocity of the cows while grazing and head frequency movements) are measured using wireless sensors (e.g. accelerometers, magnetometers) and collected by a wireless network. Grass length and density are...

  12. REPELENCIA DE LOS PASTOS Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha Y Cenchrus ciliaris SOBRE LARVAS DE GARRAPATA Amblyomma cajennense F. (Acari:Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulloa Castañeda RR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trópico y subtropico a nivel mundial, uno de los principales problemas zoosanitarios que afectan la productividad ganadera, principalmente en bovinos es la garrapata, además trasmiten las enfermedades Anaplasmosis y Babesiosis. El establecimiento de pastos repelentes a la garrapata es un control biológico alternativo para solucionar este problema. Por tanto, el objetivo fue determinar la repelencia en Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha y Cenchrus ciliaris sobre larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. La investigación se realizó en la localidad de Mora, municipio de Tepic, Nayarit, México. Se formaron 24 parcelas de 35 m2 a distancia entre ellas de 1 m, con cinco unidades de muestreo cada una (5 x 1 m de ancho y pasillos de 0.5 m entre unidades. Las unidades se infestaron con aproximadamente 5,000 larvas de A. cajenennse, el efecto anti-garrapata de los pastos se evaluó mediante la recuperación de larvas adheridas por método de Franela en los tiempos 7, 14, 21 días de post-infestación. Los tratamientos fueron los cuatro pastos descritos con seis repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados fueron analizados por el procedimiento PROC MIXED de SAS y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p<0.05, donde M. minutiflora presentó el mayor efecto repelente (p<0.05 por la menor cantidad de larvas recuperadas (2.39 ± 0.13 que el resto de los pastos, en C. ciliaris (1,192.04 ± 10.3, A. gayanus (72.48 ± 10.30 y B. brizantha (56.48 ± 11.68, en los dos últimos tratamientos no hubo significación en larvas recolectadas. Para los tres tiempos de colecta también se mostraron diferencias (p<0.05 en la media de larvas recuperadas en los pastos. Se concluye que los zacates Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus y Brachiaria brizantha manifestaron repelencia contra larvas de A. cajennense, sin embargo el que muestra mayor es M. minutiflora.

  13. Afforestation of degraded grass land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basappa, B.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

  14. Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales: Revisión / Apomixis importance for tropical forage grass selection and breeding: Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adrián R., Quero Carrillo; Javier F., Enríquez Quiroz; Carlos R., Morales Nieto; Leonor, Miranda Jiménez.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apomixis es un tipo reproductivo donde la producción de semilla ocurre sin fusión de gametos, resultando por generaciones, en descendencia que genéticamente, es copia fiel del progenitor materno. La apomixis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida entre las gramíneas forrajeras tropicales: Bothriochloa [...] , Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. Las especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México. Abstract in english Apomixis is a reproductive system resulting in seed production without gametes fusion, and produces, through generations, offspring that is a genetic copy from the maternal progenitor. Apomixis importance is widespread among tropical grasses: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchru [...] s, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum, Urochloa, among the most important. Apomictic species contain diploid as well as polyploid individuals conforming "agamic complexes" and reproductive barriers limited both by apomixis as well as ploidy level which has a great impact on apomictic species utilization. Diploid individuals maintain active the sexuality and these are rare out of the center of specie's genetic origin center. Polyploid individuals in nature are apomictic, and sexual individuals may be induced to polyploidy in the laboratory, allowing hybrid descendants production. Genetic richness originated within the specie's center of diversity is the basis to overcome productive challenges and ecological stability: dry season productivity, nitrogen fixation, forage quality, pest and disease resistance, etc.; as it has been shown by successful breeding programs for Brachiaria and Panicum, between the most recognized for Latin America, and Cenchrus in USA. Apomixis research advancements has elucidated the biology for this reproductive process as well as the techniques for its manipulation; however, the impact of this advancements on forage research in México has promoted a critical review on forage genetic resources utilization, resulting in an increased interest on hybrid material production to face the requirements for extensive grazing production systems in Mexico.

  15. Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coaldrake, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

  16. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.

    2011-01-01

    Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology in agronomy and anaerobic digestion sectors and the need for rural development and sustainable energy production, is an attractive solution that fulfils many legislative, agronomic and environmental requirements.

  17. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species

  18. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  19. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass...Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility...2) of this section, the value of: (1) Seed will be determined on a yield basis made in accordance...

  20. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco / Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo R., Araújo; Tácio O. da, Silva; Rômulo S. C., Menezes; Vânia da S., Fraga; Everardo V. de S. B., Sampaio.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus), orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii), feijão-de- [...] rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides) e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris); os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1) comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes. Abstract in english Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides) and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) [...] ; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to fertilization. Cenchrus ciliaris had higher K concentrations and contents than the legumes, indicating a larger K absorption capacity. There was no correspondence between soil analysis and nutrient supplying capacity.

  1. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Araújo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus, orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii, feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris; os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com esterco bovino (20 Mg ha-1 comparado com a testemunha. A adubação com esterco promoveu grandes incrementos na produção de biomassa e nas acumulações dos nutrientes, em todas as plantas e solos. O esterco parece ter suprido P às plantas em quantidades suficientes mas não de N e K, confirmando que é uma boa fonte do primeiro elemento. O feijão de rolinha e a orelha de onça tiveram as maiores capacidades de acumulação de biomassa, principalmente em resposta à adubação. O capim buffel atinge maiores teores e conteúdos de K na matéria seca que as leguminosas. Não houve correspondência entre a análise dos solos e sua capacidade de suprimento de nutrientes.Biomass production and N, P and K uptake by four forage species were compared in three soils from the semi-arid region of Paraíba, with or without organic manure. The species were three legumes (Desmanthus virgatus , Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides and one grass (Cenchrus ciliaris; the soils, a Fluvic Neosol, a Regolithic Neosol and Haplic Planosol; and cattle manure was applied at a dose equivalent to 20 Mg ha-1. Manure application resulted in large increases in biomass production and nutrient uptake, in all species and soils. Apparently, the manure supplied enough P but not enough N and K to the plants, confirming that it is a good source of the first nutrient. Macroptilium martii and Macroptilium lathyroides seem to be the highest biomass producers, mainly in response to fertilization. Cenchrus ciliaris had higher K concentrations and contents than the legumes, indicating a larger K absorption capacity. There was no correspondence between soil analysis and nutrient supplying capacity.

  2. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

  3. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastefanou, C; Manolopoulou, M; Stoulos, S; Ioannidou, A; Gerasopoulos, E

    2005-01-01

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg(-1) (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg(-1) (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T(ec) of 137Cs in grassland. PMID:15923066

  4. Technology Optimization of Enzymolysis of Burmuda Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose can be degraded by enzyme to glucose, which provide carbon source for ethanol fermentation. This study, taking Burmuda grass as material, analyzed effects of temperature, time, pH, PBS dosage and ratio of enzyme on reducing sugar. It came to the conclusion that the best conditions of the enzymolysis of Burmuda grass are as follows: 50°C for temperature, 32 h for time, 4.20 for pH, 2 mL for PBS dosage, 4:3 for the ratio of xylanase and cellulase, the yield of reducing sugar reached 78.63%.

  5. Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Qiu; Leiting Chen; Jim X Chen; Yugang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dyn...

  6. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; T?íska, Jan; Vrchotová, Nad?žda; Kolá?, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 26, ?. 4 (2013), s. 199-203. ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  7. Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Volaire, Florence; Norton, Mark

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait.

  8. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  9. A REVIEW ON LEMON GRASS: AGRICULTURAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lemongrass (Cymbopogan flexuosus and Cymbopogan Citraus is regarded as one of the grass which is commonly available in India and abroad. It is widely used in different conditions of pain and discomfort. The oil (Lemongrass oil obtained from the grass has diverse medicinal value. It also produces semi-synthetic Vitamin A that reduces the risk of Xerophthalmia and Night blindness. The grass has great benefits to mankind as it revitalizes the body and mind, helps with infections and act as muscle and skin toner. This review will explore the plant / grass and also suggest for more cultivation of the grass because of its medicinal importance.

  10. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  11. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel. 42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively. The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.

  12. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

  13. Biomarkers of exposure to cyanogens in horses with grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, B C; Anderson, R A

    2002-10-12

    To test the hypothesis that equine grass sickness may be associated with the ingestion of cyanogenic glycosides from white clover (Trifolium repens), the concentrations of whole blood cyanide, and plasma and urinary thiocyanate, the main metabolite of cyanide, were measured in 12 horses with acute grass sickness and 10 horses with subacute grass sickness, and in 43 control horses, of which 21 were co-grazing with cases of acute grass sickness, 12 grazed pastures where grass sickness had not been reported, and 10 were stabled horses. The healthy horses which grazed with cases of acute grass sickness had higher concentrations of blood cyanide, and plasma and urinary thiocyanate than the other control horses, consistent with an increased exposure to cyanogens. The horses with grass sickness had no evidence of a recent intake of cyanogens, but may have been exposed to increased levels of cyanogens before they became anorexic. PMID:12408327

  14. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.L. Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1, clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1, tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1, fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1, haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones, applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 , clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1, [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1, sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 , tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 , fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 , haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 and control (no herbicide. In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

  15. Effects of pasture cover on soil erosion and water quality on central Queensland coal mine rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, C.; Tucker, A. [Department of Natural Resources, Emerald, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    To determine the impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion and water quality, a field study was commenced in 1993 at 3 open-cut coal mine sites in the Bowen Basin. Field plots of 0.1 ha with slope gradients of 10, 20 and 30%, along with catchments of 0.5 ha, were used to measure runoff, sediment loss and water quality from rehabilitated land. Pasture and tree treatments were imposed on soil and spoil material, while 2 soil and spoil plots were left bare as the control for the study. The greatest soil erosion risk occurred before pasture cover established, when a large surface area of the soil (> 50%) was exposed to rainfall impact and overland flow. Once grass species, such as buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), colonised soil plots, there were negligible differences in soil erosion between slope gradients. On spoil plots, rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) reduced in situ soluble salt content and runoff electrical conductivity levels. Where spoil crusted, there were poor vegetative growth and unacceptably high runoff and erosion rates.

  16. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos, Santos; Mário de Andrade, Lira; Adriana, Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos, Santos; José Carlos Batista, Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de, Mello.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pen [...] nisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p

  17. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papastefanou, C. [Department of Physics, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: papastefanou@physics.auth.gr; Manolopoulou, M. [Department of Physics, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Stoulos, S. [Department of Physics, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Ioannidou, A. [Department of Physics, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Gerasopoulos, E. [Department of Physics, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for {sup 137}Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg{sup -1} (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg{sup -1} (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing {sup 137}Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T {sub ec} of {sup 137}Cs in grassland.

  18. Fruits Morphology of Annual Grasses from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Nagwa R.A. Hussein; Sohir T. Hamed; Muhammed A. Zaki; Osman, Ahmed K.

    2012-01-01

    The grasses caryopses of 33 taxa belong to 24 genera of 11 tribes of wild Gramineae from Egypt were examined by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and micro-morphological characters, including fruit shape, size, weight, coloring mode and colour shade, trichomes and their features and the seed surface topography are presented. The caryopses are distinct by three principal diagnostic characters; fruit shape, mode of coloring and seed surface topography. A key for the ide...

  19. PURPLE GUINEA GRASS: PRETREATMENT AND ETHANOL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvapatr Ratsamee,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4 or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 at 121?C and 103.4 kPa was used to improve the efficiency of the cellulose digestion of purple guinea grass. Cellulase hydrolysis of the dilute H2SO4-pretreated purple guinea grass under optimized conditions (6% (w/v in 3% (w/v H2SO4 for 30 min yielded a slightly higher level of reducing sugars than that from the Ca(OH2 pretreatment under optimized conditions (6% (w/v in 4% (w/v Ca(OH2 for 5 min. However, the level of glucose released from the Ca(OH2-pretreated purple guinea grass was slightly higher than that from the dilute H2SO4 pretreatment. Ethanol fermentation, via the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, of the Ca(OH2-pretreated purple guinea grass and then hydrolyzed with commercial cellulase (9 PFU/g, dry wt. for 6 h yielded ethanol at 0.44 g/g glucose (0.21 g/g cellulose within 48 h, while that from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process yielded 14.3% less ethanol at 0.18 g/g cellulose within 96 h (including the 6 h saccharification time. The ethanol yield from the SHF process increased 1.14-fold to 0.497 g/g glucose (0.24 g/g cellulose when the fermentation was performed in a 5 L fermentor.

  20. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  1. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

  2. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi? Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  3. Nitrogen Fixation in Grasses Inoculated with Spirillum lipoferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Bouton, J H; Schank, S C; Quesenberry, K H; Tyler, M E; Milam, J R; Gaskins, M H; Littell, R C

    1976-09-10

    Field-grown pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) and guinea grass (Panicum maximum), lightly fertilized and inoculated with Spirillum lipoferum, produced significantly higher yields of dry matter than did uninoculated controls. Up to 42 and 39 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare were replaced by inoculation for pearl millet and guinea grass, respectively. The data demonstrate that nitrogen fixation by these grass-Spirillum systems is efficient and is achieved at a reasonable energy cost to the plant. PMID:17735702

  4. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. ? Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. ? The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. ? The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shk) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr-1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  5. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Chenyang Zhan; Bingru Huang

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes th...

  6. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Bentgrasses, bluegrasses, bluestems, bromes, cereals, fescues, millets, orchardgrass, redtop, ryegrasses, sorghums, timothy...from primary infection. (C) Albino. (e) Grasses and millets. (1) General description. (i) Germination...

  7. Rye grass is associated with fewer non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries than bermuda grass

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, J; Chivers, I; Aldous, D; Bennell, K.; SEWARD, H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of ground variables including grass type to the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the Australian Football League (AFL), specifically which factors are primarily responsible for previously observed warm season and early season biases for ACL injuries.

  8. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  9. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  10. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kusmiyat, F.; Sumarsono; Karno; Pangestu, E.

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume at saline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in this research was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged in randomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grass monoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grass monoculture...

  11. Intercropping of four Leucaena cultivars with three grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relwani, L.L.; Nakat, R.V.; Khandale, D.Y.

    1982-01-01

    A table shows the yield of DM in 809 days from each of Leucaena leucocephala varieties K8, Hawaiian common, Peru and Cunningham, interplanted with each of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Hybrid Napier NB 21 (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Total yield was greatest with the Cunningham/Hybrid Napier combination.

  12. Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Qiu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dynamic simulation of grass field swaying in wind. The representation of large-scale grassland relies on three different levels of detail that reduce the rendering cost and still allow high-fidelity rendering of grass close to the viewer. To simulate real-time waggle of grasses, some physically based methods and procedural approaches are put forward according to different levels of detail. Experiments demonstrate that our method not only can realistically render the animated grass scenes in wind, but also can support the variable wind field.

  13. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  14. A Note on Chemical Composition of Some Uttarakhand Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of 30 local grasses of Uttarakhand were determined. The maximum crude protein, mineral contents and lower value of crude fibre content was recorded from Dactylis glosmerata, Arundo donax, Apluda mutica and Poa pratensis in comparison to other grasses.

  15. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

  16. The development of reed canary grass fuel chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J.; Impola, R.; Paappanen, T.; Leino, T.; Kallio, E. (VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Rinne, S. (YTY konsultointi, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Loetjoenen, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Ruukki (Finland)); Kirkkari, A. (TTS Research, Work Efficiency Institute, Rajamaeki (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    The fuel chain of reed canary grass was studied. The objective was to find machinery combinations and working methods which could reduce the harvesting losses and transport cost of the bales. The crushing, feeding properties and the effects of reed canary grass on boiler operation were also studied. In earlier experiments it was noticed that disc mower and silage windrowers produced the lowest harvest losses (20 - 30 %). In this study it was shown that also silage mower with conditioner can reach low losses (20 %) if the adjustments are in optimum. A new type big square baler reached maximum bale density 201 kg/m3 (moisture content 15 %). Reed canary grass is supplied mainly in bales to power plants. Agricultural choppers and sometimes also stationary crushers are not suitable or effective enough for chopping of reed canary grass. Slow-speed two-rotor crushers can be on certain conditions appropriate for chopping. Reed canary grass is co-combusted with peat and wood fuels. Higher shares than 5 - 10 % of energy in the fuel blend can cause blockages on conveyor systems. Reed canary grass should be properly mixed with primary fuels and the chop should be as short as possible. Preliminary results indicate that there were no major changes in fouling or high temperature corrosion during the co-combustion tests of reed canary grass at 295 MWth bubbling fluidised-bed boiler with relatively low proportions of reed canary grass. (orig.)

  17. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131I in milk were also presented. (author)

  18. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  19. Central neuropathology of equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C N; Mayhew, I G; de Lahunta, A

    2001-08-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) is an acquired disease of unknown aetiology affecting horses kept at grass. The disease is characterised by postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neuronal pathology and is categorised as a dysautonomia. This study undertook a systematic examination of brain stem cranial nerve nuclei in 59 cases of EGS. Pathology consisting of neuronal chromatolysis was most consistently noted in the lower motor neurons of the general visceral efferent nucleus of CN III and X and the general somatic efferent nuclei of CN III, V, VII and XII. The prevalence of chromatolysis differed significantly between the diagnostic categories and was inversely related to the age of the animal. Duration of disease had a small but significant negative effect on the proportion of nuclei with chromatolytic neurons in chronic cases. The distribution of chromatolytic neurons is unlike that reported in any other equine or human disease; however, it appears to be equivalent to that in other animals with primary dysautonomias. EGS should be classified as a multisystem disease. PMID:11563630

  20. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  1. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakó, Mihály; Feng, Xianzhong; He, Yuke; Liang, Dali; Márton, László

    2005-01-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. PMID:15948597

  2. Convection-driven pattern formation in grass (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K. E.; Thompson, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Spatial patterns of 'dead' lawn grass have often been ascribed to Turing-type reaction-diffusion processes related to water scarcity. However, morphologically-similar patterns can also result from fluid convection. Therefore, we present an alternative hypothesis: that the air within the grass canopy is unstable to a convective instability, such that chill damage caused by falling cold air is responsible for the creation of brown and green bands of grass. We model the grass as a uniform porous medium of upright cylindrical rods subject to a temperature gradient and find that the resulting patterns are consistent with several features of small-scale vegetation patterns, including their length scale, rapid onset and transient nature. Finally, the predictions are found to be consistent with measurements made for a particular instance of lawn-patterning in North Carolina. We close by discussing the implications for other plant species. Lawn grass patterning at Duke University.

  3. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  4. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond releasetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  5. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  6. Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Teskera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1, internode elongation (GS2 i and flowering (GS3. Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001, organic matter, (P<0.001, neutral detergent fibre (NDF (P<0.05 and acid detergent fibre (ADF (P<0.001. Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001 in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

  7. Grass Lignin Acylation: p-Coumaroyl Transferase Activity and Cell Wall Characteristics of C3 and C4 Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasses have always been a predominate source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Species belonging to the C3 and C4 grass types have recently been championed as feedstock sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermenta...

  8. Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda / In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Salinas-Chavira; Juan Carlos, Gutiérrez-González; Ramón, García-Castillo; Ramiro, López-Trujillo; Arturo, Duarte-Ortuño.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilid [...] ad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ruminal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag techn [...] ique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

  9. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF THE EXCLUSION OF JOHNSON GRASS BY TALL GRASS PRAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn A. Semtner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, plant distribution typically has been studied with the purpose of learning why a species grows and survives where it does; but why a species does not survive in a particular habitat has rarely been studied, although it may be just as important. According to the US Department of Agriculture, Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.; formerly Johnson grass] is listed as an agricultural pest in most states south of the 42nd parallel. Control of Johnsongrass inagricultural fields involves various labor intensive cultural, mechanical, and chemical means. Release of a bio-control agent has not been suitable for intensively cropped areas. An agriculturally important weed and prominent member of early stage secondary succession, Johnsongrass is not present in later stages of prairie succession. Various environmental factors (biotic and abiotic that might be involved in restricting Johnsongrass survival were examined in this research. In two sites in Oklahoma, soil conditions were found to be more favorable for survival and growth of Johnsongrass in undisturbed prairie than in the disturbed areas in which Johnsongrass was found vigorously growing. However, even when its rhizomes were introduced into mature prairie, Johnsongrass did not thrive. In laboratory and field trials, presence of the living dominant prairie grasses or leachate from living or dead leaf blades seemed to influence growth and survival of Johnsongrass rhizomes. The prairie grasses, little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx. Nash] and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L. Nash], seem to play a similarallelopathic role in restricting the growth of Johnsongrass to outside of the prairies. Looking at this past study might lead to new methods for the future. (Semtner 2012

  10. The Grass Fires on Slopes Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C. B.; Seto, D.; Heilman, W.

    2010-12-01

    Fire-atmosphere interactions and their role on fire behavior in complex terrain are not well understood. While there have been many accounts of fire behavior in mountainous areas, there exists few, if any, studies that have focused on obtaining in situ meteorological and fire behavior data in complex terrain. The Grass Fires on Slopes Experiment aims to measure fire-atmosphere interactions during experimental head fires on sloped terrain. The first experiment was conducted on 24 June 2010 and was associated with strong (8 m/s) cross-slope winds. Preliminary results show that even under strong cross winds, the sensible heat flux from the fire front of 100 kW m-2 was strong enough to generate updrafts of 7 m/s. Fire-induced winds were also observed as the fire front crossed the slope. A pressure drop of 0.5 mb was observed just before the fire front passage.

  11. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  12. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  13. Trees improve grass quality for herbivores in African savannas

    OpenAIRE

    Treydte, A. C.; Heitkonig, I. M. A.; Prins, H. H. T.; Ludwig, F.

    2007-01-01

    The tree-grass interactions of African savannas are mainly determined by varying rainfall patterns and soil fertility. Large savanna trees are known to modify soil nutrient conditions, but whether this has an impact on the quality of herbaceous vegetation is unclear. However, if this were the case, then the removal of trees might also affect the structure and quality of the grass layer. We studied the impact of large nitrogen- and non-nitrogen fixing trees on the sub-canopy (SC) grass layer i...

  14. Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization (15N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization (15N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm3 of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg-1 as NH4NO3 enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of 15N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg-1 and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

  15. Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

  16. Control of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in grazing horses with calcium plus phosphorus supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Gartner, R J; Blaney, B J; Glanville, R J

    1981-12-01

    A supplement system for the control of equine nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSH) was evaluated on 4 farms in the Arcadia Valley of the Queensland brigalow region. Thirty-three local stock horses (of which 13 had clinical NSH and 7 were recent introductions) were grazed on buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) for the 6 months from September 1979 to February 1980. Each horse was fed 1.0 kg of a mixture of ground limestone plus dicalcium phosphate (1:2) in 1.5 kg molasses each week. The pasture was hazardous during this time (total oxalate content above 0.5% and calcium: oxalate ratio below 0.5), but no new NSH cases occurred and those horses with clinical NSH improved, most becoming normal. After the first 6 months of supplementation, 3 new cases occurred on one farm. Doubling of the supplement dose and substituting rock phosphate in molasses for the previous mixture corrected the problem. The breakdown was thought to be partly because the supplement dose was slightly inadequate and partly because of behavioural factors. PMID:7340778

  17. Revegetation of coal mine spoil using pasture on the Darling Downs of Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, M.J.; Roberts, B.R.

    1986-09-01

    Results are given of a revegetation experiment established on a spoil heap of the exploratory coal open-cut near Millmerran on the Darling Downs of southern Queensland. The experiment tested buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), and the legumes siratro (macroptilium atropurpureum) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). This experiment demonstrates that: (a) persistent pastures can be established on spoil at Millmerran as they have been on coal spoils elsewhere in eastern Australia: (b) a surface covering of 20-30 cm of suitable soil is adequate for good pasture establishment and persistence on spoil even on slopes up to 33%; (c) initial amendments with phosphatic and nitrogenous fertilizers produced a small positive response in cover and yield which went with time, but the pastures continue to persist and flourish; (d) the legumes siratro and lucerne can be established in such pastures. The relevance of these experimental results to post-mining land use are discussed. 16 references.

  18. Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

  19. Germination of native grasses with potential application in the recovery of degraded areas in Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil / Germinação de gramíneas nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero com potencial aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurílio Assis, Figueiredo; Hudson Eustáquio, Baêta; Alessandra Rodrigues, Kozovits.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As gramíneas nativas apresentam potencial para revegetação de áreas degradadas, no entanto, devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre sua biologia, dá-se preferência ao uso de espécies exóticas, que podem ser invasoras, afetando assim a biodiversidade local. No intuito de ampliar o conhecimento acerca da p [...] ropagação via sementes de espécies nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), e desta forma, indicar possíveis candidatas a aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas da região, este trabalho objetivou avaliar os padrões germinativos das seguintes gramíneas: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.). Chase e Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. As espiguetas (com presença ou não das estruturas que envolviam a cariopse, dependendo da espécie) foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1-controle; T2-umedecimento do substrato com 0,2% de nitrato de potássio, T3-aquecimento a 80 ºC por 2 minutos, T4-escarificação com ácido sulfúrico (exceto gênero Andropogon) e para os gêneros Andropogon e Setaria, T5-armazenamento a temperatura ambiente e T6-armazenamento sob refrigeração. Os tratamentos foram realizados em 4 repetições de 25 cariopses colocadas para germinar a temperatura de 25 ºC e iluminação constante. Variação significativa foi observada quando comparadas as quantidades de germinações ocorridas entre as semanas, entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies. Para o gênero Andropogon o tratamento mais eficiente foi T6, seguido por T2 em A. bicornis e T3 em A. leucostachyus. T6 também foi o tratamento mais eficiente para S. parviflora, seguido por T5 e T2. C. brownii apresentou resultados próximos sob T1, T2 e T3 (média 39%). E. inflexa e A. euprepes apresentaram altos índices de dormência que não foram superadas pelos tratamentos propostos. A. bicornis, A. leucostachyus, S. parviflora e C. brownii apresentaram maiores potenciais de germinação, sendo possíveis candidatas para recuperação de áreas degradas no QF. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos complementares com os tratamentos mais eficientes e testes de germinação e estabelecimento em condições de campo. Abstract in english Native grasses are potential species to be used in land rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of better knowledge of their performance, preference is given to exotic plants, which may be invasive and negatively affect the local biodiversity. In order to better understand the propagation of native [...] species of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using their seeds, and in so doing, indicate possible candidates for land rehabilitation, this study investigated the germination patterns of the following grasses: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen; Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, and Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. The spikelets (depending on the species, removing or not the structures that surround the caryopsis) were treated as follows: T1-Control, T2-moistening with 0.2% potassium nitrate, T3-heating at 80 ºC for 2 minutes, T4-scarification with sulfuric acid (except genus Andropogon) and, for genera Andropogon and Setaria T5-storage at room temperature and T6- refrigerated storage. The treatment was repeated four times for 25 caryopses incubated at 25 ºC and constant light. Significant variation was observed when comparing germination rates from week to week, treatment to treatment and species to species. The most efficient treatment for genus Andropogon was T6, followed by T2 for A. bicornis and T3 for A. leucostachyus. T6 was also the most effective treatment for S. parviflora, followed by T5 and T2. C. brownii showed similar results when applying T1, T2 and T3 (mean 39%). E. inflexa and A. euprepes showed high levels of dormancy that were not overcome by the proposed treatments. A. bicornis, A. leucostach

  20. Chemical Compositions and Nutrient Degradation of Elephant Grass Silage Ensiled with Black Tea Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, B.; Mn, Lekitoo; Umiyati

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical compositions and nutrient degradation during ensiling of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage with black tea waste (BTW) addition. Four silage treatments were elephant grass (S0); elephant grass + 100 g BTW/ kg fresh matter (S1); elephant grass + 200 g BTW/kg fresh matter (S2); elephant grass + 300 g BTW/kg fresh matter. About 220 g of silage material were ensiled for 30 days at room temperature (approximately 28°C). Three replicates were prepared...

  1. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. It gives a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  2. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  3. Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (32P, 86Rb and 45Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of 86Rb and 32P

  4. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  5. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon; Kunn Kangvansaichol; Vorakan Burapatana; Ratanavalee Inochanon; Pakorn Winayanuwattikun; Tikamporn Yongvanich; Warawut Chulalaksananukul

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharific...

  6. Phenylephrine eyedrops as a diagnostic test in equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C N; Mayhew, I G

    2000-11-18

    The effect of an ocular administration of the alpha-1 adrenergic agonist phenylephrine was studied in 23 cases of grass sickness and 12 control horses. In the horses with grass sickness there was a significantly greater mean increase in the size of the palpebral fissure, as measured by the change in the angle of the eyelashes to the head observed from a frontal view. PMID:11110481

  7. A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichloë Endophytes of Grasses? †

    OpenAIRE

    Fleetwood, Damien J.; Scott, Barry; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Tanaka, Aiko; Johnson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosyn...

  8. Determination of Nutritional Value of Some Legume and Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Canan Tuna; Levent Coskuntuna; Fisun Koc

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of legumes and grasses for productivity of livestock. Vicia sativa, Pisum arvense, Lathrus sativus, Vicia narbonensis, Dactylis glomerata, Chrysopogon gryllus and Festuca ovina were taken as plant materials from field and rangeland Koseilyas village Tekirdag, Turkey. The results of present examination showed large differences in nutritive value between grass and legumes. The nutritional value and digestibility of forages is related ...

  9. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  10. Grassed swales for stormwater pollution control during rain and snowmelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, M

    2003-01-01

    The retention of suspended solids, particles and heavy metals in different grassed swales during rain events and snowmelt is discussed. The experimental results derived from investigations performed in existing grassed swales in the Luleå region, Northern Sweden. During high pollutant loading rates, grassed swales retain significant amounts of pollutants, mainly due to sedimentation of particulate matter. Low to moderate removal efficiencies could be expected for heavy metals, especially metals in solution (i.e. the dissolved phase). When grassed swales receive urban runoff with low pollutant concentrations, they may release rather than retain pollutants. Swales are important snow deposit areas in the city and particle bound pollutants do to a large extent remain in the swale after snowmelt. However, dissolved pollutants (i.e. dissolved heavy metals) are likely to escape the swale with the melt water. Grassed swales may be regarded as facilities that even out the peaks in pollutant loads without being capable of producing consistent high removal rates. This suggests that swales should be considered as primary treatment devices. Possible design parameters for grassed swales are mean hydraulic detention time, surface loading rate or specific swale area. PMID:14703146

  11. Nitrogen availability from composts for humid region perennial grass and legume-grass forage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D H; Voroney, R P; Warman, P R

    2004-01-01

    Perennial forages may be ideally suited for fertilization with slow N release amendments such as composts, but difficulties in predicting N supply from composts have limited their routine use in forage production. A field study was conducted to compare the yield and protein content of a binary legume-grass forage mixture and a grass monocrop cut twice annually, when fertilized with diverse composts. In all three years from 1998-2000, timothy (Phleum pratense L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and timothy swards were fertilized with ammonium nitrate (AN) at up to 150 and 300 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Organic amendments, applied at up to 600 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in the first two years only, included composts derived from crop residue (CSC), dairy manure (DMC), or sewage sludge (SSLC), plus liquid dairy manure (DM). Treatments DM at 150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and CSC at 600 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) produced cumulative timothy yields matching those obtained for inorganic fertilizer. Apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR) ranged from 0.65% (SSLC) to 15.1% (DMC) for composts, compared with 29.4% (DM) and 36.5% (AN). The legume component (approximately 30%) of the binary mixture acted as an effective "N buffer" maintaining forage yield and protein content consistently higher, and within a narrower range, across all treatments. Integrating compost utilization into livestock systems that use legume-grass mixtures may reduce the risk of large excesses or deficits of N, moderate against potential losses in crop yield and quality, and by accommodating lower application rates of composts, reduce soil P and K accumulation. PMID:15254133

  12. Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L., erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L. e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L. na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1; glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1 e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens.Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Commelina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1; glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1; glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1; glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1; glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1; glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1 and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

  13. Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® / Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleber Daniel de Goes, Maciel; Juliana Parisotto, Poletine; Saulo Leme, Amstalden; Dionísio Luis Piza, Gazziero; Michel Alex, Raimondi; Gesley Ramos Guimarães, Lima; Antônio Mendes de, Oliveira Neto; Naiara, Guerra; Wagner, Justiniano.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate p [...] ara o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1); glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1) e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens. Abstract in english Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Comme [...] lina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1); glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1) and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

  14. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume at saline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in this research was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged in randomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grass monoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grass monoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch; M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed by Duncans Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grass-legume with 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  15. Rhodeps Grass Evaluation - Evaluation of Rhodes Grass Cultivars under Emirates Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, YM.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Six genotypes of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana L. were evaluated for their forage yield and quality under Emirates conditions during 1991/1992. The results revealed no significant differences between Katambora, Callide and Samford which produced significantly higher forage yield than other cultivars. Forage yield of different cuts increased gradually and reached its peak at the fifth cut. Later cuts during summer had the highest forage yield. Percent crude protein decreased while percent crude fiber increased with cuts but the difference was significant only for early cuts. Pioneer, an early flowering genotype, had the lowest protein and the highest crude fiber while the late flowering genotypes performed well.

  16. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Capper, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON), natural (NAT) and grass-fed (GFD) production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data f...

  17. Biomassa e nutrição mineral de forrageiras cultivadas em solos do semiárido adubados com esterco Biomass and mineral nutrition of forage grown in the semi-arid soils fertilized with manure

    OpenAIRE

    Arau?jo, Eduardo R.; Da Silva, Ta?cio O.; Menezes, Ro?mulo S. C.; Fraga, Va?nia Da S.; Sampaio, Everardo V. S. B.

    2011-01-01

    A produção de biomassa e as absorções de N, P e K de quatro espécies forrageiras foram comparadas em três solos representativos da região semi-árida da Paraíba, cultivadas sem e com adubação orgânica. As espécies foram jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus), orelha-de-onça (Macroptilium martii), feijão-de-rolinha (Macroptilium lathyroides) e capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris); os solos foram Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Regolítico e Planossolo Háplico e a adubação foi realizada com e...

  18. Valor nutritivo da vegetação herbácea de caatinga enriquecida e pastejada por ovinos e caprinos Nutritive value of herbaceous vegetation of caatinga enriched and grazed by sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    Marcílio Fontes Cézar; Aderbal Marcos de Azevedo Silva; Nadjanara Souza de Oliveira; José Morais Pereira Filho; Luiza Daiana Araújo da Silva Formiga; Diogo da Costa Soares

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química, digestibilidade e o consumo da vegetação herbácea de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) pastejada por ovinos e caprinos. Foram utilizados 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD) e 12 ovinos Santa Inês com peso vivo médio de 15kg. Os dados da vegetação foram analisados através de delineamento inteiramente casualizado com observações repetidas no tempo, e os de consumo dos animais foram em delineamento inteiram...

  19. High-resolution physical mapping reveals that the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) in Cenchrus ciliaris is located on a heterochromatic and hemizygous region of a single chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yukio; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2005-10-01

    An apomictic mode of reproduction known as apospory is displayed by most buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) genotypes, but rare sexual individuals have been identified. Previously, intraspecific crosses between sexual and aposporous genotypes allowed linkage to be discovered between the aposporous mode of reproduction and nine molecular markers that had been isolated from an aposporous relative, Pennisetum squamulatum. This region was described as the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). We now show an ideogram of the chromosome complement for aposporous tetraploid buffelgrass accession B-12-9 including the ASGR-carrier chromosome. The ASGR-carrier chromosome has a region of hemizygosity, as determined by in situ hybridization of BAC clones and unique morphological characteristics when compared with other chromosomes in the genome. In spite of its unique morphology, the ASGR-carrier chromosome could be identified as one of the chromosomes of a meiosis I quadrivalent. A similar partially hemizygous segment was also detected in the ASGR-carrier chromosome of the aposporous buffelgrass genotype, Higgins, but not in the sexual accession B-2S. Two non-recombining BACs linked to apospory were physically mapped on a highly condensed chromatin region of the short arm of B-12-9, and the distance between the BACs was estimated to be approximately 11 Mbp, a distance similar to what previously has been shown in P. squamulatum. The short arm of the ASGR-carrier chromosome was highly condensed at pachytene and extended only 1.7-2.7 fold that of mitotic chromosomes. Low recombination in the ASGR may partially be due to its localization in heterochromatin. PMID:16133318

  20. Outbreaks of equine grass sickness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, B; Brunthaler, R; Hahn, C; van den Hoven, R

    2012-01-21

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) occurs mainly in Great Britain, but has once been reported in Hungary. The stud which was affected by EGS in 2001 had no new cases until 2009/10, when 11 of 60 and five of 12 one- to three-year-old colts died or were euthanased due to EGS. Following a few hours in the high-risk field during the winter of 2010/11 further four cases of acute EGS were noted among these horses. The affected horses showed somewhat different clinical signs compared with the cases reported in Great Britain. Histopathological findings in these horses were consistent with EGS. In most examined cases carbofuran, a carbamate was found in the liver by toxicological examination, and it is postulated that carbofuran may influence the immune system and therefore predispose the horses to develop EGS. Carbamates are thought to cause a delayed neurotoxicity in human beings. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of carbamates in EGS. PMID:22124026

  1. Development of reed canary grass fuel chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paappanen, T.; Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J.; Impola, R.; Taipale, R.; Leino, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Rinne, S. (YTY-Konsultointi, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), email: samuli.rinne@suomi24.fi; Loetjoenen, T. (AgriFood Research Finland, MTT, Jokioinen (Finland)), email: timo.lotjonen@mtt.fi; Kirkkari, A.-M. (Work Efficiency Institute, TTS, Rajamaeki (Finland)), email: anna-maija.kirkkari@tts.fi

    2009-07-01

    The cultivation area of reed canary grass (RCG) has rapidly increased during last years. In 2008 the total area is estimated to be almost 21,000 ha. Due to experience from RCG there are deficiencies on the harvesting, delivery and use chain, which limit the use of RCG in technical and economical sense. The aim of the project was to improve the competitiveness of RCG as a solid fuel. The targets of development have been harvesting, long-distance transport, crushing and mixing, experiences from use on power plants, combustion, improve the use by pneumatic conveying and cost calculations of production supply chains as well as development of business concepts. Harvesting losses can be reduced by using right and correctly adjusted machines for mowing. The costs of long-distance transport can be lowered by increasing bale densities, if baler adjustments and driving style is correct, using square bales and making transports with largest available trucks. For power plants using sufficient large quantities of RCG, it may be reasonable to build a separate feeding line, which also removes the present fuel handling problems. One aim of the future is to develop the power plant technology, which enables the bale transports directly to the plant. According to combustion tests the use of RCG does not increase fouling and high-temperature corrosion of a boiler, if share is low, 1-2%. Also the properties of ash did not changed when burning RCG. (orig.)

  2. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

  3. Biogas potential in Grasses from Wetlands; Biogaspotential hos vaatmarksgraes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marvin

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study has been to survey wetlands that are suitable for mowing and to analyze the biogas potential in the harvested grasses. A preformed investigation showed that there are suitable wetlands, which can be harvestable, namely those mowed formerly in traditional haymaking. The practice of traditional haymaking is dying out in Sweden today but there are several good reasons why it should to be reconsidered. Nature- and cultural values are obvious, also the unutilized energy in the grass. The suitable types of wetland that were specifically studied were the productive wetlands; meadow marshes and wet meadows. These wetlands are represented in the Swedish meadow- and pasture inventory database; (TUVA) and the Swedish national wetland inventory (VMI). Going through the databases showed that they largely complement each other. A geographical mapping was also carried out of wetlands in relation to areas of interest for the future establishment of biogas plants, so called 'hotspots'. The geographical survey shows that there is ample amount of grass from wetlands within a 30-kilometer radius that can supplement the plants main substrate, manure. The map layer Swedish Ground Cover Data (SMD) together with GIS software was used to analyze the extent of overgrowth for the older VMI objects in Uppsala County, with the result that half of the VMI objects are no longer of interest. They have become either woodland and bogs, or reed beds. There is very little information on wetland-grasses and methane production. Instead, a theory was evaluated regarding the possibility of transforming nutritional values for grass and sedges into biogas potentials. It was shown that this method does not capture the total biogas potential, but offers a minimum value that can be considered rather reliable. The energy transformation showed that late harvested grasses from wetlands has a biogas potential about 0,21 Nm3 methane/ (kg, DM) which is about 60 % of the biogas potential for grass-legume forages. The gas yield after 20 days is also relatively low. It could though be favorable to try grasses from wetlands in methane production, because co-digestion with these grasses and other suitable materials could produce a higher net gas yield for the plant, than using the materials solely by themselves. The derived biogas potential showed that there is at least 4, 4 GWh biogas energy in grasses from wetlands in Uppsala county at a low estimate. Harvesting costs were however shown to be too high in the present to achieve a plus result

  4. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management over temporal aggregation, temporal accumulation, spatio-temporal statistics, spatio-temporal sampling, temporal algebra, temporal topology analysis, time series animation and temporal topology visualization to time series import and export capabilities with support for NetCDF and VTK data formats. We will present several temporal modules that support parallel processing of raster and 3D raster time series. [1] GRASS GIS Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling In Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling, Vol. 2 (2008), pp. 171-199, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74831-19 by M. Neteler, D. Beaudette, P. Cavallini, L. Lami, J. Cepicky edited by G. Brent Hall, Michael G. Leahy [2] Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environ. Model. Softw. 53, 1-12. [3] Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS Intl Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219. [4] Löwe, P., Klump, J., Thaler, J. (2012): The FOSS GIS Workbench on the GFZ Load Sharing Facility compute cluster, (Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-4491, 2012), General Assembly European Geosciences Union (Vienna, Austria 2012). [5] Akhter, S., Aida, K., Chemin, Y., 2010. "GRASS GIS on High Performance Computing with MPI, OpenMP and Ninf-G Programming Framework". ISPRS Conference, Kyoto, 9-12 August 2010

  5. The Park Grass Experiment and next-generation approaches: local adaptation of sweet vernal grass revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wettberg, Eric J B; Vance, Wendy; Rowland, Diane L

    2014-12-01

    Long-term ecological experiments provide unique opportunities to observe the effects of natural selection. The Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted Experiment Station in Hertfordshire, UK, is the longest running ecological experiment that incorporates fertilization treatments and has been ongoing since 1856. In the 1970s, local adaptation was observed in the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum to the elevated soil aluminium levels of the fertilized plots. Gould et al. (2014) have utilized this system to reevaluate the extent of local adaptation, first documented nearly 45 years ago (Snaydon), and to use emerging molecular approaches to identify candidate genes for the adaptation. From their work, they identify several plausible candidate loci for aluminium tolerance. This work shows the power of long-term field-based trials in a scientific age concentrated on rapidly emerging molecular techniques often utilized in short, narrowly focused laboratory or controlled environment experiments. The current study clearly illustrates the benefits gained by combining these molecular approaches within long-term monitoring experiments that can be regularly revisited in a changing world and used to address questions on evolutionary scales. PMID:25532867

  6. Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

  7. How much gas can we get from grass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ? The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg?1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ? We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ? A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH4 kg?1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ? A two phase system achieved 341 L CH4 kg?1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH4 kg?1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH4 kg?1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH4 kg?1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.

  8. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  coordinates, the mean altitude, the mean of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to wood, trees and hedge close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the factors time of: crop and soil damage, wheel load and tire pressure. There was a significant effect of wheel load. At all three times the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key-words Traffic intensities; Tire load/pressure; Clover/grass; Yield loss; 

  9. Evaluation of urinalysis as an aid in the diagnosis of equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintl, C; Milne, E M; McGorum, B C

    2002-12-14

    To determine whether urinalysis can aid the diagnosis of equine grass sickness, samples of urine from 15 horses with acute grass sickness, eight horses with subacute grass sickness, 17 co-grazing horses and 17 stabled control horses were analysed. The samples from all of the horses with grass sickness had a significantly higher specific gravity, higher protein and creatinine concentrations and a significantly lower pH; the samples from the horses with acute grass sickness also had significantly higher glucose concentrations. These differences may support a diagnosis of grass sickness but they are not pathognomonic for the disease. PMID:12509076

  10. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  11. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  12. Rangeland dynamics in southern Ethiopia: (1) botanical composition of grasses and soil characteristics in relation to land-use and distance from water in semi-arid Borana rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Solomon; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2007-10-01

    The distribution and compositional pattern of the grass layer, as well as soil quality of southern Ethiopian semi-arid rangelands were examined under three land-use systems (communal land, government ranch and a traditional grazing reserve enclosure) and along a distance gradient (near, middle and far) from water sources. In total, 49 grass species were identified, 65% of which were perennials. Of the most commonly distributed highly desirable species, Chrysopogon aucheri showed the greatest frequency under the traditional grazing reserve (27.6%), and the lowest in the communal land (14.0%). The frequency of Cenchrus ciliaris was similar in all the study sites. The proportion of Lepthotrium senegalensis was low under the land-use systems (3.9%) and increased away from water sources (2.3%). Of the less desirable species, Sporobulus nervosus was extremely more abundant (0.05) frequency percentages under the land-use systems and along the distance gradients from water. Basal cover was low and similar on all the study sites (3.3%). Concerning the soil texture, sand (71.1%) constituted the largest proportion, followed by silt (21.3%) and lastly, clay (7.7%). With regard to soil exchangeable cations, organic C and total nitrogen were generally low and did not show marked variation in all the study sites. The study showed significant differences for most of the vegetation variables between the communal land and the other land-uses. This suggested that grazing intensity was higher in the communal land and moderate in the government ranch and in the traditional grazing reserves (kallos). The lack of significant differences in most of the studied (vegetation) variables along the distance gradient from water could be ascribed to the fact that grazing disturbance has already exceeded a certain threshold of degradation. Under the present low states of soil nutrients and rainfall, cultivation is neither sustainable nor environmentally friendly and this will lead to further degradation of the soil in these marginal lands. PMID:17129661

  13. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  14. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Orby, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in Aarhus - a twin peak profile during the early season, a single evening profile during the middle of the season, and a single midday peak during the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that it was driven by a succession of different grass species with different diurnal flowering patterns dominating atmospheric pollen loads as the season progressed. The potential for exposure was found to be significantly greater during the late-season period than during either the early - or mid-season periods.

  15. Intercropping with grasses helps to reduce iron chlorosis in olive

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C, Cañasveras; M. C, del Campillo; V, Barrón; J, Torrent.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are more efficient than dicots in acquiring Fe from calcareous soils. We studied whether intercropping with grasses alleviates Fe chlorosis in olive and whether the effect persists in succeeding dicot crops. Three different pot experiments were conducted. In the first, olive plants were inte [...] rcropped with 6 different grass species (purple false brome, annual ryegrass, compact brome, goatgrass, barley and red fescue); in the second, the two species best performing in the previous experiment were studied in various calcareous soils and; in the third, chickpea and peanut were grown in pots previously used to cultivate the two grasses. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley increased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and/or boosted growth of olive trees on three different calcareous soils. Olive growth was adversely affected by intercropping in one soil as a result of competition for water. Intercropping increased Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn leaf contents in olive. Also, grass cropping generally raised available levels of soil Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn; this effect, however, resulted in no substantial alleviation of Fe chlorosis in succeeding chickpea or peanut crops. Intercropping with purple false brome and barley appears to be a promising remedy for Fe chlorosis in olive orchards affected by Fe chlorosis.

  16. Grasses – a potential sustainable resource for biocrude production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different types of grasses available in Denmark using a GIS (Geographical Information System) based approach and to supplement these with biofuel potential maps based on HtL conversion. Biomass yields (t/ha) and biofuel energy equivalent (GJ/ha) are mapped as function of the type of grassland area (permanent, roadside, grass sown in crop rotation systems) using 2012 databases made available by Jordbrugs Analyser Portal and Danmarks Miljøportal. Grasses have become a promising lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production due to the low cost factor and lack of competition with food crops. They can be used as whole input, or as a residue after protein extraction. In order to determine the production potential of biofuels based on HtL conversion and to establish at the same time the optimum conditions for the HtL process that could lead to a high bio-crude yield and a high quality of the bio-crude using grasses as feedstock a series of experiments with meadow grass have been carried out in a batch reactor. Biomass input and liquefaction products are characterized using proximate analysis, elemental analysis, heating values, FTIR, GC/MS. Data is subject to a multivariate analysis based on the different parameters used during the hydrothermal liquefaction process (temperature, heating rate, pressure, composition, bio-crude yield). Keywords: biomass resources, biomass potential, GIS, hydrothermal liquefaction, production potential of biofuels!

  17. Nitrogen cycle in pure grass and grass/legume pastures. Evaluation of pasture sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact on pasture sustainability of the introduction of a forage legume (Desmodium ovalifolium) into a Brachiaria humidicola pasture, studies of the contribution of legume N2 fixation, litter recycling, the plant material on offer and the animal live weight gain were made on grazed pure grass and mixed pastures at three different grazing pressures at the CEPLAC field station at Itabela in the Atlantic forest region of souther Bahia. The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to D. ovalifolium was estimated to be approximately 50% of plant N in a satellite experiment using the 15N isotope dilution technique. Evaluation of the plant material on offer showed that the proportion of legume in the mixed swards ranged between 39% (at the lowest stocking rate of two animals/ha) and 16 and 2% (three and four animals/ha, respectively). The total contribution of BNF was calculated at 74, 28 and 3 kg N·ha·a-1 for the three stocking rates, respectively. Litter deposition varied little between the different treatments, but the N content of the litter was considerably higher in the mixed sward and was considerably lower at the highest stocking rate in both pastures. Analysis of the 13C isotopic abundance of the soil organic matter showed that 5 years after establishment of the pure B. humidicola pasture, approximately 27% of the soil carbon was derived from grass at a depth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportipth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportion (20%) was derived from grass at 5-15 cm. Analysis of the 13C abundance of cattle faeces indicated that the proportion of legume consumed by cattle in the mixed sward was between 10 and 37%. The data indicate that selection of an appropriate grazing pressure can greatly influence recycling. Therefore, presumably pasture sustainability and the introduction of a legume in the pasture are beneficial to both animal production and pasture sustainability. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Grass lignin acylation: p-coumaroyl transferase activity and cell wall characteristics of C3 and C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Ronald D; Marita, Jane M; Frost, Kenneth; Grabber, John; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Kim, Hoon

    2009-05-01

    Grasses are a predominant source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Grasses with high lignin content have lower energy conversion efficiencies for production of bioenergy either in the form of ethanol or to milk and meat through ruminants. Grass lignins are uniquely acylated with p-coumarates (pCA), resulting from the incorporation of monolignol p-coumarate conjugates into the growing lignin polymer within the cell wall matrix. The required acyl-transferase is a soluble enzyme (p-coumaroyl transferase, pCAT) that utilizes p-coumaroyl-CoenzymeA (pCA-CoA) as the activated donor molecule and sinapyl alcohol as the preferred acceptor molecule. Grasses (C3and C4) were evaluated for cell wall characteristics; pCA, lignin, pCAT activity, and neutral sugar composition. All C3 and C4 grasses had measurable pCAT activity, however the pCAT activities did not follow the same pattern as the pCA incorporation into lignin as expected. PMID:19288269

  19. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater. PMID:23488000

  20. The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu?kovi? Savo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds. The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

  1. Equine grass sickness: epidemiology, diagnosis, and global distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Claire E; Proudman, Chris J

    2009-08-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) is recognized as a debilitating and predominantly fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting grazing equids. The gastrointestinal tract is the most severely affected body system, resulting in the main clinical signs of colic (acute grass sickness), weight loss, or dysphagia (chronic grass sickness). EGS predominantly occurs within Great Britain, although it is also recognized in regions of mainland Europe, and mainly affects young horses with access to pasture in the springtime. There is strong evidence of an association between EGS and the type C toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. This article covers the clinical aspects, epidemiology, and global distribution of EGS, along with comparisons with botulism and developments in disease prevention. PMID:19580947

  2. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these histopathological lesions were absent in all the groups in all the organs. But after 96 hours, these respective lesions in respective organs were usually of mild, moderate and severe nature in groups B, C and D, respectively. It was concluded that mercury intoxication not only resulted in marked histopathological changes and abnormal clinical signs but also depressed growth rate of fish.

  3. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  4. Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, A. A. A.; Scheper, J. A.; Benvenutti, M. A.; Gordon, I. J.; Poppi, D. P.; Elgersma, A.

    2011-01-01

    The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and leaves. This study (i) quantified and compared the tensile fracture properties of stems and leaves of seven tropical grass species and (ii) provided insight into the underlying plant traits that expla...

  5. Changes in grass-weed seedbanks in relation to crops and rotations

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Belo; Dias, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Forage, chikpea, medics, wheat, oilseed rape, and sunflower were cultivated during four years as part of ten different types of rotation which always included wheat. Grass-weed seedbanks were evaluated annually before seeding. The single most important reason for the control of grass-weed seedbanks or its failure seems to be the effectiveness of above-groud grass-weed control.

  6. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Development of sound technologies of biomass conversion will be increasingly important for many years to come as planetary bounderies drive the development towards a biobased society. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is, in this regard, an essential technology. Current pretreatment methods, based on severe physio-chemical processes, are effective, however, they are also costly and energy demanding. An alternative biological pretreatment method, based on the well-known biomass preservation of ensiling, has been proposed. Ensiling holds potential as an integrated storage and pretreatment method with low cost and low energy requirements, plus brings about multiple advantages with regards to agricultural management. However, the pretreatment effect of ensiling, and the overall effects for further conversion are limited. In this study, ensiling was evaluated as a method of pretreatment for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project was devoted to method development. This resulted in the development of a simple and flexible standard method forlaboratory ensilingwith a high reproducibility,which is well suited for high-throughput experiments.   A comprehensive study on important parameters in ensiling was conducted to find optimal conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however, insignificant. Cellulose conversion was noted to be largely determined by the stage of maturity of the four different cuts of grass. Less mature grass had high convertibility but less amount of cellulose and vice versa. This led to the conclusion that an optimal maturity of grass can be found, which gives an optimal glucose release. However, limitations of the method were also noted. The ensiling of grass came with a considerable loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), which was in fact higher than the improved glucose release. Furthermore, the amount of released glucose was not adequate to support an efficient production of ethanol. Lastly, the conversion of xylan was extremely low in both grass and grass silage. Optimization of the enzymatic saccharification of grass was attempted through improvement of the hemicellulase content in the enzyme blend. However, neither additional xylanases (Cellic HTec2® and ß-xylosidase) nor hemicellulose degrading esterases (acetyl xylan esterase and ferulic acid esterase) showed any improvements of xylan or glucan convertibility. Furthermore, hemicellulases were added before ensiling in order to assist and improve the pretreatment effect. This resulted in, however, the undesired effect that additionally released monosaccharides were utilized during storage and had a negative impact on sugar release after enzymatic saccharification. In both of the above mentioned experiments on optimization ofsugar release by means of enzymes, it was noted that the hemicellulose structure of Festulolium Hykor appeared unusually resistant to enzymatic degradation. Due to the low conversion results on Festulolium Hykor, the last part of the project was based on a new tenet: Ensiling can not provide sufficient pretreatment effect to be a stand-alone pretreatment method. Ensiling was therefore combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT), and the pretreatment combination was applied to both grass (Festulolium  Hykor) and whea

  7. Genetic and molecular basis of grass cell-wall biosynthesis and degradability. III. Towards a forage grass ideotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, John; Guillaumie, Sabine; Grabber, John H; Lapierre, Catherine; Barrière, Yves

    2004-05-01

    Lignification of cell walls is the major factor controlling the digestibility of forage grasses. Thus far, from QTL analysis, about 15 locations involved in cell-wall lignification or digestibility have been identified in the maize genome, many of which colocalise with QTLs involved in corn borer susceptibility. Genetic diversity for enhancing cell-wall digestibility in maize must be identified in novel germplasm, but genetic engineering is also a relevant way both to design specific cell-wall characteristics for improved digestibility and to identify genes involved in these traits for further discovery of alleles of interest in grass germplasm. PMID:15255477

  8. Senescence, dormancy and tillering in perennial C4 grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial, temperate, C4 warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus have been tabbed as sources of herbaceous biomass for the production of green fuels and chemicals based on a number of positive agronomic traits. Although there is important literature on the management of these specie...

  9. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Priolo, A.; Berdague?, J. L.; Lanza, M.; Kondjoyan, N.; Micol, D.; Krogmann, M.; Cornu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003) have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole) have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997)...

  10. PERENNIAL GRASS BREEDING PROGRAM FOR FORAGE AND BIOFUELS - TIFTON, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage improvement of bermudagrass and bahiagrass continues within the Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit of USDA/ARS. Recently, a new effort has begun within the unit toward developing perennial grass crops as feedstocks for bio-energy in the Southeast. An emphasis beginning three years ago...

  11. Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using panicum maximum forage grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Chavan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum Jacq (Guinea grass is an important multicut forage grass with ease of propagation, fast growth available at local level and high quality forage for livestock. This grass is a biotic resource, due to its several properties grass. It is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Panicum maximum was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. Designed Angular Horizontal Subsurface type constructed wetland for the treatment of sewage was used for recycling and reuses. The samples of sewage with different dilutions viz. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% were tested for the treatment. Results reveal that pH range was changed from 6.79 to 7.10, maximum reduction of E.C was 25.14 % at 80%, TSS by 48.70%, TDS by 55.73 %, TS by 54.31 %, COD by 61.05 %, BOD by 59.25 %, NO3 by 69.32%, PO4 by 48.10% and SO4 by 41.48% respectively. The colour and odour were removed resulting into clear water.

  12. Neurological disorders in sheep during signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A S; Noordin, M M; Rajion, M A

    1989-04-01

    Severe neurological dysfunction was observed in sheep 4 weeks after grazing on Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens). These neurological disorders included the stamping of forelegs, star-gazing, incoordination, head-pressing against the fence and circling movements. Histologically, numerous vacuolations of various sizes were observed in the white matter of the brain giving rise to a spongy appearance. PMID:2929118

  13. MR imaging of cervical disc disease; Value of GRASS imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Akino, Minoru; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Isu, Toyohiko; Abe, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Matsuzawa, Hitoshi; Nomura, Mikio; Saitoh, Hisatoshi

    1990-02-01

    Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology has been greatly improved, MRI for cervical disc disease has become widely used in many facilities. Among non-invasive procedures, MRI is regarded as one of the most useful ones. Conventional myelography, CT myelography, and MRI were performed on 10 patients with cervical disc disease. The authors discussed the correlation between conventional myelography, CT myelography, and MRI as regards their ability to determine the localization and the laterality of disc protrusion and osteophyte. In our MRI study, we use both short-echo (SE) images and GRASS images. The parameters of our GRASS included 5 mm-thick sections. TR=200, TE=20, and flip angles of 10deg. This pulse sequence generates images with high signal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in a high-contrast CSF-spinal cord, osteophyte, and disc protrusion. As yet, although it easily shows the localization and laterality of the disc and/or osteophyte, image quality of the GRASS is not yet sufficient to allow us to evaluate detailed deformity of the spinal cord and nerve root. The authors stress the usefulness of this GRASS image for the evaluation of suspected cervical disc disease. (author).

  14. Grass-roots approach: developing qualified nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees

  15. Salt flat and salt grass habitat at the Mojave desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-06

    The salt flat/ grass habitat provides shade and shelter for desert organisms. This habitat is found at a higher elevation than the sand and rock habitats and has slightly cooler temperatures and more moisture, which accounts for the abundance of vegetation.

  16. GRACE Notes: A Grass Roots Art and Community Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Alice

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I use data collected from research conducted in the summer of 2001 at the Grass Roots Arts and Community Effort (GRACE) in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont. I present case studies of artists with developmental disabilities, who along with other isolated groups, are considered to be Outsider Artists. I begin the article by defining…

  17. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  18. Roundball Geography: A Successful Grass Roots Geographic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William H.; Dawsey, Cyrus B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a grass-roots geographic education program that combines the efforts of elementary school teachers, Auburn University (Alabama), and a local newspaper. Explains that the program is designed as an alternative to existing curriculum materials. Discusses how geographic themes are illustrated in a way that takes advantage of local interest…

  19. Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conservation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass, a warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soil by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season grasses

  20. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja / Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L.L., Barroso; H.A., Dan; S.O., Procópio; R.E.B., Toledo; C.R., Sandaniel; G.B.P., Braz; K.L., Cruvinel.

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchr [...] us echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones), applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinat [...] us in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 ), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 ), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 ), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 ), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 ) and control (no herbicide). In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

  1. Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Alves de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit, durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan. Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d; e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d. Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B. Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

  2. Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit) durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos / Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Alves de, Souza; Gastão Barreto, Espíndola.

    1424-14-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit), durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L) ou em pastagem consorciada [...] de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan). Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d); e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d). Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D) apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B). Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

  3. Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

  4. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  5. Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass) in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Plascencia, A.; Alvarez, E. G.; Zinn, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass) on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB): 1) 49% alfalfa hay; 2) 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3) 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4) 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB). In trial 1, four lactating Holstein co...

  6. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens, and Dactylis glomerata were the only important grass weeds with a declining frequency during the six years. Vulpia spp. has recently become a significant problem in red fescue for seed production, and a significant increased frequency was seen during the study period. However, the study also showed that Vulpia spp. is primarily a problem in red fescue crops established in the autumn, whereas spring establishment of red fescue almost solves the problem with this primarily autumn-germinating grass weed.

  7. Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edilane Aparecida da, Silva; Wilson Jesus da, Silva; Antônio Carlos, Barreto; Antonio Barbosa de, Oliveira Junior; José Mauro Valente, Paes; José Reinaldo Mendes, Ruas; Domingos Sávio, Queiroz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu [...] ), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85). The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE). The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

  8. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintater fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300 kg. cow liveweight loss can be avoided; instead a liveweight gain of 51 kg per cow annually will be accumulated. Overall, The productivity of the diminishing land area per Kenyan would be expected to increase

  9. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Yee Liong; Rasmina Halis,; Oi Ming Lai; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks wit...

  10. Autonomic neurone degeneration in equine dysautonomia (grass sickness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogson, D M; Doxey, D L; Gilmour, J S; Milne, E M; Chisholm, H K

    1992-10-01

    Histological investigations were undertaken on four sympathetic autonomic ganglia and on the myenteric and sub-mucosal plexuses of the jejunum in healthy animals, in naturally occurring cases of acute, sub-acute and chronic equine dysautonomia and in ponies in which neuronal damage had been induced by the injection of acute grass sickness sera. The degree of neuronal damage is related to the type of dysautonomia. The coeliac-mesenteric ganglion reacts differently from other ganglia and is less severely damaged in cases of short duration. Extensive experimentally induced damage to the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion, even when jejunal damage is also present, is not associated with clinical illness. It is proposed that the rate of autonomic neurone loss and the extent of the damage may both influence the clinical manifestations of grass sickness. PMID:1469124

  11. Leporine dysautonomia: further evidence that hares suffer from grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, I R; Whitwell, K E

    1993-04-10

    The recently described dysautonomia of hares has many similarities to equine grass sickness, particularly when the autonomic ganglia of affected hares and horses are compared by light microscopy. This study shows that the ultrastructural findings are also similar, with a loss of ribosomes from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and distension of its cisternae; the Golgi apparatus is not recognisable in affected neurons. Membranous stacks were identified in autonomic neurons of affected hares, a feature not characteristic of equine grass sickness but often found in feline dysautonomia. Staining with wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin recognising Golgi membranes, showed a lack of reactivity in affected neurons again suggesting a lack of a normal Golgi apparatus. PMID:8488648

  12. Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio

    2009-12-18

    The role of starchy plants in early hominin diets and when the culinary processing of starches began have been difficult to track archaeologically. Seed collecting is conventionally perceived to have been an irrelevant activity among the Pleistocene foragers of southern Africa, on the grounds of both technological difficulty in the processing of grains and the belief that roots, fruits, and nuts, not cereals, were the basis for subsistence for the past 100,000 years and further back in time. A large assemblage of starch granules has been retrieved from the surfaces of Middle Stone Age stone tools from Mozambique, showing that early Homo sapiens relied on grass seeds starting at least 105,000 years ago, including those of sorghum grasses. PMID:20019285

  13. Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organized by the Museum for African Art, New York, and presented online by the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art, Grass Roots is a history of 300 years of African basket making, brought by African people to the American South. The grasses that grow in the marshes along the Atlantic coast in the Southern United States, where African slaves were brought to work on rice plantations, were ideal for making coiled baskets, similar to the ones they'd made in Africa. The plantation system of rice growing required large numbers of several particular shapes of work baskets, including flat trays for winnowing, or removing chaff from the grain, and carrying baskets. The web resource includes an 86-page teachers' guide with activities for students from grades 3 - 12, and additional images of the baskets.

  14. Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Medianeira, Machado; Marta Gomes da, Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de, Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato, Confortin; Aline Bosak dos, Santos; Maria José de Oliveira, Sichonany; Laila Arruda, Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da, Rosa.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrog [...] en (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

  15. The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

  16. Spatiotemporal Variation in the Environmental Controls of C4-Grass Origin and Ecology: Insights from Grass-Pollen ?13C Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. M.; Urban, M.; Hu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the environmental factors controlling the origin and shifting abundance of C4 grasses in Earth's history is useful for projecting the response of C4-grass dominated grasslands to future environmental change. Unfortunately, grass pollen is typically morphologically indistinct, making palynological analysis a blunt tool for studying C4-grasses in the paleorecord. ?13C of individual grass-pollen grains using a spooling wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis, SPIRAL) overcomes this challenge and the potential biases of ?13C data from other substrates (e.g. leaf waxes). To assess the presence and relative abundance of C3- and C4-grass pollen in samples of unknown composition, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model, trained with ~1,900 ?13C values from pollen grains of 31 grass species. Surface-sediment data from Africa, Australia, and North America demonstrate the reliability of this technique for quantifying C4-grass abundance on the landscape. To investigate the timing and control of the origin of C4-grasses we analyzed samples from the Oligocene-Miocene from Europe and from the Eocene from North America. Results indicate that C4 grasses appeared on the landscape of southwest Europe no later than the early Oligocene, implying that low atmospheric pCO2 may not have been the main driver and/or precondition for the development of C4 photosynthesis in the grass family. In contrast, we found no evidence for C4 grasses in the southeast United States before pCO2 fell. In application of SPIRAL to the late Quaternary, we found that shifts in pCO2 and moisture balance exerted key controls on the relative abundance of C3 and C4 grasses in Africa and Australia. Overall, our results imply that as in the past, future changes in the C3/C4 composition of grass-dominated ecosystems will likely exhibit striking spatiotemporal variability as a result of differing combinations of environmental controls.

  17. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  18. Adaptive evolution of chloroplast genomes in ancestral grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Masami; Zhong, Bojian; Zhong, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The grass family, Poaceae, is one of the most successful families among angiosperms. Although it has long been suggested that the chloroplast genomes of the Poaceae have undergone an elevated evolutionary rate compared to other angiosperms, little was known about the details of this phenomenon. By using chloroplast genome data from 31 seed plants species, we recently showed that episodic rate acceleration occurred in the common ancestral branch of the core Poaceae (a clade formed by rice Oryz...

  19. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  20. Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; PEDRO E GUNDEL; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence...

  1. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  2. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

  3. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygrothermal performance in the field, four test walls have been built. The relative humidity and temperature in the constructions have been measured during a winter period and are presented in this paper.

  4. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygrothermal performance in the field, four test walls have been built. The relative humidity and temperature in the constructions have been measured during a winter period and are presented in this paper.

  5. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

  6. Study of some biochemical parameters in the grass carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina-Ioana Cojocaru

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigations were devoted to some biochemical parameters (glycogen, catalase, alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferase in three summer-old representatives of grass carp, at the level of the hepatic and muscular tissue. The results obtained evidenced significant differences between the tissues under analysis, both in the concentration of the main reserve polyglucides, as a supplier of circulating glucose, and in the enzymatic activity, in close correlation with the physiological and biochemical role of each tissue in part.

  7. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induced sexuality in this apomictic grass. Sexual strains were isolated and selected individuals were crossed. Polycross and recurrent single cross methods allowed restoring apomixis. The resulting apomictic strains showed excellent traits and transgressed hereditary potentials of parental components. The method is described of breeding and the productivity of individual breeding techniques is discussed. It is shown that the number of strains should be reduced and the most productive strains should be used for the formation of synthetic cultivars. (author)

  8. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  9. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

    2005-12-01

    Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges. PMID:15964059

  10. EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

    2008-11-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site. PMID:19297989

  11. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  12. Development of a sublingual allergy vaccine for grass pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Frati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati1,2, Silvia Scurati1, Paola Puccinelli1, Marie David3, Cecile Hilaire4, Maurizio Capecce4, Francesco Marcucci2, Cristoforo Incorvaia51Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2University Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Perugia, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Grass pollen is a very common cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The only treatment targeting the underlying causes of allergy is immunotherapy (IT. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT has been introduced to solve the problem of systemic reactions to subcutaneous IT (SCIT. This article evaluates the characteristics of the allergen extract, Staloral, in terms of practical administration, effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of action. Efficacy data were obtained from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies using Staloral in patients sensitized to grass pollen, while practical administration, cost-effectiveness, and mechanism of action data were provided by well designed studies. The efficacy and safety of Staloral, as demonstrated by review of published studies which used doses up to 1125 times those administered with SCIT, shows that this allergen extract has optimal characteristics for treating patients with seasonal allergies due to grass pollens. The main mechanism of action is the interaction between dendritic cells of the oral mucosa and the subsequent tolerance induced in T-cells.Keywords: allergen extracts, high-dose, efficacy, safety, sublingual immunotherapy

  13. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  14. Ergot alkaloids in Norwegian wild grasses: a mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Silvio; Vikøren, Turid; Ivanova, Lada; Handeland, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins which are produced among fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae. Poisoning with ergot alkaloids is an important veterinary problem in animal husbandry and has recently also been recognised in wild animals. While the poisoning syndrome observed in domestic animals such as cattle, horses and sheep is usually caused by endophyte-infected grass, the recently observed ergotism among Norwegian cervids is probably due to infection of wild grasses with Claviceps. Mass spectrometry is today the method of choice for the rapid qualitative and quantitative determination of many natural compounds. This study uses tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry as well as ion trap mass spectrometry in connection with electrospray(+) ionisation for the quantification, screening and fragmentation of ergot alkaloids in extracts from Claviceps sclerotia that had been picked from wild grasses from several locations in Norway. Ergotamine, ergovaline, ergonovine and ergocryptine were available as standards and were quantified in the extracts, while ergocrystine, ergocornine, ergonine/ergosine, lysergic acid and lysergol were identified on the basis of their molecular weights and semi-quantified. Ergocrystine dominated the alkaloid spectrum of most extracts. Levels of the quantified alkaloids were in the range 0.2-9300 microg/g. Several unknown ergot alkaloids were found in the extracts. MS(n) experiments identified some as simple lysergic acid amide derivatives, while othes are probably related to ergocrystine and ergocryptine by dehydration, dehydrogenation and/or amino acid substitution at R(1) of the peptide moiety. PMID:17465016

  15. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

  16. Microwave backscattering and emission model for grass canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Levine, David M.; Lang, Roger H.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave radar and radiometer measurements of grasslands indicate a substantial reduction in sensor sensitivity to soil moisture in the presence of a thatch layer. When this layer is wet it masks changes in the underlying soil, making the canopy appear warm in the case of passive sensors (radiometer) and decreasing backscatter in the active case (scatterometer). A model for a grass canopy with thatch will be presented in this paper to explain this behavior and to compare with observations. The canopy model consists of three layers: grass, thatch, and the underlying soil. The grass blades are modeled by elongated elliptical discs and the thatch is modeled as a collection of disk shaped water droplets (i.e., the dry matter is neglected). The ground is homogeneous and flat. The distorted Born approximation is used to compute the radar cross section of this three layer canopy and the emissivity is computed from the radar cross section using the Peake formulation for the passive problem. Results are computed at L-band (1.4 GHz) and C-band (4.75 GHz) using canopy parameters (i.e., plant geometry, soil moisture, plant moisture, etc.) representative of Konza Prairie grasslands. The results are compared to C-band scatterometer measurements and L-band radiometer measurements at these grasslands.

  17. Revising Himself : Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    An impressive feat of literary collation, the Library of Congress presents this exhibition on Walt Whitman, probably America's first superstar author, and Whitman's book of poetry, _Leaves of Grass_. Initially published in 1855, _Leaves of Grass_ contained 12 poems. Whitman continuously revised it until his death in 1892, when it contained 400 poems. The poet added new poems, renamed older ones, reworded lines, changed punctuation, and regrouped poems (through the 1881 edition), as well as inventing typography, and posing for frontispiece portraits wearing various styles of clothing and props. (front and back views of a cardboard butterfly that Whitman posed with in 1877 are included in the show). The exhibition traces this evolution of _Leaves of Grass_ and Whitman's life, as a poet and a person, from the first appearance of the lines "I am the poet of the body, And I am the poet of the soul" in a notebook dating 1847-1950s, to the final "Deathbed edition" of 1891-1892. A wealth of interesting biographical material on Whitman, his friends and associates, his work as a teacher, tending the wounded during the Civil War, and for the federal government, also appears in the exhibit.

  18. An Invasive Grass Species Alters Carbon Cycling in Hawaiian Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, C. M.; Sandquist, D. R.; Cordell, S.

    2004-12-01

    At lower elevations on the leeward side of the island of Hawaii, remnant native forests are heavily invaded by an introduced African bunchgrass, Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass). Our research is designed to determine the consequences of this invasion for carbon (C) cycling in Hawaiian dry forests. We examined above- and belowground C pools and fluxes in 400 m2 replicated forest plots (n = 4) with fountain grass (grass plots) and in areas where fountain grass had been removed for ˜3 years (removal plots). C pools were estimated with direct sampling and allometric equations developed in situ for the dominant tree species. Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was estimated as aboveground biomass increment plus litterfall minus loss from mortality (trees) and with clip plots (grass and herbaceous species); total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) was estimated using a conservation of mass, C balance approach. Our results indicate that the invasion of a non-native grass in this ecosystem has considerable impacts on both C pools and fluxes. Aboveground, tree biomass did not differ between treatments (P = 0.57) but the presence of fountain grass led to a 7.5-fold increase in understory biomass in grass plots compared to removal plots (P grass plots, respectively; P = 0.02) and wood (0.13 and 0.05 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P grass ANPP was ˜35% greater than tree foliage productivity in grass plots. Despite this added foliar productivity, total ANPP (Tree + Grass ANPP) was significantly higher in removal plots (P = 0.04). Belowground, grass plots exhibited higher rates of soil-surface CO2 efflux (1.09 and 1.38 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P = 0.03 ). Likewise, TBCA was significantly higher in grass plots (1.21 kg C m-2 yr-1) than in removal plots (0.97 kg C m-2 yr-1; P = 0.04). Tropical dry forests globally, and Hawaiian dry forests in particular, are among the most threatened terrestrial ecosystems. Our results indicate that the presence of an invasive, non-native grass species changes both ecosystem structure and function in these forests. These changes in above- and belowground C pools and fluxes are particularly important in light of the ubiquitous presence of invasive species in most terrestrial ecosystems and the need for a better understanding of the role that they will play in global C cycling and climate change.

  19. Effect of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice on lipid profile of normal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Saroj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Fresh grass juice administration produced dose related significant (P < 0.05 reduction in total chloesterol,triglycerides,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in normal rats as compared to control.Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids,tannins, saponins and sterols in Triticum aestivum grass. Conclusion: The results of the present study lndicate hypolipidemic activity of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice.

  20. A grass–fire cycle eliminates an obligate-seeding tree in a tropical savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, David M. J. S.; Macdermott, Harry J.; Nichols, Scott C.; Murphy, Brett P.

    2014-01-01

    A grass–fire cycle in Australian tropical savannas has been postulated as driving the regional decline of the obligate-seeding conifer Callitris intratropica and other fire-sensitive components of the regional flora and fauna, due to proliferation of flammable native grasses. We tested the hypothesis that a high-biomass invasive savanna grass drives a positive feedback process where intense fires destroy fire-sensitive trees, and the reduction in canopy cover facilitates further invasion by...

  1. Genetic diversity in Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars: implications for breeding and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjala, Bramwel W.; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N.; Muchugi, Alice; Mulaa, Margaret; Harvey, Jagger; Skilton, Robert A.; Proud, Janice; Hanson, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Napier grass is an important forage for smallholder dairy farms. However, there has been a comparatively low effort to improve Napier grass. It is necessary to strengthen forage breeding programs for development of cultivars with superior traits like. With a high rich gene pool; correct identification of Napier grass accessions is a prerequisite because the existing germplasm information is scanty and cannot be relied upon for crop improvement. Thus the genetic assessment of various Napier gr...

  2. Silica accumulation in grasses in response to a large scale herbivore exclosure experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz Jusdado, Juan German

    2011-01-01

    Silica defenses in grasses have been recently proposed to be important for plant-herbivore interactions. High silica levels in grasses have been found to have a negative impact on herbivores performance and act as an herbivory deterrent. Moreover, accumulation of silica has been proposed to be inducible, i.e. highly grazed grasses accumulate silica in their leaves. In order to assess whether silica induction is an important mechanism of plant-herbivore interactions also in sub-arctic ecosyste...

  3. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia grass silage quality on family farms

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vrani?; Mladen Kneževi?; Goran Per?ulija; Josip Leto; Krešimir Bošnjak; Ivana Rupi?

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004) Over last 15 years, grass silage become of the same importance in dairy cows nutrition as other traditionally conserved forage in Croatia. In this paper the nutritive value of grass silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension s...

  4. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo M. Sousa; Pâmela S. Silva; Lyderson F. Viccini

    2010-01-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous...

  5. Effect of grass-clover on the ecosystem services soil structure maintenance and water regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eekeren, N.J.M., van; Bokhorst, J.G.; Brussaard, L.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    White clover has a lower root biomass and a higher abundance of earthworms than grass. This might have an impact on the ecosystem services soil structure maintenance and water regulation when white clover is introduced in the grassland on organic dairy farms. We investigated the root biomass, the abundance of earthworms and a selection of soil physical parameters in white clover, grass-clover, and grass with and without N fertilizer. The treatment with clover-only had a lower root biomass, a ...

  6. Causes of variation in fatty acid content and composition in grass and maize silages

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, N A; Cone, J.W.; Fievez, V.; Hendriks, W H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the variation in fatty acid (FA) content and composition in grass and maize silages and to identify key management factors during plant growth and the ensiling process that cause this variation. Samples of grass (n = 101) and maize (n = 96) silages were randomly collected from commercial dairy farms in The Netherlands in 2007 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was computed on data related to agronomic conditions, harvest-maturity, wilting management (grass o...

  7. Testing the recoverability of grass DNA transferred to textiles for forensic purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Francesc Francès

    2010-01-01

    Botanical evidence such as grass stains on textiles is sometimes present in the crime scene and can allow investigators to establish an association between persons linked to the criminal event and the crime scene. In this study, extraction of grass DNA from stains on textiles was undertaken. DNA extraction was performed on four grass species conserved both indoors and outdoors for 7, 14 and 30 days after staining. Once the extracted DNA was quantified, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplif...

  8. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants.

    OpenAIRE

    Os, M. van

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products present in the silage. These include organic acids (lactic acid, volatile fatty acids) and N-containing fermentation products (ammonia (NH 3 ) and amines). The impact of N-containing fermentation products, notabl...

  9. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affects the grass yield negatively and more than the tire pressure

  10. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10?2 d L?1 and 4.6 × 10?2 d L?1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10?2 d L?1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10?3 d L?1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of 137Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y?1 and 0.04 ?Sv y?1,while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y?1 and 0.05 ?Sv y?1, respectively. -- Highlights: • This is a detailed study on Fv and Fm for 137Cs and stable Cs around the Kaiga nuclear power plant, India. • The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. • The Fm value for 137Cs for the local breed cows was estimated to be 2.4 × 10?2 d L?1. • The Fm value for dairy farm cows (4.0 × 10?3 d L?1) was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. • The reasons for the higher Fm values for 137Cs for the local breed cows are identified

  11. Chemical Composition of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at Different Stages of Growth and Napier Grass Silages with Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Aganga, A. A.; Omphile, U. J.; Thema, T.; Baitshotlhi, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum) cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m). They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increa...

  12. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done using a suction sampler worn on the chest or lapel that measures breathing zone concentration; a more useful exposure parameter for pollen allergy sufferers is the amount of pollen inhaled, i.e. the dose. The objective of this study was to investigate how well monitoring station data reflect actual exposure, something that is currently not well understood. Methods: Exposure samples were collected during the 2011 grass pollen season in an area of abundant unmaintained grass coverage close to the centre of Aarhus, Denmark. Sampling was performed at two-hourly intervals between 12:00 and 20:00 on 14 separate days whilst walking a set route. Journey times were in the region of 28 minutes. Nasal Air Samplers (small impaction devices worn inside the nostrils that capture inhaled particles) were used. The number of inhaled grass pollen grains was counted under a light microscope and compared with concurrent concentrations recorded at a nearby roof level pollen monitoring station. The relationship between these two data sets was also compared with local meteorological variables (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). Results: The number of grass pollen grains inhaled during individual exposure episode ranged from 6 -127 (median 34), and inhalation rates were between 0.23 - 4.83 (median 1.20) grains min-1. Corresponding concentrations recorded at the monitoring station lay within the range 0 - 311 (median 56) grains m-3. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the exposure and monitoring station data was 0.65 (p<0.001). Exposure was disproportionately high relative to monitoring station data in 15% of the dataset, with these occurring close to midday (12:00-14:00). On no occasion was exposure disproportionately low. Correlation coefficients for the ‘early’ (12:00-14:00) and ‘late’ (18:00-20:00) periods differ considerably (rs=0.51 and rs=0.82 respectively). The mean profile of monitoring station concentrations shows a persistent increase from 12:00-20:00 whilst for the exposure data the opposite is true. No relationship was observed between the standardised ratio of exposure to monitored data and any of the available weather data. Conclusions: Whilst the monitoring station data is a reasonable proxy for exposure, the quality of the relationship depends upon the time of day. Within the study area the risk of exposure decreases between noon and mid-evening, likely reflecting diurnal variation in the emission of grass pollen. This trend is contrary to what the monitoring station predicts, and this has implications where allergen avoidance is being advocated as a method for controlling symptoms. An exposure model for grass pollen is currently being developed for Aarhus. Model performance will be tested against the empirical exposure data described here, the ultimate aim being to build upon this study by using the model to assess the importance of source proximity to exposure.

  13. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb. PMID:21411942

  14. Determination of Nutritional Value of Some Legume and Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Tuna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of legumes and grasses for productivity of livestock. Vicia sativa, Pisum arvense, Lathrus sativus, Vicia narbonensis, Dactylis glomerata, Chrysopogon gryllus and Festuca ovina were taken as plant materials from field and rangeland Koseilyas village Tekirdag, Turkey. The results of present examination showed large differences in nutritive value between grass and legumes. The nutritional value and digestibility of forages is related to stages of maturity at harvest, such as vegetative, heading and flowering. It was determined that grasses had lower concentration of CP but higher CF, DM, NDF and ADF concentration than legumes. The highest protein content was determined as 16.35% for Lathyrus sativus. Chrysopogon gryllus had the lowest content of protein (3.85%, but higher CF (39.17%, NDF(77.04% and ADF(45.27% values than other species. CF is negatively correlated to CP (r=-0.833 and positively correlated to ADF (r=0.972 and NDF (r=0.912. DM is positively correlated to CF (r=0.609, ADF (r=0.972, NDF (r=0.912 and negatively correlated to CP (r=-0.552.There are negative correlations between CP and ADF (r=-0.811 and NDF(r=-0.888 and positive correlated to ash (r=0.542. There are negative correlations between ash and NDF (r=-0.325, ADF (r=-0.439 and there are positive correlations between NDF and ADF (r=0.823.

  15. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed. PMID:17234253

  16. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, V.; Gebbert, S.

    2014-12-01

    GRASS GIS, a free and open source GIS, is used by many scientists directly or through other projects such as R or QGIS to perform geoprocessing tasks. Thus, a large number of scientific geospatial computations depend on quality and correct functionality of GRASS GIS. Automatic functionality testing is therefore necessary to ensure software reliability. Here we present a testing framework for GRASS GIS which addresses different needs of GRASS GIS and geospatial software in general. It allows to test GRASS tools (referred to as GRASS modules) and examine outputs including large raster and vector maps as well as temporal datasets. Furthermore, it enables to test all levels of GRASS GIS architecture including C and Python application programming interface and GRASS modules invoked as subprocesses. Since GRASS GIS is used as a platform for development of geospatial algorithms and models, the testing framework allows not only to test GRASS GIS core functionality but also tools developed by scientists as a part of their research. Using testing framework we can test GRASS GIS and related tools automatically and repetitively and thus detect errors caused by code changes and new developments. Tools and code are then easier to maintain which results in preserving reproducibility of scientific results over time. Similarly to open source code, the test results are publicly accessible, so that all current and potential users can see them. The usage of testing framework will be presented on an example of a test suite for r.slope.aspect module, a tool for computation of terrain slope, aspect, curvatures and other terrain characteristics.

  17. Torrefaction of pellets from reed canary grass and softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerberg, Haakan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Pommer, Linda; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    In this work an energy crop, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied in comparison with Norway Spruce (NS ) when treated in a torrefaction process. In the torrefaction process biomass is heated in an inert atmosphere (250-340 deg C) and physical and chemical characteristics are then enhanced and the product becomes more similar to coal. Co-firing of torrefied biomass with coal in existing CHP plants, and gasification of torrefied biomass has recently been demonstrated in industrial scale with positive results.

  18. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

  19. Pretratamiento Alcalino de Pasto Elefante (Pennisetum sp) y King Grass (Pennisetum hybridum) Cultivados en Colombia para la Producción de Bioetanol / Alkaline Pretreatment of Elephant Grass (Pennisetum Sp) and King Grass (Pennisetum Hybridum) Cultured in Colombia for Ethanol Production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana M, Cardona; Jorge A, Rios; Juan D, Peña; Luis A, Rios.

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes condiciones del pretratamiento con hidróxido de sodio (NaOH) en la recuperación de la fracción celulósica, remoción de lignina y producción de etanol mediante fermentación y sacarificación simultáneas de los pastos elefante y king grass (Pennisetum purpureum [...] and Pennisetum hybridum). Estos pastos son materias primas potenciales para la obtención de bioetanol a partir de la fracción celulósica. Los resultados obtenidos en producción de etanol muestran que bajo condiciones de pretratamiento de 120ºC, 60 minutos, NaOH al 2% (w/w) y una relación líquido a sólido de 20 (w/w) se obtienen las más altas concentraciones de etanol: 27.7 g/L para king grass y 26.1 g/L para pasto elefante en 24 horas de fermentación. Además, bajo las condiciones evaluadas se pudo observar remociones de lignina de 88.4% y 94.0% para pasto elefante y pasto king grass respectivamente. La etapa de desintoxicación permite eliminar inhibidores formados durante el pretratamiento, los cuales afectan la hidrólisis y fermentación. Abstract in english Abstract The effect of different alkaline pretreatment conditions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the recuperation of cellulosic fraction, lignin removal and ethanol production was evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of elephant grass and king grass ((Pennisetum purpureu [...] m and Pennisetum hybridum). These types of grass are potential raw materials for bioethanol production from cellulosic fraction. Results obtained in ethanol production show that under pretreatment conditions of 120ºC, 60 minutes, 2%(w/w) of NaOH and a liquid to solid ratio of 20 (w/w), the highest ethanol concentrations are obtained: 27.7 g/L and 26.1 g/L for king grass and elephant grass respectively, in 24 hours of fermentation. Furthermore, under the evaluated conditions it was observed that lignin removal was 88.4% for elephant grass and 94.0% for king grass. The detoxification stage eliminates inhibitors formed during pretreatment, which affects the hydrolysis and fermentation.

  20. Grasses for biofuels: A low water-use alternative for cold desert agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In arid regions, reductions in the amount of available agricultural water are fueling interest in alternative, low water-use crops. Perennial grasses have potential as low water-use biofuel crops. However, little is known about which perennial grasses can produce high quantity, high quality yields w...

  1. Effect of cutting management and nitrogen supply on yield and quality of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P. J. M.; Wouters, A. P.; Kariuki, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of cutting experiments, average apparent nitrogen recovery of applied fertilizer N by Napier grass was approximately 50%. Incorporation of cattle manure improved nitrogen utilization. Mixtures with Desmodium intortum substantially improved yield and protein content. There was a fair to good relation between morphology and crude protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Napier grass.

  2. What Makes Responses Prepotent for Young Children? Insights from the Grass-Snow Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how responses become prepotent is essential for understanding when inhibitory control is needed in everyday behaviour. We investigated prepotency in the grass-snow task--in which a child points to a green card when the experimenter says "snow" and a white card when the experimenter says "grass". Experiment 1 (n = 548, mean age = 53.5…

  3. Evaluation of three ancillary treatments in the management of equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintl, C; McGorum, B C

    2002-09-28

    Brotizolam, acetylcysteine and aloe vera gel were evaluated as ancillary treatments for 29 cases of equine grass sickness. None of the treatments had any significant beneficial effect on the survival of the horses. However, 11 of 13 horses with mild chronic grass sickness survived solely with intensive nursing care. PMID:12403518

  4. AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER: TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION ABOVE A GRASS SEED FIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oregon, in the summer of 1993. he report describes the changes in the atmospheric surface layer over a grass seed field ...

  5. Contamination rates and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from "grass-fed" labeled beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayi; Wall, Samantha K; Xu, Li; Ebner, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Grass-fed and organic beef products make up a growing share of the beef market in the United States. While processing, animal handling, and farm management play large roles in determining the safety of final beef products, grass-fed beef products are often marketed as safer alternatives to grain-finished beef products based on the potential effects of all-forage diets on host microbiota. We conducted a series of experiments examining bacterial contamination rates in 50 beef products labeled as "grass-fed" versus 50 conventionally raised retail beef products. Coliform concentrations did not differ between conventional and grass-fed beef (conventional: 2.6 log(10) CFU/mL rinsate; grass-fed: 2.7 log(10) CFU/mL rinsate). The percentages of Escherichia coli positive samples did not differ between the two groups (44% vs. 44%). Enterococcus spp. were frequently isolated from both grass-fed beef products (44%) and conventional beef products (62%; p = 0.07). No Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 isolates were recovered from any of the meat samples. Enterococcus spp. isolates from conventional beef were more frequently resistant to daptomycin and linezolid (p conventional and grass-fed beef. There were no differences in the percentages of antimicrobial resistant E. coli isolates between the two groups. Taken together, these data indicate that there are no clear food safety advantages to grass-fed beef products over conventional beef products. PMID:20618073

  6. A Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel-Group Trial Assessing Compliance, Tolerability, Safety, and Efficacy to Treatment with Grass Allergy Tablets in 261 Patients with Grass Pollen Rhinoconjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Pecora; Massimo Milani; Roberta Alesina

    2011-01-01

    Background. Allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is considered a causal treatment of respiratory allergies. Compliance to the SLIT is an important aspect for a positive clinical outcome. Study Aim. To evaluate if compliance with grass Allergy Immunotherapy Tablet (AIT) can be increased by providing an electronic compliance device (CED) (Memozax; a tablet-container with a programmable daily acoustic alarm). Patients and Methods. 261 patients with grass allergy were enrolled and ra...

  7. Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n< 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The as grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, A. L. L.; Dan, H. A.; Proco?pio, S. O.; Toledo, R. E. B.; Sandaniel, C. R.; Braz, G. B. P.; Cruvinel, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), cle...

  9. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Glenn A; Doyle Patrick S; Abbott Amber; Daley Cynthia A; Larson Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2)...

  10. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  11. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Gerorge Peel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment

  12. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  13. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  14. Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed. Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The one with highest (R2 and lowest (MBE and (RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. Three temperatures (35, 45 and 55°C and three humidities (30, 40 and 50% were investigated with a fixed air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Conclusion/Recommendation: The increase in the drying air temperature increased the drying process and decreased the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC of Lemon grass. The drying process decreased as the air humidity increases. The effect was less than that of the temperature. The EMC have high values with high relative humidity.

  15. Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO3) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 ?m and 5 ?m iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 ?m particles, 5 ?m particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

  16. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10-11m-1. The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  17. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  18. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise Baptaglin, Montagner; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Valéria Pacheco Batista, Euclides; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Marciele Neves, Carloto.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter) when sward light interception reached 95% durin [...] g regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  19. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait differences between groups allows us to predict changes in the exotic-native balance under climate change scenarios. Exotic species are more likely to be annual, taller, with larger leaves, larger seeds, higher specific leaf area, and higher leaf N percentage than native species. Across the state, all these traits are associated with regions with higher temperature. Therefore, we predict that increasing temperatures will favor trait states that tend to be possessed by exotic species, increasing the dominance of exotic species. This prediction is corroborated by the current distribution of exotic species richness relative to native richness in California; warmer areas contain higher proportions of exotic species. This pattern was very well captured by a simple model that predicts invasion severity given only the trait–climate relationship for native species and trait differences between native and exotic species. This study provides some of the first evidence for an important interaction between climate change and species invasions across very broad geographic and taxonomic scales.

  20. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt; Hertel, Ole

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment.

  1. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)

  2. Feasibility of incorporating waste grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) in particleboard composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemli, Gökay; Demirel, Samet; Gümü?kaya, Esat; Aslan, Mustafa; Acar, Cengiz

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated some of the important physical (thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties of single-layer particleboard panels made from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), waste of grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) and combinations of the two. The chemical properties (pH, holocelluse and alpha cellulose contents, and water, alcohol-benzene and 1% sodium hydroxide solubilities) of the raw materials were also determined. Panels with a 6:94 ratio of grass-to-eucalyptus particles had the required mechanical properties for interior fitments including furniture and general uses. Boards manufactured with 100% grass clippings exhibited the lowest quality. The overall panel properties improved with a lower percentage of grass clippings added. Based on initial results, it also appears that grass should compose no more than 13% to achieve acceptable panel properties for interior fitments and general uses. PMID:18804991

  3. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  4. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which helps researchers to ensure the robustness of the algorithm, correctness of the results in edge cases as well as the detection of changes in results due to new development. For all modules GRASS GIS automatically creates standardized command line and graphical user interfaces and documentation. Finally, we will show how GRASS GIS can be used together with powerful Python tools such as the NumPy package and the IPython Notebook. References: Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environmental Modelling & Software 53, 1-12. Neteler, M., Bowman, M.H., Landa, M. and Metz, M., 2012. GRASS GIS: a multi-purpose Open Source GIS. Environmental Modelling & Software 31: 124-130. Petras, V., Gebbert, S., 2014. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing. Poster presented at: AGU Fall Meeting, December 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, USA. Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219.

  5. Partial Substitution of Alfalfa Hay with Grass Hay (Sudangrass, Elephant Grass in Diets for Lactating Dairy Cattle: Dry Matter Intake, Lactation Performance, and Digestive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Plascencia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with grass hay (sudangrass and elephant grass on DMI, lactational performance, and digestive function. Cows were fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing (DMB: 1 49% alfalfa hay; 2 24% alfalfa and 16% sudangrass; 3 24% alfalfa, 8% sudangrass, and 8% elephant grass; and 4 24% alfalfa hay and 16% elephant grass. Diets were formulated to contain 30% NDF (DMB. In trial 1, four lactating Holstein cows (475 kg with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the treatments effects on digestive function. In trial 2, eight multiparous Holstein cows (567 kg with 80 ? 8 DIM were utilized in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects of on DMI and lactational performance. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10 on ruminal digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 51 and 31%, respectively. Microbial efficiency (g microbial N/ kg OM fermented was greater (20%, P = 0.07 for alfalfa (30 than for grass hay substituted diets (25. Nonammonia N flow to the small intestine, as a percentage of N intake (ruminal N efficiency averaged 101%, and was lower (linear effect, P 0.10 on total tract digestion of OM, and NDF, averaging 70 and 43%, respectively. Digestible energy content of the diet was lower (5%, P 0.20 on DMI, milk yield, averaging 21.8 and 32.2 kg, respectively. Body condition scores were greater (linear, P > 0.05 for cows fed elephant grass than for cows fed sudangrass. Substituting grass hay for a portion of the alfalfa hay increased (1.2%, P < 0.10 milk fat percentage. We conclude that although substitution of a portion (40% of alfalfa hay with grass hay in diets for lactating cows may slightly decrease ruminal microbial efficiency, the impact on ruminal and total tract digestion of OM and NDF are small. The feeding value of elephant grass is at least equivalent to that of sudangrass in diets for lactating dairy cows. Grass hay can replace up to 40% of the forage in lactation diets without detrimentally affecting fat corrected milk yield, and milk yield efficiency.

  6. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; SØrensen, Claus GrØn

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass into trailers with a forage harvester.  Normally, the traffic is spread throughout the whole field area during the growth season. Hence, the tracks formed by the machines will have different impacts on the grass and clover growth and yield.   Compared to grass, clover is known to have a higher feed value[1]. In order to evaluate the impact of different traffic intensities on the grass-clover, it is essential to know the ratio between grass and clover.   The objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate an automated image acquisition and image analysis method capable of estimating the grass clover ratio within the context of a full scale field trial. A 14 hectare full scale grass-clover field trial with 24 different traffic intensities and 35 replicates was established. Each net parcel measured 9 x 1.3 m and the 24 treatments were randomized onto the 840 net parcels. The grass clover was established in spring 2007 using RTK-GPS auto steered tractors and implements. A Claas Axion tractor equipped with AutoFarm RTK AutoSteer guidance system was used to carry two parallel mounted cameras over the net parcels at a speed of 1 m s-1. In combination, the cameras sampled an area of 1.3 x 0.48 m with 2.1 Hz ensuring that the whole parcel was imaged. Each image was geo-positioned. The image analysis comprised two steps: Extraction of green material and discrimination of grass and clover using the morphological opening approach. This paper shows the initial results using the automated imaging analysis algorithm to fulfill the aim [1] http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm

  7. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo C., Dornelas; Adriana P.M., Rodriguez.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Como na maior parte das gramíneas, num determinado momento do seu ciclo de vida, o meristema vegetativo da cana-de-açúcar é convertido em meristema reprodutivo. Em cana-de-açúcar há pelo menos duas conversões meristemáticas distintas entre a indução para o florescimento e a formação do florete. Em e [...] spécies dicotiledôneas modelo, a conversão sucessiva das identidades dos meristemas, bem como o arranjo concêntrico de órgãos florais são controlados geneticamente. Todos os genes e/ou proteínas sabidamente envolvidos no desenvolvimento floral foram anotados e identificados no banco de dados do SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project). Comparações de seqüências entre genes reconhecidamente envolvidos no controle do desenvolvimento floral revelaram a conservação evolutiva entre os mecanismos de formação do padrão de desenvolvimento floral entre mono- e dicotiledôneas, bem como entre as gramíneas. Nossos estudos se concentraram na análise das famílias multigênicas dos fatores de transcrição do tipo MADS-box e AP2, uma vez que estes têm um papel importante na regulação do desenvolvimento reprodutivo vegetal. Também são apresentadas considerações sobre a genética evolutiva do desenvolvimento das flores de gramíneas e sua relação com o modelo ABC do desenvolvimento floral. Abstract in english In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (f [...] loret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Project (SUCEST) database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2) family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  8. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high initial N2O emission from simulated urine patches. The results are discussed in relation to the national N2O inventory guidelines issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the environmental impact of organic farming practises are also considered. Suggestions for future research are outlined. (au)

  9. Solution growth of ZnO microwires and grass architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were produced. • Au nanoparticles resulted in uniformly dispersed and standing ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the ZnO microwires. • Au nanoparticles also resulted in ZnO grass architectures. -- Abstract: In spite of extensive research in gold (Au) nanoparticles, it remains a challenge to synthesize structurally homogeneous sample-set with controlled morphologies. The latter critically affect the role of Au nanoparticles as a seed/catalyst for the growth of other nanostructures. Here, we systematically studied and quantified the growth of Au nanoparticles in a single-step chemical synthesis approach and observed the effects of growth temperature and duration, metal salt and surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. These parameters strongly influenced morphological evolution, distribution, and heterogeneities in the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles. Next, the synthesized Au nanoparticles were utilized for the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) microwires in a solution growth approach. It was observed that Au nanoparticles on the substrate did not catalyze the growth of ZnO microwires but facilitated uniform dispersion of standing microwires. Supported by microscopic analysis, the proposed growth mechanism is heterogeneous nucleation of ZnO on the loosely bound Au nanoparticles on the substrates, favored by lattice match between the ZnO and Au. Based on this mechanism, Au nanoparticles only assisted in the initial stages of ZnO microwire growth. For longer growth duration (?10 h), over-deposition of ZnO from the solution on already grown wires led to their micron scale diameters as well as grass architectures and making the growth process independent of size and shape of the Au nanoparticles. The formation of ZnO grass architecture is due to attachment of Au nanoparticles on the growing microwire surface, which further served as a heterogeneous nucleation site for the ZnO growth. These Au nanoparticles detached from the Si wafer due to cleavage of Au-S bonds or hydrolysis of Si-O bonds on the thiolated Si wafer in presence of the ZnO growth precursor (hexamethylenetetramine) and conditions. As-synthesized Au nanoparticles and ZnO microwires were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy

  10. Silage Quality of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) Treated with Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Tannin of Acacia

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, B.; Tj Hariadi, B.; Manik, H.; Abubakar, H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the silage quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides) treated with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) prepared from fermented grass extract (FGE) or combined with tannin of acacia. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. Treatments were (A) king grass without additive as a control; (B) king grass + 3% (v/w) of FGE; (C) king grass + 3% (v/w) of FGE + 10 ml of acacia extract...

  11. Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, C.R. [Myosotis Ecological Consulting, Blairmore, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n{lt} 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Complex interactions between a legume and two grasses in a subalpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Charles; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Winterton, Peter; Lamaze, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between plants are a complex combination of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on environmental contexts. The more frequent association of Trifolium alpinum (legume) with Festuca eskia than with Nardus stricta (grasses) in many Pyrenean subalpine meadows suggests a differential ability to use nitrogen (N) derived from N(2) fixation. In the field, we investigated the interactions between the legume and grasses and, in the glasshouse, the transfer of (15)N from the legume to the grasses. In one grass-Trifolium mixture, the legume had a strong positive effect on the biomass and N content of the grass as compared to pure grass stands. When both grasses grew together with the legume, only Festuca benefited from the presence of Trifolium but, surprisingly, the benefit decreased with increasing Trifolium abundance. Leaf labeling experiments with (15)N-NH(4)(+) revealed a higher transfer of (15)N from Trifolium to Festuca than to Nardus, suggesting a more direct N pathway between the two species. This more direct pathway could prevent Nardus from benefiting from the legume N in the three-species mixtures. Thus, the positive interactions between N-fixers and nonfixers appear to be largely species-specific and to depend strongly on the species in the plant assemblage. PMID:21622302

  13. Soil phosphorus dynamics as affected by Congo grass and P fertilizer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ciro Antonio, Rosolem; Alexandre, Merlin; Júlio Cesar Longo, Bull.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some plant species can change soil phosphorus (P) availability and this may be an important tool in managing tropical high fixing phosphorus soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate phosphorus transformations in the soil and phosphatase activity during periods of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruzizi [...] ensis, Germain et Evrard) growth in two tropical soils receiving 20, 40, 80, 160 mg dm-3 of inorganic P. Plants were grown for 84 days in 8-L pots. Acid phosphatase activity, P in the microbial mass, soil organic and inorganic P and P accumulation by Congo grass were evaluated. Phosphorus fertilization increased soil P availability, Congo grass yields and P accumulation in the plant. On average, less labile P forms in the soil were not changed by Congo grass; however, the P in the soil extracted with HCl (P-Ca - non labil form) decreased. This decrease may have resulted from the combination of the presence of grass and phosphatase capacity to dissolve less available P in the soil. Thus, soil exploration by Congo grass roots and the subsequent extraction of calcium phosphate may have increased the P concentration in the plant tissue. Despite the decrease in the P extracted from the soil with HCl resulting in increased labile P forms in the soil, the effect of Congo grass on the availability of P depends on the soil type.

  14. A case-control study of grass sickness (equine dysautonomia) in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J L; Milne, E M; Doxey, D L

    1998-07-01

    A case-control study was performed to investigate the epidemiology of grass sickness in the United Kingdom from 1992 to 1995. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaire when cases of grass sickness were identified. Sets of three questionnaires were posted to owners of, or veterinary surgeons attending, cases of grass sickness, with a request to provide information on the case, on one healthy animal on the same premises as the case and on another healthy animal on other premises. Controls were matched to cases by date of onset. After univariate analyses, the probability of grass sickness in horses was modelled using conditional logistic regression techniques. Young animals were found to be at increased rick of grass sickness and females were less likely to become affected, as were animals that had a history of contact with previous cases of the disease. The probability of grass sickness was higher in animals that were on premises where grass sickness had previously occurred, particularly if this was recent. Animals were at particular risk of disease if they changed fields within the previous 2 weeks; the risk thereafter reduced with time. The disease had a seasonal pattern, with a peak from April to June. More than 95% of cases had access to grazing, and 66% occurred after 2 week periods of predominantly dry weather. PMID:9691846

  15. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  16. First observations of turbulence generated by grass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Craig B.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Bian, Xindi; Heilman, Warren E.; Byun, Daewon W.

    2008-11-01

    Wildland fires radically modify the atmospheric boundary layer by inducing strong fire-atmosphere interactions. These interactions lead to intense turbulence production in and around the fire front. Two field experiments were conducted in tall-grass fuels to quantify turbulence generation during the passage of wind-driven fire fronts. Observations showed that the measured turbulence generated by the fires was five times greater than the turbulence in the ambient environment. The production of the turbulence at the surface near the fire front was caused by increased variance of the ambient wind, while the buoyancy was strongest at higher levels within the fire plume. Immediately after the fire front passage, turbulence kinetic energy decreased to ambient levels and was associated with strong downdrafts that occurred behind the fire front.

  17. Radiation and temperature influence on forage grasses yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass production has been studied in forage plants, as well as the temperature and radiation effects on plant growth. Four cultivars of grasses: Lolium multiflorum var westerwoldicum cv Promenade, Lolium perenne cvs Combi and Compas and Bromus inermis were growing as microswards in a growth chamber with constant temperature and outdoors. A field assay was done also with the same cultivars. L. multiflorum was the highest productive genotype anywhere showing also more active growth at low temperatures. Total production showed significant differences among genotypes. It was also a clear correspondence among microswards and field productions. Highest efficiency values (in % of PAR accumulated as dry matter) was obtained in 6th cut (April) achieving to 5.18 % in L. multiflorum. Biomass production variations through the growth period show a low correlation with <> and very high correlation with total irradiation received by the sward between consecutive cuts

  18. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  19. Liver and biliary system pathology in equine dysautonomia (grass sickness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, J; Small, J; Milne, E M; John, H A

    2001-05-01

    Hepatocellular and hepatobiliary damage was assessed in equine acute, subacute and chronic grass sickness cases (AGS, SAGS, CGS). Histopathological analysis showed that even in some early AGS cases enlarged hepatocytes, hepatocyte vacuolation indicative of lipid accumulation (steatosis), intrahepatocyte, canalicular and periportal deposition of pigments, frequent leucocyte infiltration and cholangitis occurred. Analysis of serum indicated significantly increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin in all groups and conjugated bilirubin in AGS and SAGS groups, increased levels of bile acids in some individuals from each group and significantly increased levels of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in AGS and SAGS cases. Conjugated bilirubin was significantly elevated in urine of AGS and SAGS cases. The evidence suggests that abnormal liver function involving moderate hepatocellular pathology in conjunction with steatosis and cholestasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of GS. PMID:11413984

  20. Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The objective function of the optimisation is the maximisation of the profit which means the maximization of the difference between revenue and cost. The objective function trades off the income of the assigned transportation demands against the logistic costs. The constraints are the followings: (1) the free capacity of the assigned transportation resource is more than the re-quested capacity of the transportation demand; the calculated arrival time of the transportation resource to the harvesting place is not later than the requested arrival time of them; (3) the calculated arrival time of the transportation demand to the processing and production facility is not later than the requested arrival time; (4) one transportation demand is assigned to one transportation resource and one resource is assigned to one transportation resource. The decision variable of the optimisation problem is the set of scheduling variables and the assignment of resources to transportation demands. The evaluation parameters of the optimised system are the followings: total costs of the collection process; utilisation of transportation resources and warehouses; efficiency of production and/or processing facilities. However the multidimensional heuristic optimisation method is based on genetic algorithm, but the routing sequence of the optimisation works on the base of an ant colony algorithm. The optimal routes are calculated by the aid of the ant colony algorithm as a subroutine of the global optimisation method and the optimal assignment is given by the genetic algorithm. One important part of the mathematical method is the sensibility analysis of the objective function, which shows the influence rate of the different input parameters. Acknowledgements This research was implemented within the frame of the project entitled "Development and operation of the Technology and Knowledge Transfer Centre of the University of Miskolc". with support by the European Union and co-funding of the European Social Fund. References [1] P. R. Daniel: The Economics of Harvesting and Transporting Corn St

  1. Comparison of in-shoe foot loading patterns on natural grass and synthetic turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Manson, Neil A; Evans, Blake J; Myer, Gregory D; Gwin, Richelle C; Heidt, Robert S; Hewett, Timothy E

    2006-12-01

    Synthetic playing surfaces with rubber or sand infill are now used on many athletic fields such as soccer, football and rugby. Although these surfaces may come closer to the mechanical characteristics of a true grass playing surface than the older turf designs, their potential effects on lower extremity biomechanics and related injury rates necessitate further study. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two surfaces (natural grass versus turf) on in-shoe foot loading patterns during cutting. Seventeen male football players were tested on a slalom course. An in-shoe pressure distribution measurement insole was used in the right shoe (14 stud, molded cleat) of each athlete. Individual cutting steps were extracted from each slalom trial and peak pressure and relative load calculated in nine distinct plantar regions of the foot. The turf condition had significantly higher peak pressures within the central forefoot (turf: 646.6+/-172.6 kPa, grass: 533.3+/-143.4 kPa, P=0.017) and lesser toes (turf: 429.3+/-200.9 kPa, grass: 348.1+/-119.0 kPa, P=0.043) compared to grass. In contrast, the relative load within the medial forefoot (turf: 27.2+/-5.3%, grass: 30.2+/-6.6%, P=0.031) and lateral midfoot (turf: 3.4+/-1.8%, grass: 4.1+/-2.3%, P=0.029) were higher during the grass condition. No differences between the grass and turf were found in maximal effort sprint times performed prior to the testing trials. This study demonstrates that playing surface significantly affects plantar loading during sport related activities. Further epidemiological investigation is warranted to determine the effects of playing surfaces on sport specific injury mechanisms. PMID:16672191

  2. The Effect of Integrated Grasses in Controlling Soil, Nutrient and Organic Matter in Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honest Augustine Mosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and nutrient loss is one of a serious problem in Loess plateau china. The eroded materials are directly transported to the lakes and rivers specifically yellow river in China, this might lead to eutrophication if no prevention measures will be taken. The experiment was conducted on soil, and nutrient loss from 5º slope. Individual grasses plots for rye grass(Lolium, white clover(Trifolium repens and integrated grass (rye + white clover plots were prepared with a percentage cover of 25, 50, 80 and 100 in each treatment. Bare land was used as a reference plot. The results show that, the sediment loss in a bare land reported to be 1.5, 3, 2.7 and 1.3, 2.1, 1.9 in 100 % and 80 % cover plots. The runoff rate as compared to bare land, shown to be about 2 times less for white clover and rye grass plots, while more than 2 times less for integrated grasses plots. The total nitrogen and organic matter loss the results were in the order bare land white clover rye grasses and integrated grasses in which 100 %, 80 % and 50 % vegetative cover shown to perform better. On average enrichment ratio range was 40 % to 90 % for nutrient loss, and 50 % to 85 % for organic matter for all plots in comparison with soil origin. The enrichment ration significantly shown to be high from bare land> rye and white clover plots> integrated grasses plot. It has been concluded that integrated grasses is more effective measure over others in controlling both soil, nutrient and organic matter loss in the soil. This study contributed some information on the erosion modeling and improvement of soil and grassland conservation techniques for better land use for sustainable development

  3. Determination of 90Sr in soil, grass and cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Sr was measured in environmental samples in Upper Austria in the year 2005. After the nuclear weapon tests the average deposition of 90Sr in Austria amounted to 3.3 kBq/m2. In 1986 the average deposition was 0.9 kBq/m2. To assess the actual condition in soil, grass and cereals 90Sr was measured in these samples. For all samples oxalate precipitation was conducted and strontium specific columns (Eichrom Industries, Inc.) were used. The calcium concentration in these samples was determined to estimate the amount of resin needed for the preparation. For grass and cereal samples columns were packed with the 100-150 ?m resin to gain a lower limit of detection LLD below 2 and below 0.1 Bq/kgdrymatter respectively. The prepacked 2 mL columns with particle size 100-150 ?m were used for soil (LLD below 2 Bq/kgdrymatter). After digestion of soil samples, hydroxide precipitation was used as an additional separation step. The 90Sr was measured by liquid scintillation counting. For quality control reasons, first the initial strontium concentration in the sample was determined then a strontium carrier solution was added and after the separation steps the chemical recovery was determined by ICP-MS. Thus, no radioactive tracer and just a small amount of the measuring solution were needed. The results are presented and discussed. These results will be used as reference for further 90Sd as reference for further 90Sr analyses which will be conducted in a 5 year period to detect any radiological impact of the nuclear power plant Temelin on the environment of Austria. (author)

  4. Potentials of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) as Forage Crop in Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aganga, A. A.; Tshwenyane, S.

    2004-01-01

    Panicum maximum (guinea grass) is native to Africa but this grass was introduced to almost all tropical countries as a source of animal forage. It grows well on a wide variety of well drained soils of good fertility and it is suitable to stop soil erosion. It can survive quick moving fires which does not harm the underground roots and drought because of the deep, dense and fibrous root system. Guinea grass is a clump-forming perennial which grows best in warm frost free areas receiving more t...

  5. Enumeration of lactic acid bacteria on grass and the effects on silage fermentation of added bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies on the methodology of enumerating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on grass and silage indicated that (a) varying the homogenisation time in a stomacher from 1 to 7 minutes did not effect LAB numbers, (b) MRS and Rogosa media gave similar LAB counts in silage and (c) anaerobic incubation of plates led to higher counts of LAB from silage compared to micro-aerophi1ic incubation, but similar counts from grass. A survey of LAB numbers on grass grown for silage sh...

  6. Molecular Evolution of Hypoallergenic Hybrid Proteins for Vaccination against Grass Pollen Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Linhart, Birgit; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Narayanan, Meena; Neubauer, Angela; Mayrhofer, Hannes; Blatt, Katharina; Lupinek, Christian; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    More than 10% of the population in Europe and North America suffer from IgE-associated allergy to grass pollen. In this article, we describe the development of a vaccine for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy based on two recombinant hypoallergenic mosaic molecules, designated P and Q, which were constructed out of elements derived from the four major timothy grass pollen allergens: Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6. Seventeen recombinant mosaic molecules were expressed and pur...

  7. Epidemiology of equine grass sickness: a literature review (1909-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, H E; Proudman, C J; French, N P

    2001-09-01

    The geographical spread of grass sickness between 1909 and 1999, particularly in England and Wales, is described, and the experimental investigations to identify a causal agent are summarised. The epidemiological techniques used to investigate grass sickness vary from clinical observations, to more advanced methods such as case-control studies using logistic regression analyses. Several risk factors for grass sickness have been reported consistently (age, time of year and recent movement to new pasture or premises) and several others have been reported for which the findings remain inconsistent (weather, pasture type, breed, supplementary feeding and use of anthelmintics). PMID:11570789

  8. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  9. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased the solubilization of dry matter (DM) during HTT and gave increased glucan content, but lower lignin in the insoluble fiber fraction. Ensiling improved glucose yields in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed solid fiber fraction at the lower HTT temperatures. At 170°C glucose yield improved from 17 to 24 (w/w)% (45 to 57% cellulose convertibility), and at 180°C glucose yield improved from 22 to 29 (w/w)% (54 to 69% cellulose convertibility). Direct HTT of grass at 190°C gave the same high glucose yield as for grass silage (35 (w/w)% (77% cellulose convertibility)) and improved xylan yields (27% xylan convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar for HTT of grass and grass silage at both 170 and 180°C, but at 190°C the overall sugar yield was better for HTT of dry grass. Conclusions: This study unequivocally establishes that ensiling of grass as a biomass pretreatment method comes with a loss of WSC. The loss of WSC by ensiling is not necessarily compensated for by providing a lower temperature requirement for HTT for high enzymatic monosaccharide release. However, ensiling can be an advantageous storage method prior to grass processing. © 2014 Ambye-Jensen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle fattened on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) or Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaturasitha, S; Norkeaw, R; Vearasilp, T; Wicke, M; Kreuzer, M

    2009-01-01

    Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle, fattened for 2 years on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) and Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures, were investigated in twelve 3-years old males. Groups had similar carcass quality except for kidney fat percentage (higher in cattle of the grass-legume group). This group also had a lighter meat (Longissimus dorsi, Infraspinatus) than the grass-only fed cattle. Shear force was generally at the borderline to tender meat, and was unaffected by treatment as were other texture-related properties except muscle fibre diameter. Meat of the grass-legume group was perceived less juicy (Pgrass-legume-fed cattle also had more intramuscular fat (4.3% vs. 3.4%) and a slightly less favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (2.2 vs. 2.0). In conclusion, the mostly weak differences in carcass and meat quality did not clearly favour one of the grazing systems. PMID:22063976

  11. Peramine and lolitrem B from endophyte-grass associations cascade up the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benjamin; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Krauss, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Endophytic fungi in cool-season grass species produce herbivore-toxic alkaloids, which are assumed to harm higher trophic levels along food chains. Previous studies have shown fitness disadvantages for higher trophic levels that feed on aphids that were exclusively reared on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) infected with the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium lolii. However, it is unknown whether the alkaloids produced by the fungus-grass association can be assimilated by plant sap-sucking insects like aphids. Using an ultra high performance liquid chromatography method combined with mass spectrometry, we provide the first evidence that the alkaloids peramine and lolitrem B are present in aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi) and in aphid predators when the aphids are reared on endophyte-infected grass. We conclude that alkaloids can enter the plant sap of the grass and are responsible for longer pupal stages of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and for fitness disadvantages of aphids and their predators as shown in previous studies. PMID:24233445

  12. Solar Grass Cutter With Linear Blades By Using Scotch Yoke Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Amrutesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Solar grass cutter is a machine that uses sliding blades to cut a lawn at an even length. Even more sophisticated devices are there in every field. Power consumption becomes essential for future. Solar grass cutter is a very useful device which is very simple in construction. It is used to maintain and upkeep lawns in gardens, schools, college’s etc. We have made some changes in the existing machine to make its application easier at reduced cost. Our main aim in pollution control is attained through this. Unskilled operation can operate easily and maintain the lawn very fine and uniform surface look. In our project, ?Solar grass cutter? is used to cut the different grasses for the different application.

  13. Growth response of some cultivars of bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon L.) to salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turfgrasses range from extremely salt sensitive to highly salt tolerant. Turf grass improvement for salinity tolerance requires reliable assessment for their adaptability to saline conditions, which vary among grasses. In the present study, four Bermuda grass cultivars - Tifway, Tifdwarf, Dacca and Khabbal (local ecotype) were assessed for salinity tolerance using half-strength Hoagland's solution culture system under green house conditions. The cultivars were exposed to five salinity levels viz., 2.4 (control) 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl). Increasing salt concentration in the nutrient media caused: (a) a reduction in number of stolons/plug, number of roots/plug, length of shoot, dry weights of root and shoot, turf quality, and potassium content in stolons, (b) increase in sodium and chloride content in stolons. Overall, cv. Tifway was found to be the most tolerant to salinity while Khabbal the most sensitive, among all four grass cultivars. (author)

  14. Safety and tolerability of grass pollen tablets in sublingual immunotherapy--a phase-1 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T H; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aims: To compare the safety and tolerability of four different sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) regimes in grass pollen allergic rhinitis.

  15. Functional and histopathological evidence of cardiac parasympathetic dysautonomia in equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J D; Bowen, I M; Else, R W; Marr, C M; Mayhew, I G

    2000-02-26

    The parasympathetic terminal cardiac ganglia were examined in three normal horses and in five horses with grass sickness. Histopathological changes, consistent with those observed in other ganglia of horses with grass sickness, were identified in the terminal cardiac ganglia of the affected horses. A functional analysis of cardiac autonomic control by time domain analysis (TDA) of heart rate variability was applied to eight horses with grass sickness, and double-paired to 16 normal horses on the basis of their age, sex and breed, and the time of day at which the electrocardiographs were obtained. There were statistically significant differences between the normal and the affected horses in terms of the triangular index (P=0.01), a geometric method of TDA, the sNN100 index (P=0.009), a statistical method of TDA, and the R to R interval (Pequine grass sickness. PMID:10737294

  16. Two cases of equine grass sickness with evidence for soil-borne origin involving botulinum neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnel, H; Wernery, U; Gessler, F

    2003-05-01

    Botulism is caused by different types of Clostridium botulinum, a soil bacterium. Equine grass sickness (equine dysautonomia) is suspected of being a clinical form of this disease. On a stud where this disease occurred twice within 8 months, grass and soil samples and necropsy specimens of one horse were tested for the presence of bacterial forms and toxin of C. botulinum. Different types and type mixtures (A-E) of C. botulinum and botulinum neurotoxin were found. For the first time, it has been shown that green grass blades contain botulinum toxin. The results support the hypothesis that equine grass sickness is a clinical form of botulism, a soil-borne disease. PMID:12916691

  17. Grassland Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_GRASS66)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for grassland conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural grass land cover patches that are at least 395...

  18. Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Carla Curran

    2010-03-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

  19. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nang Kyu Kyu, Win; Hee-Young, Jung.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and [...] part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL) 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961). In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

  20. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nang Kyu Kyu Win

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961. In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

  1. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity. 2nd annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2004-07-01

    This report, which covers the year 2003 growing season, is the second annual report about a project to investigate the ecological impact on biodiversity of plantations of biomass grass crops grown in Hertfordshire in the UK. Wildlife monitoring was carried out at five field sites growing the perennial rhizomatous grass crops Miscanthus, reed canary grass and switch grass. The report covers the findings from wildlife surveys for the 2003 season, the final results from the invertebrate identification from the 2002 season, data entry from the 2002 and 2003 seasons, and the continued invertebrate identification during the 2003 season. Butterfly assessments and an evaluation of crop characteristics such as plant height, plant/stem density and biomass yield were also performed. Results are presented with respect to crop field characteristics, pests and diseases, ground flora, ground beetles, birds, small mammals, butterflies and epigeal invertebrates. Plans for the next growing season are outlined.

  2. Evolutionary diversification of fungal endophytes of tall fescue grass by hybridization with Epichloë species.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, H. F.; Liu, J. S.; Staben, C.; Christensen, M. J.; Latch, G. C.; Siegel, M. R.; Schardl, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichloë (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among endophytes of tall fescue. Phylogenetic relation...

  3. Carbon dioxide and the uneasy interactions of trees and savannah grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, William J.; Midgley, Guy F.

    2012-01-01

    Savannahs are a mixture of trees and grasses often occurring as alternate states to closed forests. Savannah fires are frequent where grass productivity is high in the wet season. Fires help maintain grassy vegetation where the climate is suitable for woodlands or forests. Saplings in savannahs are particularly vulnerable to topkill of above-ground biomass. Larger trees are more fire-resistant and suffer little damage when burnt. Recruitment to large mature tree size classes depends on saplin...

  4. Pseudo-steppes with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea in Natura 2000 sites

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel Ayanz, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals includes a variety of xeric, termophilic and mostly open Mediterranean perennial and annual grasslands growing on usually eutrophic, but also oligotrophic, soils. Three major sub-types should be considered: one of perennial basophile rather hard short-grass communities, included in Lygeo-Stipetalia; another one of very dense and short but highly productive perennial summer drying swards, created by intense and continuous livestock activity, included in P...

  5. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poaceae, Poales) and their interspecific hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Vânia Helena Techio; Lisete Chamma Davide; Antônio Vander Pereira

    2006-01-01

    The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28) and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14) can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21). This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their proge...

  6. The potential of improving napier grass under smallholder farmers' conditions in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, J.

    1998-01-01

    Dairy farming is the main livestock enterprise in the mixed crop/livestock farming system in the high rainfall areas of Kenya. These areas are characterised by a high human population density and very small farms. As a consequence, napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum ) has been widely adopted because of its relatively high dry matter yield and suitability as a cut fodder. The conventional methods of improving napier grass quality through fertilization or use of concentrates to supplement napi...

  7. Harvesting management options for legumes intercropped in napier grass in the central highlands of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mwangi, D.M.; Cadisch, G.; THORPE, W; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ways of promoting integration of herbaceous forage legumes into a napier grass fodder system were evaluated with the aim of increasing forage quantity and quality on smallholder dairy farms in central Kenya. The herbaceous legumes Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf (ILRI 104), Macrotyloma axillare cv. Axillare (ILRI 6756) and Neonotonia wightii cv. Tinaroo (ILRI 9794) were intercropped with napier grass and evaluated for yield and quality (chemical composition and digestibility) of the fodder a...

  8. LEAF-E: a tool to analyze grass leaf growth using function fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Voorend, Wannes; Lootens, Peter; Nelissen, Hilde; Rolda?n-ruiz, Isabel; Inze?, Dirk; Muylle, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    In grasses, leaf growth is often monitored to gain insights in growth processes, biomass accumulation, regrowth after cutting, etc. To study the growth dynamics of the grass leaf, its length is measured at regular time intervals to derive the leaf elongation rate (LER) profile over time. From the LER profile, parameters such as maximal LER and leaf elongation duration (LED), which are essential for detecting inter-genotype growth differences and/or quantifying plant growth responses to changi...

  9. Explaining grass-nutrient patterns in a savanna rangeland of southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mutanga, O.; Prins, H. H. T.; Skidmore, A. K.; Wieren, S. E.; Huizing, H.; Grant, R.; Peel, M. J. S.; Biggs, H.

    2004-01-01

    The search for possible factors influencing the spatial variation of grass quality is an important step towards understanding the distribution of herbivores, as well as a step towards identifying crucial areas for conservation and restoration. A number of studies have shown that grass quality at a regional scale is influenced by climatic variables. At a local scale, site factors and their interaction are considered important. In this study, we aimed at examining environmental correlates of gr...

  10. Effect of high-sugar grasses on methane emissions simulated using a dynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, J. L.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Parsons, A. J.; Edwards, G. R.; Rasmussen, S.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.

    2012-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential ability to decrease N excretion in cattle. However, feeding high-sugar grasses alters the pattern of rumen fermentation, and no in vivo studies to date have examined this strategy with respect to another environmental pollutant: methane (CH4). Modeling allows us to examine potential outcomes of feeding strategies under controlled conditions, and can provide a useful framework for the development of future expe...

  11. Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandong Yao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transportation activities can contribute to accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soil and grass, which could potentially compromise public health and the environment if the roadways cross farmland areas. Particularly, heavy metals may enter the food chain as a result of their uptake by roadside edible grasses. This research was conducted to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in roadside farmland soils and corresponding grasses around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors were considered for the experimental design, including sample type, sampling location, roadside distance, and tree protection. A total of 60 grass samples and 60 topsoil samples were collected under dry weather conditions. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA results indicate that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soil samples are significantly higher than those in the grass samples; the concentrations of Cu and Pb in the suburban roadside farmland are higher than those in the rural mountainous roadside farmland; and the concentrations of Cu and Zn at the sampling locations with roadside trees are significantly lower than those without tree protection. The analysis of transfer factor, which is calculated as the ratio of heavy-metal concentrations in grass to those in the corresponding soil, indicates that the uptake capabilities of heavy metals from soil to grass is in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. Additionally, it is found that as the soils’ heavy-metal concentrations increase, the capability of heavy-metal transfer to the grass decreases, and this relationship can be characterized by an exponential regression model.

  12. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jacianelly Karla da, Silva; Juliana Silva de, Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de, Medeiros; Edson Mauro, Santos; Tamires da Silva, Magalhães; Alenice Ozino, Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho, Bezerra.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square des [...] ign.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bran (EGS+20% WB). There was no difference in dry matter (DM) intake between diets EGS and CS in g d?1. However, the animals fed EGS+10%WB had lower DM and organic matter (OM) intakes than the animals fed CS in g kg?1 d?1 of body weight. There were lower non-fiber carbohydrate and metabolize energy intakes by animals fed diets based on elephant-grass silages than those fed CS. The EGS+20%WB diet provided lower digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and digestible nutrients of the diet than the diet with CS. The NDF digestibility coefficient with diet EGS was greater than that obtained with diet CS. The diets with corn and elephant-grass silages provided similar milk yield levels. However, the animals fed diets based on EGS+20% WB produced less total-solids-corrected milk than the animals fed CS. No difference was found in the milk physicochemical properties and ingestive behavior of goats in this study. Corn silage can be replaced by elephant-grass silage harvested at 50 days of regrowth and elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran without influencing goat performance, behavioral variables, physiological variables, milk yield or the milk physicochemical properties.

  13. Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Knoespel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

  14. A double-antibody assay for grass pollen-specific IgG in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measurement of grass pollen antigen-specific IgG in serum is described. Grass pollen antigens were used to show a correlation between the results obtained by this method and those obtained by measuring blocking antibodies by inhibition of antigen-induced leukocyte histamine release. The new technique described is convenient, sensitive, specific and reproducible and can be recommended fo clinical use. (author)

  15. Novel management to enhance spider biodiversity in existing grass buffer strips

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Robin J.; Woodcock, Ben A.; Westbury, Duncan B.; Sutton, Peter; Potts, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    1. Grass buffer strips have been widely sown to mitigate against intensive agricultural management practices that have negatively impacted on invertebrate and plant biodiversity in arable farming systems. Typically, such strips are floristically species poor and are dominated by grasses. In the present study, we developed management practices to enhance the floristic and structural diversity of these existing strips for the benefit of spiders, a key provider of natural pest control in crops. ...

  16. Integrating Environmental and in situ Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Variables for Grass Nitrogen Estimation in Savannah Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Ramoelo, A.; Cho, M.A.; R. Mathieu; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote sensing in savannah ecosystems is that these areas are characterised by heterogeneity in edaphic, topographic and climatic factors. The objective is to test the utility of integrating environmental variables and in situ hyperspectral remote sensing varia...

  17. Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on digestion processes in dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the introduction of a milk quota system in 1984 and the subsequent decrease of the number of dairy cows with some 25%, an increasing number of farms in the Netherlands has a surplus of grass and grass silage, which makes it interesting to increase the roughage proportion in the diet. However, roughage intake by dairy cows in early lactation is limited and the mechanisms controlling roughage intake are still insufficiently understood. Factors presumably influencing roughage intake a...

  18. Grass species and endophyte effects on survival and development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, S K; Duncan, R R; Engelke, M C; Hanna, W W; Hignight, K; Rush, D

    2002-04-01

    Grass selections including 10 zoysiagrasses, 18 paspalums, 34 Bermuda grasses, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, and perennial ryegrasses with and without endophyte were evaluated for potential resistance to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), larvae. Laboratory evaluations assessed the degree of antibiosis among >70 grass lines to first-instar fall armvworms. When all parameters measured were considered, the trend in resistance to fall armyworm among endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) cool season grasses from greatest to least was: 'Dawson' E+ > APR 1234 > 'Dawson' E- > 'Rosalin' E+ > Lp 5425, 'Rosalin' E-, ATF 480 > 'Tulsa' or: E+ slender creeping red fescue > E+ turf- type perennial ryegrass > E- slender creeping red fescue > E+ forage-type perennial ryegrass > E- forage-type perennial ryegrasses, and E+ tall fescue > E- turf-type tall fescue. Among warm season grasses larval weight gain was reduced on all zoysiagrasses. Larval weight gain also was lower on the Bermuda grasses 'Tifsport', 'Tifgreen', 97-4, 97-14, 97-22, 97-28, 97-39, 97-40,97-54, 98-15, 98-30, and 98-45 than when larvae were fed 'Tulsa' tall fescue or the diet control. Only APR1234 and 'Dawson' creeping red fescue reduced larval survival to the same extent that was observed for zoysiagrasses. Survival on Bermuda grasses was least on 97-8. Seashore paspalums were only rarely less susceptible to fall armyworm than tall fescue, although pupal weights were consistently lower on 'Temple 1' and 'Sea Isle 1' paspalums than that on 'Tulsa' tall fescue. Genetic resistance to key grass pests can reduce insecticide use and simplify management of these cultivars. PMID:12020031

  19. Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Jan; Hägglund, Martin; Fuller, C W

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare incidences and patterns of injury for female and male elite teams when playing football on artificial turf and grass. Twenty teams (15 male, 5 female) playing home matches on third-generation artificial turf were followed prospectively; their injury risk when playing on artificial turf pitches was compared with the risk when playing on grass. Individual exposure, injuries (time loss) and injury severity were recorded by the team medical staff. In tot...

  20. Tree-Grass interactions dynamics and Pulse Fires: mathematical and numerical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tamen, A. Tchuinté; Y. Dumont; Bowong, S.; Tewa, J. J.; Couteron, P.

    2015-01-01

    Savannas are dynamical systems where grasses and trees can either dominate or coexist. Fires are known to be central in the functioning of the savanna biome though their characteristics are expected to vary along the rainfall gradients as observed in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we model the tree-grass dynamics using impulsive differential equations that consider fires as discrete events. This framework allows us to carry out a comprehensive qualitative mathematical an...

  1. Root lifespans of four grass species from habitats differing in nutrient availability

    OpenAIRE

    Krift, T.A.J., van der; Berendse, F.

    2002-01-01

    1. In grass species that occur in pastures or hay meadows, life spans of roots determine much of the carbon and nutrient loss from the plant in addition to the amounts that are lost by mowing or grazing. We hypothesized that grass species from nutrient-poor habitats had longer root life spans and consequently lost smaller quantities of nutrients through root turnover. 2. In a garden experiment, root life spans and root diameters were measured by repeated observations in minirhizotrons pl...

  2. Attack on Lignified Grass Cell Walls by a Facultatively Anaerobic Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, Danny E.

    1980-01-01

    A filamentous, facultatively anaerobic microorganism that attacked lignified tissue in forage grasses was isolated from rumen fluid with a Bermuda grass-containing anaerobic medium in roll tubes. The microbe, designated 7-1, demonstrated various colony and cellular morphologies under different growth conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that 7-1 attacked lignified cell walls in aerobic and anaerobic culture. 7-1 predominately degraded tissues reacting positively for lignin with t...

  3. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Li Muyang; Foster Cliff; Kelkar Shantanu; Pu Yunqiao; Holmes Daniel; Ragauskas Arthur; Saffron Christopher M; Hodge David B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus o...

  4. Effects of feeding salt-tolerant grasses on the reproductive efficiency of dwarf goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity of soil and groundwater is a major agricultural problem facing several countries. Numerous approaches have been made to alleviate this situation. A biological approach has been developed at our Institute whereby salt-tolerant plants that are more suited to the environment have been grown rather than reclamation of land for conventional crops. Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) has been grown on such lands using brackish water for irrigation, thus producing large amounts of biomass. Since this biomass is not usually used as forage it was necessary to evaluate its effects on the growth and reproduction of farm animals. Buffalo, cows and goats are important for providing milk and meat in Pakistan. Goats are more important in arid and semi-arid areas. Dwarf goats were selected for the study because of easier handling, a shorter maturity period, better breeding, etc. One group of goats was contained and fed only Kallar grass throughout the year. (This grass is green in summer and, although it is a perennial, it dries in winter). Another group was allowed to free graze an area where, in addition to Kallar grass, some other wild species were also available. The effects of this forage were evaluated by recording the weight of the animals, pregnancies, lamb survival and hormone levels. It was found that when dry grass was the only source of nutrition the animals lost weight and reproduction was also affected; even though conception did take place lactation was reduced, the animals had difficulty in delivery and the lambs were born weak and did not survive. The progesterone and oestradiol levels and patterns were normal. The study concludes that dwarf goats can survive even when fed dry, low protein grass and that their body weight increases when the grass is green. They can, therefore, be raised on Kallar grass if kept for meat purposes; however, if they are to be maintained for breeding some supplementary fodder is desirable. Poor nutrition did not affect the hormone levels and patterns. (author)

  5. ?15N values of forage grasses and preliminary evaluation of their dinitrogen fixation potential for them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exist different ?15N values in shoots of different species and varieties of leguminosae grasses, showing that the potentialities of their dinitrogen fixation were apparently different. The ?15N values in shoots of some grasses tested were too low, and very close to ?15N value of atmospheric N2(0%). It is possible that they get N to meet the needs of their growth through some associative dinitrogen fixation processes. Further study should be done

  6. Thermal Response of Seedling Growth in Tropical Grasses in Controlled and Field Environments of Northern Kyushu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most tropical grasses in the warm southwestern region of Japan are cultivated as annuals and can be sown from May to July, after the harvest of an alternating crop of Italian ryegrass. However, suboptimal thermal conditions in the region may affect the germination and growth of seedlings. The objective of this study was to compare the growth of seedlings of promising tropical grasses in a Controlled Environment Facility (CEF and in a Field Data (FD trial. Temperatures in the CEF averaged 17.9, 22.9 and 27.9°C for the low (LT, middle (MT and high temperature (HT regimes, respectively, while the temperature in the FD trial was higher in the June-sowing (average 23.7°C, with a range between MT and HT in the CEF than in the May sowing (average 21.2°C, between LT and MT. Favorable plant growth attributes tended to increase with the increase in air temperature in both trials. The growth rates in Guinea grass and Sudan grass exhibited a linear response to the increase in temperature from LT to HT, whereas the growth rate of Rhodes grass and colored Guinea grass showed saturation between MT and HT. Thus, for early sowing in mid-May, the prominent species judged in terms of high seedling potential were Sudan grass and Rhodes grass and for the late-sowing in early July, Sudan grass and Guinea grass.

  7. Crude Protein and Crude of Fiber Benggala [Panicum Maximum] and Elephant [Pennisetum Purpureum] Grasses on Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ED Purbajanti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of crop response to water is essential for proper irrigation management. Research was conducted at Forage Crop Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Department, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry, Diponegoro University during 9 month trying two type grass that were benggala ( Panicum maximum and elephant ( Pennisetum purpureum with treatment of the following dry stres : S0 = control, without stress; S1 = 1 times drought stress, S2 = 2 times drought stress , and S3 = 3 times drought stress by lay out of complete random design( factorial pattern. Parameter perceived were( 1 forage production , (2 dry matter production, (3 percentage of crude protein, and (4 percentage of crude fibre. Data collected to be analysed by analysis of varians continued with Duncan multiple range test. Result of research indicate that forage production of elephant grass (103,79 g/pot bigger than benggala (53,08 g/pot. Dry matter production of elephant grass was 18,77 g/pot higher than benggala grass( 14,54 g/pot. Drought stres do not affect to forage production also dry matter production : Percentage of crude protein of benggala grass (9,10% higher than elephant grass (7,02%, while percentage crude fibre of benggala grass (35,64% higher than elephant grass (31,67%. Drought stres do not influence percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala and elephant grasses. Conclusion from research were (1 elephant grass have higher forage production and dry matter production than benggala grass (2 percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala grass higher than elephant grass, (3 drought stres do not affect to forage production , dry matter production, percentage of crude protein and crude fibre. (Animal Production 11(2: 109-115 (2009 Key Words : crude protein, fiber, drought stress

  8. Effect of Cutting Heights on Productivity and Quality of King Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King Grass) under Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sumran Wijitphan; Pornchai Lorwilai; Chutipong Arkaseang

    2009-01-01

    An experiment to study the effect of cutting heights on yield and nutritive values of King napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass) was conducted on sandy loam, Korat soil series (Oxic Paleustults) under irrigation during June 2006 to November 2007 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Development Research Center, Thailand. Four treatments of cutting height at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3) and 15 (T4) cm above ground level in randomized complete block design with 4 replications were employed. The...

  9. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

  10. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  11. Elevated CO? mitigates drought and temperature-induced oxidative stress differently in grasses and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Farfan-Vignolo, Evelyn Roxana; de Vos, Dirk; Asard, Han

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will affect plant growth, including mitigation of stress impact. Such effects vary considerably between species-groups. Grasses (Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis) and legumes (Medicago lupulina, Lotus corniculatus) were subjected to drought, elevated temperature and elevated CO2. Drought inhibited plant growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and induced osmolytes and antioxidants in all species. In contrast, oxidative damage was more strongly induced in the legumes than in the grasses. Warming generally exacerbated drought effects, whereas elevated CO2 reduced stress impact. In the grasses, photosynthesis and chlorophyll levels were more protected by CO2 than in the legumes. Oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, H2O2 levels), on the other hand, were generally more reduced in the legumes. This is consistent with changes in molecular antioxidants, which were reduced by elevated CO2 in the grasses, but not in the legumes. Antioxidant enzymes decreased similarly in both species-groups. The ascorbate-glutathione cycle was little affected by drought and CO2. Overall, elevated CO2 reduced drought effects in grasses and legumes, and this mitigation was stronger in the legumes. This is possibly explained by stronger reduction in H2O2 generation (photorespiration and NADPH oxidase), and a higher availability of molecular antioxidants. The grass/legume-specificity was supported by principal component analysis. PMID:25575986

  12. The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TFU, kg kg-1 ). It was found that the TFU values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

  13. Deriving Hydrological Response Units (HRUs using a Web Processing Service implementation based on GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwartze

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available QGIS releases equal to or newer than 0.7 can easily connected to GRASS GIS by means of a toolbox that provides a wide range of standard GRASS modules you can launch – albeit only on data coming from GRASS. This QGIS plugin is expandable through XML configurations describing the assignment of options and inputs for a certain module. But how about embedding a precise workflow where the several processes don’t consist of a single GRASS module by force? Especially for a sequence of dependent tasks it makes sense to merge relevant GRASS functionality into an own and encapsulated QGIS extension. Its architecture and development is tested and combined with the Web Processing Service (WPS for remote execution using the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs as an example. The results of this assay may be suitable for discussing and planning other wizard-like geoprocessing plugins in QGIS that also should make use of an additional GRASS server.

  14. A reduction in interstitial cells of Cajal in horses with equine dysautonomia (grass sickness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, N; Mayhew, I; Pearson, G

    2001-09-17

    Equine dysautonomia (grass sickness) is a common, frequently fatal disease of horses characterised by dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. Interstitial cells of Cajal are the c-Kit-immunoreactive cells responsible for the generation of pacemaker activity in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Impairment of this pacemaker action has been implicated in several motility disorders in humans and laboratory mammals. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in interstitial cells of Cajal may be involved in the pathophysiology of the intestinal dysfunction observed in equine grass sickness. Interstitial cells of Cajal were identified using immunohistochemical labelling with an anti-c-Kit antibody and their density was assessed using a semi-quantitative grading system. Segments of ileum were examined from 24 horses free from gastrointestinal disease and compared to tissues from 28 horses with grass sickness. Segments of the pelvic flexure region of the large colon were examined from 13 horses free from gastrointestinal disease and compared to tissues from 10 horses with grass sickness. In horses with grass sickness, interstitial cells of Cajal were significantly decreased in both the myenteric plexus and circular muscle regions of both ileum and pelvic flexure compared to normal animals. Therefore, it is possible that the decline in interstitial cells of Cajal may be an important factor in the development of intestinal dysmotility observed in grass sickness. PMID:11570702

  15. A model for backscattering characteristics of tall prairie grass canopies at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a discrete microwave scattering model, describing the radar backscattering coefficient from two treatments (burned and unburned) of tall prairie grass canopies at VV (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals are vertically oriented) and HH (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals and horizontally oriented) polarizations, based on the physical, biophysical, and geometrical characteristics of such canopies. Grass blades are modeled as thin and finite dielectric ellipsoids with arbitrary orientations. Scattering by an individual grass blade is formulated using a generalization of the Rayleigh—Gans approximation with a quasistatic solution for the expansion of the interior field. By associating, with each grass blade, various appropriate distribution functions, the relative orientation, location, height, cross section, and permittivity of each grass blade is taken into account. This makes for a more realistic overall description of the canopy. Kirchhoff's surface scattering is used to model the backscatter from the soil surface. An incoherent summation of the effect of grass blades and soil surface is adopted to obtain the total canopy backscattering coefficient, taking into account the attenuation experienced by the signal as it travels through the canopy. The results of this model are given for 1.5, 5, and 10 GHz (L-, C-, and X-band). Although for the shorter wavelengths (X-band) the Rayleigh—ia is not totally satisfied, nevertheless, the limited available measured X-band data compare relatively well with the results of this model both quantitatively and qualitatively. (author)

  16. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. The aim of this paper is to present the initial results concerning the impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities. The yield in fresh grass was analysed in a linear model that had as explanatory variables the  traffic intensities, a block effect describing the history of the field, the harvest date, the  trial coordinates, the average altitude, the average of the EM38-meausremnt and the distance to  trees and hedges close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the timing of cropand soil damage as affected by wheel load and tire pressure. However, at specific times, there was a significant effect of wheel load and secondary by the tire pressure. At all measurement times, the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key words (for Electronic Reference Library) Traffic intensities, tire load/pressure, clover/grass, yield loss, 

  17. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. (Dept. of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  18. Grass plants bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzkow, Sandra; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Khan, Uffaf; Telling, Glenn C; Hoover, Edward; Soto, Claudio

    2015-05-26

    Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)) to plants. Small quantities of PrP(Sc) contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces) can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrP(Sc) for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves). These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease. PMID:25981035

  19. Experimental studies of fire-atmosphere interactions during grass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Craig Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of fire-atmosphere interactions are very limited. This limitation is due to the extreme difficulty of making measurements in the fire environment. Experimental studies were conducted to gain a dynamical understanding of fire-atmosphere interactions associated with grass fires. These experiments used a number of instrument platforms placed within the fire perimeter. Data showed that the flows and turbulence were complex. Turbulence generated near the combustion zone was anisotropic and formed as a result of strong horizontal variance in the ambient wind direction. Turbulence in the upper plume was more isotropic and was associated with stronger buoyancy. Winds during fire front passage were two to three times greater than the ambient flow. Strong downdrafts were observed to occur behind the fire front and were associated with the entrainment of ambient air into the fire plume. In addition, downdrafts were observed ahead of the fire front and these were associated with the formation of a horizontal vortex. Ahead of the fire front a weak convergence zone formed and winds in this zone were less in magnitude than the ambient winds. Wind direction in the convergence zone shifted from ambient northerly direction to southerly indicating inflow into the approaching fire front. These experiments show that measurements within the fire zone can lead to useful data for better understanding fire-atmosphere interactions.

  20. The Fluid Dynamical Forces Involved in Grass Fire Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kochanski, A.; Krueger, S. K.; Mell, W.; McDermott, R.

    2010-12-01

    title: The Fluid Dynamical Forces Involved in Grass Fire Propagation. We know from previous numerical modeling studies that it is possible, using a combination of a simplified set of fluid dynamical equations, observations, and full-scale time-dependent three-dimensional numerical analyzes, to examine many essential mechanisms involved in cumulus cloud dynamics. Much of our understanding of the relationship between convective storms and their environments have been obtained from numerical modeling studies in which the characteristics of the environment can be controlled. The conditions of the simulated environments were highly idealized, horizontally homogeneous, and time invariant. This research, which began in the early 1940's and continues today, is mainly concerned with the dynamical mechanisms by which a thunderstorm updraft evolves, propagates, and changes shape as it moves. In this study we are concerned with the dynamical mechanisms by which a fire plume evolves, propagates, and changes shape as it moves, and how the fire/atmosphere interaction can impact this behavior. We take the same approach used in the previous numerical convective-cloud modeling studies to analyze the fluid dynamical forces involved. To achieve our objectives, we examine the model output of moving grassfires in environments with uni-directional vertical shear in the background flow from the WRF-fire, the coupled wildland fire version of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) Model. Our goal is to explain why, although the surface wind speed in all simulations is the same, the fire-spread rates are not.

  1. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  2. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  3. Hymenobacter ruber sp. nov., isolated from grass soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Kim, Song-Gun; Lee, Keun Chul; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2014-03-01

    A taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach was performed on a Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain PB156(T), isolated from grass soil. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that the isolate was clearly affiliated with the phylum Bacteroidetes, and most closely related to Hymenobacter soli PB17(T), Hymenobacter antarcticus VUG-A42aa(T) and Hymenobacter glaciei VUG-A130(T), showing 96.4, 96.2 and 95.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, while all other species of the genus shared only 89.3-95.2?% similarity. The main polyamine present was sym-homospermidine. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were C15?:?0 iso, summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c/t), C16?:?1?5c and C15?:?0 anteiso. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB156(T) was 61.7 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data supported the conclusion that strain PB156(T) represents a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter ruber sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PB156(T) (?=?KCTC 32477(T)?=?JCM 19433(T)). PMID:24425816

  4. GOLDEN EYE GRASS - A MAGICAL REMEDY BY NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Soni et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available From the dawn of civilization, medicinal plants are known to be part of human society to combat diseases. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and various evidences have been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Curculigo orchioides, Amaryllidaceae also known as “Golden eye grass”. It possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. The rhizome is rich in Curculigoside, other glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of the rhizome shows antioxidant, anti inflammatory, spermatogenic, aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antiasthamatic, supporting its traditional uses. In this review article, we have focused our interest on phytochemistry, traditional uses, tissue culture study and its reported pharmacological properties.

  5. Mass loading of soil particles on a pasture grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides associated with soil particles can be transported to plant surfaces by wind, raindrop splash, animal activities and mechanical disturbance and can contribute to radiation exposure through ingestion by humans or livestock. The quantities of radionuclides ingested with soil particles borne on plant surfaces can be estimated from the mass loadings of soil on plant surfaces (i.e. mg soil per g dry plant mass) and the radionuclide concentrations in soil. However, relatively few estimates of mass loadings are available for either row or pasture crops. Estimates of the concentration of soil on bahia grass, a common pasture species on the sandy soils of the southeastern United States, were obtained using 238Pu as an indicator of the presence of soil on vegetation. The mass loading of soil on live bahia biomass average 9.0 mg g-1, which is similar to that for some row crops grown on the same soils. The mass loading for bahia pasture may be less than that for English pastures but differences in methodologies among studies complicate comparisons. (author)

  6. Grass Plants Bind, Retain, Uptake, and Transport Infectious Prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for prion diseases. Environmental prion contamination has been implicated in disease transmission. Here, we analyzed the binding and retention of infectious prion protein (PrPSc to plants. Small quantities of PrPSc contained in diluted brain homogenate or in excretory materials (urine and feces can bind to wheat grass roots and leaves. Wild-type hamsters were efficiently infected by ingestion of prion-contaminated plants. The prion-plant interaction occurs with prions from diverse origins, including chronic wasting disease. Furthermore, leaves contaminated by spraying with a prion-containing preparation retained PrPSc for several weeks in the living plant. Finally, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to aerial parts of the plant (stem and leaves. These findings demonstrate that plants can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting a possible role of environmental prion contamination in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

  7. Isolation of a purified allergen from Kentucky blue grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekramoddoullah, A K; Chakrabarty, S; Kisil, F T; Sehon, A H

    1980-01-01

    An allergenic fraction, designated as C-I-2-6, was isolated from among the allergenic constituents present in the dialysate of the aqueous extract of defatted Kentucky blue grass (KBG) pollen by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and preparative isoelectrofocusing. This fraction was shown in consist of glycoprotein with a molecular size corresponding to 10,000 daltons and of two compounds with closely related pI values (4.5--4.9); its protein moiety contained all the amino acids except cysteine. As demonstrated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis with a sheep anti-R serum, fraction C-I-2-6 shared the antigenic determinants of 2 of the 15 antigenic components of the nondialysable components, i.e. retentate (R) of the aqueous extract of KBG pollen. Remarkably, in spite of the markedly lower molecular weight than R, fraction C-I-2-6 possessed all the allergenic determinants of R responsible for inducing murine IgE antibodies. PMID:7419287

  8. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; SkjØth, Carsten Ambelas

    2013-01-01

    We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban-scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflect the source areas identified in the inventory, and that the pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near or within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not to rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local-scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulate pollen release in order to calculate urban-scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are additionally available in tabular form.

  9. Herbicide impacts on exotic grasses and a population of the critically endangered herb "Calystegia affinis" (Convolvulaceae) on Lord Howe Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Ian; Coenraads, Robert; Auld, Tony D.; Denham, Andrew J.; Ooi, M. K. J.; Brown, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Introduced perennial grasses are capable of altering the habitat of native species, causing reductions in population size and vigour, and potentially affecting life-history processes such as survival, pollination and seedling recruitment. We examined the utility of herbicide treatment on two exotic grasses, Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) and Stenotaphrum secundatum (Buffalo grass) to restore the habitat of Calystegia affinis, a critically endangered species endemic to Lord Howe and Norfolk ...

  10. Modifications of Phleum pratense grass pollen allergens following artificial exposure to gaseous air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerieux, Franc?oise; Godfrin, D.; Senechal, He?le?ne; Motta, Alexandre; Marliere, Maryse; Peltre, Gabriel; Lacroix, Ghislaine

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a potential cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the major gaseous air pollutants on grass pollen allergens. Timothy grass pollen was exposed to ozone (O-3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) alone or in combination. Allergen contents were analysed by 2-dimensional immunoblot using grass pollen-sensitive patient sera. For O-3-treated pollen, immunoblotting ...

  11. Nutritive value of grasses in semi-arid rangelands of Ethiopia : local experience based herbage preference evaluation versus laboratory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keba, Habtamu Teka; Madakadze, Ignacio Casper; Angassa, A.; Hassen, Abubeker

    2013-01-01

    We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons ...

  12. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keba, Habtamu T.; Madakadze, I. C.; Angassa, A.; Hassen, A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons ...

  13. The quick and the slow: Competitive ability of two silica-rich grasses influenced by large and small herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Lægreid, Eiliv Jenssen

    2013-01-01

    Silicate-rich grasses often dominate in heavily grazed areas, presumably because high amounts of silica deter herbivores. Activity of large herbivores and small rodent herbivores increase competitive ability of silicate-rich grasses, possibly through apparent competition. Both types of herbivores often co-exist in grassland ecosystems. Their potential additive effect on competitive ability of silica-rich grasses has seldom been studied. The impact of large and small rodent herbivores on sil...

  14. Bioenergy production from roadside grass : A case study of the feasibility of using roadside grass for biogas production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show that the potential annual yield of biomass obtainable from roadside verges varies widely depending on the local conditions. The net energy gain (NEG) from harvest, collection, transport, storage and digestion of roadside vegetation was estimated to range from 60,126–121,476 GJ, corresponding to 1.5–3.0% of the present national energy production based on biogas. The estimated values for the energy return on invested energy (EROEI) was found to range from 2.17 to 2.88. The measured contents of heavy metals in the roadside vegetation was seen not to exceed the legislative levels for what can be applied as fertilizer on agricultural land, neither does it reach levels considered as inhibitory for the anaerobic fermentation process. From a practical point of view, few challenges were identified related to the acquisition and processing of the roadside vegetation. Considering the positive net energy gains, further energy investments for management of these challenges can be made. Despite the somewhat low EROEI values, the use of this resource could however result in other positive externalities, such as improved biodiversity of the verges and recycling of nutrients.

  15. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles. PMID:14575747

  16. Divergent evolutionary histories of C4 grasses shape global grassland ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C.; Griffith, D.; Osborne, C.

    2014-12-01

    C4 photosynthesis has evolved in more than 23 independent lineages of grasses as an adaptation to hot, sunny conditions. Geological records demonstrate that C4 grasses abruptly became ecologically dominant during the late Cenozoic across the tropical and temperate regions, transforming the Earth System and facilitating major faunal and floral radiations. However, although each C4 grass lineage originated and specialised in different environments, the importance of these divergent evolutionary histories for global ecology remains largely unknown. Here, we address this problem by compiling the first global map of grassy biomes based entirely upon ground-based vegetation surveys of dominant species. Our analysis shows that grasses dominate the ground layer across 40% of the vegetated land surface, with C4 grasses accounting for 60% of this area, and grassy biomes occurring under almost all climatic conditions. More than 98% of C3 grassy vegetation is dominated by the cold tolerant Pooideae lineage, which is replaced by C4 lineages at mean annual temperatures exceeding 15oC. The world's C4 grassy vegetation is largely dominated by only four of the 23 independent C4 grass lineages, and these segregate strongly along global environmental gradients and across continents. The Chloridoideae lineage is globally important in dominating semi-arid environments with a long fire return interval. In contrast, although the Andropogoneae lineage dominates extremely wet regions with frequent fire in the Paleotropics and North America, the same niche space is dominated by Paspaleae in South America. Sorting of lineages along precipitation and fire gradients is strongly predicted by plant height. Our results demonstrate that the divergent histories of independent C4 grass lineages have constrained the assembly and functional traits of grassy biomes, with important implications for understanding how biome boundaries may shift in past and future environments.

  17. Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense Response to Clipping and Seeding of Competitive Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Knudson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restrictions, ecological concerns, liability issues, and public sentiment present challenges to land managers attempting to control highly invasive plants like Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense [L.] Scop.. Although herbicide application can be an effective control strategy, increasing limitations force managers of sensitive environments (e.g., national parks, wildlife refuges, protected water-bodies or waterways to search for effective control alternatives. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the effectiveness of clipping (to simulate field mowing and grass seeding as alternatives for Canada thistle control. Two native North American grasses (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii {Rydb.} A. Löve] and streambank wheatgrass [Elymus lanceolatus {Scribn. & J.G. Sm.}Gould ssp. lanceolatus] and one sterile hybrid cross between common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum [Podp.] Z.W. Liu & R.C. Wang called RegreenTM were used. The effects of clipping and grass seeding on Canada thistle growth, and the effect of Canada thistle on grass growth, were evaluated using 14 unique treatments applied to potted Canada thistle and grass plants. Clipping inhibited Canada thistle growth (by 60%, while grass seeding had no effect. Presence of Canada thistle inhibited grass growth for all seeding treatments except when RegreenTM and western wheatgrass were seeded together with Canada thistle. Planting multiple species for restoration of Canada thistle-infested sites may be important (RegreenTM + western wheatgrass treatment, and cutting Canada thistle may be useful for reducing its growth in restored areas.

  18. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  19. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in grass in the vicinity of a former uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Soil and grass samples were collected from sites at the uranium mill tailings pile. • 238U, 230Th, 226Ra and 210Pb activity concentrations were determined. • Soil-to-plant transfer factors were determined and are comparable with literature. • Potential use of grass as a monitor of radionuclide migration was evaluated. • Grass has potential in predicting 238U and 226Ra migration. -- Abstract: The activity concentrations of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra and 210Pb were determined in soil and grass samples collected from sites at the uranium mill tailings waste pile, which lies near the former uranium mine at Žirovski vrh in Slovenia. Soil-to-plant transfer factors were determined and the potential use of grass as a monitor of radionuclide migration from the waste pile was evaluated. It was found that grass was not suitable for monitoring 230Th and 210Pb migration (no linear correlation between soil and grass activity concentrations) but has potential in predicting 238U and 226Ra migration (linear correlation between soil and grass activity concentrations). Soil-to-plant transfer factors for grass were in the range from 0.0014 to 0.015 kg/kg DM for 238U, 0.0039 to 0.012 kg/kg DM for 230Th, 0.035 to 0.46 kg/kg DM for 226Ra and 0.098 to 1.5 kg/kg DM for 210Pb

  20. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  1. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within...

  2. Control Effect of Sudan Grass on Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in Cucumber and Lettuce Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Hwan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on cucumber and lettuce was evaluated with green manure crop species in greenhouse. Nematicidal effect of sudan grass cultivation in cucumber greenhouse was comparable to that of chemical treatment with fosthiazate GR, showing the high activity of 88.6%. Sudan grass cultivation in lettuce greenhouse significantly reduced the number of M. incognita in soil, showing 93.5% of nematiidal activity. In addition, since growth of sudan grass was superior to other green manure crop species, it is considered that cultivation of sudan grass is proper to control M. incognita in greenhouse.

  3. Turbulence and Dynamics of Wildland Grass Fires: The FireFlux Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C.; Zhong, S.; Li, J.; Goodrick, S.; Bian, X.; Heilman, W.; Charney, J.; Potter, B.; Aumann, G.

    2006-12-01

    Grass fires, although not as intense as forest fires, present a major threat to life and property in regions of drought in the Great Plains of the United States. Recently, major wildland grass fires in Texas burned nearly 5 million acres and destroyed over 400 homes since December. During the week of 16 March 2006, 11 people were killed and an estimated 10,000 head of livestock were lost, marking this the worst fire season to date for the state of Texas. As an aid to fire management, various models have been developed to describe fire behavior, but observational data in the immediate environment of grass fires are largely unavailable for validating these models. These models also emphasize fuels and fail to consider the role of convective dynamics in fire behavior. To fill this gap, an intensive field measurement campaign called FireFlux was conducted recently near Houston, Texas. The campaign used a variety of instrument platforms to collect mean and turbulence data at multiple levels within and immediately downwind of a 155 acre tall-grass prairie burn unit. The experimental burn was intended to replicate a natural wildland grass fire as closely as possible. Fire ignition occurred upwind, and the fire was allowed to spread through the instrumentation. Preliminary analyses show combustion-zone temperatures exceeding 920 °C and vertical velocities exceeding 5 m s-1. These data are being used to understand the dynamic behavior of grass fires and to validate fire-behavior models used by fire managers and fire fighters. The intended purpose of this proposed article is to report on the recent FireFlux experiment, including its experimental goals, design, instrumentation, and preliminary results. The results include new findings and first time observations of atmospheric turbulence structures and turbulent fluxes associated with intense grass fires. The article is timely because of the extreme grass fires that caused loss of life in Texas and Oklahoma during the 2005/2006 fire season; FireFlux took place during this period, on 23 February 2006. The FireFlux experiment is considered the most intensively monitored grass fire to date.

  4. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C4 photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C3 type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C3 genera are found. The C3 species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C3 grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C4 grasses into the three subtypes of the C4 pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned

  5. Testing the recoverability of grass DNA transferred to textiles for forensic purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Francès

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Botanical evidence such as grass stains on textiles is sometimes present in the crime scene and can allow investigators to establish an association between persons linked to the criminal event and the crime scene. In this study, extraction of grass DNA from stains on textiles was undertaken. DNA extraction was performed on four grass species conserved both indoors and outdoors for 7, 14 and 30 days after staining. Once the extracted DNA was quantified, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplifying a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer was performed.DNA extraction was successful in 97.5% of samples. No significant differences in the amount of extracted DNA were detected among species or stain ages. However, one grass species (Cynodon dactylon showed a significant diminution in the mean DNA concentration between indoor and outdoor samples (439.9±137 ng/µL vs. 318.9±177 ng/µL respectively; p=0.041. PCR was successful in 89.2% of samples. This study has thus demonstrated the recoverability of grass DNA from stains on cloths and its stability in the first month after staining in both outdoor and indoor environments, as well as its suitability for PCR amplification that could allow correct species identification.

  6. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass ensiled with old man saltbush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otanael Oliveira dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of saltbush on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silages of elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum Schum. were studied through a completely randomized design with six old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % in substitution of the grass natural matter, with six replicates. Elephant grass presented 18.9% dry matter (DM and silages were produced in experimental PVC silos, which were open at 70 days after ensilage. The increasing old man saltbush levels had increasing linear effect on the DM content of silages. There was quadratic effect for the contents of lactic and acetic acids and in vitro DM digestibility. Contents of butyric acid were negligible. Values pH of and N-NH3 contents had increasing linear effect. Linear effect of the increasing levels of old man saltbush was verified on the CP contents. Neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and ether extract were not affected, whilst acid detergent fiber content showed decreasing linear effect. The addition of old man saltbush in the ensilage of elephant grass favored the fermentation process, promoting good lactic acid contents and reducing acetic acid, pH, dry matter loss and ammoniacal nitrogen, in addition to improving the nutritional quality of the elephant grass silages.

  7. [Ecological function and application of toxin beta-ODAP in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Bai, Xue; Batool, Asfa; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Wang, Ya-Fu; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-04-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a legume with various adverse adaptability and rich nutrition. However, it can lead to the human and animal neurotoxicity after long-term consumption due to its neurotoxin, beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), limiting its utilization. This paper summarized the influences of beta-ODAP on osmotic adjustment and growth regulation in grass pea under drought stress, the research progress in analysis methods, toxicological mechanisms and practical utility of beta-ODAP, and the breeding strategies for low- and zero-beta-ODAP. Beta-ODAP synthesis was found to be abundant in grass pea under drought stress and its content was enhanced gradually with the increasing extent of drought stress. beta-ODAP could supply nitrogen for plant growth and seed development, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), involve in osmotic adjustment as a soluble amino acid, transport zinc-ions as a carrier molecule, and impact nodule development. However, increasing the content of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) could decrease the level of toxicity of grass pea. There were a lot of investigations on collecting genetic resources, cross breeding, tissue culture, and gene manipulation for low- and zero-toxin in grass pea in recent years. Although beta-ODAP could induce excitotoxicity by damaging intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and as glutamate analogues, it has medicinal value on hemostasis and anti-tumor. PMID:25011318

  8. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates. PMID:24056433

  9. Socioeconomic Study of Grasses and Legumes in Baria and Godhra Forest Division, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta R. PANDYA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The cultural diversity in the Indian society reflects close relationship between the existence of human life and nature including all other living creatures and non-living creatures. The present paper deals with the traditional knowledge of villagers in 10 villages nearby the grasslands in Panchmahal and Dahod districts of Gujarat, India, regarding the multipurpose use of grasses and associated legumes prevailing in these grasslands. A survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic status. 69 grass species and 34 legumes could be identified growing in these grasslands of which 92 were used for livestocks. Among these grasses the most preferred grass species were Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum because of its high palatability. Three grasses and 8 legume species were used for food and medicine. The study emphasizes the use of plant wealth to human needs of the regions and assist in appraisal of various anthropogenic interventions accountable for loss of prevailing biodiversity of the region.

  10. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Braulio Maia de Lana, Sousa; Domicio do, Nascimento Júnior; Hélida Christhine de Freitas, Monteiro; Sila Carneiro da, Silva; Hélio Henrique, Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da, Silveira; Carlindo Santos, Rodrigues; André Fischer, Sbrissia.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm) from February through May 2009 (experiment one) and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment [...] two). In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  11. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass ensiled with old man saltbush

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Otanael Oliveira dos, Santos; Gherman Garcia Leal de, Araújo; Claudio, Mistura; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro, Pereira; Tadeu Vinhas, Voltolini; Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos, Santos; Josivânia Rodrigues de, Araújo.

    1401-14-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of saltbush on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silages of elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum Schum.) were studied through a completely randomized design with six old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind) levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 %) in [...] substitution of the grass natural matter, with six replicates. Elephant grass presented 18.9% dry matter (DM) and silages were produced in experimental PVC silos, which were open at 70 days after ensilage. The increasing old man saltbush levels had increasing linear effect on the DM content of silages. There was quadratic effect for the contents of lactic and acetic acids and in vitro DM digestibility. Contents of butyric acid were negligible. Values pH of and N-NH3 contents had increasing linear effect. Linear effect of the increasing levels of old man saltbush was verified on the CP contents. Neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and ether extract were not affected, whilst acid detergent fiber content showed decreasing linear effect. The addition of old man saltbush in the ensilage of elephant grass favored the fermentation process, promoting good lactic acid contents and reducing acetic acid, pH, dry matter loss and ammoniacal nitrogen, in addition to improving the nutritional quality of the elephant grass silages.

  12. Evidence that the agent of equine grass sickness may reach neurons by retrograde axonal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, I R; Smith, S; Doxey, D L; Whitwell, K; Love, S

    1994-11-26

    Sera from acute and chronic cases of natural grass sickness or normal horses were injected into the parotid salivary gland of ponies. This gland receives its sympathetic innervation from the ipsilateral cranial cervical ganglion. None of the ponies showed any local or systemic signs of illness. After one week the cranial cervical ganglia, stellate and coeliaco-mesenteric ganglia were removed for histological study. Pathological changes were found only in the cranial cervical ganglion ipsilateral to a parotid salivary gland which had received an injection of grass sickness serum. Four out of five batches of test sera from cases of acute natural grass sickness were associated with chromatolytic changes in neurons; the remaining batch of serum produced no abnormalities. The most severe chromatolytic changes were induced by two samples obtained from horses whose signs of grass sickness had been present for less than 12 hours. A serum sample from a chronic case of grass sickness of three weeks duration did not produce chromatolysis but was associated with a moderately severe inflammatory infiltrate and neuronophagia in the ipsilateral cranial cervical ganglion. One batch of serum was size fractionated to separate components with molecular weights above or below 30 kDa. Only the fraction containing components above 30 kDa induced chromatolytic changes. PMID:7533463

  13. Fundamental Environmental and Landscape Forming Influence of Close Grass Cenosis on the Moisture Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Rakov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The condensation of transpiration and advective water fallows (further—the phenomenon under the close grass cenosis can be compared to the quantity of precipitation. The phenomenon depends on physical and meteorological features of the closed grass cover. For instance, close grass cover halts a large part of solar radiation at the daytime. Effective emanation and turbulent exchange cool the soil to a dew point and lower. The phenomenon forms another landscape. There are also a number of other fundamental consequences of the phenomenon. Thus, biologolisation of farming and forestry: Growing of forests and agrocenosis with grasses (present-day weeds that may serve as activators for forests and grasses; Cultivated plants selection, allelopathically compatible to some definite weeds; as a result of such a selection weeds may be found and transformed into activators. To fight against drought, desertification the importance of the phenomenon is obvious. Flooding in the Western Europe may be connected with the named phenomenon as this resource in connection with climate change is, probably, growing.

  14. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Soares, Miranda; Karina Guimarães, Ribeiro; Alexandre Christófaro, Silva; Rosana Cristina, Pereira; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Pablo Vidal, Torrado; José Sebastião Cunha, Fernandes; Maxwel Coura, Oliveira.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral con [...] tent and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  15. The Neutral Detergent Fiber Digestibility of Some Tropical Grasses at Different Stage of Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyuddin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD was determined by Telly and Terry methods in vitro on 5 tropical grasses species, Sorghum, Themeda, Iseilema, Brachyacne and Dicanthium. Stem and leaf samples were harvested at different maturity stages, started from early flowering stage to the stage when the grasses were dried. In general, IVNDFD ranged from 22% to 41%. Stages of maturity affected IVNDFD in 4 species; IVNDFD was higher in the stems than in the leaves for 2 species out of 5 species of grasses; the rest was similar. There was no correlation between NDF and IVNDFD, showing that NDF degradability in the rumen was vary. Digestibility potential of NDF (PDNDF varied from 21% to 44% and has negative correlation with IVNDFD (r=0.75. Growth affected PDNDF in 2 species; and 3 out 5 species observed showed PDNDF in the leaves was higher than that in the stems. Negative correlation was exist between dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, water soluble extract (WSE and protein with PDNDF. Grasses with stated PDNDF values have relatively high NDF retention in the rumen, which will cause low NDF or dry matter consumption. (Animal Production 11(3: 189-195 (2009Key Words: NDF digestibility, tropical grasses, stem, leaves, maturity stage

  16. Forage Yield and the Quality of Perennial Legume-Grass Mixtures under Rainfed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat YILMAZ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine suitable perennial forage species and their mixtures for the establishment of short-term artificial pastures under rainfed conditions in Turkey. The study was conducted from 2008 through 2010. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa Lam., brome grass (Bromus inermis Leys., intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium (Host. Beauv., crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L. Gaertn. and their binary and ternary mixtures were used as experimental material. The study found significant differences in yield and quality among the forage mixtures investigated. Sainfoin + bromegrass + crested wheatgrass and sainfoin + crested wheatgrass mixtures gave the highest dry matter yield (8.36 and 7.75 t/ha, respectively. Binary and ternary mixtures of alfalfa + grasses had higher crude protein levels and lower values of ADF and NDF content than mixtures of sainfoin + grasses. Pure alfalfa (56.64% and binary mixtures of alfalfa + grasses (53.53 to 54.28% had the highest TDN values. The relative feed values of the mixtures ranged from 95.64 to 112.58. The results of the study indicated that alfalfa and sainfoin binary mixtures with grasses may both be used to establish artificial pastures in similar ecologies owing to their high forage yield and quality.

  17. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto Magno, Fernandes; Fermino, Deresz; Douglas Sampaio, Henrique; Fernando César Ferraz, Lopes; Leonardo Siqueira, Glória.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area [...] divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa) samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.

  18. Rehabilitation with forage grasses of an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Soares Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter yield and chemical composition of forage grasses harvested from an area degraded by urban solid waste deposits were evaluated. A split-plot scheme in a randomized block design with four replicates was used, with five grasses in the plots and three harvests in the subplots. The mineral content and extraction and heavy metal concentration were evaluated in the second cut, using a randomized block design with five grasses and four replicates. The grasses were Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and cv. Xaraés, and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cut at 42 days of regrowth. The dry matter yield per cut reached 1,480 kg ha-1; the minimum crude protein content was 9.5% and the average neutral detergent fiber content was 62.3%. The dry matter yield of grasses was satisfactory, and may be an alternative for rehabilitating areas degraded by solid waste deposits. The concentration of heavy metals in the plants was below toxicity levels; the chemical composition was appropriate, except for phosphorus. The rehabilitated areas may therefore be used for grazing.

  19. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clair Jorge, Olivo; Carlos Alberto, Agnolin; Priscila Flôres, Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de, Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de, Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg, Diehl; Gilmar Roberto, Meinerz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season r [...] yegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems) two replications (paddocks) and independent evaluations (grazing cycles). The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  20. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p? Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  1. Effect of organic fertilization on biomass production and bioactivity of citronella grass essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Aguiar Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of organic fertilization on the growth and on biomass production of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus as well as evaluating the effect citronella grass essential oil and of the citronellal compound in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the Didymella bryoniae fungi. To evaluate the effect of organic fertilization on the growth of citronella grass, the experiment was installed in a block randomized design in subdivided plot scheme. The plots consisted by four doses of organic cattle manure (0, 3, 6 and 9 Kg hole-1 and the subplots by five sampling times (80, 108, 136, 164, 192 days after transplant. To evaluate the effect of citronella grass essential oil in inhibiting mycelial growth of D. bryoniae, the experiment was installed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of five aliquots (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ?L of essential oil of citronella grass and citronellal compound in five sampling times. The treatment of organic fertilization 9 Kg hole-1 exhibited the highest values in all variables in the last sampling time. A greater effect of inhibition of mycelial growth was obtained using citronellal when compared with the essential oil. In the aliquot of 25 ?L of citronellal was observed total inhibition of mycelial growth of the D. bryoniae fungi.

  2. Reed canary grass transportation costs - Reducing costs and increasing feasible transportation distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, T.; Paappanen, T.; Sivonen, K. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1603, FIN-40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rinne, S. [YTY-konsultointi Oy, Teljintie 4, FIN-40530 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Wihersaari, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 36, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylaen yliopisto (Finland)

    2009-02-15

    Reed canary grass is used in several heat and power plants in Finland and it is estimated that about 70-80 plants could utilise reed canary grass as a co-firing fuel. Long-distance transport of reed canary grass forms a significant share of the production and delivery costs. Reed canary grass can be transported in bales or as loose matter. The density of the matter and shape of the bales influence the load-size and the cost. At present it is impossible to obtain the full load-bearing capacity of a lorry even with bales, and with light bulk matter the obtainable load is less than one-third of the load-bearing capacity of a lorry. By using Orkel local-baler it has been possible to obtain the largest load-sizes, but the total economy of the chain is not very good because the baling and chopping of bales increase the total costs. If a full load-bearing capacity of a lorry (30-40 tonne) would be obtained, the transportation costs would be reduced significantly compared to the present situation. Second alternative would be to mix reed canary grass with wood chips or peat before long-distance transport. At the moment feasible transportation distances are relatively short. With briquettes the cargo space could be used more efficiently and the load-size of the transport could be increased. (author)

  3. N resource of grasses and N2-fixation of alfalfa in mono-culture and mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N behavior in alfalfa and gramineous forage grasses, tall fescue, siberian wild rye, wheat grass and awnless brome were studied in potting and pasture experiments in 1986-1988 by using 15N isotope dilution technique. Comparison was made between the mixed culture and mono-culture. The % Ndff and %Ndfs of grasses were decreased by 14.19% and 20.76% respectively, while %Ndfa of alfalfa was increased by 20.22% in mixed culture as compared with mono-culture. The 15N and soil N uptake data revealed that this enhancement was largely due to a lower competitive ability for soil N by alfalfa than by grass in mixed stands, causing the alfalfa to depend more on atmospheric N2 fixation. 20.62%of N of grasses in mixed culture was from the N2-fixation by alfalfa, causing N level in root-sphere of alfalfa decreasing, which was considered to be one of the reasons that %Ndfa increased in mixed culture. N transfer may be carried out by the decomposition of roots and nodules of alfalfa plants

  4. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg-1), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg-1) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  5. Efficient process for ethanol production from Thai Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertwasu, Sirirat; Khumsupan, Darin; Komolwanich, Tidarat; Chaisuwan, Thanyalak; Luengnaruemitchai, Apanee; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2014-07-01

    Mission grass (Pennisetum polystachion) obtained from Tak Province, Thailand, possesses the potential to become a lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. After the grass underwent milling and alkaline pretreatments, it was subjected to acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. The glucose hydrolyzate from the grass was detoxified to remove inhibitory compounds and degradation products such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Overliming at pH 10 produced the highest ethanol yield. Among various strains of baker's yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5596 with a yeast concentration of 10% v/v produced the maximum ethanol yield at 16 g/L within 24h, which is among one of the fastest ethanol producing microorganisms compared to other strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other ethanol-producing microorganisms. PMID:24811442

  6. Cholinergic activity of intestinal muscle in vitro taken from horses with and without equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A; Cottrell, D F; Woodman, M P

    1994-01-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) is a pan-dysautonomia of horses that involves central and peripheral neuronal degeneration and ultimately depletion. This is the first reported functional study on the motility of equine intestine taken immediately post mortem from horses with EGS. Strips of smooth muscle from the small intestine of healthy and EGS-affected horses were suspended in an organ bath and their motility was measured isometrically. The activity of the cholinergic system was studied. Physostigmine enhanced the motility of all muscle strips. Tissues taken from horses suffering from acute grass sickness (AGS) had the longest latency before a measurable response could be obtained (p grass sickness but this was not the case for the ileal strips. Muscarinic receptor sensitivity investigation using bethanecol suggested a hypersensitivity of receptors with AGS material. PMID:7985382

  7. The effects of grass and clay plyometric training on jumping, sprinting and agility in collegiate cricketers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moazzam Hussain Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of Plyometrics on Grass Versus Clay Surface on Jumping, Sprinting and Agility in Collegiate CricketersDesign: Pre test-Post test same subject group Experimental design.Methods: After random allocation, 24 players’ completed 4 weeks of plyometric training, 12 players on clay surface and 12 players on grass surface. Before and after training, vertical jump, 40 yard sprint time and agility were measured.Result: Independent t- test was used for data analysis. No significant difference was found between the clay surface and grass surface groups and both the groups showed similar improvements in all the three variables viz vertical jump, agility and sprint time.Conclusion: Both the surfaces can be used to improve the athletes’ performances.

  8. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium