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Growth Response of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) to Phosphorus and Mycorrhizal Inoculation  

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Full Text Available Arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis confers numerous benefits to host plants including improved tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although the majority of grasses form an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, little is known of the mycorrhization of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). A pot study was conducted in sterilized soil to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus amendment on the biomass production in C. ciliaris. Mycorrhizal fungi used were Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum. Inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone, and combined incoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum signifi cantly (P<0.05) increased dry biomass in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum showed pronounced (P<0.05) eff ect on dry biomass compared to inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Glomus etunicatum resulted in signifi cantly (P<0.05) higher dry biomass campared to the combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices + Gigaspora rosea and inoculation with Gigaspora rosea alone in unamended and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatments. Th e results clearly show that inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum is highly benefi cial for the growth and biomass production in the absence or presence of P2O5 under sterile soil conditions. Inoculation of C. ciliaris plants with these mycorrizal fungi may help in forage production in marginal and shallow soils of the rangelands of Pakistan.

Irshad Ahmad Khan; Shahbaz Ahmad; Sarwat N. Mirza; Moazzam Nizami; Mohammad Athar; Shaikh Mohammad Shabbir

2007-01-01

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Buffel Grass: An Augmented Landscape  

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Full Text Available This article examines, in part, the spread of an introduced grass species, Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), in central Australia. It is also about immersing oneself in an unfamiliar landscape and environment, and exploring the kind of writing that can emerge from that process. It is informed by James Clifford's proposition in 'Fort Ross Meditation' that history occurs on diverse and overlapping temporal registers such as weather, dust, faultlines, human histories, animal histories and histories of seeds, among others. While the article does not explicitly discuss Clifford’s argument, it is an attempt to explore similarly diverse histories including those generated by arid zone scientists, Albert Namatjira’s efforts to gain a grazing licence, environmental impact of settlement (including erosion, dust storms and species extinction), along with personal narratives impelled by engagement with place. The article does not aim to theorise its content, rather to elaborate knowledge of landscape along with that elusive quality, a ‘sense of place’, through connecting disparate things.

Saskia Maya Beudel

2012-01-01

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Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4?×?4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods (n = 4). Animals were fed with BG with different levels of GS: 100% BG (T1, control), 90% BG + 10% GS (T2), 80% BG + 20% GS (T3), and 70% BG?+?30% GS (T4). Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P < 0.05) in those lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in the other treatments. CP digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in T4 compared to T1, T2, and T3. The study showed that inclusion of GS up to 30% with BG in forage-based diets of sheep does not affect DM and fiber intake nor influence DM and OM digestibilities but it increases CP intake and reduces NDF and ADF digestibilities.

Avilés-Nieto JN; Valle-Cerdán JL; Castrejón-Pineda F; Angeles-Campos S; Vargas-Bello-Pérez E

2013-08-01

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Efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal de Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre el porcentaje de control de malezas, rendimiento y concentración de fósforo en semillas de fríjol Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. mulch and the application of diammoniun phosphate on weed control, yield and phosphorus concentration in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. seeds  

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Full Text Available A objeto de evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de cobertura vegetal con pasto Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris L. y fertilización fosfórica sobre la concentración de fósforo en la semilla, control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra, y componentes de rendimiento, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con el mutante de fríjol ON-30(6), en la Granja Ana María Campos, de la Universidad del Zulia aplicando riego por aspersión. Se probaron 20 tratamientos resultantes de la combinación de 5 métodos de control de malezas: testigo, aplicación de herbicida pre-emergente (metobromuron + metolaclhor), tres limpias cada 15 días con escardilla, aplicación de 10 cm de cobertura y aplicación de 15 cm de cobertura con 4 niveles de fertilización fosfórica (0, 50, 100 y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico) usando un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas, en donde los métodos de control fueron considerados como efecto principal y los niveles de fertilización como efecto secundario. Las variables estudiadas fueron: vainas planta-1, granos vaina-1, peso de cien semillas, rendimiento planta-1, rendimiento ha-1, porcentaje de control de malezas a los 30, 45 y 60 días después de la siembra y concentración de fósforo en las semillas. Aplicando cobertura vegetal y 150 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico se alcanzó el mayor rendimiento (1.394 kg ha-1), el mejor control de malezas (72,1%) y la mayor concentración de fósforo en las semillas (1,22%). Se recomienda el uso de cobertura vegetal y una aplicación mínima de 100 kg ha-1 de fosfato diamónico en fríjol.In order to evaluate the effect of Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris L. used as mulch and diammonium phosphate application on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) yield, phosphorus concentration in seeds and weed control, a trial was conducted at Ana María Campos farm (La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela) using cowpea mutant ON-30(6) and a sprinkle irrigation system. Twenty treatments were tested with combinations of five weed control methods: no control, pre-emergent herbicides (metobromuron + metolachlor), weeds control every 15 days (three times) using a small weed-hook, application of 10 and 15 cm coverage height of dry Buffel grass as mulch and four diammonium phospate levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1). A split plot design in completely randomized blocks was applied in 5 x 4 factorial arrangement. Pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed (100 seeds) weight, yield plant-1, yield per plot-1, yield per ha-1, weed control (30, 45 and 60 days after sowing) and seed phosphorus concentration were measured. A high cowpea yield (1394 kg ha-1), the best weed control (72,1%) and the highest seeds phosphorus concentration (1,22%) were obtained using dry Buffel grass as mulch and 150 kg ha-1 of diammonium phosphate. Also, results suggested that an application of dry Buffel grass as mulch and diammonium phosphate (100 kg ha-1 as minimum) can be used to grow cowpea to increase yield and cover the soil.

R Márquez; T Córdova; L Castejón; A Higuera

2003-01-01

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Características morfogenéticas e produção do capim buffel adubado com digesta bovina sólida/ Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production of buffel grass fertilized with bovine digesta solid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) adubado com diferentes quantidades de digesta bovina sólida. Utilizou-se uma área experimental de dois hectares de pastagem de capim buffel implantados em 2006 sendo esta área destinada exclusivamente para a produção de feno. No ano de 2009 o experimento foi implantado em uma área total de 375m², que foi dividida em 25 parcelas de 15m² (more) cada, sendo que cada parcela possuía 8m² (4x2) de área experimental e uma linha de bordadura de 0,5m de largura em torno do seu perímetro. Foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições correspondentes às quantidades de digesta bovina (3,5; 7,0; 10,0 e 13,5 t/ha), totalizando 25 unidades experimentais. Houve interação entre as quantidades de digesta e os cortes para a produção de fitomassa verde, sendo que para todas as quantidades de digesta aplicadas foram obtidas maiores produções para o terceiro corte. A maior produção de fitomassa verde foi obtida para o tratamento com 13,5t/ha de digesta. Não houve interação entre cortes e adubação com digesta para o número de perfilhos vivos, número de perfilhos mortos, número de folhas vivas por perfilhos, filocrono, altura e diâmetro de touceira. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de digesta bovina por ser eficiente em aumentar a produção de fitomassa do capim buffel cv. Molopo. Abstract in english The objective was to evaluate the morphogenesis and the production of biomass of buffel grass fertilized with different amounts of bovine solid digesta. We used an experimental area of two hectares of grazing buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Molopo) deployed in 2006, this area is designed exclusively for the production of hay. In 2009 the experiment was implemented a total area of 375m², which was divided into 25 plots of 15m² each, with each plot had 8m² (4x2) of t (more) he experimental area and a boundary line of 0.5m wide around the perimeter. We used a split-plot in time, in randomized complete block experimental design, with five treatments and five repetitions of the corresponding amounts of bovine digesta (3.5; 7.0; 10.0 and 13.5t/ha), totaling 25 experimental units. There was interaction between the amounts of digesta and cuts for the production of green biomass, and for all quantities of digesta were obtained higher yields applied to the third cut. The largest green biomass production was obtained for treatment with 13.5t/ha of digesta. There was no interaction between cuts and fertilization with digesta to the number of live tillers, number of dead tillers, number of live leaves per tiller, phyllochron, height and diameter of clump. Thus, it is recommended the application of bovine digesta to be efficient in increasing the production of biomass of buffel grass cv. Molopo, through changes in some structural features, can be used as organic fertilizer in pastures of grass.

Vasconcelos, Walter Alves de; Andrade, Albericio Pereira de; Santos, Edson Mauro; Edvan, Ricardo Loiola; Silva, Divan Soares; Silva, Thiago Carvalho da

2013-03-01

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Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel Use of leucaena and Cajanus cajan as protein supplements for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena), com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha). As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan as protein sources, during the dry season for lambs grazing on buffel grass pastures. Nine experimental treatments resulting from the combination among three types of pasture (buffel grass, buffel grass+Cajanus cajan, and buffel grass+leucaena) and three stocking rates (4, 6 and 10 lambs/ ha) were tested. Eighteen paddocks (two replicates of pastures per treatment) of 0.5 ha were used. Sixty lambs with 19.4 kg live weight at the beginning of the experiment were allocated to pastures with water and mineral supplement offered ad libitum. Animal liveweight was recorded at 14 day-intervals after 16 hours of fasting. Lambs on the pasture of buffel grass+leucaena showed good performance with no variation in daily liveweight gain rate, when the stocking rate increased from 4 to 6 animals/ha. Buffel grass+Cajanus cajan pasture did not improve animal performance as compared to buffel grass pasture. It was concluded that leucaena, used as protein supplement, can improve the quality of buffel grass pastures.

Antônio Alves de Souza; Gastão Barreto Espíndola

2000-01-01

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Environmental Impact on Biomass and Allelopathic Effect of Cenchrus ciliaris.L  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted at the GEER foundation, Gandhinagar, India to evaluate environmental impact on biomass production of Cenchrus ciliaris.L (buffel grass) and its allelopathic effect on Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum. These grasses were grown in separate plots and also in combination. Growth parameters which were studied for all sets were Shoot length, Above Ground Biomass (AGB), Below Ground Biomass (BGB) and number of leaves and meteorological data were also recorded. It was observed that C.ciliaris could survive through extreme climate and Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum could not flourish in the presence of Cenchrus ciliaris, which resulted in the maximum biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris. The effect of different seasons on biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris was observed over a year. Statistical analysis of the data showed significant variation in biomass.

RAJKUMARI PARWANI; ARCHANA MANKAD

2013-01-01

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Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

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Distribution of chemical constituents in the plant parts of six tropical-origin forage grasses at early anthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution of chemical constituents in the plant parts of six tropical forage grasses at early anthesis was studied The forage grasses were guinea grass Panicum maximum (Jacq.); angleton grass Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.); gamba grass Andropogon gayanus (Kunth); buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris (L.); birdwood grass Cenchrus setigerus (Vahl.); and rhodes grass Chloris gayana (Kunth.). Apart from ether extract, which generally decreased from the inflorescence down to the basal culm, and crude fibre, which increased from the inflorescence down to the basal culm, no clear gradient of constituents within the plants could be established for any of the forage grass species.

Esechie HA

1992-01-01

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In vitro Studies of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extracts of the Indian Grasses Dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Kala-Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus)  

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The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Crude extracts of the stem of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setiger...

Singariya, Premlata; Mourya, K. K.; Kumar, Padma

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Producción de materia seca en una asociación Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaenaleucocephala al aplazar su utilización durante la época seca/ Dry matter production in an association of Cenchrus ciliaris - Leucaena leucocephala subjected to a deferring use during the dry season  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En una región semiárida del occidente de Venezuela en el estado Zulia, se estudió el efecto de cuatro períodos de aplazamiento de utilización (PAU: 42, 84, 126 y 168 días) después del primer corte sobre la acumulación de biomasa en una asociación pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) y leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), estimándose la producción de sus componentes en la gramínea (hojas, tallos y material muerto) y la leguminosa conformada por la fracción fina (hoja (more) s, pecíolos y tallos menores de 5 mm de diámetro) y la fracción gruesa (tallos mayores de 5 mm de diámetro), a través del perfil del pastizal donde se consideraron tres estratos en el pasto buffel (0-15, 15-30 y >30 cm) y en leucaena (0-60, 60-120 y >120 cm). En ambas especies, después del corte de cada PAU, las parcelas se cosecharon cada 42 días para evaluar el rebrote. El diseño experimental usado fue de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se observaron rendimientos para ambas especies de 1.146 y 1.925 kg MS/ha para el pasto buffel y la leucaena, respectivamente. Solo en la leguminosa se encontraron diferencias (P>0,05) entre tratamientos siendo los PAU sobresalientes los de 42 y 0 días. La mayor proporción de hoja y el menor contenido de material muerto (P Abstract in english In a semi-arid region in western Venezuela at Zulia state, we studied the effect of four periods of deferment of use (PDU: 42, 84, 126, and 168 days) after the first cut on the accumulation of biomass in an association of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), estimating production of its components in the grass (leaves, stems, and dead material) and the legume fine fraction (leaves, leaf stalk, and stems with diameter less than 5 mm) and t (more) hick fraction (stems with diameter above 5 mm). Plant samples were taken at three strata for buffel (0-15, 15-30, and > 30 cm) and leucaena (0-60, 60-120, and > 120 cm). After every PDU cut, plots were harvested every 42 days to evaluate regrowth. A randomized block experimental design with three replicates was used. Results indicated yields for both species with values of 1,146 and 1,925 kg DM/ha for buffel and leucaena, respectively. There were found differences among treatments (P>0.05) only on the legume being the best PDU 42 and 0 days. The highest leaf proportion and the lowest dead material content (P

Sánchez, Alexander; Mármol, Jesús Faria; Araque, Cesar

2008-06-01

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Field evaluation of seven grasses for use in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in Central Queensland  

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Pasture-based systems, dominated by the tussock forming Cenchrus cilliaris cv. Biloela (buffel grass) and the stoloniferous Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (rhodes grass), are commonly used in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in the Bowen Basin of Central Queensland. Although able to establish quickly under favourable conditions, neither species has proven entirely suitable for use in this situation, particularly in providing effective ground cover for erosion control on the re-contoured post-mining landscape. The aim of this study was to evaluate a range of new pasture grasses, with the objective of identifying accessions better adapted to the climatic conditions of the areas requiring revegetation.

Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Mott, J.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

1999-07-01

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Consumo, digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes e balanços de nitrogênio e hídrico de ovinos alimentados com silagens de cultivares de capim-búfel/ Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen and water balances of sheep fed with buffel grass cultivars silages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se no presente estudo determinar o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e nutrientes, além dos balanços de nitrogênio (BN) e hídrico (BH), de ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel. As silagens das cultivares de capim-búfel avaliadas foram Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela. Utilizaram-se 21 ovinos, machos, castrados, mestiços Santa Inês x Sem Padrão de Raça Definido, com peso corporal médio inicial de 31,8±3,16kg, mantidos em gaiolas (more) metabólicas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças nos consumos de MS em g/dia (919,2) e porcentagem do peso corporal (2,9). De modo geral, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca variaram de 37,7% a 60,0%. Os BN e BH foram positivos, sendo observados maiores valores de BN para os ovinos alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Tanzânia (5,1g/dia) e Biloela (3,9g/dia), e maiores BH para os animais alimentados com silagens de capim-búfel dos cultivares Buchuma (1,38kg/animal/dia) e Biloela (1,42kg/animal/dia). Os cultivares de capim-búfel Tanzânia, Buchuma e Biloela apresentaram bom valor nutritivo, sendo que o capim-búfel na forma de silagem promoveu 60% do consumo total de água diário do animal. Abstract in english The objective of this present experiment was to determine intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, nitrogen (NB) and water balances (WB) of sheep fed with buffel grass silages. The buffel grass cultivars used were Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela. 21 male, castrated, crossbred Santa Ines x Non defined genotype sheep, with initial body weight of 31.8±3.16kg were used, kept in metabolic cages. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven (more) replicates. No differences were observed in dry matter intake in g/day (919.2) and % of body weight (2.9). In general, digestibility coefficients of dry matter varied from 37.7% to 60.0%. The NB and WB were positive, with higher NB values in sheep fed with Tanzania (5.1g/day) and Biloela (3.9g/day) and higher WB in animals fed with Buchuma (1.38kg/animal/day) and Biloela (1.42kg/animal/day). All cultivars of buffel grass evaluated (Tanzania, Buchuma and Biloela) presented adequate chemical composition, where the silage of buffel grass used corresponded to 60% of the total daily water intake by sheep.

Souza, R.A.; Voltolini, T.V.; Araújo, G.G.L.; Pereira, L.G.R.; Moraes, S.A.; Mistura, C.; Belem, K.V.J.; Moreno, G.M.B.

2013-04-01

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Tizón foliar del pasto buffel: su presencia en Tamaulipas, México/ Buffelgrass leaf blight: its precence in Tamaulipas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la región semiárida del norte de Tamaulipas México, el pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), var. Común, predomina en un área de 260 000 ha y existen otras 302 000 con potencial para ser aprovechadas con este pasto. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución, severidad de ataque y pérdidas en la producción que ocasiona el tizón foliar (Pyricularia grisea) sobre el pasto buffel. Se realizaron muestreos en praderas del norte de Tamaulipas del 13 a (more) l 18 de octubre en 15 sitios en 2002 y 12 en 2003. En cada sitio se determinó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque del tizón foliar. La pérdida de rendimiento se estimó en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2004 y otoño-invierno de 2005, mediante la comparación de plantas con y sin la protección de fungicidas. Además, se evaluó la reacción al tizón foliar en 16 cultivares de buffel introducidos. La presencia del tizón se observó en todos los sitios muestreados con una severidad promedio de 5.3 en una escala de 0-9. La mayor severidad de ataque se asoció a plantas estresadas por sequía o condiciones edáficas adversas, mientras que lamenor se observó en sitios que presentaron condiciones favorables para el desarrollo de la planta o cuando el pasto se encontró en la etapa de prefloración. La mayor severidad de Pyricularia grisea se observó en el ciclo primavera-verano (2004), comparado con el ciclo otoño-invierno (2005), debido a las condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa favorable s para el patógeno. Las pérdidas en el ciclo primavera-verano fueron de 11% en clorofila, 20-26% en biomasa y 13% en proteína; por el contrario, no se registraron pérdidas significativas en otoño-invierno. Los 16 cultivares introducidos mostraron resistencia a Pyricularia grisea. Los resultados indicaron que el tizón del pasto buffel es una enfermedad epifítica en la var. Común, en Tamaulipas, con mayor prevalencia en el ciclo primavera-verano y resistencia en cultivares introducidos. Abstract in english In the semiarid region of northern Tamaulipas, Mexico, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) var, Comun predominate in 260 000 ha and there are 360 000 additional suitable to be sown with this grass. The objective of this study was to determinate the distribution, severity and production loss caused by the leaf blight (Piricularia grisea) on buffelgrass. Samples were taken from northern Tamaulipas range lands at 15 sites on 2002 and 12 sites on 2003. The incidence and severi (more) ty of leaf blight was registered for every site with three replications from 8/13 to 8/18 for both years. Yield loss was determinate at spring-summer season 2004 and fall-winter 2005 by means of comparison between fungicide protected and unprotected plants. The reaction of buffelgrass to foliar blight was determinated on 16 introduced cultivars. Leaf blight presence was detected at all sites with an average severity of 5.3 in a scale from 0 to 9 .The highest attack severity was observed on plants stressed by drought or adverse edafic conditions; while the lower severity was observed on sites where favorable conditions occurred or when the grass was at the preflowering stage. At the spring-summer 2004 season losses were 11% in chlorophyll content, 20-26% in biomass and 13% in protein content; on the contrary, no significant reduction of these parameters was observed at the fall-winter season 2005. The 16 introduced cultivars showed resistance to Pyricularia gricea. Results demonstrated that buffelgrass leaf blight is an epidemic disease in the Comun var., in Tamaulipas, with high prevalence at the spring-summer season and there is resistance to the disease in introduced cultivars.

Díaz Franco, Arturo; Méndez Rodríguez, Asunción; Garza Cedillo, Rubén

2007-12-01

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Influência da precipitação e idade da planta na produção e composição química do capim-buffel/ Influence of precipitation and plant age on the production and chemical composition of the bufell grass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento, conduzido na microrregião dos Cariris Velhos, do Estado da Paraíba, teve como objetivo observar a influência da precipitação e idade da planta ao primeiro corte, na produção de matéria seca e composição química do capim-buffel. Esta precipitação foi simulada pela aplicação de água pelo sistema de irrigação por aspersão tipo canhão. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, e os tratamentos constaram (more) da combinação de cinco lâminas totais de água e seis idades ao primeiro corte. A aplicação de água aumentou o rendimento de matéria seca em todas as idades ao primeiro corte, e o máximo rendimento estimado (5.191 kg ha-1) ocorreu com a aplicação de uma lâmina de água de 334 mm e corte aos 80 dias após a germinação. A quantidade de água aplicada não influenciou o teor de proteína bruta; entretanto, este decresceu linearmente com a idade da planta. O teor de fibra bruta aumentou com a quantidade de água aplicada. A idade da planta ao primeiro corte não exerceu influência na porcentagem de fibra bruta. Abstract in english The experiment was conducted at the micro region of Cariris Velhos, Paraíba State, Brazil, and its objective was to observe the influence of precipitation and age of the plant at the first cut on the production of dry matter and chemical composition of the buffel grass. This precipitation was simulated by water application through a gun sprinkler system irrigation. The experimental design used was a randomized block with six replications, and the treatments consisted of (more) combining five water depths and six ages at the first cut. The water application increased the dry matter production in all plant ages at the first cut; the estimated maximum yield of 5,191 kg ha-1 occurred with a water depth of 334 mm, and the cut was done 80 days after germination. The amount of applied water did not influence the crude protein content; however, it decreased linearly with the age of the plant. The crude fiber content increased with the amount of water applied. The age of the plant at the first cut did not influence the percentage of crude fiber.

DANTAS NETO, JOSÉ; SILVA, FRANCISCO DE ASSIS SANTOS E; FURTADO, DERMEVAL ARAÚJO; MATOS, JOSÉ DE ARIMATÉIA DE

2000-09-01

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Animal bait effect on the recovery of Boophilus microplus larvae from experimentally infested grass in Morelos, Mexico  

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Full Text Available Para cuantificar la influencia de la presencia animal en la recuperación de larvas de pastos infestados experimentalmente, se realizó un ensayo en otoño 1999 e invierno 1999-2000. Para ello se compararon 4 formas de muestreo y 3 tipos de pastos. No hubo diferencias en la recuperación de larvas entre las 4 formas, pero si, entre los tipos de pastos (p To quantify the influence of the animal presence on the percentage of Boophilus microplus larvae recovery from plots experimentally infested with this tick, it was carried out a trial in Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico, during autumn 1999 and winter 1999-2000. For this purpose there were compared four sampling methods: human walking with chaps, bovine dressed walking, double walking flagging and double walking with baited flagging. The comparison was made on tree grasses: Andropogun gayanus(gamba), Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel) and Melinis minutiflora (molasses). It was observed the same recovery efficiency of B. microplus larvae in the four sampling methods studied in the two seasons. There were no statistical differences, although, there were differences (P < 0.05) among the grass species. The higher number of larvae recovered was recorded in the low third of the chaps, in the head and front legs of the bovine dressed, from the buffel grass and on the ventral region and legs in the other two grasses

MANUEL FERNÁNDEZ-RUVALCABA; JESUS F PRECIADO-DE LA TORRE; GLORIA CORDOBA-JUAREZ; ZEFERINO GARCÍA-VAZQUEZ; RODRIGO ROSARIO-CRUZ; JORGE SALTIJERAL-OAXACA

2003-01-01

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Estimation of Root and Shoot Biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris (Dhaman) Under Barani Conditions  

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Full Text Available Cenchrus ciliaris a palatable and nutritious grass is a warm season grass. Arid and semi-arid rangeland are reseeded with Cenchrus ciliaris to enhance productivity, prolong grazing season and increase carrying capacity. A two ha land area was reseeded with Cenchrus ciliarisat target area Jamrud in June 1980, under barani conditions. Generally shoot biomass is determined at the end of growing season after seed maturity stage. Root shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliarishas not estimated/determined at the end of spring season. The different growing season (spring summer) is lacking. Estimation of shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant in two growing different seasons is essential in grazing management studies. At the beginnings of spring season reserve carbohydrates are used for the production of new shoots. The shoot biomass at the end of spring season is generally less compared to the end of summer season. The shoot and root biomass estimating of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of two different growing season is required to devise the grazing management programme. This study is proposed to quantify the shoot and root biomass of Cenchrus ciliaris plant at the end of spring and summer growing seasons.

M. Umar Farooq; Rashid Saleem; Abdul Razzaq

2003-01-01

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Anti-tick effects of Melinis minutiflora and Andropogon gayanus grasses on plots experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our objective in this trial was to investigate the anti-tick effects of molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora) and gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) against Boophilus microplus, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a control. During a 3-year-period fieldwork was carried out in the tropical, subhumid climate at Progreso, Municipality of Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico. Experimental plots were established for three treatments with six replicates under a random factorial design in order to evaluate each of the four seasons. Additional work was developed for two more consecutive autumn seasons to evaluate the anti-tick effects of these grasses. Once the plots were established they were infested with 5000 B. microplus larvae and sampled by dragging flannel cloths. The anti-tick effects were measured by counting the number of larvae recovered from each of the experimental plots. Both grasses, M. minutiflora and A. gayanus, demonstrated anti-tick effects; however, M. minutiflora grass had the greatest anti-tick effects through the seasons studied and in the three consecutive autumns evaluated.

Fernandez-Ruvalcaba M; Preciado-De-La Torre F; Cruz-Vazquez C; Garcia-Vazquez Z

2004-01-01

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Anti-tick effects of Melinis minutiflora and Andropogon gayanus grasses on plots experimentally infested with Boophilus microplus larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective in this trial was to investigate the anti-tick effects of molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora) and gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) against Boophilus microplus, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a control. During a 3-year-period fieldwork was carried out in the tropical, subhumid climate at Progreso, Municipality of Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico. Experimental plots were established for three treatments with six replicates under a random factorial design in order to evaluate each of the four seasons. Additional work was developed for two more consecutive autumn seasons to evaluate the anti-tick effects of these grasses. Once the plots were established they were infested with 5000 B. microplus larvae and sampled by dragging flannel cloths. The anti-tick effects were measured by counting the number of larvae recovered from each of the experimental plots. Both grasses, M. minutiflora and A. gayanus, demonstrated anti-tick effects; however, M. minutiflora grass had the greatest anti-tick effects through the seasons studied and in the three consecutive autumns evaluated. PMID:15176734

Fernandez-Ruvalcaba, Manuel; Preciado-De-La Torre, Francisco; Cruz-Vazquez, Carlos; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino

2004-01-01

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Animal bait effect on the recovery of Boophilus microplus larvae from experimentally infested grass in Morelos, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Para cuantificar la influencia de la presencia animal en la recuperación de larvas de pastos infestados experimentalmente, se realizó un ensayo en otoño 1999 e invierno 1999-2000. Para ello se compararon 4 formas de muestreo y 3 tipos de pastos. No hubo diferencias en la recuperación de larvas entre las 4 formas, pero si, entre los tipos de pastos (p Abstract in english To quantify the influence of the animal presence on the percentage of Boophilus microplus larvae recovery from plots experimentally infested with this tick, it was carried out a trial in Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico, during autumn 1999 and winter 1999-2000. For this purpose there were compared four sampling methods: human walking with chaps, bovine dressed walking, double walking flagging and double walking with baited flagging. The comparison was made on tree grasses: Andro (more) pogun gayanus(gamba), Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel) and Melinis minutiflora (molasses). It was observed the same recovery efficiency of B. microplus larvae in the four sampling methods studied in the two seasons. There were no statistical differences, although, there were differences (P

FERNÁNDEZ-RUVALCABA, MANUEL; PRECIADO-DE LA TORRE, JESUS F; CORDOBA-JUAREZ, GLORIA; GARCÍA-VAZQUEZ, ZEFERINO; ROSARIO-CRUZ, RODRIGO; SALTIJERAL-OAXACA, JORGE

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)  

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Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación) permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation). To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Hugo F Gutiérrez; Osvaldo Morrone

2012-01-01

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Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación) permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el present (more) e trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth. Abstract in english Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus C (more) enchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation). To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L.) Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase and a new name for Gymnotrix crinita Kunth are here proposed.

Gutiérrez, Hugo F; Morrone, Osvaldo

2012-06-01

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Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection/ Obtención de nuevo germoplasma en Cenchrus ciliaris L. a través de mutaciones inducidas y selección in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Cenchrus ciliaris L., una forrajera subtropical de amplia distribución en la zona noroeste de Argentina, es un especie tetraploide (4x = 36) y apomíctica obligada. Una forma de obtener nuevo germoplasma es mediante mutaciones inducidas. En este trabajo, mutaciones físicas y químicas se combinaron con técnicas de selección in vitro a fin de obtener nuevo germoplama, con énfasis en tolerancia a salinidad y sequía. Semillas maduras de Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela (more) fueron tratadas con rayos X (400 Gray) y con una solución de etil metano sulfonato (5,5 mM EMS durante 24 h). Para realizar la selección in vitro, las plántulas que germinaron 7 días después de los tratamientos mutagénicos fueron transferidas a tubos que contenían medio basal Murashige y Skoog, suplementado con NaCl o manitol para simular condiciones de salinidad y sequía, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron cincuenta y cuatro plantas selectas que toleraron 200 mM NaCl y 100 mM de manitol. Ambos agentes mutagénicos exhibieron similares porcentajes de variación genética medida a través de RAPDs. Este trabajo demostró que es posible generar variabilidad genética en Cenchrus ciliaris L. mediante el uso de agentes mutagénicos y selección in vitro. Abstract in english Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedures seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy (more) ) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays treatments, germinated seeds were transferred to tubes containing Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with NaCl or mannitol to simulate salinity and drought conditions, respectively. Fifty-four selected plants were isolated which tolerated 200 mM NaCl and 100 mM mannitol. Both mutagenic agents exhibited similar percentages of induced genetic variation measured through RAPD polymorphisms. This work demonstrated that genetic variability can be generated in Cenchrus ciliaris L. using mutagenic agents and in vitro selection.

López Colomba, E; Prina, A; Griffa, S; Ribotta, AN; Carloni, E; Tommasino, E; Luna, C; Biderbost, E; Grunberg, K

2011-06-01

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Bancos de proteína de leucena e de guandu para suplementação de ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel  

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Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar, em ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-buffel, a utilização de leucena ou guandu, como bancos de proteína, durante estação seca. Foram testados nove tratamentos experimentais, constituídos pela combinação de três tipos de pastagens (capim-buffel, capim-buffel+guandu e capim-buffel+leucena), com três taxas de lotação (4, 6 e 10 borregos/ha). As pastagens, em duas repetições, foram estabelecidas em dezoito piquetes de 0,5 ha. Foram utilizados 60 borregos, com peso médio inicial de 19,4 kg, que receberam água e suplementação mineral completa à vontade e foram pesados a intervalos de 14 dias após 16 horas de jejum. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+leucena, foi possível elevar a lotação de quatro para seis borregos/ha, sem redução do ganho individual de peso dos animais, com conseqüente aumento da produção por unidade de área. Na pastagem de capim-buffel+guandu, não houve melhoria de desempenho dos animais em comparação à pastagem de capim-buffel. Concluiu-se que bancos de proteína de leucena podem melhorar a qualidade de pastagens de capim-buffel.

Souza Antônio Alves de; Espíndola Gastão Barreto

2000-01-01

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NUTRIENT ACQUISITION IN DIFFERENTIALLY ADAPTED POPULATIONS OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. AND CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. UNDER DROUGHT STRESS  

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Full Text Available The water famine is one of the major factors for converting huge cultivated land into deserts all over the world. Likewise, in Pakistan, Salt Range due to low rainfall is also converting into uncultivable area. In the present study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to assess the extent of water stress toleranc in terms of mineral nutrient status. Two populations of each of two grass species i.e., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Cenchrus ciliaris L. were used in this experiment. One population of each of two grass species was collected from drought-hit area ‘‘Salt Range’’ and other from often irrigated Faisalabad. Each population of these of grass species were subjected to three different levels of water stress (control, 75% and 50% of field capacity. Imposition of water stress markedly decreased the shoot fresh and dry biomasses, shoot, P, N and Ca2+. However, populations of both grasses collected from the Salt Range were better in growth than Faisalabad region. Each population of both grasses collected from Salt Range accumulated high K+, Ca2+, N and P concentrations. The higher growth of the Salt Range populations of both grass species could be related to the greater accumulation of K+, N, and Ca2+ in the shoots as compared with the populations from Faisalabad.

NUDRAT AISHA AKRAM; MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ; MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

2008-01-01

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Variability among germplasm collections for high biomass traits in Cenchrus sp.  

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Full Text Available Sixty germplasm accessions of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were collected from different habitats in and aroundCoimbatore and Erode districts and planted in field trials. Based on initial morphological evaluation, four accessions fromCenchrus setigerus and three accessions from Cenchrus ciliaris showed better biomass. Among the collected germplasmaccessions, one among the Cenchrus setigerus accessions showed prostrate behaviour which would be of great use in thegreening of degraded lands where with few plants entire area can be covered and utilized for grazing. With its high soil bindingcapacity due to its clustered root system, it will reduce soil erosion also. The germplasm accessions from Sulur and Kangeyamrecorded high single plant green fodder yield of 545g and 500 g respectively in single cut compared to the control CO1 (262.5g).Further evaluation is in progress. Variations among the accessions collected from different habitats will be useful to evolve bettergenotypes than CO-1.

Kalamani.A, Ameena Premnath and G. Vijayakumar

2011-01-01

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Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

2011-12-01

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Phylogenetic studies favour the unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum (Poaceae): a combined nuclear, plastid and morphological analysis, and nomenclatural combinations in Cenchrus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Twenty-five genera having sterile inflorescence branches were recognized as the bristle clade within the x = 9 Paniceae (Panicoideae). Within the bristle clade, taxonomic circumscription of Cenchrus (20-25 species), Pennisetum (80-140) and the monotypic Odontelytrum is still unclear. Several criteria have been applied to characterize Cenchrus and Pennisetum, but none of these has proved satisfactory as the diagnostic characters, such as fusion of bristles in the inflorescences, show continuous variation. METHODS: A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological, plastid (trnL-F, ndhF) and nuclear (knotted) data is presented for a representative species sampling of the genera. All analyses were conducted under parsimony, using heuristic searches with TBR branch swapping. Branch support was assessed with parsimony jackknifing. KEY RESULTS: Based on plastid and morphological data, Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum were supported as a monophyletic group: the PCO clade. Only one section of Pennisetum (Brevivalvula) was supported as monophyletic. The position of P. lanatum differed among data partitions, although the combined plastid and morphology and nuclear analyses showed this species to be a member of the PCO clade. The basic chromosome number x = 9 was found to be plesiomorphic, and x = 5, 7, 8, 10 and 17 were derived states. The nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed a reticulate pattern of relationships among Pennisetum and Cenchrus, suggesting that there are at least three different genomes. Because apomixis can be transferred among species through hybridization, its history most likely reflects crossing relationships, rather than multiple independent appearances. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the consistency between the present results and different phylogenetic hypotheses (including morphological, developmental and multilocus approaches), and the high support found for the PCO clade, also including the type species of the three genera, we propose unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum. Species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum are here transferred into Cenchrus, which has priority. Sixty-six new combinations are made here.

Chemisquy MA; Giussani LM; Scataglini MA; Kellogg EA; Morrone O

2010-07-01

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Aboveground Biomass Production of Cenchrus ciliaris in Tunisian Arid Zone  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish a non destructive method for estimating the aboveground biomass of a plant species in the Tunisian arid area. We attempted to establish some models that could be used to predict the species biomass production. Field experiments were carried out on a Poaceae of a high range value Cenchrus ciliaris. The allometric relationships between the plant volume and aerial biomass were studied in autumn 2005 and spring 2006 seasons in southern Tunisia. Linear and nonlinear regressions were tested to establish the best correlations between individual aboveground biomass and plant volume parameters. Measured parameters were the plant height (H) and canopy diameters. Firstly, a model of volume (canopy elliptical cylinder) was tested as a predictor of plant biomass using nonlinear regression. Secondly, It was tested various relationships between the plant biomass and the mean canopy diameter (as the average of the longest canopy diameters maintained perpendicular to each other). Correlations between the aerial biomass production of individuals and their volumes produced a relatively high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.68). Also, correlations between the mean canopy diameter and the biomass production of individuals produced the best significant relationships with the highest R2. The use of the mean canopy diameter seems to be more practical for the plant biomass prediction.

Idi Abdelkader; Ali Ferchichi; Mohamed Chaieb

2007-01-01

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Nutritional Evaluation of Major Range Grasses from Cholistan Desert  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritional status of ten grass species from Cholistan desert. The evaluated species were: Aeluropus lagopoides, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Lasiurus scindicus, Ochthochloa compressa, Panicum antidotale, Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum divisum, Sporobolus iocladus and Stipagrostis plumosa. Proximate analysis showed that the investigated grasses have deficient levels of crude protein and ether extract to meet the requirements of ruminants being reared there but have sufficient supplies of dry matter, crude fiber and ash. However, fiber analysis reflected that all the ten investigated grasses have high levels of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemi-cellulose and lignin.

Muhammad Rafay; Rashid Ahmad Khan; Shahid Yaqoob; Munir Ahmad

2013-01-01

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Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris.

Conner JA; Gunawan G; Ozias-Akins P

2013-07-01

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Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris. PMID:23553451

Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

2013-04-05

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Mycorrhizas in the Perennial Grasses of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Roots of eleven perennial grass species and their associated rhizosphere soil samples were collected from different rangeland habitats of Cholistan desert and studied for the occurrence of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations of Glomalean fungi with their roots and AM fungal propagules in their rhizospheres. Panicum antidotale roots showed highest percentage of AMF colonization (i.e., 92.75%) while lowest percentage (43.5%) was recorded in the roots of Cyprus conglomeratus. Roots of all the grasses studied had vesicular infection whereas only 27.27% grass species exhibited arbuscular infection. Except Cenchrus biflorus, Dark Septate Endophyte (DSE) fungal hyphae were always present concurrently with the AMF hyphae in the cortices of all the root samples of the grass species studied. Average number of AMF propagules recovered from the rhizospheres of the grasses examined in the present study ranged from 19.33 in Ochthochloa compressa to 356.32 in Cenchrus biflorus. Spores belonging to the Glomus sp. such as G. fasciculatus, G. deserticola and G. agrigatum were the dominant ones among the AMF species encountered in this study. Maximum number of AMF species were recovered from the rhizospheres of Cymbopogon jwarancusa. The potential significance of AMF in the development of mycorrhiza dependent perennial grasses of Cholistan desert is discussed. Researchers could use this knowledge in the revegetation attempts to put a green mantle on the desertified land and to stabilize sand dunes.

M.S. Chaudhry; F.H. Nasim; Abdul G. Khan

2006-01-01

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Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)  

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Full Text Available The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of C. ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes.

Amina Kharrat-Souissi; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Fatima Pustahija; Mohamed Chaieb

2012-01-01

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Influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de Cenchrus echinatus na supressão imposta por atrazine/ Effect of the growth stage of Cenchrus echinatus on weed suppression imposed by atrazine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Cenchrus echinatus é uma importante infestante em áreas de cultivo de milho, sorgo e milheto no Brasil. Embora atrazine seja um dos herbicidas mais utilizados nessas culturas, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento em aplicações em pós-emergência. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a supressão imposta pelo atrazine, aplicado em pós-emergência, em três estádios de desenvolvi (more) mento dessa planta daninha. O ensaio foi implantado em unidades de 10 dm-3 de solo, em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine (0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; e 4,0 kg ha-1), combinadas com três estádios de desenvolvimento de C. echinatus (um par de folhas, dois pares de folhas e dois afílhos) por ocasião da aplicação do herbicida em pós-emergência. Aplicações realizadas em estádios mais tardios foram ineficientes no controle dessa espécie, apesar de causarem reduções significativas no acúmulo de biomassa seca, na altura das plantas e na produção de estruturas reprodutivas. Visando controlar essa espécie, os melhores resultados são obtidos com aplicações de doses a partir de 3,5 kg ha-1 em plantas com um par de folhas. Abstract in english Cenchrus echinatus is an important weed in areas cultivated with corn, sorghum and pearl millet in Brazil. Although atrazine is one of the most used herbicides in such crops, not much has been done to determine weed susceptibility as a function of its growth stage at post-emergence applications. This work aimed to evaluate the suppression imposed by the herbicide atrazine applied at post-emergence, during three developmental stages of this weed. The assay was carried out (more) under greenhouse conditions, in pots of 10 dm-3, in a factorial scheme 5 x 3 composed by five rates of atrazine (0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5 and 4.0 kg ha-1 ), combined with three stages of C. echinatus development during herbicide spraying at post-emergence (first pair of leaves; second pair of leaves and two tillers). Applications performed at later stages of weed development were inefficient to provide control, despite significant reductions of dry biomass, plant height and production of reproductive structures. Aiming at weed control, the best results were found for rates ³ 3.5 kg ha-1 in plants at the stage of first pair of leaves.

Dan, H.A.; Dan, L.G.M.; Barroso, A.L.L.; Oliveira JR., R.S.; Alonso, D.G.; Finotti, T.R.

2011-03-01

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Ecophysiological evaluation of intraspecific competition of Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) in pots Evaluación ecofisiológica de la competencia intraespecífica de Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae) en macetas  

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Full Text Available Intraspecific competition of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) planted in pots was evaluated using ecophysiological parameters and the competition coefficient. Experiments were carried out on the University of Zulia campus, adjacent to the Faculty of Sciences, under ecological conditions of a Very Dry Tropical Forest and irrigation. A method of additive density with 2, 4, 8 and 12 plants/pot was used, and a randomized block design with four replications was applied. After transplant, biomass of all plants was harvested twice at 15d and 30d. Plant height, leaf area, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight were significantly greater (PSe evaluó la competencia intraespecífica del pasto bufel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), en macetas, a través de algunos parámetros ecofisiológicos y el coeficiente de competencia. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en un área de la Ciudad Universitaria de la Universidad del Zulia adyacente a la Facultad Experimental de Ciencias bajo las condiciones ecológicas de un bosque muy seco tropical y con riego. Se utilizó la metodología de densidades de adición (2, 4, 8 y 12 plantas/maceta), y se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizaron dos cosechas, de la biomasa de todas las plantas, una practicada a los 15, y la otra a los 30 días después del transplante. La altura, el área foliar y el peso seco de raíz, vástago y total fueron mayores en los tratamientos de baja densidad (2 y 4 plantas/maceta), en comparación a los correspondientes de alta densidad (8 y 12 plantas/maceta), revelando diferencias significativas (P<0,01) entre ambos grupos poblacionales. El número de hojas fue relativamente mayor a baja densidad de plantas, y la floración se presentó en la cosecha de los 30 días. El valor del coeficiente reveló una limitada capacidad competitiva para la cosecha de los 15 días, mientras que para el segundo periodo de evaluación resultó una interacción más intensa. Se concluye que existe una fuerte competencia intraespecífica a medida que incrementa la densidad poblacional y la relación de los coeficientes (A1/Ao) corroboran la presencia de esta interacción ecológica. Se recomienda continuar los estudios de competencia vegetal con otras especies de malezas de importancia agroecológica en la Planicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela.

A Vera; C Medrano; A del Villar; V Paz; A Páez

2006-01-01

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Ecophysiological Responses of Invasive and Native Grass Communities with Simulated Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change

Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.

2010-12-01

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Caracterização do pasto de capim-buffel diferido e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco no sertão de Pernambuco/ Stockpiled buffelgrass pasture and diet selected characterization during the dry season at the semi arid region of Pernambuco state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste experimento, quantificar a disponibilidade de massa seca e avaliar a composição botânica e bromatológica de pastagem de capim-buffel diferida e da dieta de bovinos, durante o período seco. Foram realizadas estimativas visuais para determinação da composição botânica e do corte de amostras, para determinação da disponibilidade da forragem, sendo os dados processados pelo programa BOTANAL. Três animais fistulados no esôfago foram utilizados (more) para avaliar a qualidade e composição botânica da dieta selecionada. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade, empregando-se o procedimento estatístico SAS. Na pastagem foram encontradas 10 famílias, 19 gêneros e 19 espécies de plantas; os componentes que apresentaram maior disponibilidade e participação foram o buffel e a orelha-de-onça, variando de 1.392 a 2.750; e 1.167 a 1.215 kg de massa seca (MS)/ha, com participação de 50 e 30% na composição da pastagem, respectivamente. A composição bromatológica da pastagem variou de 63,0 a 81,6; 3,3 a 5,2; 0,9 a 1,4; 69,3 a 76,0; 53,0 a 57,4; 5,2 a 8,9; 86,0 a 88,6; e 10,8 a 16,4% para massa seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), fibras em detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), material mineral (MM), carboidratos totais (CHOT) e não-fibrosos (CNF), respectivamente. A composição da extrusa variou de 18,5 a 22,3; 4,5 a 5,6; 1,3 a 1,9; 52,0 a 75,0; 52,3 a 59,8; 9,4 a 11,4; 81,8 a 84,4; 6,8 a 20,6; 45,7 a 49,1 para MS, PB,EE, FDN, FDA, MM, CHOT, CNF e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), respectivamente. Abstract in english The experiment aimed to determine the herbage mass and to evaluate the botanical and chemical composition of a stockpiled Buffelgrass pasture during the dry season. Visual estimates were accomplished for determination of the botanical composition. Samples were cut for forage availability determination. The data were processed by the BOTANAL program. Three esophagus fistulated animals were used to evaluate the quality and botanical composition of the selected diet. On the (more) pasture a total of 10 families, 19 genus and 19 species of plants were observed. The botanical components that showed the highest herbage mass and participation were Buffel grass and "Orelha-de-onça" (Macroptilium martii Benth.), ranging from 1392 to 2750 kg DM/ha and 50% and, 1167 to 1215 kg DM/ha and 30%, respectively. The forage chemical composition ranged from 63.0 to 81.6 %, 3.3 to 5.2 %, 0.9 to 1.4 %, 69.3 to 76.0 %, 53.0 to 57.4 %, 5.2 to 8.9 %, 86.0 to 88.6 % and, 10.8 to 16.4 % for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ashes (ASH), total carbohydrates (TCH) and, no fiber carbohydrates (NFC), respectively. Extrusa chemical composition showed values ranging from 18.5 to 22.3 %, 4.5 to 5.6 %, 1.3 to 1.9 %, 52.0 to 75.0 %, 52.3 to 59.8 %, 9.4 to 11.4 %, 81.8 to 84.4 %, 6.8 to 20.6 % and, 45.7 to 49.1 % for DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ASH, TCH, NFC and, "in vitro" dry matter digestibility, respectively.

Santos, Gladston Rafael de Arruda; Guim, Adriana; Santos, Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Lira, Mário de Andrade; Dubeux Júnior, José Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria José da

2005-04-01

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Inflorescence diversification in the panicoid "bristle grass" clade (Paniceae, Poaceae): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grasses exhibit a great variety of inflorescence forms and these appear homoplasious when mapped onto cladograms. The overall pattern is sufficiently complex that it is difficult to analyze inflorescence evolution. We have reduced the complexity of the problem by examining one group of grasses, the panicoid "bristle clade," which exhibits a less complex pattern of variation. The clade is morphologically defined by inflorescences bearing both spikelets and sterile bristles and is monophyletic in both morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. We have constructed a chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the three main genera, which finds three well-supported clades, two comprising species placed in Setaria and one of Pennisetum + Cenchrus. In this tree Cenchrus is monophyletic, but both Setaria and Pennisetum are paraphyletic. Developmental morphology of these groups is very similar at early stages. Changes in axis ramification, primordial differentiation, and axis elongation account for most variation in mature inflorescence morphology. Characters derived from comparisons of developmental sequences were optimized onto one of the most parsimonious trees. Most developmental characters were congruent with the molecular phylogeny except for three reversals in the subclade containing S. barbata, S. palmifolia, and two accessions of S. poiretiana. Changes in just a handful of developmental events account for inflorescence evolution in the bristle clade, and similar changes may account for inflorescence diversity in the grasses as a whole.

Doust AN; Kellogg EA

2002-08-01

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Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and leaves. This study (i) quantified and compared the tensile fracture properties of stems and leaves of seven tropical grass species and (ii) provided insight into the underlying plant traits that explain differences in fracture properties between species. Fracture force, tensile strength, fracture energy and toughness of stems (in various phenological stages) and leaves were measured and compared among five introduced tropical grasses (Cenchrus ciliaris, Chloris gayana, Digitaria milanjiana, Megathyrsus maximus (syn. Panicum maximum), Setaria sphacelata) and two native tropical grasses (Setaria surgens and Dichanthium sericeum). Species differed significantly in fracture force and fracture energy, with stems and leaves of C. ciliaris and S. surgens requiring less force and energy to fracture and stems and leaves of M. maximus and S. sphacelata requiring more force and energy to fracture in comparison with the other species. Differences in tensile strength and toughness were less pronounced. The differences among species in fracture force and energy mainly resulted from differences in cross?sectional area of plant parts rather than from differences in tensile strength and toughness.

Jacobs AAA; Scheper JA; Benvenutti MA; Gordon IJ; Poppi DP; Elgersma A

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Grass Lignocellulose  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

Akin, Danny E.

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Biocontrol Ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Different Growth Stages of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.)  

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Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the biological control ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola infected to parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) at different stages of growth in a glasshouse. The study also investigated the combined effect of the infection and the competitor plant, i.e. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), a pasture species usually found in the weed habitat in Central Queensland. The 2 x 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates in each treatment. The parthenium weeds were planted with or without buffel grass. The plants were inoculated with P. abrupta var. partheniicola urediniospores either at the rosette, flowering or mature growth stage of development. As controls, an additional six non inoculated plants with and without buffel grass were planted. The results showed that P. abrupta var. partheniicola affected more on the younger plants than on the older ones. Its infection decreased the plant height. A higher reduction in plant above ground biomass was recorded because of the rust when the plants were inoculated at the rosette growth stage of development in the presence of competition. The impact of the rust was greatest on the ability of parthenium to produce seeds.

MOHAMAD TAUFIK FAUZI

2009-01-01

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Lawnmower with grass collector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lawnmower comprising a grass cutting unit 4,5 a grass collector 6 having an outlet (9, fig. 2) which can be attached to an external grass receiver and a mechanism 10 for removing grass from the collector through the outlet. The mechanism may be manually operable or automatically operable, either driven by the power supply of the lawnmower or by an external power source. The mechanism may be an Archimedes screw, or means for generating a flow of air to suck or blow the grass through the outlet. The outlet is preferably an expandable flexible duct. The lawnmower may have a sensor to detect when the collector is full and an alarm to alert a user. Also claimed is a grass receiver, which may have a heater for heating grass, a grass agitation mechanism and a dispenser for grass treatment chemicals.

HONEY DAVID

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Wheat grass selection  

Science.gov (United States)

The wheat grass on the right is not tolerant of high salinity, or high salt conditions. The wheat grass on the left is a hybrid that has a high salt tolerance. It grows well in high salinity environments.

Richard Wang (USDA;ARS)

2006-09-25

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ESTUDIOS EN GRAMÍNEAS (POACEAE) DE COLOMBIA: VEINTE NOVEDADES COROLÓGICAS Studies on Colombian grasses (Poaceae): Twenty chorological novelties  

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Full Text Available Se dan a conocer veinte novedades para la flora de Colombia: Agrostis mertensii, Agrostis perennans, Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis subrepens, Agrostis tolucensis, Aristida schiedeana, Arundo donax, Bouteloua aristidoides, Bouteloua simplex, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cortaderia selloana, Cynodon dactylon, Cynodon nlemfuensis, Heteropogon contortus, Microchloa kunthii, Paspalidium geminatum, Pharus parvifolius, Tragus berteronianus, Urochloa distachya y Zoysia matrella. Se presentan la distribución geográfica, las preferencias ecológicas, los nombres comunes, los usos y las afinidades morfológicas para cada una de las especies. Asimismo, se excluyen de la flora de Colombia las siguientes especies: Agrostis araucana (= Agrostis magellanica), Agrostis foliosa (= Agrostis pallens), Agrostis haenkeana (= Polypogon exasperatus) y Agrostis turrialbae.As result of recent studies of Colombian grasses, 20 new records of Poaceae are given: Agrostis mertensii, Agrostis perennans, Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis subrepens, Agrostis tolucensis, Aristida schiedeana, Arundo donax, Bouteloua aristidoides, Bouteloua simplex, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cortaderia selloana, Cynodon dactylon, Cynodon nlemfuensis, Heteropogon contortus, Microchloa kunthii, Paspalidium geminatum, Pharus parvifolius, Tragus berteronianus, Urochloa distachya, and Zoysia matrella. The geographical distribution, ecological preferences, vernacular names, uses, and the morphological relationships are presented under each species. Agrostis araucana (= Agrostis magellanica), Agrostis foliosa (= Agrostis pallens), Agrostis haenkeana (= Polypogon exasperatus), and Agrostis turrialbae are excluded from Colombian flora.

JOHN ALEJANDRO GARCÍA-ULLOA; CAMILO LASTRA; CÉSAR SALAS; MÓNICA MEDINA MERCHÁN

2005-01-01

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Nonstomatal limitations are responsible for drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition in four C4 grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here, the contribution of stomatal and nonstomatal factors to photosynthetic inhibition under water stress in four tropical C4 grasses was investigated (Panicum coloratum, Bothriochloa bladhii, Cenchrus ciliaris and Astrebla lappacea). Plants were grown in well watered soil, and then the effects of soil drying were measured on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence and water relations. During the drying cycle, leaf water potential (?leaf) and relative water content (RWC) decreased from c. ?0.4 to ?2.8 MPa and 100–40%, respectively. The CO2 assimilation rates (A) and quantum yield of PSII (?PSII) of all four grasses decreased rapidly with declining RWC. High CO2 concentration (2500 µl l?1) had no effect on A or ?PSII at any stage of the drying cycle. Electron transport capacity and dark respiration rates were unaltered by drought. The CO2 compensation concentrations of P. coloratum and C. ciliaris rose sharply when leaf RWC fell below 70%. In P. coloratum, 5% CO2 did not prevent the decline of O2 evolution rates under water stress. We conclude that inhibition of photosynthesis in the four C4 grasses under water stress is dependent mainly on biochemical limitations.

Ghannoum O; Conroy JP; Driscoll SP; Paul MJ; Foyer CH; Lawlor DW

2003-09-01

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The sensitivity of photosynthesis to phosphorus deficiency differs between C? and C? tropical grasses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphorus (P) is an important determinant of plant productivity, particularly in the tropical grasslands of Australia, which contain both C? and C? species. Few studies have compared the responses of such species to P deficiency. Previous work led us to hypothesise that C? photosynthesis and the three subtypes of C? photosynthesis have different sensitivities to P deficiency. To examine their dynamic response to P deficiency in more detail, four taxonomically related tropical grasses (Panicum laxum (C?) and Panicum coloratum, Cenchrus ciliaris and Panicum maximum belonging to the C? subtypes NAD-ME, NADP-ME and PCK, respectively) were grown under contrasting P supplies, including P withdrawal from the growing medium. Changes in photosynthesis and growth were compared with leaf carbohydrate contents and metabolic fingerprints obtained using high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR). The response of CO? assimilation rates to leaf contents of inorganic phosphate ([Pi]) was linear in the C? grass, but asymptotic for the three C? grasses. Relative growth rate was affected most by low P in the C? species and was correlated with the leaf content of glucose 6-phosphate more than with carbohydrates. Principal component analysis of the ¹H-NMR spectra revealed distinctive profiles of carbohydrates and amino acids for the four species. Overall, the data showed that photosynthesis of the three C? subtypes behaved similarly. Compared with the C? counterpart, photosynthesis of the three C? grasses had a higher P use efficiency and lower Pi requirement, and responded to a narrower range of [Pi]. Although each of the four grass species showed distinctive ¹H-NMR fingerprints, there were no differences in response that could be attributed to the C? subtypes.

Ghannoum Oula; Paul MatthewJ; Ward JaneL; Beale MichaelH; Corol Delia-Irina; Conroy JannP

2008-01-01

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Diversidad de las gramíneas de Durango, México/ Diversity of the grasses from Durango, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El estado de Durango, México, cuya posición geográfica se ubica en la región centro-norte del país, presenta una topografía rugosa y un clima y geología variables, lo que le confiere una riqueza florística relativamente alta en comparación con otras entidades de México. La presencia de gramíneas variadas en este estado le ha permitido ser productor de ganado de exportación durante el último siglo, Herrera (2001) reporta 97 géneros y 338 especies de gramínea (more) s para Durango, que comparadas con otras entidades resulta ser tan sólo superada por cinco estados mexicanos: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca y Sinaloa por el número de especies (Dávila y col., 2006). En este trabajo se muestra la distribución de los taxa que se encuentran creciendo en respuesta a las condiciones climáticas del estado, así como otros grupos de especies interesantes por su condición para subsistir: 1) especies endémicas [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] y especies raras o escasas [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) especies adaptadas a suelos salinos, alcalinos o yesosos [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) especies introducidas para ser cultivadas y escapadas de cultivo [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Megathyrsus maximus]; 4) especies que requieren ambientes acuáticos y subacuáticos [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum]. Abstract in english Durango is a state located at the north-central part of Mexico, because of its geographical position it has a rugose topography, a variable climate and geology which confers to it a relatively high floristic richness compared to other Mexican states. The presence of varied grasses in this area has permitted to it being a cattle production in the last century, Herrera (2001) reported 97 genera and 338 species of grasses from Durango, that compared with other entities resul (more) ts to be surpassed only for 5 Mexican states: Veracruz, Jalisco, Puebla, Oaxaca and Sinaloa based on the number of species (Dávila y col., 2006). The distribution of grasses growing in response to the climatic conditions of the State is shown, as well as other species which are interesting because of the condition to subsist: 1) endemic species [Chaboissaea subbiflora, Reederochloa eludens, Muhlenbergia michisensis] and rare species [Aristida gibbosa, Festuca breviglumis, Rhipidocladum racemiflorum]; 2) species adapted to saline, alcaline or gypsofile soils [Bouteloua ramosa, Distichlis spicata, Pleuraphis mutica, Reederochloa eludens, Sporobolus airoides]; 3) introduced species to be cultivated and escaped from cultivars [Cenchrus ciliaris, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris gayana, Eleusine multiflora, Lolium multiflorum, Melinis repens, Sorghum halepense, Urochloa máxima]; 4) species which are aquatic or subaquatic [Echinochloa crusgalli, Glyceria striata, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa fusca, Paspalum pubiflorum].

Herrera Arrieta, Yolanda; Cortés Ortiz, Armando

2009-09-01

49

Allergic contact dermatitis from grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to demonstrate the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from grass, and to develop a patch test series to screen patients with grass intolerance. 6 common grass species from lawns and military training areas were collected. Solvent extracts of polar, non-polar and volatile fractions were prepared and used for patch testing in 20 control subjects and 46 patients with a history of grass intolerance. The 20 controls had negative responses to patch testing. 5 out of 46 patients had positive patch tests to Axonopus compressus (carpet grass), Ischaemum muticum (seashore centipede grass), Imperata cylindrica (lalang), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass). Reactions to the non-polar fraction for all 5 species were noted. This study demonstrates the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from various common species of grass. In our series, this is seen in 11% of those with a history of grass intolerance. PMID:9255483

Koh, D; Goh, C L; Tan, H T; Ng, S K; Wong, W K

1997-07-01

50

Allergic contact dermatitis from grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study attempts to demonstrate the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from grass, and to develop a patch test series to screen patients with grass intolerance. 6 common grass species from lawns and military training areas were collected. Solvent extracts of polar, non-polar and volatile fractions were prepared and used for patch testing in 20 control subjects and 46 patients with a history of grass intolerance. The 20 controls had negative responses to patch testing. 5 out of 46 patients had positive patch tests to Axonopus compressus (carpet grass), Ischaemum muticum (seashore centipede grass), Imperata cylindrica (lalang), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass). Reactions to the non-polar fraction for all 5 species were noted. This study demonstrates the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from various common species of grass. In our series, this is seen in 11% of those with a history of grass intolerance.

Koh D; Goh CL; Tan HT; Ng SK; Wong WK

1997-07-01

51

GRASS BASED AVIAN DETERRENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to uses and methods relating to grass and endophyte combinations to repel avian species from the grass and endophyte combination. In particular, methods are described to select grass and endophyte combinations in order to enhance or maximise the repellent effect. Preferred endophyte and grass combinations are described which are based on the selection methods and include AR4, AR5, AR8 and AR94 (Deposit Nos. V07/029054, V07/029055, V07/029056, V07/029057) in Lolium cultivars as well as AR601, AR602, AR603, and AR604 (Deposit Nos. V07/029058, V07/029059, V07/029060, V07/029061) in Festuca cultivars.

ROLSTON MAURICE PHILIP; PENNELL CHRISTOPHER GERALD LEE

52

HERBICIDAL COMPOSITIONS FOR GRASS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A herbicidal composition for grass is provided to minimize the effect of damaging environment and promote the growth of grass with effective herbicidal activity. A herbicidal composition for grass comprises 50 weight% of MCPP(methylchlorophenoxypropionic acid) 100-150 ml, 40 weight% of 2,4-D[2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid] 70~100ml, 38 weight% of dithiopyr 70-100ml, 20 weight% of imazaquin 150-200 ml, pyroligneous acid 0.2-0.4 L in tourmaline treating water. The MCPP is a herbicide of phenoxy hormone and used as a herbicide for broadleaf weed. The 2,4-D is also a herbicide of phenoxy hormone and causes abnormality in cell division.

CHANG STEVEN YONG

53

Native grasses for biomass  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable breeding and genetic research is currently dedicated to the development of warm-season perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as dedicated biomass crops. However, the Great Basin and other large regions of the western United States and World are dominated by cool-se...

54

Water surface grass blanket  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a water surface grass tapestry comprising a shading net, a bamboo frame bound on the shading net, aquatic plants planted on the shading net and a cement sinker for fixing the shading net. The shading net is used as the basic material to fix the aquatic plant and the hygrophyte and impel them to form the water surface grass tapestry. A plurality of bamboo frames for providing buoyancy force are bound on the back of the shading net by nylon ropes fastened on the bamboo frames on the corners of the shading net, whose another end is tied with a cement sinker placed on the bottom of the water to fix the grass tapestry at a certain position in the water area and keep the grass tapestry static on the water surface. The utility model has the effect of greening water surface and the function of water purification. The use of shading net to shade the light can effectively restrain and wipe off the blue green algae and the planted aquatic plants on the shading net can purify the water as well as the landscape effect and the economic value.

CHEN XUECHU KONG

55

Grass and grain seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

56

REPELENCIA DE LOS PASTOS Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha Y Cenchrus ciliaris SOBRE LARVAS DE GARRAPATA Amblyomma cajennense F. (Acari:Ixodidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el trópico y subtropico a nivel mundial, uno de los principales problemas zoosanitarios que afectan la productividad ganadera, principalmente en bovinos es la garrapata, además trasmiten las enfermedades Anaplasmosis y Babesiosis. El establecimiento de pastos repelentes a la garrapata es un control biológico alternativo para solucionar este problema. Por tanto, el objetivo fue determinar la repelencia en Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria brizantha y Cenchrus ciliaris sobre larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. La investigación se realizó en la localidad de Mora, municipio de Tepic, Nayarit, México. Se formaron 24 parcelas de 35 m2 a distancia entre ellas de 1 m, con cinco unidades de muestreo cada una (5 x 1 m de ancho) y pasillos de 0.5 m entre unidades. Las unidades se infestaron con aproximadamente 5,000 larvas de A. cajenennse, el efecto anti-garrapata de los pastos se evaluó mediante la recuperación de larvas adheridas por método de Franela en los tiempos 7, 14, 21 días de post-infestación. Los tratamientos fueron los cuatro pastos descritos con seis repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados fueron analizados por el procedimiento PROC MIXED de SAS y prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p<0.05), donde M. minutiflora presentó el mayor efecto repelente (p<0.05) por la menor cantidad de larvas recuperadas (2.39 ± 0.13) que el resto de los pastos, en C. ciliaris (1,192.04 ± 10.3), A. gayanus (72.48 ± 10.30) y B. brizantha (56.48 ± 11.68), en los dos últimos tratamientos no hubo significación en larvas recolectadas. Para los tres tiempos de colecta también se mostraron diferencias (p<0.05) en la media de larvas recuperadas en los pastos. Se concluye que los zacates Melinis minutiflora, Andropogon gayanus y Brachiaria brizantha manifestaron repelencia contra larvas de A. cajennense, sin embargo el que muestra mayor es M. minutiflora.

Iriarte Del Hoyo PG; Aguirre Ortega J; Martínez González S; Gómez Danes AA; Loya Olguin JL; Fernández Ruvalcaba M; Ulloa Castañeda RR

2013-01-01

57

GRASS COLLECTION CONTAINER FOR LAWN MOWER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a grass-collection container for attachment to a lawn mower, wherein said grass-collection container comprises: (a) an open mounting portion, said open mounting portion configured to interface with a grass clipping discharge chute of the lawn mower, and to allow transport therethrough of the grass clippings discharged by the chute and (b) a bag portion for receiving the grass clippings, said bag portion including discharging means configured to permit discharge of the grass clippings from the bag portion while the grass is being cut by said lawn mower. The present invention also relates to a lawn mower comprising the grass-collection container of the invention and to a new method of mowing grass using the grass-collection container of the invention.

BIRCH MARCUS GORDON

58

VISUAL SEGMENTATION OF LAWN GRASS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention provides a method for identifying lawn grass comprising capturing an image of the terrain in front of a mower, segmenting the image into neighborhoods, calculating at least two image statistics for each of the neighborhoods, generating a binary representation of each image statistic. The binary representation of each image statistic is generated by comparing the calculated image statistic values to predetermined image statistic values for grass. The method further comprises weighting each of the binary representations of each image statistic, and summing corresponding neighborhoods for all image statistics. A binary threshold is applied to each of the summed neighborhoods to generate a binary map representing grass containing areas and non-grass containing areas.

SCHEPELMANN ALEXANDER; DALTORIO KATHRYN A; ROLIN AMAURY D; BENO JONATHAN; HUGHES BRADLEY E; GREEN JAMES M; BRANICKY MICHAEL S; QUINN ROGER D; SNOW HENRY H; MERAT FRANK L; HUDSON RICHARD E

59

Breeding for Grass Seed Yield  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses.

Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

2010-01-01

60

Apomixis y su importancia en la selección y mejoramiento de gramineas forrajeras tropicales: Revisión/ Apomixis importance for tropical forage grass selection and breeding: Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Apomixis es un tipo reproductivo donde la producción de semilla ocurre sin fusión de gametos, resultando por generaciones, en descendencia que genéticamente, es copia fiel del progenitor materno. La apomixis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida entre las gramíneas forrajeras tropicales: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum y Urochloa, entre otros. La (more) s especies apomícticas contienen individuos diploides y poliploides conformando "complejos agámicos", donde las barreras reproductivas quedan delimitadas por la apomixis y el nivel de ploidía, lo que tiene impacto en su aprovechamiento. Individuos diploides mantienen la sexualidad activa y estos son raros fuera del centro de origen de especie. Los individuos poliploides son apomícticos y los individuos sexuales poliploides pueden inducirse en el laboratorio, lo que permite obtener descendencia híbrida. La riqueza genética, originada del centro de diversidad es la base para superar problemas productivos y de estabilidad ecológica: producción durante la sequía, fijación de nitrógeno, calidad, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades; como se ha demostrado en casos exitosos en Brachiaria, Panicum y Cenchrus. Los avances en investigación sobre apomixis han elucidado su biología y diversas técnicas para su manejo. Sin embargo, el impacto de estos avances en la investigación sobre forrajes en México, promueve la recapitulación sobre el aprovechamiento de recursos genéticos y el interés en la generación de híbridos para las necesidades de producción en pastoreo extensivo en México. Abstract in english Apomixis is a reproductive system resulting in seed production without gametes fusion, and produces, through generations, offspring that is a genetic copy from the maternal progenitor. Apomixis importance is widespread among tropical grasses: Bothriochloa, Bouteloua, Brachiaria, Callipedium, Cenchrus, Dichanthium, Eragrostis, Hyparrhenia, Melinis, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Setaria, Tripsacum, Urochloa, among the most important. Apomictic species contain diploid as we (more) ll as polyploid individuals conforming "agamic complexes" and reproductive barriers limited both by apomixis as well as ploidy level which has a great impact on apomictic species utilization. Diploid individuals maintain active the sexuality and these are rare out of the center of specie's genetic origin center. Polyploid individuals in nature are apomictic, and sexual individuals may be induced to polyploidy in the laboratory, allowing hybrid descendants production. Genetic richness originated within the specie's center of diversity is the basis to overcome productive challenges and ecological stability: dry season productivity, nitrogen fixation, forage quality, pest and disease resistance, etc.; as it has been shown by successful breeding programs for Brachiaria and Panicum, between the most recognized for Latin America, and Cenchrus in USA. Apomixis research advancements has elucidated the biology for this reproductive process as well as the techniques for its manipulation; however, the impact of this advancements on forage research in México has promoted a critical review on forage genetic resources utilization, resulting in an increased interest on hybrid material production to face the requirements for extensive grazing production systems in Mexico.

Quero Carrillo, Adrián R.; Enríquez Quiroz, Javier F.; Morales Nieto, Carlos R.; Miranda Jiménez, Leonor

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Meadow-grass gall midge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield drastically. It overwinters as larvae in a puparium, in the soil, and begins to hatch on average in late April, but the time is de-pending on the temperature. Emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge in spring takes place over a 2-3 week period. Beginning of emergence of the meadow-grass gall midge takes place after the pupa-ries have obtained 114 ± 21 day-degrees calculated from 1. January, with a biologi-cal development zero at 5 °C. The top of the flying curve achieves after 179 ± 29 day-degrees. With this information, the farmers can fairly accurately spray just before the flight curve has its maximum. Therefore, the spraying frequency could be lowered signifi-cantly and in many cases lowered to only one insecticideapplication in meadow-grass every year.

Hansen, Lars Monrad

2012-01-01

62

Faster Rubisco is the key to superior nitrogen-use efficiency in NADP-malic enzyme relative to NAD-malic enzyme C4 grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (k(cat); 3.8 versus 5.7 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)(-1) in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster k(cat). PMID:15665246

Ghannoum, Oula; Evans, John R; Chow, Wah Soon; Andrews, T John; Conroy, Jann P; von Caemmerer, Susanne

2005-01-21

63

Faster Rubisco is the key to superior nitrogen-use efficiency in NADP-malic enzyme relative to NAD-malic enzyme C4 grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (k(cat); 3.8 versus 5.7 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)(-1) in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster k(cat).

Ghannoum O; Evans JR; Chow WS; Andrews TJ; Conroy JP; von Caemmerer S

2005-02-01

64

Using insect diversity for determining land restoration development: Examining the influence of grazing history on ant assemblages in rehabilitated pasture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ant assemblages, used widely as bioindicators of land management practices, were sampled in rehabilitated pastures and surrounding habitats at Norwich Park Coal Mine in central Queensland, Australia. As the end-use goal of a number of rehabilitated mine sites in the region is sustainable pasture-land, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of varying grazing histories on ant fauna, to provide further understanding on the function of rehabilitated agroecosystems and multi-trophic interactions. Examination of seven study sites revealed three distinct ant assemblages, broadly reflecting mining and grazing history. Rehabilitated pastures where grazing had ceased 2 years prior to ant sampling contained low species richness with a basic ant composition, regardless of stocking rate, and was similar to ungrazed rehabilitated pasture. The rehabilitated pasture with continual low intensity grazing showed ant compositional similarities to the neighboring unmined pasture, although assemblage descriptors were intermediate between unmined and rehabilitated sites. Buffel grass (Pennisetum ciliare, basionym Cenchrus ciliaris) and other stoloniferous or rhizomatous grasses were the principal influence on ant assemblages, with grazing reducing the ground dominance of such grasses and providing a more favorable habitat for a wider range of ant species.

Williams ER; Mulligan DR; Erskine PD; Plowman KP

2012-12-01

65

In situ degradability of fresh grass and grass conserved under different harvesting methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of forage conservation and harvesting method on DM and CP degradability of grass cut at the boot stage were determined using nylon bags incubated in the rumen of two fistulated lactating cows. Samples of fresh grass, wilted grass prior to and after ensiling in a stack silo and cut with either a cylinder-type forage harvester (11.3 mm of length cut) or a self-loading wagon (42.4 mm of length cut), wilted grass prior to and after ensiling in large round bales, and grass hay were obtained from the same field and used for determination of DM and CP degradability. The DM-soluble fraction of fresh grass was significantly lower than that of wilted grass and silage, but it was higher than that of hay. In general, the potentially degradable fraction of all treatments was related inversely to the readily soluble fraction in water. The effective degradability of DM of fresh grass was similar to that of hay but was lower than that of wilted grass and silage. The effective degradability of DM of silage was higher than that of wilted grass and hay. The disappearance rate of CP of fresh grass was similar to that of wilted grass, hay, and silage. Silage had a lower disappearance rate of CP than wilted grass. The effective degradability of CP was similar for fresh and wilted grasses. Protein degradability was greater for silages than for fresh and wilted grasses. Protein degradability of hay was similar to that of fresh grass and wilted grass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1314855

Petit, H V; Tremblay, G F

1992-03-01

66

In situ degradability of fresh grass and grass conserved under different harvesting methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of forage conservation and harvesting method on DM and CP degradability of grass cut at the boot stage were determined using nylon bags incubated in the rumen of two fistulated lactating cows. Samples of fresh grass, wilted grass prior to and after ensiling in a stack silo and cut with either a cylinder-type forage harvester (11.3 mm of length cut) or a self-loading wagon (42.4 mm of length cut), wilted grass prior to and after ensiling in large round bales, and grass hay were obtained from the same field and used for determination of DM and CP degradability. The DM-soluble fraction of fresh grass was significantly lower than that of wilted grass and silage, but it was higher than that of hay. In general, the potentially degradable fraction of all treatments was related inversely to the readily soluble fraction in water. The effective degradability of DM of fresh grass was similar to that of hay but was lower than that of wilted grass and silage. The effective degradability of DM of silage was higher than that of wilted grass and hay. The disappearance rate of CP of fresh grass was similar to that of wilted grass, hay, and silage. Silage had a lower disappearance rate of CP than wilted grass. The effective degradability of CP was similar for fresh and wilted grasses. Protein degradability was greater for silages than for fresh and wilted grasses. Protein degradability of hay was similar to that of fresh grass and wilted grass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Petit HV; Tremblay GF

1992-03-01

67

Device for preparing grass for mowing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A device for mowing grass includes an axle attachable to a lawn mower aft of a wheel of the lawn mower and forward of a grass cutting blade of the lawn mower; a plurality of tines extending from the axle, at least a portion of the tines being engagable with leaves of grass on a ground surface; and a wheel attached to the first end of the axle and being engagable with and rotatable on the ground surface. Upon operation of the device for preparing grass, a rotation of the axle causes the tines to engage the leaves of grass and direct the leaves into substantially vertical positions in preparation for being cut by the grass cutting blade of the lawn mower.

GROHS WAYNE RAYMOND

68

HAND-OPERATED GRASS SHEARS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention proposes mounting a handle arrangement (HA) in a pivotable manner relative to a blade support (GK, SK) or a cutting head of a blade support about a pivoting axis in order to produce hand-operated grass shears, said pivoting axis running perpendicular to the cutting plane of the blade arrangement. Advantageously, a pulling cable (ZS) is used for the force transmission between the handle arrangement (HA) and the blade arrangement (OM, UM), said pulling cable running along the pivoting axis (SA) at least along some sections.

REICHART VINCENT

69

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR®/ Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experim (more) ento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1); glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1) e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens. Abstract in english Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Commelina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, be (more) tween November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1); glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1) and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

Maciel, Cleber Daniel de Goes; Poletine, Juliana Parisotto; Amstalden, Saulo Leme; Gazziero, Dionísio Luis Piza; Raimondi, Michel Alex; Lima, Gesley Ramos Guimarães; Oliveira Neto, Antônio Mendes de; Guerra, Naiara; Justiniano, Wagner

2011-02-01

70

Misturas em tanque com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba, erva-de-touro e capim-carrapicho em soja RR® Glyphosate tank mixtures controlling Commelina benghalensis, Tridax procumbens and Cenchrus echinatus in Soybean Roundup Ready®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O uso de misturas de glyphosate, em tanque, para manejo de espécies de plantas daninhas de difícil controle tem sido prática comum entre os agricultores brasileiros. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de misturas, em tanque, de herbicidas com glyphosate para o controle de trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens L.) e capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus L.) na cultura da soja RR®. O experimento foi conduzido em Maracaí, São Paulo, no período de novembro de 2006 a março de 2007, utilizando-se o cultivar CD-214RR® e delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 e 720 g ha-1); glyphosate em sequencial (180/360; 360/360 e 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10; 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120; 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30; 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177,8+30 g ha-1) e testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Apesar da similaridade de produtividade de grãos entre os tratamentos com glyphosate isolado e sequencial, nas doses 540, 720 e 540/ 360 g ha-1, as misturas em tanque com chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen e imazethapyr favoreceram o controle de espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes ao glyphosate como C. benghalensis e T. procumbens.Although the use of glyphosate tank mixtures for managing weed species of difficult control is prohibited by the Brazilian legislation, it has been a common practice among farmers. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicide tank mixtures using glyphosate to control Commelina benghalensis L., Tridax procumbens L. and Cenchrus echinatus L. in soybean crop RR®. A field experiment was conducted in the Municipality of Maracai, São Paulo State, between November, 2006 and March 2007, using the genotype CD-214RR® in a complete randomized block design with 21 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following applications: glyphosate (180; 360; 540 and 720 g ha-1); glyphosate in sequence (180/360; 360/360 and 540/360 g ha-1); glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl 360+10; 540+10 and 360+5/ 360+5 g ha-1); glyphosate + lactofen (360+120; 540+120 and 360+60/ 360+60 g ha-1); glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl (360+30; 540+30 and 360+16,9/ 360+12,9 g ha-1); glyphosate + carfentrazone (360+4 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (360+50 g ha-1); glyphosate + imazethapyr (177.8+30 g ha-1) and controls with and without weeding. Despite the similarity in grain yield between treatments with glyphosate alone and sequentially at doses 540, 720 and 540 / 360 g ha-1, the tank mixtures with chlorimuron-ethyl, cloransulam-methyl, lactofen and imazethapyr favored control of weed species tolerant to glyphosate such as C. benghalensis and T. procumbens.

Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; Saulo Leme Amstalden; Dionísio Luis Piza Gazziero; Michel Alex Raimondi; Gesley Ramos Guimarães Lima; Antônio Mendes de Oliveira Neto; Naiara Guerra; Wagner Justiniano

2011-01-01

71

Electric flower and grass cropper  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is an electric trimmer of flower and grass. The utility model is characterized in that a chopping disc provided with a blade or a nylon thread is fixed on a shaft of a direct current motor, a protecting cover is equipped on the upper portion of the chopping disc. The direct current motor is provided on a fixing support which is connected with an operating rod. A power switch is fixed on the operating rod and the power source of the power switch is provided by an accumulator. The accumulator, the power switch and the direct current motor are connected by a wire. The utility model has the advantages of low noise, low costs, portability and adaptability, and non-pollution of exhaust gas.

DI PAN; YOUSHENG LIU

72

Tropical grasses as a renewable energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agronomists, evaluating tropical grasses from Saccharum and allied genera as potential renewable energy sources for boiler fuel and alcohol, emphasized (1) maximizing sugar cane's total biomass rather than sucrose production, (2) utilizing alternative tropical grasses during sugar cane's offseason for year-round fuel production, and (3) mechanizing production technologies for fibrous, thin-stemmed tropical grasses that are to be managed as solar-dried fuels and feedstocks. Based on the time required to maximize their dry matter yields, three categories of grasses have emerged as potential energy crops: short rotation (2-3 months) with Sordan 70A (a sorghum/sudan grass hybrid), intermediate rotation (4-6 months) with napier grass, and long rotation (12-18 months) with sugar cane. Total oven-dried matter is 50 tons/acre-yr (114 metric tons /hectare-yr) for sugar cane, 33 tons (74 metric tons) from napier grass harvested at 6-month intervals, and 21 tons (47 metric tons) from Sordan 70A harvested every 14 weeks.

Samuels, G.; Alexander, A.G.; Rios, C.; Garcia, M.

1983-01-01

73

Biological nitrogen fixation in grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation in grassAbstractNitrogen (N) due to their role in plant metabolism is the nutrient that most limits crop production. It ispresent in large quantities in air, primarily as di-nitrogen, but unfortunately the plants are not able to 8 Evidência, Joaçaba v. 12 n. 1, p. 7-18, janeiro/junho 2012directly use the nutrient in that form, requiring it to be fixed in the form of ammonia. In soil, the fixed N isconverted to nitrate by nitrification process (mediated by Nitrossomonas sp. and Nitrobacter sp. bacteria),thus becomes available for plants. The N fixation may occur via atmospheric, biological and industrial, andthe last was and still is a pillar in the construction and maintenance of modern agriculture. The biologicalnitrogen fixation (BNF) provides economic and environmental advantages, being characterized asan important tool in achieving a more sustainable crop production. Plants of the family Fabaceae (legumes)has the efficiency in the process of BNF known and consecrated, however, four more crops produced inthe world (sugar cane, corn, rice and wheat) are of the family Poaceae (grass), and exploitation of BNF inplants of this family is a recent possibility, with relatively low efficiency, however, the optimization ofthese processes can bring significant benefits, since plants of this family are of paramount importance inproducing food, fiber and energy. Based on the above, this review summarizes knowledge regarding theprocess and efficiency of non-nodulating diazotrophs in Poaceae, in order to assess the state of the scienceof BNF this plants family.

, Julierme Zimme rBarbosa; Rangel Consalter; , Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta

2012-01-01

74

Competitive effects of grasses and woody plants in mixed-grass prairie.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Variation in the competitive ability of plant species may determine their persistence and abundance in communities. We quantified the competitive effects of grasses and woody plants in native mixed-grass prairie on the performance of transplant species and on resources. 2. We separated the effects of grasses, shrubs and intact vegetation containing both grasses and shrubs by manipulating the natural vegetation using selective herbicide to create four neighbourhood treatments: no neighbours (NN), no shrubs (NS), no grasses (NG) and all neighbours (AN). Treatments were applied to 2 x 2 m experimental plots located in either grass- or shrub-dominated habitats. The effects of grasses and shrubs on resource availability (light, soil moisture, soil available nitrogen) and on the growth of transplants of Bouteloua gracilis, a perennial tussock grass, and Elaeagnus commutata, a common shrub, were measured over two growing seasons. 3. Resource availability was two- to fivefold higher in no neighbour (NN) plots than in vegetated plots (NS, NG, AN) with grasses and shrubs having similar effects. Light penetration declined linearly with increasing grass or shrub biomass, to a minimum of about 30% incident light at 500 g m(-2) shoot mass. Soil resources did not decline with increasing neighbour shoot or root mass for either grasses or shrubs, suggesting that the presence of neighbours was more important than their abundance. 4. Transplant growth was significantly suppressed by the presence of neighbours, but not by increasing neighbour shoot or root biomass, except for a linear decline in Bouteloua growth with increasing neighbour shoot mass in plots containing only shrubs. Competition intensity, calculated as the reduction in transplant growth by neighbours, was similar in both grass- and shrub-dominated habitats for transplants of Bouteloua, but was less intense in shrub-dominated habitats for the shrub Elaeagnus. Variation in the persistence and abundance of plants in communities may therefore be more strongly controlled by variation in the competitive effects exerted by neighbours than by differences in competitive response ability.

Peltzer DA; Kochy M

2001-08-01

75

Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

Hall, R.L.

2003-07-01

76

Afforestation of degraded grass land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The suitability of 11 species was tested for planting on degraded land at Kogilemane in Belur Taluk, Karnataka. The soil was alkaline with no humus, litter or topsoil. The original vegetation was grass with the stemless palm Phoenix acaulis, still present at 600 plants per acre. Seedlings 4-6 months old and raised in polythene bags were planted in pits in July 1981; Bambusa vulgaris was planted as 8-month-old cuttings. No fertilizer was applied. The most successful species after the first season was Acacia auriculiformis. Satisfactory survival and growth were also obtained with Cassia siamea, Peltoforum ferruginum, Leucaena leucocephala (although this was later heavily damaged by wild rabbits) and Toona ciliata. The bamboo survived well but there was no culm formation during the experiment. In 1982 only 3 of the species were tested: A. auriculiformis, L. leucocephala (because of its fast growth rate) and Casuarina equisetifolia (which performed badly in 1981 but is suited to alkaline soils). All 3 species performed satisfactorily.

Basappa, B.

1983-01-01

77

Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda/ In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la digestibilidad in situ de materia seca (DISMS) de tres dietas de engorda para ovinos en Tamaulipas, México. Se usó la técnica de la bolsa de nylon para determinar la digestibilidad in situ y degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca con tres borregos fistulados en el rumen y distribuidos en un diseño de Cuadro Latino. Los periodos de incubación ru (more) minal fueron 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h. Todas los tratamientos (T) incluyeron sorgo (Sorghum vulgare) molido como grano. El T1 y T2 se formularon con pulido de arroz (Oryza sativa) con 7,53% en base seca (BS) y con 5% (BS) de soca de sorgo como forraje; respectivamente; y el T3 con 5% (BS) de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) más 3% (BS) de alfalfa (Medicago sativa). En T1 se observó el mayor valor (P0,05) fracción digestible fue para T2. A las 48 h no se observó diferencia entre tratamientos (P>0,05). La fracción rápidamente soluble y la constante de degradación fueron mayores (P Abstract in english In situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. The objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of Tamaulipas, México. The nylon bag technique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a Latin Square design. The ruminal incubation times w (more) ere 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. All treatment diets (T) used ground sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare) as a base. T1 included rice (Oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (DM) of sorghum straw as forage; T2 had 5% DM of sorghum straw as forage; and T3 had 5% DM of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% DM of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa). In T1, the highest (P0.05) was observed between treatments. The washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (P

Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Gutiérrez-González, Juan Carlos; García-Castillo, Ramón; López-Trujillo, Ramiro; Duarte-Ortuño, Arturo

2011-12-01

78

Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja/ Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: cleth (more) odim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones), applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 ), c (more) lethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 ), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 ), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 ), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 ) and control (no herbicide). In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

Barroso, A.L.L.; Dan, H.A.; Procópio, S.O.; Toledo, R.E.B.; Sandaniel, C.R.; Braz, G.B.P.; Cruvinel, K.L.

2010-01-01

79

Eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase no controle de gramíneas em lavouras de soja Efficacy of ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in controlling grass weeds in soybean crops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a eficácia de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, aplicados isoladamente ou em associações, no controle das espécies de plantas daninhas pertencentes à família das gramíneas Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea e Cenchrus echinatus, na cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: clethodim (84 g ha-1), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1) e testemunha sem herbicida. A convivência das plantas de soja com as gramíneas infestantes resultou em perda significativa na produtividade de grãos. Os melhores níveis de controle de B. decumbens foram verificados com a utilização de haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim pode ser considerado seletivo a B. decumbens. Nenhum tratamento proporcionou controle final de D. ciliaris superior a 90%, porém menor eficiência foi verificada quando se aplicaram sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butyl. Apenas os tratamentos sethoxydim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] não mostraram controle satisfatório de E. indica. B. plantaginea foi a espécie mais facilmente controlada pelos herbicidas avaliados; no entanto, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim e [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] se destacaram no controle dessa invasora. A adição de quizalofop-p-ethyl ao clethodim proporcionou incremento significativo no controle de C. echinatus. Também os herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e tepraloxydim apresentaram controle satisfatório dessa espécie daninha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ACCase-inhibitors (ariloxyfenoxypropionates and cyclohexanodiones), applied alone or in combination, in controlling the grass weed species Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine indica, Brachiaria plantaginea and Cenchrus echinatus in soybean crop. The study was carried out in the field in a randomized block design with four replicates. The following treatments were evaluated: clethodim (84 g ha-1 ), clethodim + quizalofop-p-ethyl (48 + 40 g ha-1), [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] (50 + 50 g ha-1), sethoxydim (230 g ha-1 ), tepraloxydim (100 g ha-1 ), fluazifop-p-butyl (125 g ha-1 ), haloxyfop-methyl (60 g ha-1 ) and control (no herbicide). In the presence of the infesting weeds, soybean grain yield was significantly reduced. The highest efficiency of B. decumbens control was observed with the application of haloxyfop-methyl. Tepraloxydim was quite selective to B. decumbens. No treatment promoted a final control of D. ciliaris higher than 90%; nevertheless, the lowest efficiencies were verified with the application of sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl. The only treatments that did not present a satisfactory control of E. indica were sethoxydim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl]. The species most easily controlled by the herbicides evaluated was B. plantaginea. However, haloxyfop-methyl, tepraloxydim, clethodim and [clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl] presented the highest efficiency rates for controlling this weed. The addition of quizalofop-p-ethyl to clethodim significantly increased C. echinatus control The herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and tepraloxydim also presented a satisfactory control of this grass weed.

A.L.L. Barroso; H.A. Dan; S.O. Procópio; R.E.B. Toledo; C.R. Sandaniel; G.B.P. Braz; K.L. Cruvinel

2010-01-01

80

Branching of tillers in some grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In investigations on the grass regeneration biology a special attention was paid to the formation of aerial tillers and branching pseudostolons in Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Festuca pratensis Huds., Festuca rubra L., Phleum pratense L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., Lolium perenne L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. B., Holcus lanatus L., Agropyron repens (L.) P. B., Avenastrum pubescens (Huds) Opiz and Agrostis alba L. Aerial tillers, vegetative short ones and with partly elongated internodes as well as generative tillers formed in tufted and rhizomatous grasses. Parental raised tillers, on which aerial tillers developed, had the anatomical structure specific for grass stems. In tufted grasses, moreover, parental branching pseudostolons developed; in their cross section the arrangement of tissues specific for stolons was observed. They constituted the starting point for agglomerations of new plants rooting in soil, contrary to raised tillers. In some grass species, beside pendant roots, shorter roots grew at the base of aerial tillers; they surrounded with a ring the parent shoot in the node, thus reinforcing the connection of aerial tillers with the stem. An attention was paid to the favourable role of branching pseudostolons in the sward thickness formation. Conditions of the arrangement of tissues in the stem cross section, owing to which the rhizomatous form is developed, are discussed. The fertilization with compost or the covering with sand results in the formation of tillers resembling pseudorhizomes.

Leontyna Olszewska; Maria Wielicka

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

2012-01-01

82

Convenient brick grass and manufacture method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a convenient brick grass and a manufacture method thereof. The convenient brick grass has three parts from top to bottom, which are respectively called as an upper layer, a middle layer and a base, wherein the upper layer is mixed by an organic fertilizer, clays and seeds the middle layer is a mixed layer of a water-retaining agent and clays and the base is mixed by a deburring medicament, water and soil. Components of the three parts are mixed according to a certain proportion, respectively compressed and placed together to carry out total compression to manufacturethe brick grass similar to the property of floor tiles, thereby having low requirement on the field and convenient pavement and greatly reducing the cost.

JINGLEI SUN

83

Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many factors enforce the intensification of grassland utilization which is associated with significant environmental impacts subjected to various legislative constraints. Nevertheless, the need for diversification in agricultural production and the sustainability in energy within the European Union have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology in agronomy and anaerobic digestion sectors and the need for rural development and sustainable energy production, is an attractive solution that fulfils many legislative, agronomic and environmental requirements.

Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.

2011-01-01

84

Excellent agrofuel - reed canary grass (RCG)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is about 2 m tall, perennial grass, which produces biomass 5 to 8 tons dry matter per hectar per year. Emission trading has increased the interest to RCG. It is renewable energy source: when burning reed canary grass released carbon dioxide is bounded by the new crop. According to latest studies, RCG has even shown to act as a carbon sink despite of the usage of above ground biomass. Cultivation and usage of RCG reduces greenhouses gases. Cultivation is also environmentally friendly: lower amount of fertilizers is needed, leaching is 40 % lower compared to cereal cultivation and because of its excessive root systems it improves the soil structure and prevents erosion, no tillage is needed during 10 to 15 years cultivation period. (orig.)

Suominen, M.; Reinikainen, O.; Lehtovaara, J. (Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: mia.suominen@vapo.fi

2009-07-01

85

Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biofuels obtained from biomass have the potential to replace a substantial fraction of petroleum-based hydrocarbons that contribute to carbon emissions and are limited in supply. With the ultimate goal to maximize biomass yield for biofuel production, this review aims to evaluate prospects of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species

Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno

2012-01-01

86

Bait formula special for grass carp  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a bait formulation specially used for fishing grass carp, consisting of silkworm pupa, maize flour, white sugar, bran, rice wine, rapeseed cake, soybean meal and perfume the bait formulation is prepared by the steps as follows: the silkworm pupa, the maize flour, the bran, the rapeseed cake and the soybean meal are put in a container, fermented and taken out after 30 days the rice wine, the white sugar and the perfume are put in the mixture. The bait formulation is researched and prepared according to the characteristic of the grass carp, adopts the channel material with fragrant and sweet tastes and can rapidly attract the grass carp. Furthermore, the cost is low and the effect is obvious.

XIANFANG MENG

87

Revegetation of coal mine spoil using pasture on the Darling Downs of Queensland, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given of a revegetation experiment established on a spoil heap of the exploratory coal open-cut near Millmerran on the Darling Downs of southern Queensland. The experiment tested buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris), green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), and the legumes siratro (macroptilium atropurpureum) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). This experiment demonstrates that: (a) persistent pastures can be established on spoil at Millmerran as they have been on coal spoils elsewhere in eastern Australia: (b) a surface covering of 20-30 cm of suitable soil is adequate for good pasture establishment and persistence on spoil even on slopes up to 33%; (c) initial amendments with phosphatic and nitrogenous fertilizers produced a small positive response in cover and yield which went with time, but the pastures continue to persist and flourish; (d) the legumes siratro and lucerne can be established in such pastures. The relevance of these experimental results to post-mining land use are discussed. 16 references.

Russell, M.J.; Roberts, B.R.

1986-09-01

88

GRASSLAND RESTORATION WITH NATIVE PERENNIAL GRASSES IN YOLO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Restoration of native perennial grasses into California grasslands dominated by non-native and invasive weed species is desirable to improve rangeland conditions. Research plots were established at three grasslands; one site had no native grasses (AGR), one was sown with native grasses in 2002 (NPGR...

89

Management practices and phytoremediation by native grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using native species for phytoremediation may be more ecologically beneficial and cost-effective than monoculture planting approaches. This study evaluated the effect of various soil amendments and management on the potential of Midwestern prairie grasses to remediate field soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants. A greenhouse investigation was conducted using six different grass species native to Ohio. Plants were grown in buckets containing topsoil and a layer of field-collected contaminated soil. Buckets were amended with commercial compost, fertilizer, or a combination of both. Replicates were watered every fourth day (frequently) or every sixth day (infrequently). Chlorophyll content were measured monthly for five months during the growing season. After five months, cores were sampled from each treatment and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and PAH concentration of the soil determined. Native Ohio grasses reduced TPH contamination at least 87% with frequent irrigation and 90% with infrequent irrigation from buckets containing both compost and fertilizer. PAHs were dissipated to concentrations below detection limit of 1 ppm except for benzo (123) perylene and indeno (123-cd) pyrene. Results of this study suggest that it may be effective to allow contaminated sites to re-vegetate with native grasses.

Nedunuri KV; Lowell C; Meade W; Vonderheide AP; Shann JR

2010-02-01

90

PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT OF FORAGE GRASS CULTIVARS  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled natural selection is an important component of forage grass breeding programs. The Peter Pitts farm provided a source of festulolium germplasm that had undergone several years of natural selection. Typically, that would be the full extent of any collaboration between a forage producer an...

91

Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

1983-01-01

92

Pelletizing Reed canary grass; Pelletering av roerflen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heavy growth in production of wood pellets in Sweden the last years and the expected increase of demand in the future will raise the need of other raw material sources than wood residues. At the Swedish University of Agricultural sciences (SLU) and the unit of biomass technology and chemistry (BTK) the energy grass, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied for several years. A special method of delayed harvest in springtime the year after the growing season has improved the combustion characteristics of the grass. The delayed harvested grass show lower content of chlorine and potassium compared to grass harvested in summer and this will improve fuel quality. Dry matter of delayed harvested reed canary grass has also reached high (85-88 %) levels by baling in springtime. In this work the upgrading conditions of delayed harvested reed canary grass have been studied. Pelletizers and other equipment for energy pellets industry has mainly been developed for woody materials. Problems with this and other ways of pre treating the raw material have been studied in this project in order to create a better material flow and a more even pelletizing process. The main part of the studies has been carried out at the pilot plan BTC. A test arrangement has been built up with different mills, conveyors and a small scale pelletizer with a nominal capacity of 300 kg/h. This press has a working principal with a fixed cylindrical die and rotating holder for the press roles. A general problem in pelletizing this dry grass material has been the uneven material flow into the die. This was shown by the uneven electrical consumption that was registered and that were compared to electrical consumption by pelletizing of saw dust. Because of the low density und low friction between the milled grass particles transportation of material into the material film between press roles and die seem to be uneven. In order to raise friction and soften the fibres overheated steam was added. In this operation it was found that small particles were absorbing most of the steam. They glued together and formed blocking covers. To avoid this raw material was fractionated and most of the small particles were eliminated. Fraction 1-4 mm seemed to have better characteristics in this respect. In order to examine whether these problems were related to the construction of he pelletizer a comparison trail was carried out in a small industrial scale. The pelletizer in this test was constructed with a rotating die and fixed press rolls shafts. Result from this with fractionated raw material of reed canary grass showed same operating problems as with the pelletizer used in the main project. Best results of the pelletizing trails were obtained after a special pretreatment of the grass raw material. The coarsely milled reed canary grass was passed trough a briquette press and the briquettes were then milled again. This material was fed into the pelletizer and pellets were produced with very even electrical consumption and the press operated in a gentle way. This indicates that raw material from dry delayed harvested reed canary grass needs some pre treatment that is not needed for woody materials. More research work is necessary in this field. Combustion tests were done in a small scale burner.The burner was operating with underfed pellet supply and with a rotating ring on top of the burner cup Three different assortments of RCG with different ash contents were combusted and emissions were registered. The behaviour of ash during and after the combustion was observed. 1. RCG low ash contents. 2.6 %. Produced in Glommerstraesk, Vaesterbotten. 2. RCG medium ash contents 7%. Produced in Aenget,Roebaecksdalen,Vaesterbotten. 3. RCG high ash contents 11%. Produced in Roebaecksdalen Vaesterbotten. The transportation of ash from the burner cup worked well for assortment 2 and 3 with higher ash contents. The assortment with low ash contents formed sintering ash and resulted in stop of ash transportation from the burner cup. Emissions of NO{sub x} were significant higher in flue gases com

Oerberg, Haakan; Kalen, Gunnar; Thyrel, Mikael; Finell, Michael; Andersson, Lars-Olof

2006-07-01

93

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were (more) opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p

Santos, Rerisson José Cipriano dos; Lira, Mário de Andrade; Guim, Adriana; Santos, Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos; Dubeux Junior, José Carlos Batista; Mello, Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de

2013-02-01

94

Grass scorch due to pot ale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grass scorch sometimes occurs when pot ale, a waste product of malt whisky distilling, is used as a liquid fertiliser. Experiments performed on grass turves show that a high concentration of solids in the pot ale, and a large amount of foliage on the sward result in higher amounts of scorch, as determined by visual assessment. Sward yield is independent of the amount of leaf scorch but appears to be linked to the proportion of dead tillers or plants in the sward. It is suggested that leaf scorch itself does not limit yield, but if the scorching compound runs off foliage and acts against roots then tiller or plant death may occur, accompanied by a yield loss. This interpretation may help to explain some conflicting evidence on scorch effects in the literature.

Naylor REL; Shortreed K

1981-12-01

95

Mesquite pod meal in elephant grass silages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of elephant grass silages at different growth stages (70, 90 and 110 days), with the addition (0, 5, 10 and 15%, on a fresh matter basis) of mesquite pod meal. A completely randomized design (CRD) was used in a factorial arrangement with four replications. PVC pipes 100 mm in diameter were used as experimental silos. After 30 days of ensilage, samples were taken from the open silos to determine chemical composition and IVDMD. The inclusion of mesquite pod meal (MPM) increased (p 0.01) was detected between MPM concentrations and elephant grass cutting age for DM, CP and NDF contents in the silages. A decrease (p  

Aníbal Coutinho do Rêgo; Paulo César Aguiar Paiva; Joel Augusto Muniz; Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef; Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto; João Irineu da Mata Junior

2013-01-01

96

PURPLE GUINEA GRASS: PRETREATMENT AND ETHANOL FERMENTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Treatment with dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at 121?C and 103.4 kPa was used to improve the efficiency of the cellulose digestion of purple guinea grass. Cellulase hydrolysis of the dilute H2SO4-pretreated purple guinea grass under optimized conditions (6% (w/v) in 3% (w/v) H2SO4 for 30 min) yielded a slightly higher level of reducing sugars than that from the Ca(OH)2 pretreatment under optimized conditions (6% (w/v) in 4% (w/v) Ca(OH)2 for 5 min). However, the level of glucose released from the Ca(OH)2-pretreated purple guinea grass was slightly higher than that from the dilute H2SO4 pretreatment. Ethanol fermentation, via the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, of the Ca(OH)2-pretreated purple guinea grass and then hydrolyzed with commercial cellulase (9 PFU/g, dry wt.) for 6 h yielded ethanol at 0.44 g/g glucose (0.21 g/g cellulose) within 48 h, while that from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process yielded 14.3% less ethanol at 0.18 g/g cellulose within 96 h (including the 6 h saccharification time). The ethanol yield from the SHF process increased 1.14-fold to 0.497 g/g glucose (0.24 g/g cellulose) when the fermentation was performed in a 5 L fermentor.

Suvapatr Ratsamee,; Ancharida Akaracharanya,; Natchanun Leepipatpiboon; , Teerapatr Srinorakutara,; Vichien Kitpreechavanich,; Vasana Tolieng

2012-01-01

97

Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit) durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit), durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L) ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan). Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d); e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d). Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D) apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B). Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

Antônio Alves de Souza; Gastão Barreto Espíndola

1999-01-01

98

Anatomical characters of stems and leaves of three lawn grasses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stems and blades of lawn grasses, Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin., Paspalum vaginatum Sw. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., were anatomically studied. The structures of grass stems and blades showed close relation to the grass drought and trampling resistances, and elasticity. Among the three grasses, Z. tenuifolia was the best in drought resistance, trampling resistance and elasticity in terms of the epidermis, bulliform cells, bundle sheath, sclerenchyma of leaf, and the fibrous girdle of stem; C. dactylon was better in drought resistance, but poorer in trampling resistance and elasticity; whereas P. vaginatum was the worst in these characters.

Geng Shilei; Zhao Sheng; Wu Hong

2002-01-01

99

Germination of native grasses with potential application in the recovery of degraded areas in Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil/ Germinação de gramíneas nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero com potencial aplicação na recuperação de áreas degradadas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As gramíneas nativas apresentam potencial para revegetação de áreas degradadas, no entanto, devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre sua biologia, dá-se preferência ao uso de espécies exóticas, que podem ser invasoras, afetando assim a biodiversidade local. No intuito de ampliar o conhecimento acerca da propagação via sementes de espécies nativas do Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), e desta forma, indicar possíveis candidatas a aplicação na recuperação de áreas de (more) gradadas da região, este trabalho objetivou avaliar os padrões germinativos das seguintes gramíneas: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.). Chase e Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. As espiguetas (com presença ou não das estruturas que envolviam a cariopse, dependendo da espécie) foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1-controle; T2-umedecimento do substrato com 0,2% de nitrato de potássio, T3-aquecimento a 80 ºC por 2 minutos, T4-escarificação com ácido sulfúrico (exceto gênero Andropogon) e para os gêneros Andropogon e Setaria, T5-armazenamento a temperatura ambiente e T6-armazenamento sob refrigeração. Os tratamentos foram realizados em 4 repetições de 25 cariopses colocadas para germinar a temperatura de 25 ºC e iluminação constante. Variação significativa foi observada quando comparadas as quantidades de germinações ocorridas entre as semanas, entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies. Para o gênero Andropogon o tratamento mais eficiente foi T6, seguido por T2 em A. bicornis e T3 em A. leucostachyus. T6 também foi o tratamento mais eficiente para S. parviflora, seguido por T5 e T2. C. brownii apresentou resultados próximos sob T1, T2 e T3 (média 39%). E. inflexa e A. euprepes apresentaram altos índices de dormência que não foram superadas pelos tratamentos propostos. A. bicornis, A. leucostachyus, S. parviflora e C. brownii apresentaram maiores potenciais de germinação, sendo possíveis candidatas para recuperação de áreas degradas no QF. No entanto, ainda são necessários estudos complementares com os tratamentos mais eficientes e testes de germinação e estabelecimento em condições de campo. Abstract in english Native grasses are potential species to be used in land rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of better knowledge of their performance, preference is given to exotic plants, which may be invasive and negatively affect the local biodiversity. In order to better understand the propagation of native species of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil) using their seeds, and in so doing, indicate possible candidates for land rehabilitation, this study investigate (more) d the germination patterns of the following grasses: Andropogon bicornis L.; Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth; Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen; Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult; Echinolaena inflexa (Poir.) Chase, and Apochloa euprepes (Renvoize) Zuloaga & Morrone. The spikelets (depending on the species, removing or not the structures that surround the caryopsis) were treated as follows: T1-Control, T2-moistening with 0.2% potassium nitrate, T3-heating at 80 ºC for 2 minutes, T4-scarification with sulfuric acid (except genus Andropogon) and, for genera Andropogon and Setaria T5-storage at room temperature and T6- refrigerated storage. The treatment was repeated four times for 25 caryopses incubated at 25 ºC and constant light. Significant variation was observed when comparing germination rates from week to week, treatment to treatment and species to species. The most efficient treatment for genus Andropogon was T6, followed by T2 for A. bicornis and T3 for A. leucostachyus. T6 was also the most effective treatment for S. parviflora, followed by T5 and T2. C. brownii showed similar results when applying T1, T2 and T3 (mean 39%). E. inflexa and A. euprepes showed high levels of dormancy that were not overcome by the proposed treatments.

Figueiredo, Maurílio Assis; Baêta, Hudson Eustáquio; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

2012-09-01

100

INFLUENCE OF SOIL WATER AVAILABILITY ON COMPETITION AMONG LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA) AND GRASSES  

Science.gov (United States)

Some perturbations differentially influence invasive plant and grass production. For example, growth regulator herbicides and biological control agents can dramatically reduce leafy spurge production while having little or no influence on grass production, and overgrazing can reduce grass productio...

 
 
 
 
101

Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet) for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 µg major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhinoconjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment of rhino-conjunctivitis due to grass pollen allergy.Keywords: sublingual immonotherapy, grass pollen allergy, rhinoconjunctivitis, immunotherapy, tablet

Moisés Calderón; Tove Brandt

2008-01-01

102

Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

103

Two-dimensional flow patterns near contour grass hedges  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass hedges are narrow strips of stiff-stemmed vegetation used to control erosion and sediment delivery. When planted on the contour, the hydraulic resistance of the vegetation slows runoff, creates ponding, and promotes sediment deposition. In addition, when tillage is performed between grass he...

104

Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

105

Evaluation of strips of centipede grass for sediment load reduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reddish sediment runoff from agricultural fields results in coastal environmental problems in Okinawa, Japan. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of strips of centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.), a perennial turf grass, in reducing the sediment loads from farmlands. However, sufficient information has not been provided to determine the appropriate strip specifications in the grass strip design. This study evaluated centipede grass strips for reduction of reddish sediment runoff from farmlands in Okinawa, Japan. A numerical model simulating the reddish sediment transport in the grass strip was constructed to determine the sediment removal efficiency of the strip. The model was verified using data obtained from field plot experiments with the grass strips under natural conditions. The sensitivity analysis of the model showed that the length of the grass strip (i.e. the dimension of the strip in the direction of flow) and unit inflow discharge have a great effect on sediment removal efficiency. The sediment removal efficiency obtained from the model simulation increased with the length of the strip and the increment of the efficiency decreased with the length of the strip. Therefore, these results indicate that the effective and efficient length of a centipede grass strip is 3 m for the reduction of reddish sediment loads under typical farmland conditions in Okinawa. PMID:19092213

Shiono, Takahiro; Haraguchi, Noburo; Miyamoto, Kuniaki; Shinogi, Yoshiyuki; Miyamoto, Teruhito; Kameyama, Koji

2008-01-01

106

The effect of annual weather on spring grass phenological development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of the morphological elements of grasses, the stems (vegetative or generative) and leaves (sheath and lamina), the phenological development may show differences between years, species and cultivars. This was the reason why a research programme was conducted with five grass species under f...

Nagy Géza; Pet? Károly; Organizing Committee of 2008 IGC/IRC conference; Nagy Géza (1952-) (agrármérnök)

107

Quinclorac-induced electrolyte leakage in seedling grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mode of action of quinclorac was investigated in broadleaf and grass species. Quinclorac induced characteristic auxin-like symptoms in broadleaf species but not in susceptible grasses. In susceptible grasses, quinclorac caused necrotic bands near the zones of elongation in shoots and roots. Electrolyte leakage was induced by quinclorac in smooth crabgrass and other susceptible grasses but not in tolerant grass or susceptible broadleaf species. In smooth crabgrass, increased electrolyte leakage and reduced fresh weight were rate dependent, and initially specific to young tissues. An inhibitory effect on elongation in the youngest leaf of smooth crabgrass and in primary roots of corn was detected 6 and 3 h after quinclorac treatment, respectively. Electrolyte leakage required more than 12 and 6 h in the leaf and root, respectively. Depolarization of corn root cell membrane potential was not observed in a 6-h treatment period. Results presented here provide additional evidence that quinclorac activity differs between susceptible broadleaf and grass species. In addition, the action of quinclorac appears to be similar in both shoot and root tissues of susceptible grasses. It is proposed that quinclorac-induced electrolyte leakage in susceptible grasses is a secondary response and that the primary mechanism of action involves inhibition of an as yet unknown metabolic process associated with cell expansion.

Koo SJ; Neal JC; Di Tomaso JM

1994-03-01

108

Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

109

Intercropping of four Leucaena cultivars with three grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A table shows the yield of DM in 809 days from each of Leucaena leucocephala varieties K8, Hawaiian common, Peru and Cunningham, interplanted with each of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), Hybrid Napier NB 21 (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Total yield was greatest with the Cunningham/Hybrid Napier combination.

Relwani, L.L.; Nakat, R.V.; Khandale, D.Y.

1982-01-01

110

Bronchiectasis in pediatric patients resulting from aspirated grass inflorescences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A grass inflorescence (flowering head) aspirated by a child is difficult to diagnose, and frequently cannot be retrieved by bronchoscopy. Of four pediatric patients with aspirated grass inflorescences, two had severe hemoptysis and the other two were septic at the time of diagnosis. Their chronic debilitation and bronchiectasis necessitated an eventual pulmonary resection, with full recovery in all four patients.

Dudgeon DL; Parker FB Jr; Frittelli G; Rabuzzi DD

1980-08-01

111

Wave overtopping resistance of grassed dike slopes in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The resistance of various grassed slopes against wave overtopping has been appraised by means of the Wave Overtopping Simulator in situ for a couple of years in Viet Nam. Destructive test results show that a dike slope covered with grass could suffer a certain overtopping discharge not smaller than ...

Trung, L.H.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Luong, N.Q.; Verhagen, H.J.; Schiereck, G.J.

112

Evaluation of strips of centipede grass for sediment load reduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reddish sediment runoff from agricultural fields results in coastal environmental problems in Okinawa, Japan. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of strips of centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.), a perennial turf grass, in reducing the sediment loads from farmlands. However, sufficient information has not been provided to determine the appropriate strip specifications in the grass strip design. This study evaluated centipede grass strips for reduction of reddish sediment runoff from farmlands in Okinawa, Japan. A numerical model simulating the reddish sediment transport in the grass strip was constructed to determine the sediment removal efficiency of the strip. The model was verified using data obtained from field plot experiments with the grass strips under natural conditions. The sensitivity analysis of the model showed that the length of the grass strip (i.e. the dimension of the strip in the direction of flow) and unit inflow discharge have a great effect on sediment removal efficiency. The sediment removal efficiency obtained from the model simulation increased with the length of the strip and the increment of the efficiency decreased with the length of the strip. Therefore, these results indicate that the effective and efficient length of a centipede grass strip is 3 m for the reduction of reddish sediment loads under typical farmland conditions in Okinawa.

Shiono T; Haraguchi N; Miyamoto K; Shinogi Y; Miyamoto T; Kameyama K

2008-01-01

113

Dynamic Simulation of Grass Field Swaying in Wind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grass is an essential element of natural scenes, which plays an important role in various fields of applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movie. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to render and animate grass with interactive frame rates due to the huge number and wide covering range of grass blades. Realistic simulation of dynamic grass field turns to be one of the most challenging topics in computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method for dynamic simulation of grass field swaying in wind. The representation of large-scale grassland relies on three different levels of detail that reduce the rendering cost and still allow high-fidelity rendering of grass close to the viewer. To simulate real-time waggle of grasses, some physically based methods and procedural approaches are put forward according to different levels of detail. Experiments demonstrate that our method not only can realistically render the animated grass scenes in wind, but also can support the variable wind field.

Hang Qiu; Leiting Chen; Jim X Chen; Yugang Liu

2012-01-01

114

Ultrasonographic features of grass awns in the urinary bladder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass awns are a common cause of foreign body disease in animals, but little is known about their presence in the lower urinary tract. The ultrasonographic features of grass awns in vivo and in vitro have been described in detail. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical and sonographic features of grass awns in the urinary bladder of dogs and cats. Three male Yorkshire terriers (one of which was examined twice) and one female domestic short-haired cat were evaluated for signs of lower urinary tract disease, and an intravesicular grass awn was suspected based on ultrasound examination. The grass awn appeared ultrasonographically as a bladder stone (n = 1) or a linear hyperechoic structure (n = 4) with or without acoustic shadowing that was easy to identify due to contrast with surrounding urine. The presence of a grass awn within the urinary bladder was confirmed during exploratory surgery. In all patients, the route of entry of the grass awn was thought to have been retrograde migration from the urethral opening. The ultrasonographic appearance of grass awns in the bladder is consistent with that in other tissues. PMID:20806881

Cherbinsky, Ofer; Westropp, Jodi; Tinga, Selena; Jones, Brian; Pollard, Rachel

115

Ultrasonographic features of grass awns in the urinary bladder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grass awns are a common cause of foreign body disease in animals, but little is known about their presence in the lower urinary tract. The ultrasonographic features of grass awns in vivo and in vitro have been described in detail. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical and sonographic features of grass awns in the urinary bladder of dogs and cats. Three male Yorkshire terriers (one of which was examined twice) and one female domestic short-haired cat were evaluated for signs of lower urinary tract disease, and an intravesicular grass awn was suspected based on ultrasound examination. The grass awn appeared ultrasonographically as a bladder stone (n = 1) or a linear hyperechoic structure (n = 4) with or without acoustic shadowing that was easy to identify due to contrast with surrounding urine. The presence of a grass awn within the urinary bladder was confirmed during exploratory surgery. In all patients, the route of entry of the grass awn was thought to have been retrograde migration from the urethral opening. The ultrasonographic appearance of grass awns in the bladder is consistent with that in other tissues.

Cherbinsky O; Westropp J; Tinga S; Jones B; Pollard R

2010-07-01

116

Harvesting and Storing of Two Perennial Grasses as Biomass Feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

Some perennial grasses, such as reed canarygrass (RCG) and switchgrass (SWG), have prolific yield and low inputs, making them attractive as biomass feedstocks. When harvested as biomass, these grasses are more mature and have much greater yield than when harvested as animal forage. Much is unknow...

117

From pasture grass to cattle milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131I in milk were also presented. (author)

1979-11-29

118

Elephant grass clones for silage production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott). The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05) for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos; Mário de Andrade Lira; Adriana Guim; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos Santos; José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior; Alexandre Carneiro de Leão de Mello

2013-01-01

119

Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results described here are from EU-project `Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder`. The aim of the project was to develop the use of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinaceae) both for pulping industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. Task 4 of the project, Upgraded fuel, aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested reed canary grass (RCG) for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following fuel handling and thermal conversion methods will be tested and studied: pelletizing of RCG fuel fraction, combustion of pelletized RCG, gasification and pulverized combustion of RCG fuel fraction. Reactivity and NO conversion rates of pulverized RCG will also be studied. The project was started in 1995, and it will be finished at the end of 1998 5 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs. Bioenergy Research programme

Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1998-12-01

120

Aluminum toxicity tolerance in elephant grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El logro de los cultivares de forrajeras mejoradas, tolerantes a la toxicidad de aluminio, se considera la mejor alternativa para sortear las dificultades expresadas por extensas áreas de suelos ácidos con altas concentraciones de aluminio, presente en Brasil. Por lo tanto, los objetivos de este estudio fueron: a) evaluar el nivel de aluminio en solución nutritiva y la característica más importante de la discriminación de genotipos de pasto elefante; b) verificar la existencia de variabilidad genética entre algunos accesos de pasto elefante de la Embrapa Ganado ABG lácteos para la tolerancia al aluminio, y c) estudiar la interacción del genotipo con los niveles de aluminio. En invernadero se evaluaron 26 genotipos de pasto elefante y cuatro niveles de aluminio (0, 15, 30 y 45 ppm) en un experimento realizado en un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones en contenedores con una planta. Tomó nota de los datos relativos al peso seco del vástago (SDW), peso seco de raíz (PSR), altura de los brotes (APA) y la longitud de las raíces (CR). Con las medias de los genotipos de aluminio diferentes procedió a un análisis de la adaptabilidad y la estabilidad mediante el metodologías de Eberhart y Russell y Annicchiarico. Se ha encontrado que existe variabilidad entre los genotipos de pasto elefante para la tolerancia a los diferentes niveles de aluminio, teniendo en cuenta las características PSPA, PSR, APA y CR. El nivel de 15 ppm de aluminio se consideró los materiales más adecuados para identificar tolerantes y sensibles a los tóxicos de aluminio. Las características PSPA y APA fueron más adecuados para una nueva evaluación de tolerancia de pasto elefante con el aluminio en solución nutritiva. El genotipo Taiwan121 y Australiano se presentaron adaptable y estable en las dos metodologias utilizados.The use of forages with aluminum tolerance is the best alternative to the wide areas of acid soils with high aluminum concentrations in Brazil. So, the goals of this work were: to evaluate the aluminum level in the nutrient solution and the most important characteristics for elephant grass genotypes discrimination; to verify the existence of genetic variability between accesses of elephant grass of BAG Embrapa Gado de Leite for aluminum tolerance, and; to study the genotypes and aluminum levels interaction. In a greenhouse experiment 26 elephant grass genotypes and four aluminum levels (0, 15, 30 e 45 ppm) were tested, using a randomized design, with three replications and only one plant per vase. Data of dry matter of aerial part (DMAP), root dry matter (RDM) height of aerial part (HAP) and root length (RL) were collected. Using the metodologies of Eberhardt and Russell and Annicchiarico, analysis of adaptability and stability were done using the averages of the genotypes on the different levels of aluminum. There was variability between elephant grass genotypes for tolerance to the different aluminum levels, regarding the characteristics DMAP, RDM, HAP and RL. The level of 15 ppm of aluminum was considered the most appropriated to identify tolerant and sensible genotypes to aluminum toxicity. DMAP and HAP were the characteristics indicated for future evaluations of elephant grass for aluminum tolerance using nutrient solution. Taiwan A 121 and Australiano genotypes presented adaptability and stability in relation to the two employed methodologies.A obtenção de cultivares forrageiras melhoradas, tolerantes ao alumínio tóxico, é considerada a melhor alternativa para contornar as dificuldades expressas pelas extensas áreas de solos ácidos, com elevada concentração de alumínio, presentes no Brasil. Por isso, os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: a) avaliar o nível de alumínio da solução nutritiva e a característica mais importante para a discriminação de genótipos de capim-elefante; b) verificar a existência de variabilidade genética entre alguns acessos de capim-elefante do BAG da Embrapa Gado de Leite para a tolerância ao alumínio e; c) estudar a interação

Carlos Eugênio Martins; Fausto de Souza Sobrinho; Fernando Teixeira Gomes; Wadson Sebastião Duarte da Rocha; Alexandre Magno Brighenti

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

2007-06-01

122

[Association of phytoplasma with Bermuda grass white-leaf disease].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Bermuda grass white leaf is an important disease on Bermuda grass all over the world. The aim of this research is to identify the pathogen which leads to Bermuda grass white leaf occurring on the Chinese mainland. METHODS: PCR amplification technique, sequence analysis and Southern hybridization were used. RESULTS: A 1.3 kb fragment was amplified by PCR phytoplasma universal primers and total DNA sample extracted from ill Bermuda grass as the amplified template. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment indicated it clustered into Candidatus Phytoplasm Cynodontis. Southern hybridization analysis showed differential cingulums. CONCLUSION: The pathogen of Bermuda grass white leaf on the Chinese mainland contains phytoplasma, which provides a scientific basis for further identification, prevention and control of the disease.

Tan W; Chen Y; Zhang W; Han C; Tan Z; Zhang J

2008-10-01

123

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

1998-01-01

124

Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

1998-12-31

125

Front hanging type electromotion grass-mowing machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a front hanging type electromotion grass-mowing machine which belongs to the technical field of garden instruments. The main structure of the invention comprises an electric motor car. The invention is characterized in that the front end of the car frame of the electric motor car is connected and provided with a grass mowing machine, the grass mowing machine comprises a steel frame and a grass mowing disc connected to the lower part of the steel frame, lateral sides of the steel frame are provided with mounting idler wheels, the bottom of the grass mowing disc is provided with three pairs of blades which are arrayed in a structure like the Chinese character 'PIN', the blades are connected to both ends of the fixing plate, and the fixing plate forms a transmission connected with a direct current motor fixed on the grass mowing disc. The front end of the car frame of the electric motor car of the front hanging type electromotion grass-mowing machine is connected and provided with the grass mowing machine, which is convenient for assembly, disassembly, maintenance and operation the bottom of the grass mowing disc is provided with the blades which are arrayed in the structure like the Chinese character 'pin', so that greensward can be trimmed once, the problem that partial grass cannot be cut cannot occur, and efficient and full lawn trimming can be realized moreover, the electric motor car has compact structure and low production cost, and adopts environmental protection lead acid cells as the power supply of the electric motor car, so that the invention cannot pollute environment and has long service life.

BINGMAO YE; YINGJIE SONG

126

Effect of Cutting Heights on Productivity and Quality of King Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King Grass) under Irrigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment to study the effect of cutting heights on yield and nutritive values of King napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass) was conducted on sandy loam, Korat soil series (Oxic Paleustults) under irrigation during June 2006 to November 2007 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Deve...

Sumran Wijitphan; Pornchai Lorwilai; Chutipong Arkaseang

127

Effect of the maturity stage of grass at harvesting on the chemical composition of grass clover silage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine changes in chemical composition and fermentation quality among grass clover silages harvested at different maturity stages. Grass clover silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) that was a dominant grass in the sward: late vegetative (GS1), internode elongation (GS2) i and flowering (GS3). Classical chemical analysis methods were used to analyse 16 samples of each of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM) content of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 396, 408 and 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP) content was 120, 98 and 90 g kg-1 DM respectively. While comparing GS3 and GS1, delaying the term of grass harvesting significantly increased DM content (P<0.001), organic matter, (P<0.001), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (P<0.05) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) (P<0.001). Early cut silage had significantly higher content of CP (P<0.001) in comparison with medium and late cut grass silage. It was concluded that maturity stage of grass clover at harvesting has significant influence on silage chemical composition. If the aim of production is higher quality grass silage, grass has to be cut at the earlier maturity stage.

Mladen Kneževi?; Marina Vrani?; Goran Per?ulija; Ivana Mati?; Marija Teskera

2009-01-01

128

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

Davies Janet; Li Hongzhuo; Green Melissa; Towers Michelle; Upham John

2012-01-01

129

Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine.

Moingeon P; Hrabina M; Bergmann KC; Jaeger S; Frati F; Bordas V; Peltre G

2008-01-01

130

Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine. PMID:18362477

Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

2008-03-21

131

Summer dormancy in perennial temperate grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait. SCOPE: Under severe drought, it is difficult to separate the responses by which plants avoid and tolerate dehydration from those associated with the expression of summer dormancy. Consequently, this type of endogenous (endo-) dormancy can be tested only in plants that are not subjected to moisture deficit. Summer dormancy can be defined by four criteria, one of which is considered optional: (1) reduction or cessation of leaf production and expansion; (2) senescence of mature foliage; (3) dehydration of surviving organs; and (4, optional) formation of resting organs. The proposed terminology recognizes two levels of summer dormancy: (a) complete dormancy, when cessation of growth is associated with full senescence of foliage and induced dehydration of leaf bases; and (b) incomplete dormancy, when leaf growth is partially inhibited and is associated with moderate levels of foliage senescence. Summer dormancy is expressed under increasing photoperiod and temperature. It is under hormonal control and usually associated with flowering and a reduction in metabolic activity in meristematic tissues. Dehydration tolerance and dormancy are independent phenomena and differ from the adaptations of resurrection plants. CONCLUSIONS: Summer dormancy has been correlated with superior survival after severe and repeated summer drought in a large range of perennial grasses. In the face of increasing aridity, this trait could be used in the development of cultivars that are able to meet agronomic and environmental goals. It is therefore important to have a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of summer dormancy.

Volaire F; Norton M

2006-11-01

132

Potential of barnyard grass to remediate arsenic-contaminated soil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigated the arsenic (As) remediation potential of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L. Beauv. var. formosensis Ohwi), with a special focus on the behavior of As in the soil in comparison with rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare). For both plants, very little growth inhibition was observed in the As-contaminated soil. The amount of As in the soil was reduced by the plant's uptake and the level of As in the soil water from the rice-growing pots was remarkably lower than that in the plant-free soil water. In the soil with the barnyard grass, the amount of As in the soil water was higher than that in the plant-free soil water, but the amount of As in the soil and the amount of As that was adsorbed on the soil solid were reduced by the plant's uptake. At the highest As level in the soil (100 mg kg?¹), 249.60 and 101.26 µg As pot?¹ were taken up by the rice shoot and barnyard grass shoot, respectively, and total amounts of 1468.65 and 1060.57 µg As pot?¹ were taken up by the barnyard grass and rice seedlings, respectively. At the same As level in the soil, the As concentrations were 14.99 and 37.76 µg g?¹ in the shoot of barnyard grass and rice, respectively, and 486.61 and 339.32 µg g?¹ in the root of barnyard grass and rice, respectively. Barnyard grass took up more As than rice, but the As concentration in the shoot of barnyard grass was lower than that in the shoot of rice. A considerable amount of As was taken up by both barnyard grass and rice, suggesting that the plant species have the potential to remediate As-contaminated soil.

SULTANA R; KOBAYASHI K

2011-03-01

133

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

Semere, T.; Slater, F.

2005-07-01

134

The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

2005-01-01

135

Localization and chemical speciation of Pb in roots of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lead (Pb) contamination of soils is of global importance but little is known regarding Pb uptake, localization, or the chemical forms in which Pb is found within plants, or indeed how some plants tolerate elevated Pb in the environment. Two grasses, signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf) (Pb-resistant) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth)(Pb-sensitive), were grown for 14 d in dilute nutrient solutions before examination of roots using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the distribution and speciation of Pb in situ. In both grasses, Pb was initially present primarily in the cytoplasm of rhizodermal and cortical cells before being sequestered within vacuoles as the highly insoluble (and presumably nontoxic) chloropyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl). In signal grass, Pb also accumulated within membranous structures (perhaps the Golgi apparatus), prior to apoplastic sequestration as chloropyromorphite. These findings suggest that the ability of signal grass to sequester insoluble Pb in the cell wall represents an additional and potentially important mechanism of Pb tolerance not possessed by the Pb-sensitive Rhodes grass.

Kopittke PM; Asher CJ; Blamey FP; Auchterlonie GJ; Guo YN; Menzies NW

2008-06-01

136

Performance of pennisetum grass species in spring and monsoon season under rainfed condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A long term field experiment was conducted to select the best suitable Pennihsetum grass species under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad; during 2004-2007. The maximum fresh and dry biomass was obtained from Pennisetum purpureum (Mott grass) followed by Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Pennisetum orientale (Minara grass) during spring season. Similar trend was also noted in the monsoon season. However the fresh and dry matters were higher in monsoon season due to prolonged growth-period and more rainfall. Moisture contents percentage was also higher in monsoon season, as compared with spring season. Crude protein percentage in spring season was higher in Elephant grass (4.70) than other Penniestum species, but in monsoon it was much higher (7.19) in Elephant grass, followed by Molt grass (6.44). Total digestible nutrients were greater in case of Mott grass and Minara grass during monsoon, but were lower in case of Elephant grass. (author)

137

Grass ejector for lawnmowers comprises right-angled tube with adjustable end to control grass flow, allowing grass cuttings to be ejected to one side of mower, ejector being made from galvanized round or flat bar  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The grass ejector for lawnmowers comprises a right-angled tube (3) with an adjustable end (4) to control the grass flow. This allows grass cuttings to be ejected to one side of the mower. The ejector is made from galvanized round or flat bar.

138

Peptides for use in treating allergy to grass pollen  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to compositions comprising peptides for preventing or treating allergy to grass pollen by tolerisation, and in particular to optimal combinations of peptides for preventing or treating said allergy. The composition comprises at least one peptide derived from an allergen from timothy grass, at least one peptide derived from an allergen from bermuda grass, and at least one peptide derived from an allergen from rye grass. The peptides should also be derived from at least one group l allergen, such as Cyn D1, and at least one group V allergen, such as Lol p5 or Phl p5. Pharmaceutical compositions and methods for determining T cell response to the allergens are also disclosed.

HAFNER ROD; LAIDLER PAUL; LAYTON GUY; LARCHE MARK

139

Vetiver Grass: The Hedge against Erosion (Third Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Sheet erosion; Rainfed farming; Vegetative contour hedges; Establishing vetiver hedges; Moisture conservation; Why vetiver grass is the ideal plant for the vegetative system of soil and moisture conservation; Other practical uses for vetiver gra...

1990-01-01

140

Vetiver Grass: A Thin Green Line against Erosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vetiver, a deeply rooting, persistent tropical grass, has for decades controlled erosion at sites in Fiji, India, and the Caribbean. The report, based on a literature review, personal contacts, site visits, and correspondence with experts in agronomy, for...

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.

2010-02-01

142

Grass pollen, aeroallergens, and clinical symptoms in Ciudad Real, Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In allergic individuals, onset of symptoms is related to atmospheric pollen grain counts and aeroallergen concentrations. However, this relationship is not always clear. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the correlation between grass pollen grain and aeroallergen concentrations in Ciudad Real, Spain, during the year 2004 and establish their association with symptoms in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis, or both. METHODS: Two different samplers were used to assess allergen exposure: a Burkard spore trap to collect pollen grains and a high-volume air sampler to collect airborne particles. Individual filters were extracted daily in phosphate-buffered serum and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on serum containing high titers of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E to grasses. The study population comprised 27 grass-allergic patients whose symptoms and medication were recorded daily. RESULTS: Grass pollens were detected between April 28 and July 18. There was a positive correlation between pollen grain counts and symptoms (r = 0.62; P > .001). Grass aeroallergens were detected not only during the grass pollination period, but also before and after this period. There was also a very significant correlation between aeroallergen levels and symptoms (r = 0.76; P < .0001). The threshold level for grass pollen was 35 grains/m3. CONCLUSIONS: Grass-related allergenic activity is present throughout the year, demonstrating the existence of aeroallergens outside the pollen season. Symptoms in allergic patients may be related to airborne particle concentrations. This fact should be taken into account in the clinical follow-up and management of allergic patients.

Feo Brito F; Mur Gimeno P; Carnés J; Fernández-Caldas E; Lara P; Alonso AM; García R; Guerra F

2010-01-01

143

The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

2012-10-14

144

Warm season grass establishment on limestone-amended coal slurry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct seeding of limestone amended areas can be an effective alternative to soil covering. Both wetland and upland plant communities have been established on post law (PL 95-87) slurry areas by the Wildlife Research Laboratory of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Terrestrial habitat reclamation has emphasized both cool and warm season grass species, using a 3-year program of limestone amendment (40-50 tons/acre/year) and cover crop (years 1 and 2) and perennial grass (year 3) establishment. Warm season grasses have been included in Midwest slurry reclamation projects since 1984. Vegetation monitoring of three Midwest sites (Illinois and Kentucky), ranging in age from 3 to 12 years since planting, identified current ground cover in excess of 100 percent. Warm season grasses accounted for 48 to 73 percent of the ground cover. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the dominant warm season species at all sites, with vegetative cover values ranging from 48 to more than 56 percent. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) accounted for 12 to 16 percent of the ground cover at the two Kentucky sites 3 years after establishment. Vegetative density for all species (forbs and grasses) ranged from 539 to 622 stems/m{sup 2} while above ground biomass values ranged from 404 to over 900 gm/m{sup 2}. Warm season grass establishment practices on these direct seeded slurry areas have been successful in providing excellent ground cover and diverse upland wildlife habitat.

Nawrot, J.R.; Skeel, V.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gray, B. [Peabody Coal Company, Graham, KY (United States); Newton, R.

1997-12-31

145

Thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The research is concerned with thermochemical characterisation of straws and high yielding perennial grasses. Crops selected for this study include wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), rape straw (Brassica napus), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) and switch grass (Panicum virgatum). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the distribution of char and volatiles during pyrolysis up to 900°C. Utilising multi-heating rate thermogravimetric data, the Friedman iso-conversional kinetic method was used to determine pyrolysis kinetic parameters. Light and medium volatile decomposition products were investigated using pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py–GC–MS) up to 520°C. The 22 highest yielding identifiable cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biomass markers were semi-quantified taking into consideration peak areas from GC chromatograms. Notable differences can be seen in butanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (hemicelluloses decomposition products), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (lignin marker) and levoglucosan (intermediate pyrolytic decomposition product of cellulose) content when comparing perennial grasses with straw. From results presented in this study, perennial grasses such as switch grass, have the most attractive properties for fast pyrolysis processing. This is because of the observed high volatile yield content of 82.23%, heating value of 19.64MJ/kg and the relatively low inorganic content.

Greenhalf CE; Nowakowski DJ; Bridgwater AV; Titiloye J; Yates N; Riche A; Shield I

2012-03-01

146

Repeated evolution of salt-tolerance in grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amount of salt-affected agricultural land is increasing globally, so new crop varieties are needed that can grow in salt-affected soils. Despite concerted effort to develop salt-tolerant cereal crops, few commercially viable salt-tolerant crops have been released. This is puzzling, given the number of naturally salt-tolerant grass species. To better understand why salt-tolerance occurs naturally but is difficult to breed into crop species, we take a novel, biodiversity-based approach to its study, examining the evolutionary lability of salt-tolerance across the grass family. We analyse the phylogenetic distribution of naturally salt-tolerant species on a phylogeny of 2684 grasses, and find that salt-tolerance has evolved over 70 times, in a wide range of grass lineages. These results are confirmed by repeating the analysis at genus level on a phylogeny of over 800 grass genera. While salt-tolerance evolves surprisingly often, we find that its evolution does not often give rise to a large clade of salt-tolerant species. These results suggest that salt-tolerance is an evolutionarily labile trait in grasses.

Bennett TH; Flowers TJ; Bromham L

2013-01-01

147

Comparison of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants is a phytoremediation process that depends on interactions among plants, microbes, and soils. Trees and grasses are commonly used for phytoremediation, with trees typically being chosen for remediation of BTEX while grasses are more commonly used for remediation of PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of hydrocarbons and address the advantages of each vegetation type. Grasses were more heavily represented in the literature and therefore demonstrated a wider range of effectiveness. However, the greater biomass and depth of tree roots may have greater potential for promoting environmental conditions that can improve rhizoremediation, such as increased metabolizable organic carbon, oxygen, and water. Overall, we found little difference between grasses and trees with respect to average reduction of hydrocarbons for studies that compared planted treatments with a control. Additional detailed investigations into plant attributes that most influence hydrocarbon degradation rates should provide data needed to determine the potential for rhizoremediation with trees or grasses for a given site and identify which plant characteristics are most important. PMID:23819280

Cook, Rachel L; Hesterberg, Dean

2013-01-01

148

Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

149

Comparison of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants is a phytoremediation process that depends on interactions among plants, microbes, and soils. Trees and grasses are commonly used for phytoremediation, with trees typically being chosen for remediation of BTEX while grasses are more commonly used for remediation of PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of hydrocarbons and address the advantages of each vegetation type. Grasses were more heavily represented in the literature and therefore demonstrated a wider range of effectiveness. However, the greater biomass and depth of tree roots may have greater potential for promoting environmental conditions that can improve rhizoremediation, such as increased metabolizable organic carbon, oxygen, and water. Overall, we found little difference between grasses and trees with respect to average reduction of hydrocarbons for studies that compared planted treatments with a control. Additional detailed investigations into plant attributes that most influence hydrocarbon degradation rates should provide data needed to determine the potential for rhizoremediation with trees or grasses for a given site and identify which plant characteristics are most important.

Cook RL; Hesterberg D

2013-01-01

150

MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS OF SOME GRASSES FROM THE SALT RANGE, PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three potential salt tolerant forage grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Sporobolus arabicus) were collected from the salt affected habitats in the Salt Range, Pakistan. Ecotypes of all the three grasses were also collected from normal non-saline habitats within the Faisalabad region. Mechanism of adaptation to saline environments is very specific, which is not only for grass species but also for ecotypes. Ecotypes of all three grasses from Faisalabad showed stunted growth under salt stress, perhaps to save energy for normal developmental and other metabolic processes. Salt tolerant ecotypes from the Salt Range had better growth and survival under saline conditions and had less reduction in shoot growth at the highest salt level as compared to those collected from non-saline habitats. Leaf area of tolerant genotypes was less affected by salinity than salt sensitive genotypes. Increased root growth as observed in C. dactylon and S. arabicus, can be attributed to better salt tolerance in the populations from the Salt Range. The ecotypes of all three grasses, C. dactylon, I. cylindrica and S. arabicus from the Salt Range performed better under high salinities than their counterparts from the Faisalabad region. On the basis of various morphological characteristics and growth attributes, the ecotype of S. arabicus from the Salt Range has been categorized the most tolerant among all the grasses and ecotypes. It was followed by the ecotypes of C. dactylon and I. cylindrica from the Salt Range.

MANSOOR HAMEED; NARGIS NAZ; MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD; ISLAM-UD-DIN; ATIF RIAZ

2008-01-01

151

Nitrogen cycle in pure grass and grass/legume pastures. Evaluation of pasture sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To evaluate the impact on pasture sustainability of the introduction of a forage legume (Desmodium ovalifolium) into a Brachiaria humidicola pasture, studies of the contribution of legume N2 fixation, litter recycling, the plant material on offer and the animal live weight gain were made on grazed pure grass and mixed pastures at three different grazing pressures at the CEPLAC field station at Itabela in the Atlantic forest region of souther Bahia. The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to D. ovalifolium was estimated to be approximately 50% of plant N in a satellite experiment using the 15N isotope dilution technique. Evaluation of the plant material on offer showed that the proportion of legume in the mixed swards ranged between 39% (at the lowest stocking rate of two animals/ha) and 16 and 2% (three and four animals/ha, respectively). The total contribution of BNF was calculated at 74, 28 and 3 kg N·ha·a-1 for the three stocking rates, respectively. Litter deposition varied little between the different treatments, but the N content of the litter was considerably higher in the mixed sward and was considerably lower at the highest stocking rate in both pastures. Analysis of the 13C isotopic abundance of the soil organic matter showed that 5 years after establishment of the pure B. humidicola pasture, approximately 27% of the soil carbon was derived from grass at a depth of 0-5 cm; a slightly lower proportion (20%) was derived from grass at 5-15 cm. Analysis of the 13C abundance of cattle faeces indicated that the proportion of legume consumed by cattle in the mixed sward was between 10 and 37%. The data indicate that selection of an appropriate grazing pressure can greatly influence recycling. Therefore, presumably pasture sustainability and the introduction of a legume in the pasture are beneficial to both animal production and pasture sustainability. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

1995-01-01

152

Morphophysiological characterization of giant missionary grass accessions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius) was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matt (more) er production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405) to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405), and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405), G2 (V 14406) and G3 (V 14337, V 14404). Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.

Lajús, Cristiano Reschke; Scheffer-Basso, Simone Meredith; Miranda, Mario; Denardin, Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro

2011-11-01

153

ENGINEERED TALL GRASS BIOMASS BALING SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biomass baler having a baling chamber adapted to receive tall grass biomass material, a compression system adapted to compact the material into a rectangular bale in the chamber, and an ejection system adapted to move the bale from the chamber, wherein the baling chamber has a front wall consisting of a reciprocating compression platen corresponding in dimensions to the width W and height H of the bale, opposing upper and lower walls corresponding in dimensions to the length L and either of the W and H of the bale, and opposing sidewalls corresponding in dimensions to the L and the other of the W and H of the bale, wherein each chamber wall selected from among the upper wall, the lower wall, and the sidewalls can withstand a minimum distributed force perpendicular to the selected wall of at least (0.22PpAw) pounds, wherein Pp is the maximum pressure that the compression platen can apply to the material and Aw is the area of the selected wall expressed in square inches.

LANNING DAVID N; DOOLEY JAMES H; LANNING CHRISTOPHER J; FRIDLEY JAMES L

154

Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results described in this paper are from a large EU-project `Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder`. The aim of the project was to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (RCG, Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp and paper production and for energy. The main contractor of the project was Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators were United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland. In addition, there were partners from several countries participating in the project. Task 4 of the project, Upgraded Fuel, aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following fuel handling and thermal conversion methods were tested and studied: pelletising of RCG`s fuel fraction, combustion of pelletised RCG, gasification and pulverised combustion of RCG`s fuel fraction. Reactivity and NO conversion rates of pulverised RCG were also studied. The project was started 1995 and was finished at the end of the year 1998

Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1998-12-31

155

Development of reed canary grass fuel chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cultivation area of reed canary grass (RCG) has rapidly increased during last years. In 2008 the total area is estimated to be almost 21,000 ha. Due to experience from RCG there are deficiencies on the harvesting, delivery and use chain, which limit the use of RCG in technical and economical sense. The aim of the project was to improve the competitiveness of RCG as a solid fuel. The targets of development have been harvesting, long-distance transport, crushing and mixing, experiences from use on power plants, combustion, improve the use by pneumatic conveying and cost calculations of production supply chains as well as development of business concepts. Harvesting losses can be reduced by using right and correctly adjusted machines for mowing. The costs of long-distance transport can be lowered by increasing bale densities, if baler adjustments and driving style is correct, using square bales and making transports with largest available trucks. For power plants using sufficient large quantities of RCG, it may be reasonable to build a separate feeding line, which also removes the present fuel handling problems. One aim of the future is to develop the power plant technology, which enables the bale transports directly to the plant. According to combustion tests the use of RCG does not increase fouling and high-temperature corrosion of a boiler, if share is low, 1-2%. Also the properties of ash did not changed when burning RCG. (orig.)

Paappanen, T.; Lindh, T.; Kaerki, J.; Impola, R.; Taipale, R.; Leino, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Rinne, S. (YTY-Konsultointi, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), email: samuli.rinne@suomi24.fi; Loetjoenen, T. (AgriFood Research Finland, MTT, Jokioinen (Finland)), email: timo.lotjonen@mtt.fi; Kirkkari, A.-M. (Work Efficiency Institute, TTS, Rajamaeki (Finland)), email: anna-maija.kirkkari@tts.fi

2009-07-01

156

EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume at saline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in this research was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged in randomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grass monoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grass monoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch; M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed by Duncans Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grass-legume with 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

F. Kusmiyat; Sumarsono; Karno; E. Pangestu

2013-01-01

157

Effect of Morphological Traits on Intake Characteristics of Four Grass Species Found in Temperate Biodiverse Pasture Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Four grass species (meadow fescue (MF), Festuca pratensis; orchard grass (ORG), Dactylis glomerata, L.; quack grass (QG), Agropyron repens; and reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea) were sown in micro-sward boxes (79 cm x 47 cm x 11.5 cm) to investigate intake characteristics of four grass ...

158

Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods) were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

Kroumov Victor

2009-01-01

159

Episodic evolution and adaptation of chloroplast genomes in ancestral grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the chloroplast genomes of the grass family, Poaceae, have undergone an elevated evolutionary rate compared to most other angiosperms, yet the details of this phenomenon have remained obscure. To know how the rate change occurred during evolution, estimation of the time-scale with reliable calibrations is needed. The recent finding of 65 Ma grass phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites places the diversification of the grasses to the Cretaceous period, and provides a reliable calibration in studying the tempo and mode of grass chloroplast evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using chloroplast genome data from angiosperms and by taking account of new paleontological evidence, we now show that episodic rate acceleration both in terms of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions occurred in the common ancestral branch of the core Poaceae (a group formed by rice, wheat, maize, and their allies) accompanied by adaptive evolution in several chloroplast proteins, while the rate reverted to the slow rate typical of most monocot species in the terminal branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding of episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses accompanied by adaptive molecular evolution has a profound bearing on the evolution of grasses, which form a highly successful group of plants. The widely used model for estimating divergence times was based on the assumption of correlated rates between ancestral and descendant lineages. However, the assumption is proved to be inadequate in approximating the episodic rate acceleration in the ancestral grasses, and the assumption of independent rates is more appropriate. This finding has implications for studies of molecular evolutionary rates and time-scale of evolution in other groups of organisms.

Zhong B; Yonezawa T; Zhong Y; Hasegawa M

2009-01-01

160

Belowground carbon cycle of Napier and Guinea grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil carbon (C) sequestration may partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), in particular, are perennial C4 grasses with high capacity to produce large amounts of both aboveground and belowground biomass. Thus, they have a potential to sequester soil C while simultaneously provide aboveground biomass for energy production. In this study, both grasses were ratooned (no-till) to leave belowground biomass intact and facilitate C accumulation through improvement of soil aggregation. The primary objective of the study was to determine if and how these grasses sequester soil C. For 8 selected grass varieties, we: (1) determined the quantity and quality of belowground C input, (2) quantified changes in soil organic C (SOC) during two harvesting cycles (May 2010 to July 2011), and (3) fractionated soil C pools to determine where changes in SOC occurred. Soil-surface CO2 efflux and root biomass were used as measures of the quantity of belowground C input. Root lignin/N ratios and decay constants from litterbag studies were used as measures of the belowground C input quality. We hypothesized that grass varieties with higher quantity and lower quality of belowground C input would sequester more soil C. Root biomass collected on May 2010 ranged from 13 to 302 g m-2 at 15 cm depth, where Local (Napier) and OG05 (Guinea) varieties were significantly greater than the K06 variety (Guinea). However, cumulative soil-surface CO2 efflux showed no significant differences between the three varieties. Root Lignin/N ranged from 16 to 55 and Guinea varieties were significantly higher on average than Napier varieties. Root decay constants were variable among varieties, with OG05 and K06 showing higher resistance to decay compared to Local. Soil C sequestration potentials and factors affecting the process are imperative to determine suitable variety for bioenergy production.

Sumiyoshi, Y.; Crow, S. E.; Litton, C. M.; Deenik, J. L.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Phylogenetic analyses reveal the shady history of C4 grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasslands cover more than 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, and their rise to dominance is one of the most dramatic events of biome evolution in Earth history. Grasses possess two main photosynthetic pathways: the C3 pathway that is typical of most plants and a specialized C4 pathway that minimizes photorespiration and thus increases photosynthetic performance in high-temperature and/or low-CO2 environments. C4 grasses dominate tropical and subtropical grasslands and savannas, and C3 grasses dominate the world's cooler temperate grassland regions. This striking pattern has been attributed to C4 physiology, with the implication that the evolution of the pathway enabled C4 grasses to persist in warmer climates than their C3 relatives. We combined geospatial and molecular sequence data from two public archives to produce a 1,230-taxon phylogeny of the grasses with accompanying climate data for all species, extracted from more than 1.1 million herbarium specimens. Here we show that grasses are ancestrally a warm-adapted clade and that C4 evolution was not correlated with shifts between temperate and tropical biomes. Instead, 18 of 20 inferred C4 origins were correlated with marked reductions in mean annual precipitation. These changes are consistent with a shift out of tropical forest environments and into tropical woodland/savanna systems. We conclude that C4 evolution in grasses coincided largely with migration out of the understory and into open-canopy environments. Furthermore, we argue that the evolution of cold tolerance in certain C3 lineages is an overlooked innovation that has profoundly influenced the patterning of grassland communities across the globe.

Edwards, Erika J.; Smith, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

162

Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

Heiskanen, V.P.

1995-12-31

163

Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally-averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season in Aarhus - a twin peak profile in the early season, a single evening profile in the mid-season, and a single midday peak in the late season. Whilst this variation could not be explained by meteorological factors, no inconsistencies were found with the theory that the variation was driven by a succession of different grass species with different diurnal flowering patterns dominating atmospheric pollen loads as the season progressed. The potential for exposure was found to be significantly greater during the late season period than during either the early or mid season periods.

Peel, R. G.; Ørby, P. V.; Skjøth, C. A.; Kennedy, R.; Schlünssen, V.; Smith, M.; Sommer, J.; Hertel, O.

2013-09-01

164

Cropping systems control winter annual grass weeds in winter wheat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host), and volunteer cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) are winter annual grass weeds that are increasingly troublesome in the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Thell.)-fallow rotation areas of the western USA. Six dryland cropping systems--continuous no-till winter wheat, winter wheat-fallow with fall tillage, winter wheat-fallow with fall applied herbicide, winter wheat-fallow-fallow, winter wheat-sunflower-fallow, and winter wheat-proso millet-fallow--were compared for their effect on winter annual grass densities in winter wheat. Winter annual grass densities averaged 145, 4.4, and 0.4 plants/sq yard for the 1-, 2-, and 3-yr systems, respectively. Eradication of the winter annual grasses was not achieved with any of the systems. Dockage and foreign material levels in wheat grain were lower in 3-yr than in 2-yr cropping systems. Jointed goatgrass was the most persistent annual grass investigated.

Lyon DJ; Baltensperger DD

1995-12-01

165

GRASSIUS: A Platform for Comparative Regulatory Genomics across the Grasses1[W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in gene regulatory networks and interactions between TFs and their target genes furnish spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression. Establishing the architecture of regulatory networks requires gathering information on TFs, their targets in the genome, and the corresponding binding sites. We have developed GRASSIUS (Grass Regulatory Information Services) as a knowledge-based Web resource that integrates information on TFs and gene promoters across the grasses. In its initial implementation, GRASSIUS consists of two separate, yet linked, databases. GrassTFDB holds information on TFs from maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), and rice (Oryza sativa). TFs are classified into families and phylogenetic relationships begin to uncover orthologous relationships among the participating species. This database also provides a centralized clearinghouse for TF synonyms in the grasses. GrassTFDB is linked to the grass TFome collection, which provides clones in recombination-based vectors corresponding to full-length open reading frames for a growing number of grass TFs. GrassPROMDB contains promoter and cis-regulatory element information for those grass species and genes for which enough data are available. The integration of GrassTFDB and GrassPROMDB will be accomplished through GrassRegNet as a first step in representing the architecture of grass regulatory networks. GRASSIUS can be accessed from www.grassius.org.

Yilmaz, Alper; Nishiyama, Milton Y.; Fuentes, Bernardo Garcia; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Janies, Daniel; Gray, John; Grotewold, Erich

2009-01-01

166

UASB treatment of liquid residues from grass bioraffination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioenergie Schaffhausen AG built the first full scale biorefinery in Switzerland in 2001 to convert low cost biomass into a range of high quality products. The biorefinery represents a complex system of ecological technologies for the use of renewable raw materials and natural compounds such as biomass waste derived from cultivation of pasture grasses and green crops. The biorefinery processes 5,000 tons dm of grass per year to produce 500 kWh/t of bioenergy from a upward flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The performance of the anaerobic digester's performance was monitored during its initial 12 months of operation. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances were set up and the granular upward flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was characterized. It was shown that refinery residues from both grass and vegetable oil refining show good anaerobic degradability and are considered to be valuable substrates for methane production. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

Baier, U.; Delavy, P. [Applied Sciences Univ., Gruental, Waedenswil (Switzerland). Dept. of Biotechnology

2004-07-01

167

The effect of vegetation area size on grass seed yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper surveys sowing norms (row spacing and seed rate) in both our country and the world, as well as the optimal seed rates in grass seed production. It gives a short overview of row spacings and seed rates applied in our and some other countries. Earlier, grass cultivated for the purpose of seed production was grown on small vegetation area. According to some researches, high seed yields can be achieved by cultivating grass on large vegetation area. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the highest cocksfoot, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 50 cm spaced rows employing lower seed rates (8 and 4 kg/ha of seeds). The highest Italian ryegrass and perennial ryegrass seed yield was achieved with plants grown in 20 cm spaced rows employing 20 kg/ha of seeds.

Vu?kovi? Savo; Simi? Aleksandar; ?upina Branko; Stojanovi? Ivana 1; Stanisavljevi? R.

2003-01-01

168

Novel cordyceps sinensis and method of artificial worm grass cultivation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a bacterial strain which is separated from the worm grass collected in the Daqinggou scenic spot of the part of Changbai mountain, and the host is the bacterial strain of the oak silkworm pupa of antherea pernyi guerin-meneville. The invention also invents the method of worm grass cultivation on artificial medium. The invention has the advantages that a novel strain of cordyceps sinensis is separated out, and the novel strain is used for the cultivating method of artificially cultivating the fruit body and using the oak silkworm pupa as the host. The cultivating method is simple, the cultivating condition can be easily controlled, and the industrialized cultivation can be carried out. The invention provides a novel artificial-cultivated worm grass resource.

XIAOLU JIANG; RONG LI

169

FEEDING VALUE OF GRASS SILAGES BASED ON DRY MATTER CONCENTRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total of 477 grass silage samples of different origin and quality were analysed by NIR spectroscopy to determine crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), digestible organic matter (OM) in the dry matter (DM) (D-value), metabolizable energy (ME), pH value and the ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N). According to DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample), the samples were divided into 8 classes: (1)> 228; (2) 229 313; (3) 314-398;(4) 399-483; (5) 484-568; (6) 569-653; (7i) 654-738;(8) 0.005) in NDF and pH value. It was concluded that increased DM concentration in silage samples was not a result of –grass wilting before ensiling but of advanced grass maturity at harvest.

Marina Vrani?; Mladen Kneževi?; Krešimir Bošnjak; Goran Per?ulija; Josip Leto; Hrvoje Kutnjak; Maja Lujanac

2010-01-01

170

Hybridization of tropical grasses for fuel and alcohol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In view of the increasing interest being directed toward the tropical grasses as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico, a review is presented of our initial exploration of the genetic potential for biomass in the tropical grasses, with special reference to the genus Saccharum. The potential parental material, combinations, and the preliminary evaluation of performance for F/sub 1/ progenies for biomass production rather than sugar are discussed. On the basis of available information it is believed that there are extensive opportunities for the plant breeder to develop new biomass resources within Saccharum and the allied tropical grasses. These can be developed through breeding and selection specifically for the attributes of high yield for total dry matter and fermentable solids.

Chu, T.

1980-01-01

171

Cosmogenic Be-7 in grass of Maamora site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Be-7 is one of the radionuclides produced by the nuclear reactions of protons and alpha particulates of galactic and solar cosmic rays as well as the secondary neutrons produced during those reactions. it is submitted, as soon as it is produced, to the physical and chemical laws of the environment, such as air motions or the fixing to the atmospheric aerosols. In the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring programme of Maamora site (Morocco), samples of grass were collected, prepared and analyzed using gamma spectrometry. The preparation consists of drying and ashing the grass. The detector used is coaxial Ge HP with 20% efficiency. Samples were counted for more than 50000 s. The activity of Be-7 calculated for samples collected in 10 km around Maamora site varies between 4 and 20 Bq/g of ashed grass. 3 refs. (author)

1994-01-01

172

Prediction of body weight from body measurements in grass cutters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to predict the body weight of grass cutters from linear body measurements, the weights and measurements of 50 intensively managed female grass cutters aged 5 months were fitted into linear, quadratic and cubic regression models. Highly significant (p < 0.01) R (2) values ranging from 74 to 98% were obtained indicating that all body measurements were good predictors of body weight. Although quadratic and cubic models gave slightly higher R (2) values than linear models, it is recommended that farmers should use a simple linear equation based on tail length or heart girth to predict the body weight of their grass cutters. The recommended equations are (weight in kg) = 0.47 + 0.08 (tail length in cm) and (weight in kg) = 0.32 + 0.07 (heart girth in cm).

Udeh I; Okonta BC

2013-08-01

173

MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I), containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I) after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I). Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I). During acute phase, after 48 hours, these histopathological lesions were absent in all the groups in all the organs. But after 96 hours, these respective lesions in respective organs were usually of mild, moderate and severe nature in groups B, C and D, respectively. It was concluded that mercury intoxication not only resulted in marked histopathological changes and abnormal clinical signs but also depressed growth rate of fish.

M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

2004-01-01

174

78 FR 32013 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the effects of the nonnative grass Pennisetum setaceum (Cenchrus setaceus; fountain...Takeuchi (1991, pp. 4, 6) nonnative Pennisetum sp. increased the number of fires...of standing dead leaves (e.g., Pennisetum setaceum, Blechnum...

2013-05-28

175

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DITHIOCARBAMATE TOXICITY TO THE GRASS SHRIMP, 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO'  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate formulations caused a dose...

176

Grass holding box for a lawnmower and packaging assembly  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The box has an engine and a housing (9) that is provided with a grass ejection (11). Two interconnectable parts (5, 7) of the box are connected with one another, where the parts are arranged separate from each other while transportation condition (A). One of the parts forms a retaining space that partially encloses the housing of a lawn-mower (3), and other part is arranged in a region of the grass ejection. The latter part of the box is arranged in individual regions between impellers (13) of the lawn-mower while transportation condition.

ELLERSTORFER THOMAS

177

Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

1993-01-01

178

Growth and use of energy grasses as a fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This summary outlines the main conclusions of the project which aims to provide information on the growth, yields, and combustion characteristics of Miscanthus, switchgrass, Spartina, rye, and reed canary grass. Details are given of the small-plot trials of the non-wood biomass fuels, the planting, pests and diseases, the falling over of crops, the time of harvest, moisture content, yields, combustion trials, fuel and ash characterisation, and costs/income. Tables are provided illustrating the cumulative yield, the costs of the different species of energy grasses, and the annual mean gross margins over 5, 10, 15, and 20 years.

NONE

2000-09-01

179

Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs.

1994-01-01

180

Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and t...

Davies Janet; Li Hongzhuo; Green Melissa; Towers Michelle; Upham John

 
 
 
 
181

Stomatal development in Arabidopsis and grasses: differences and commonalities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stomata, found on the epidermis of all terrestrial plants, consist of two specialized cells called guard cells, which surround a tiny pore. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic control of stomatal development in Arabidopsis and grasses. In Arabidopsis, three basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes control the successive steps that lead to stomatal formation. SPEECHLESS (SPCH) drives the cell division that initiates the stomatal cell lineage, MUTE induces the formation of the immediate stomatal precursor cell, and FAMA causes the stomatal precursor cell to divide into the two guard cells. Recent results demonstrate that these genes share functions with their grass homologs, and that MUTE is expressed later in development than its grass counterparts. Other differences in stomatal development between these two plant groups are exemplified by the PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) gene of maize. PAN1, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase with an inactive kinase domain, promotes polarization of the subsidiary mother cell and orients its cell division plane. Because such events do not exist in Arabidopsis, it is likely that the PAN1-like genes of Arabidopsis and PAN1 are paralogs. Together, these results indicate that distinctions in the regulation of gene expression and protein function are both responsible for the divergence of stomatal development between Arabidopsis and grasses.

Serna L

2011-01-01

182

Stomatal development in Arabidopsis and grasses: differences and commonalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stomata, found on the epidermis of all terrestrial plants, consist of two specialized cells called guard cells, which surround a tiny pore. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic control of stomatal development in Arabidopsis and grasses. In Arabidopsis, three basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes control the successive steps that lead to stomatal formation. SPEECHLESS (SPCH) drives the cell division that initiates the stomatal cell lineage, MUTE induces the formation of the immediate stomatal precursor cell, and FAMA causes the stomatal precursor cell to divide into the two guard cells. Recent results demonstrate that these genes share functions with their grass homologs, and that MUTE is expressed later in development than its grass counterparts. Other differences in stomatal development between these two plant groups are exemplified by the PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) gene of maize. PAN1, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase with an inactive kinase domain, promotes polarization of the subsidiary mother cell and orients its cell division plane. Because such events do not exist in Arabidopsis, it is likely that the PAN1-like genes of Arabidopsis and PAN1 are paralogs. Together, these results indicate that distinctions in the regulation of gene expression and protein function are both responsible for the divergence of stomatal development between Arabidopsis and grasses. PMID:21425077

Serna, Laura

2011-01-01

183

Recombinant expression and epitope mapping of grass pollen allergens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have studied the expression of recombinant forms of Group 1 allergens from rye-grass and Bermuda grass pollens. Recombinant Lol p 1 expressed in bacteria bound serum IgE from allergic patients. Based on analysis of fragments of the Lol p 1 cDNA clone, the major IgE-reactive epitope has been mapped to the C-terminus. However, although SDS-denatured natural Cyn d 1 (from Bermuda grass) bound IgE, the full or partial recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria did not bind IgE. We have since expressed Cyn d 1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris and restored IgE binding. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of Lol p 5, Lol p 5A and Lol p 5B, have been expressed in bacteria and resulting polypeptides show IgE-binding. Random fragments of these clones have been generated and when expressed as partial recombinant proteins in bacteria, allowed us to identify the major IgE-binding epitopes. The allergenic epitopes were localised towards the C-terminal half of the molecule. Although both isoforms shared similar IgE-reactive epitopes, Lol p 5B did not recognise the Lol p 5A-specific monoclonal antibody A7. At sequence level, there appear to be several amino acid differences between the antigenic epitopes of these two isoallergens. These results aid in the design of diagnostics and in grass pollen immunotherapy.

Suphioglu C; Smith PM; Ong EK; Knox RB; Singh MB

1996-01-01

184

Production manual for reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The manual is based on a research and experiences in Sweden and the manual is used for energy grass producers connected to Biofuel Technology Center of Umeaa. If used in other areas must special attention be drawn to the area specific conditions.

Olsson, R.

2003-07-01

185

CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

186

PERENNIAL GRASS BREEDING PROGRAM FOR FORAGE AND BIOFUELS - TIFTON, GA  

Science.gov (United States)

Forage improvement of bermudagrass and bahiagrass continues within the Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit of USDA/ARS. Recently, a new effort has begun within the unit toward developing perennial grass crops as feedstocks for bio-energy in the Southeast. An emphasis beginning three years ago...

187

Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed). Results: Four different thin-layer drying mo...

Mustafa Ibrahim; K. Sopian; W. R.W. Daud

188

Perennial fodder grasses as intercrop in Areca and Coconut gardens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to encourage the farmers to cultivate fodder grasses as an intercrop in the areca and coconut gardens. A live demonstration of fodder crops was under taken in 12 villages of Bhadravathi taluk, Shimoga district, Karnataka, to educate the farmers in cultivating perennial fodder grasses in their areca and coconut gardens as inter crops.100 farmers were selected randomly from the 12 villages for demonstration of intercropping of fodder grass. Amongst these 58% of the farmers could achieve success by transplanting the fodder grass seedlings to areca & coconut gardens as intercrop. In 6 villages the success rate was to the tune of 60-80%, 4 villages were in the range of 40-60% and the remaining 2 villages showed less than 40% success. The success of the program depended on the necessity for fodder crops or the association of the farmers with Dairy co-operative societies. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000): 68-70

R.Jayashree and A.Suneetha

2010-01-01

189

MR imaging of cervical disc disease; Value of GRASS imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology has been greatly improved, MRI for cervical disc disease has become widely used in many facilities. Among non-invasive procedures, MRI is regarded as one of the most useful ones. Conventional myelography, CT myelography, and MRI were performed on 10 patients with cervical disc disease. The authors discussed the correlation between conventional myelography, CT myelography, and MRI as regards their ability to determine the localization and the laterality of disc protrusion and osteophyte. In our MRI study, we use both short-echo (SE) images and GRASS images. The parameters of our GRASS included 5 mm-thick sections. TR=200, TE=20, and flip angles of 10deg. This pulse sequence generates images with high signal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in a high-contrast CSF-spinal cord, osteophyte, and disc protrusion. As yet, although it easily shows the localization and laterality of the disc and/or osteophyte, image quality of the GRASS is not yet sufficient to allow us to evaluate detailed deformity of the spinal cord and nerve root. The authors stress the usefulness of this GRASS image for the evaluation of suspected cervical disc disease. (author).

Hida, Kazutoshi; Akino, Minoru; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Isu, Toyohiko; Abe, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Matsuzawa, Hitoshi; Nomura, Mikio; Saitoh, Hisatoshi

1990-02-01

190

Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP) supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stabl...

Venugopal Shonima; Iyer Uma

191

Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conservation considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass, a warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soil by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season grasses.

McLaughlin, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bransby, D.I. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Parrish, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

192

Sewage treatment with constructed wetland using panicum maximum forage grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Panicum maximum Jacq (Guinea grass) is an important multicut forage grass with ease of propagation, fast growth available at local level and high quality forage for livestock. This grass is a biotic resource, due to its several properties grass. It is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone) technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Panicum maximum was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. Designed Angular Horizontal Subsurface type constructed wetland for the treatment of sewage was used for recycling and reuses. The samples of sewage with different dilutions viz. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% were tested for the treatment. Results reveal that pH range was changed from 6.79 to 7.10, maximum reduction of E.C was 25.14 % at 80%, TSS by 48.70%, TDS by 55.73 %, TS by 54.31 %, COD by 61.05 %, BOD by 59.25 %, NO3 by 69.32%, PO4 by 48.10% and SO4 by 41.48% respectively. The colour and odour were removed resulting into clear water.

B. L. Chavan; V. P. Dhulap

2012-01-01

193

G.R.A.S.S. is Available  

Science.gov (United States)

Florida Technical University's approximately 11,000 students use its Generalized Registration and Sectioning System (GRASS), which provides on-line advanced and regular registration, on-line add/drop and late registration with instant invoice and class schedule printing. Description of system capabilities, notes on development, and samples of…

Chapman, William Dan; Gambrell, C. B.

1976-01-01

194

Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

195

Nitrogen use efficiency in six perennial grasses from contrasting habitats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. We studied the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in six perennial grasses adapted to a wide range of nutrient availability. The glasshouse experiment was carried out in pots containing nutrient solution, with two fertility treatments. Nitrogen-use efficiency was considered as the product of nitrogen ...

Vazquez de Aldana, B.R.; Berendse, F.

196

Glufosinate Antagonizes Postemergence Graminicides Applied to Annual Grasses and Johnsongrass  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glufosinate controls a broad spectrum of weeds in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Control of grassy weeds, however, can sometimes be inadequate, especially when grasses are large or growing under dry conditions. In situations where less than adequate control of grasses by glufosinate alone is anticipated, growers may consider mixing a postemergence graminicide with glufosinate. Most herbicides mixed with graminicides antagonize grass control. Research was conducted in North Carolina to determine the potential for antagonism with mixtures of glufosinate and four postemergence graminicides and to determine if antagonism could be alleviated by increasing the rate of graminicide in mixtures, by adding ammonium sulfate to mixtures, or by applying glufosinate and graminicides sequentially. Antagonism was noted on johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] and on mixtures of annual grasses, broadleaf signalgrass [Brachiaria platyphylla (Griseb.) Nash], fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.), goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.], and large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], when glufosinate was mixed with clethodim, fluazifop-P, quizalofop-P, or sethoxydim. Antagonism was not alleviated by increasing the graminicide rate in the mixture by 50% or by including ammonium sulfate in the mixture. Antagonism was not observed when graminicides were applied 3 or more days before glufosinate or 5 or more days after glufosinate.

Gardner AP; York AC; Jordan DL; Monks DW

2006-01-01

197

The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel.

van der Weijde T; Alvim Kamei CL; Torres AF; Vermerris W; Dolstra O; Visser RG; Trindade LM

2013-01-01

198

The aerodynamics and efficiency of wind pollination in grasses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Under natural selection for sexual success, the reproductive organs of plants should evolve to become highly effective pollen receptors. Among wind-pollinated plants, larger reproductive structures appear counter-adapted to accumulate pollen by impaction on their windward surfaces, because airborne particles are less able to penetrate the thicker boundary layer of larger targets. Therefore, it has been proposed that wind-pollinated plants with pollen receptors on relatively large structures, like some grasses (family Poaceae), are architecturally adapted to create downstream vortices in which airborne pollen recirculates before accumulating on leeward surfaces. From this basis, the striking diversity among the grasses in the architecture of their flowering stems has been attributed in part to the existence of these contrasting mechanisms for effecting pollen receipt, namely impact collection and recirculatory collection. 2. We investigated the relative importance of impact and recirculatory collection in grasses by analysing a model system in silico using Computational Fluid Dynamics and by conducting in vivo experiments, both in a wind tunnel and outdoors, using two grass species with compact inflorescences, Alopecurus pratensis and Anthoxanthum odoratum. 3. Irrespective of the experimental approach, we found that although pollen recirculated in the leeward eddies of inflorescences, over 95% of the accumulated pollen was collected by windward surfaces. 4. In A. pratensis, the collection efficiency (proportion of oncoming pollen collected) was between 5% and 20%, depending on wind speed in the range 0·5-1·9 m s?¹ and these levels conform to those predicted by a mechanistic model of impact collection. 5. Our results demonstrate that grass species with larger inflorescences are, like those with smaller inflorescences, primarily impact collectors of airborne pollen, which suggests that dissimilar reproductive morphology among species cannot be attributed to differentiation in the mode of pollen capture and, instead, requires reference to other factors, such as the need to produce, protect and disperse seeds of different sizes in different environments.

Cresswell JamesE; Krick Julian; Patrick MichaelA; Lahoubi Mohammed

2010-08-01

199

Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

2013-10-01

200

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, and Phleum pratense were present in both mixtures. Although Anthoxanthum odoratum and Secale cereale were absent from the mixture of five, IgG responses to Ant o V and Sec c V were comparable in both patient groups. This reactivity was inhibited for 92-99% with L. perenne extract, illustrating the cross-reactive nature of the IgG antibodies. The presence of A. odoratum and S. cereale in the mixture resulted in only minor amounts of species-specific anti-group V IgG. These results indicate that application of just one grass species in immunotherapy might be sufficient to induce an IgG response that covers other relevant Gramineae species as well. PMID:7677246

van Ree, R; Brewczy?ski, P Z; Tan, K Y; Mulder-Willems, H J; Widjaja, P; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C; Kroon, A M

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, and Phleum pratense were present in both mixtures. Although Anthoxanthum odoratum and Secale cereale were absent from the mixture of five, IgG responses to Ant o V and Sec c V were comparable in both patient groups. This reactivity was inhibited for 92-99% with L. perenne extract, illustrating the cross-reactive nature of the IgG antibodies. The presence of A. odoratum and S. cereale in the mixture resulted in only minor amounts of species-specific anti-group V IgG. These results indicate that application of just one grass species in immunotherapy might be sufficient to induce an IgG response that covers other relevant Gramineae species as well.

van Ree R; Brewczy?ski PZ; Tan KY; Mulder-Willems HJ; Widjaja P; Stapel SO; Aalberse RC; Kroon AM

1995-03-01

202

Occurrence and distribution of native and introduced C4 grasses in Tasmania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of the 137 species of grass considered native to Tasmania, only eight use the C4 photosynthetic pathway. There are also approximately 137 grass species considered as introduced to Tasmania and 21% of these are C4. In total, there are 41 species from 20 genera of C4 grass recorded from Tasmania. Many of the introduced C4 species have a very limited distribution, however, and are generally confined to urban areas and along roadsides. Overall, Tasmania has fewer C4 grasses than would be expected from climate alone and few of the C4 grass species are widely distributed or abundant. However, the proportion of grasses recorded from Tasmania that use the C4 pathway has been increasing for the past century and is still increasing. General distribution and habitat notes are provided for all C4 grasses known to be native or naturalised in Tasmania.

Hovenden MJ; Morris DI

2002-01-01

203

Chemical composition and photosynthetically active radiation of forage grasses under irrigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation of tropical forage grasses in ten cutting dates, under irrigation. The following treatments were used: Brachiaria decumbens grass (Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk), Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu), Xaraes grass (Brachiaria brizantha, cultivar Xaraes), Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum cultivar Mombaça), Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum, cultivar Tanzania) and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp cultivar Tifton 85). The weather parameters were collected by an automatic meteorological station installed in the location and used for irrigation management. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot completely randomized block design, considering the grasses as plots and cutting seasons as subplots, with four replications in a 6 × 10 factorial arrangement, six grasses and ten cutting seasons. The results indicated increased use of photosynthetically active radiation in the wet season, in relation to the dry-wet season transition. Basilisk presented the highest values of photosynthetically active radiation (1,648.9 mE). The variables studied were affected by photosynthetically active radiation. The grass cultivars presented different light interceptions. The values of 87; 90; 90; 88; 92 and 77% were found for grass cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Mombaça, Tanzania, Xaraes and Tifton 85, respectively. Differences were observed in forage accumulation rates for the grass plants studied. The grasses with the best productive performance were Brachiaria decumbens cultivar Basilisk and B. brizantha cultivar Xaraes. The highest values of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were observed for Tifton 85. The use of photosynthetically active radiation was different among the grasses evaluated. There is a positive association between photosynthetically active radiation and dry matter production. Besides, photosynthetically active radiation indirectly affects crude protein and forage neutral detergent fiber.

Edilane Aparecida da Silva; Wilson Jesus da Silva; Antônio Carlos Barreto; Antonio Barbosa de Oliveira Junior; José Mauro Valente Paes; José Reinaldo Mendes Ruas; Domingos Sávio Queiroz

2012-01-01

204

Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H2SO4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

2011-01-01

205

The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

1987-01-01

206

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Juliana Medianeira Machado; Marta Gomes da Rocha; Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros; Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin; Aline Bosak dos Santos; Maria José de Oliveira Sichonany; Laila Arruda Ribeiro; Aline Tatiane Nunes da Rosa

2013-01-01

207

Feasibility study of bioethanol production from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New choices for fuel production are currently sought worldwide. Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic materials, like reed canary grass, is one promising alternative. In this paper the feasibility of producing ethanol through concentrated acid hydrolysis from reed canary grass is investigated. The study includes the laboratory experiments of the hydrolysis stage, building of mass and energy balances and economic profitability estimate calculations for a bioethanol plant. Laboratory experiments have revealed appropriate process conditions for hydrolysis step. The choice of acid concentration in the hydrolysis step has a remarkable influence on the process: As the sulphuric acid concentration decreases the costs increase dramatically. The key cost factors in the process are the chromatographic separation of the acid and the sulphuric acid recirculation. The equipment material choices have a major impact on the investment costs of the process. The hydrolysis step has to be optimised with an eye on to the entire process. The process has economical potential, if the process design is carefully performed. (orig.)

Kupiainen, L.; Kangas, J.; Mannonenb, J.; Tanskanen, J. (Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu (Finland))

2007-07-01

208

Morphogenesis of native grasses of Pampa Biome under nitrogen fertilization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Acc (more) umulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.

Machado, Juliana Medianeira; Rocha, Marta Gomes da; Quadros, Fernando Luiz Ferreira de; Confortin, Anna Carolina Cerato; Santos, Aline Bosak dos; Sichonany, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Laila Arruda; Rosa, Aline Tatiane Nunes da

2013-01-01

209

Study of "napier grass" delignification for production of cellulosic derivatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, much research on the evaluation of new cellulose sources has been developed. In this context, a promising source is "napier grass", which contains 30.40% lignin, 36.34% cellulose, and 34.12% hemicellulose. In this work, conditions for the delignification of "napier grass" in the laboratory were studied by using calcium oxide (CaO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The best pulping conditions were 9.00% CaO for a period of 2.73 h, which resulted in 74.99% delignification and 66.58% cellulose. The best conditions for the bleaching process were pH 12 and hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 4.2% for 6h, at a temperature of 40 °C, which gave 90.98% delignification and 99.21% cellulose. The analyses were performed by using weight percent.

de Araújo Morandim-Giannetti A; Albuquerque TS; de Carvalho RK; Araújo RM; Magnabosco R

2013-01-01

210

Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of starchy plants in early hominin diets and when the culinary processing of starches began have been difficult to track archaeologically. Seed collecting is conventionally perceived to have been an irrelevant activity among the Pleistocene foragers of southern Africa, on the grounds of both technological difficulty in the processing of grains and the belief that roots, fruits, and nuts, not cereals, were the basis for subsistence for the past 100,000 years and further back in time. A large assemblage of starch granules has been retrieved from the surfaces of Middle Stone Age stone tools from Mozambique, showing that early Homo sapiens relied on grass seeds starting at least 105,000 years ago, including those of sorghum grasses.

Mercader J

2009-12-01

211

Facilitation or Competition? Tree Effects on Grass Biomass across a Precipitation Gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP?550 mm), with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP?=?737 mm), grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

Moustakas, Aristides; Kunin, William E.; Cameron, Tom C.; Sankaran, Mahesh

2013-01-01

212

Influence of competition and rainfall manipulation on the growth responses of savanna trees and grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we explored how rainfall manipulation influenced competitive interactions between grasses and juvenile trees (small nonreproductive trees capable of resprouting) in savanna. To do this, we manipulated rainfall amount in the field using an incomplete factorial experiment that determined the effects of rainfall reduction, no manipulation, rainfall addition, and competition between grasses and trees on grass and tree growth. As response variables, we focused on several measures of tree growth and Disc Pasture Meter settling height as an estimate of grass aboveground biomass. We conducted the study over four years, at two sites in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results show that rainfall manipulation did not have substantial effects on any of the measures of tree growth we considered. However, trees at plots where grasses had been removed grew on average 15 cm more in height and 1.3-1.7 times more in basal area per year than those in plots with grasses. Grass biomass was not influenced by the presence of trees but was significantly and positively influenced by rainfall addition. These findings were not fundamentally influenced by soil type or by prevailing precipitation, suggesting applicability of our results to a wide range of savannas. Our results suggest that, in savannas, increasing rainfall serves to increase the competitive pressure exerted by grasses on trees. The implication is that recruitment into the adult tree stage from the juvenile stage is most likely in drought years when there is little competition from grass for resources and grass fuel loads are low.

February EC; Higgins SI; Bond WJ; Swemmer L

2013-05-01

213

Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP) mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP?550 mm), with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP?=?737 mm), grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

Moustakas A; Kunin WE; Cameron TC; Sankaran M

2013-01-01

214

Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. ?13C, ?15N and ?18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing modern data for comparison with isotope analyses conducted on fossil leaf material in paleoecological studies.

Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

2008-12-01

215

Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation induced sexuality in this apomictic grass. Sexual strains were isolated and selected individuals were crossed. Polycross and recurrent single cross methods allowed restoring apomixis. The resulting apomictic strains showed excellent traits and transgressed hereditary potentials of parental components. The method is described of breeding and the productivity of individual breeding techniques is discussed. It is shown that the number of strains should be reduced and the most productive strains should be used for the formation of synthetic cultivars. (author).

1980-10-08

216

Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P

1999-01-01

217

Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003) have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole) have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997)...

A. Priolo; A. Cornu; M. Krogmann; N. Kondjoyan; D. Micol; J.L. Berdagué; M. Lanza

2011-01-01

218

Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygrothermal performance in the field, four test walls have been built. The relative humidity and temperature in the constructions have been measured during a winter period and are presented in this paper.

Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back

2008-01-01

219

Molecular identification of the turf grass rapid blight pathogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid blight is a newly described disease on turf grasses, primarily found on golf courses using suboptimal water for irrigation purposes. On the basis of shared morphological characteristics, it has been proposed that the rapid blight pathogen belongs to a genus of stramenopiles, Labyrinthula, which had been known to cause disease of marine plants only. We have collected 10 isolates from four species of turf grass in five states and sequenced portions of the SSU (18S) rDNA gene from each to provide a definitive taxonomic placement for rapid blight pathogens. We also included sequences from Labyrinthuloides yorkensis, Schizochytrium aggregatum, Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium striatum, Achlya bisexualis and several nonturf-grass isolates of Labyrinthula. We found that rapid blight isolates indeed are placed firmly within the genus Labyrinthula and that they lack detectable genetic diversity in the 18S rDNA region. We propose that the rapid blight pathogens share a recent common ancestor and might have originated from a single, infected population. PMID:16389967

Craven, K D; Peterson, P D; Windham, D E; Mitchell, T K; Martin, S B

220

Molecular identification of the turf grass rapid blight pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid blight is a newly described disease on turf grasses, primarily found on golf courses using suboptimal water for irrigation purposes. On the basis of shared morphological characteristics, it has been proposed that the rapid blight pathogen belongs to a genus of stramenopiles, Labyrinthula, which had been known to cause disease of marine plants only. We have collected 10 isolates from four species of turf grass in five states and sequenced portions of the SSU (18S) rDNA gene from each to provide a definitive taxonomic placement for rapid blight pathogens. We also included sequences from Labyrinthuloides yorkensis, Schizochytrium aggregatum, Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium striatum, Achlya bisexualis and several nonturf-grass isolates of Labyrinthula. We found that rapid blight isolates indeed are placed firmly within the genus Labyrinthula and that they lack detectable genetic diversity in the 18S rDNA region. We propose that the rapid blight pathogens share a recent common ancestor and might have originated from a single, infected population.

Craven KD; Peterson PD; Windham DE; Mitchell TK; Martin SB

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Spectral phosphorus mapping using diffuse reflectance of soils and grass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphorus (P) concentration was determined from reflectance spectra of grass and soils in a total of 150 samples of each collected from three different sites in the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin. The reflectance spectra of both fresh and dried samples for grass and soil were measured in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), and near infrared (NIR) regions from 225 to 2550 nm with an interval of 1 nm. Phosphorus concentrations of the samples were correlated with the absorbance of the same samples. Two-thirds of both vegetation and soil samples were used for calibration and the remaining one-third of vegetation and soils were used for validation. Stepwise multiple linear regressions (SMLR), and partial least-squares (PLS) analyses were applied to the data sets in order to predict P concentrations for soil and grass. Actual and predicted P concentration maps of the fields for vegetation and soil were plotted. Strong relationships (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.778, 0.914, and 0.922) in PLS for the validation data sets were obtained between absorbance and P concentrations in soils. However, a weak relationship (R2 = 0.425) in PLS for the validation data set was produced from absorbance and P concentrations in vegetation samples. Spatial variation in actual and predicted maps showed that P variability could be represented using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, VIS, and NIR regions.

Bogrekci I; Lee WS

2005-07-01

222

Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater. PMID:23488000

Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

2013-01-01

223

Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species.

Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M

2004-08-01

224

Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species.

2004-01-01

225

Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges. PMID:15964059

Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

2005-06-16

226

EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site. PMID:19297989

Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

2008-11-01

227

Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges.

Wilde EW; Brigmon RL; Dunn DL; Heitkamp MA; Dagnan DC

2005-12-01

228

EDTA enhances lead uptake and facilitates phytoremediation by vetiver grass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has strong and dense root system and is a potential phytoremediator plant since it can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions and grow well in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Soil was artificially contaminated by lead (20 mgl(-1)) during field trials. Four concentration of EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-disodium salt) solution i.e. 0, 3, 5 and 10 mmol kg(-1) were added to soil prior to harvesting, to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytostabilization by vetiver grass. Results showed that the concentration of lead in roots of vetiver is significantly increased after EDTA solution (5 mmol kg(-1)) application. However, high concentration of EDTA (10 mmol kg(-1)) does not show such significant increase. The toxicity of highly contaminating metal did not affect the growth of vetiver grass significantly but a slight decrease in parameters studied was noticed. No stress symptoms were observed in vetiver plants. Results of present study reveal that vetiver could be considered as a potential phytoremediator for lead contamninated site.

Gupta DK; Srivastava A; Singh VP

2008-11-01

229

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Project (SUCEST) database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2) family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

Dornelas Marcelo C.; Rodriguez Adriana P.M.

2001-01-01

230

Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater.

Datta R; Das P; Smith S; Punamiya P; Ramanathan DM; Reddy R; Sarkar D

2013-01-01

231

Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

1993-02-01

232

Perennial grass production for biofuels: Soil conversion considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increased use of renewable fuels for energy offers the United States a mechanism for significantly reducing national dependency on imported oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving regional agricultural economies. As mandated by law, a wide range of issues have been raised regarding the net environmental impacts of implementation of these new technologies. While uncertainties regarding both positive and negative environmental influences still exist in many areas of this new technology, it is now possible to address with substantial certainty the positive aspects of perennial herbaceous energy crops on several important soil conservation issues. Past experience with forage grasses and recent research with switchgrass. A warm season perennial forage grass selected as one of the model bioenergy species, indicates that important benefits will be gained in the area of soil conservation as grasses replace energy-intensive annual row crops. These include reduced erosion, improved conservation of water and nutrients, and increased productivity of soils by the deep and vigorous rooting systems of perennial warm-season gasses.

McLaughlin, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bransby, D.I. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Soils; Parrish, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences

1994-10-01

233

Optimization of the operating parameters of a grass trimming machine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very common among the workers operating power tools and doing similar nature of work for long hours. Grass trimming is one of the operations that involves use of vibrating cutter, and results in hand-arm vibration among workers. In this study, the influence of several operating parameters (length of nylon cutting thread, engine speed and handle material) is investigated in terms of HAV. Data are analyzed via orthogonal array, main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance to determine the appropriate operating parameter levels to minimize HAV. Operating parameters under investigation are found to be influential in controlling HAV generation during grass trimming operation. Experiments are carried out for measuring hand-arm vibration using tri-axial accelerometer conforming the effectiveness of this approach. Results show that 100mm length of nylon thread, 3000+/-400rpm of engine speed and ABS handle material combination results in minimum HAV (HARM) of magnitude 2.76m/s(2). Through this study not only the optimal operating parameter levels for GTM are obtained, but also the main process parameters that affect the HAV are determined. The optimum HAV obtained through appropriate level selection of operating parameters, significantly reduces the occurrence of HAVS among the grass trimmers.

Mallick Z

2010-03-01

234

Genetic improvement of grass pea for low neurotoxin (?-ODAP) content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grass pea is a promising crop for adaptation under climate change because of its tolerance to drought, water-logging and salinity, and being almost free from insect-pests and diseases. In spite of such virtues, global area under its cultivation has decreased because of ban on its cultivation in many countries. The ban is imposed due to its association with neurolathyrism, a non-reversible neurological disorder in humans and animals due to presence of neurotoxin, ?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid (?-ODAP) in its seedlings and seeds. The traditional varieties of grass pea contain 0.5-2.5% ?-ODAP. Exploitable genetic variability for ?-ODAP has been observed for development of low ODAP varieties, which along with improved agronomic and detoxification practices can help reduce the risk of lathyrism. Collaborative efforts between ICARDA and NARS have resulted in development of improved varieties such as Wasie in Ethiopia, Ratan, Prateek and Mahateora in India, and BARI Khesari-1 and BARI Khesari-2 in Bangladesh with <0.10% ?-ODAP. Soil application of 15-20 kg ha(-1) zinc sulphate, early planting, and soaking seeds in water have shown significant effects on ?-ODAP. Because of the often cross-pollination nature, the current breeding procedures being followed in grass pea requires paradigm shift in its approach for a possible genetic breakthrough.

Kumar S; Bejiga G; Ahmed S; Nakkoul H; Sarker A

2011-03-01

235

Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137Cs and 134Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author).

1989-01-01

236

An Invasive Grass Species Alters Carbon Cycling in Hawaiian Dry Forest  

Science.gov (United States)

At lower elevations on the leeward side of the island of Hawaii, remnant native forests are heavily invaded by an introduced African bunchgrass, Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass). Our research is designed to determine the consequences of this invasion for carbon (C) cycling in Hawaiian dry forests. We examined above- and belowground C pools and fluxes in 400 m2 replicated forest plots (n = 4) with fountain grass (grass plots) and in areas where fountain grass had been removed for ˜3 years (removal plots). C pools were estimated with direct sampling and allometric equations developed in situ for the dominant tree species. Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was estimated as aboveground biomass increment plus litterfall minus loss from mortality (trees) and with clip plots (grass and herbaceous species); total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) was estimated using a conservation of mass, C balance approach. Our results indicate that the invasion of a non-native grass in this ecosystem has considerable impacts on both C pools and fluxes. Aboveground, tree biomass did not differ between treatments (P = 0.57) but the presence of fountain grass led to a 7.5-fold increase in understory biomass in grass plots compared to removal plots (P < 0.01). Tree ANPP was significantly higher in removal plots for both foliage (0.10 and 0.06 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P = 0.02) and wood (0.13 and 0.05 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P < 0.01). However, grass ANPP was ˜35% greater than tree foliage productivity in grass plots. Despite this added foliar productivity, total ANPP (Tree + Grass ANPP) was significantly higher in removal plots (P = 0.04). Belowground, grass plots exhibited higher rates of soil-surface CO2 efflux (1.09 and 1.38 kg C m-2 yr-1 for removal and grass plots, respectively; P = 0.03 ). Likewise, TBCA was significantly higher in grass plots (1.21 kg C m-2 yr-1) than in removal plots (0.97 kg C m-2 yr-1; P = 0.04). Tropical dry forests globally, and Hawaiian dry forests in particular, are among the most threatened terrestrial ecosystems. Our results indicate that the presence of an invasive, non-native grass species changes both ecosystem structure and function in these forests. These changes in above- and belowground C pools and fluxes are particularly important in light of the ubiquitous presence of invasive species in most terrestrial ecosystems and the need for a better understanding of the role that they will play in global C cycling and climate change.

Litton, C. M.; Sandquist, D. R.; Cordell, S.

2004-12-01

237

Selenium supplementation and selenium status of dairy cows fed diets based on grass, grass silage or maize silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

In three separate trial series (TS) the effect of diet composition on selenium (Se) status of dairy cows were investigated. Diets were formulated based mainly on grass (TS1), grass silage (TS2) or maize silage (TS3) with different levels of Se supplementation. Each TS comprised a total of 30 dairy cows and contained one treatment group without Se supplementation (control) and two groups with increasing levels of Se supplementation (levels 1 and 2). Selenium was administered as Na-selenite. The control groups of the different TS showed a very low Se supply of 38-54 microg Se/kg DM. At level 1 the Se supply was increased to 102-165 microg Se/kg DM and at level 2 was 294-373 microg Se/kg DM. After completion of the 6-week trials the average plasma Se concentration of the control cows (without Se supplementation) across all TS was 21.5 microg/l; this increased significantly following Se supplementation, to 37.7 microg/l at level 1 and 61.5 microg/l at level 2. The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the control cows averaged 67 U/l, rising considerably after supplementation at level 1 to a value of 101 U/l, but showed little further increase at level 2 with a mean value of 120 U/l. By contrast, the average Se content of the milk was unchanged in the control and level 1 groups at 10.5 microg/kg and 10.9 microg/kg, respectively, and only increased markedly after supplementation at level 2 to a mean value of 15.1 microg/kg. The diet based on maize silage, while having a similar Se content as the grass and grass silage-based diets, resulted in a slightly improved Se status, which is due to a higher Se intake from soybean meal. PMID:11972675

Gierus, M; Schwarz, F J; Kirchgessner, M

2002-04-01

238

A guardian of grasses: Specific origin and conservation of a unique disease-resistance gene in the grass lineage  

Science.gov (United States)

The maize Hm1 gene provides protection against a lethal leaf blight and ear mold disease caused by Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 (CCR1). Although it was the first disease-resistance (DR) gene to be cloned, it remains a novelty because, instead of participating in the plant recognition and response system as most DR genes do, Hm1 disarms the pathogen directly. It does so by encoding an NADPH-dependent reductase, whose function is to inactivate Helminthosporium carbonum (HC) toxin, an epoxide-containing cyclic tetrapeptide, which the pathogen produces as a key virulence factor to colonize maize. Although CCR1 is strictly a pathogen of maize, orthologs of Hm1 and the HC-toxin reductase activity are present in the grass family, suggesting an ancient and evolutionarily conserved role of this DR trait in plants. Here, we provide proof for such a role by demonstrating its involvement in nonhost resistance of barley to CCR1. Barley leaves in which expression of the Hm1 homologue was silenced became susceptible to infection by CCR1, but only if the pathogen was able to produce HC toxin. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hm1 evolved exclusively and early in the grass lineage. Given the devastating ability of CCR1 to kill maize, these findings imply that the evolution and/or geographical distribution of grasses may have been constrained if Hm1 did not emerge.

Sindhu, Anoop; Chintamanani, Satya; Brandt, Amanda S.; Zanis, Michael; Scofield, Steven R.; Johal, Gurmukh S.

2008-01-01

239

A guardian of grasses: specific origin and conservation of a unique disease-resistance gene in the grass lineage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The maize Hm1 gene provides protection against a lethal leaf blight and ear mold disease caused by Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 (CCR1). Although it was the first disease-resistance (DR) gene to be cloned, it remains a novelty because, instead of participating in the plant recognition and response system as most DR genes do, Hm1 disarms the pathogen directly. It does so by encoding an NADPH-dependent reductase, whose function is to inactivate Helminthosporium carbonum (HC) toxin, an epoxide-containing cyclic tetrapeptide, which the pathogen produces as a key virulence factor to colonize maize. Although CCR1 is strictly a pathogen of maize, orthologs of Hm1 and the HC-toxin reductase activity are present in the grass family, suggesting an ancient and evolutionarily conserved role of this DR trait in plants. Here, we provide proof for such a role by demonstrating its involvement in nonhost resistance of barley to CCR1. Barley leaves in which expression of the Hm1 homologue was silenced became susceptible to infection by CCR1, but only if the pathogen was able to produce HC toxin. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hm1 evolved exclusively and early in the grass lineage. Given the devastating ability of CCR1 to kill maize, these findings imply that the evolution and/or geographical distribution of grasses may have been constrained if Hm1 did not emerge.

Sindhu A; Chintamanani S; Brandt AS; Zanis M; Scofield SR; Johal GS

2008-02-01

240

Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

1995-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

1995-11-01

242

Evaluation of molecular basis of cross reactivity between rye and Bermuda grass pollen allergens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. METHODS: Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. RESULTS: The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

Tiwari R; Bhalla PL; Singh MB

2009-12-01

243

Anti-tick grasses as the basis for developing practical tropical tick control packages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of six grass species analysed, Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) showed the highest anti-tick deterrent properties while Andropogon gayanus (Gamba grass) exhibited the ability to maintain a defined, constantly low, initial host tick infection property and lengthy but low to moderate field tick population. It was concluded that Melinis minutiflora is a species which would best be used in a tick control package within a marginal tick zone while Andropogon gayanus has the advantage within an endemic tick zone.

Thompson KC; Roa E J; Romero N T

1978-08-01

244

Anti-tick grasses as the basis for developing practical tropical tick control packages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of six grass species analysed, Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass) showed the highest anti-tick deterrent properties while Andropogon gayanus (Gamba grass) exhibited the ability to maintain a defined, constantly low, initial host tick infection property and lengthy but low to moderate field tick population. It was concluded that Melinis minutiflora is a species which would best be used in a tick control package within a marginal tick zone while Andropogon gayanus has the advantage within an endemic tick zone. PMID:705900

Thompson, K C; Roa E, J; Romero N, T

1978-08-01

245

Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5yr after selective logging, and experimentally tested the effect of forest fire on populations of invasive grasses. In unlogged forests and in microhabitats created by selective logging we found a total of four alien and 16 native grass species. Grasses covered 2% of unlogged and 4% of logged forest, with grass cover in logged forest concentrated in areas directly disturbed by logging; log landings and roads had relatively greater grass cover (37% and 17%, respectively) than did skid trails (10%) and felling gaps (8%). Total grass cover and grass species richness increased with canopy openness and were greatest in sites most severely disturbed by logging. The grass flora of these disturbed areas was composed mostly of native ruderal species (e.g., Digitaria insularis, Leptochloa virgata), a native bamboo (Guadua paniculata), and Urochloa (Panicum) maxima, a caespitose C? pasture grass introduced from Africa. Urochloa maxima formed monodominant stands (up to 91% cover and 2-3m tall) and grew on 69% of log landings and 38% of roads. To better understand the potentially synergistic effects of logging and fire on the early stages of grass invasion, we tested the effect of a 12-ha experimental fire on U. maxima populations in a selectively logged forest. Three years after the fire, the area covered by alien grass in burned forest increased fourfold from 400m² (pre-fire) to 1660m²; over the same period in a logged but unburned (control) area, U. maxima cover decreased from 398m² to 276m². Increased canopy openness due to fire-induced tree mortality corresponded with the greater magnitude of grass invasion following fire. Selective logging of this dry forest on the southern edge of the Amazon Basin promotes alien grass invasion; when coupled with fire, the rate of invasion substantially increased. Recognition of the grass-promoting potential of selective logging is important for understanding the possible fates of tropical forests in fire-prone regions.

Veldman JW; Mostacedo B; Pen?a-Claros M; Putz FE

2009-09-01

246

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability.

Hidaka T; Arai S; Okamoto S; Uchida T

2013-02-01

247

Yield, forage quality of grass species and varieties established on topsoiled mine spoils in western Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yield, productivity, and forage quality of 16 cool-season, perennial grass species and varieties, some not commonly grown for forage in the east-central US, were compared in 2 harvests on topsoil over spoil. Effects of harvesting grasses on ground-cover and survival were also evaluated. Nutrient levels in grasses (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, and Na) and fiber (ADF, NDF) were analyzed for harvested grasses in spring and fall. Groundcover was evaluated for harvested and unharvested grasses in spring and fall, and plant height measured in spring only. Tall fescue had highest sustained yield for both harvests and low fiber. Other low-fiber grasses for both harvests were reed canarygrass, bluegrass, creeping red fescue, and perennial ryegrass. Orchardgrass and redtop were intermediate in yield for each harvest but high fiber, high spring yield but low fall yield. Grasses in the vegetative stage had lower fiber than grasses in the seed stage. Cutting grasses appeared to lower groundcover but prompted species to undergo regrowth. Manhattan perennial ryegrass and Kenhy tall fescue showed trends for higher productivity and lower fiber than other tested varieties. These data were from the first of a 5-year study.

Laue, S.K.; Barnhisel, R.I.; Powell, J.L.

1982-12-01

248

Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. PMID:23334025

Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

2012-12-21

249

Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totaling 17 treatments randomized in a framework of 840 net parcels. Significant results show that the wheel load affects the grass yield negatively and more than the tire pressure

Green, Ole; JØrgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

2009-01-01

250

ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done using a suction sampler worn on the chest or lapel that measures breathing zone concentration; a more useful exposure parameter for pollen allergy sufferers is the amount of pollen inhaled, i.e. the dose. The objective of this study was to investigate how well monitoring station data reflect actual exposure, something that is currently not well understood. Methods: Exposure samples were collected during the 2011 grass pollen season in an area of abundant unmaintained grass coverage close to the centre of Aarhus, Denmark. Sampling was performed at two-hourly intervals between 12:00 and 20:00 on 14 separate days whilst walking a set route. Journey times were in the region of 28 minutes. Nasal Air Samplers (small impaction devices worn inside the nostrils that capture inhaled particles) were used. The number of inhaled grass pollen grains was counted under a light microscope and compared with concurrent concentrations recorded at a nearby roof level pollen monitoring station. The relationship between these two data sets was also compared with local meteorological variables (wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). Results: The number of grass pollen grains inhaled during individual exposure episode ranged from 6 -127 (median 34), and inhalation rates were between 0.23 - 4.83 (median 1.20) grains min-1. Corresponding concentrations recorded at the monitoring station lay within the range 0 - 311 (median 56) grains m-3. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the exposure and monitoring station data was 0.65 (p<0.001). Exposure was disproportionately high relative to monitoring station data in 15% of the dataset, with these occurring close to midday (12:00-14:00). On no occasion was exposure disproportionately low. Correlation coefficients for the ‘early’ (12:00-14:00) and ‘late’ (18:00-20:00) periods differ considerably (rs=0.51 and rs=0.82 respectively). The mean profile of monitoring station concentrations shows a persistent increase from 12:00-20:00 whilst for the exposure data the opposite is true. No relationship was observed between the standardised ratio of exposure to monitored data and any of the available weather data. Conclusions: Whilst the monitoring station data is a reasonable proxy for exposure, the quality of the relationship depends upon the time of day. Within the study area the risk of exposure decreases between noon and mid-evening, likely reflecting diurnal variation in the emission of grass pollen. This trend is contrary to what the monitoring station predicts, and this has implications where allergen avoidance is being advocated as a method for controlling symptoms. An exposure model for grass pollen is currently being developed for Aarhus. Model performance will be tested against the empirical exposure data described here, the ultimate aim being to build upon this study by using the model to assess the importance of source proximity to exposure.

Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole

251

Insular organization of gene space in grass genomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wheat and maize genes were hypothesized to be clustered into islands but the hypothesis was not statistically tested. The hypothesis is statistically tested here in four grass species differing in genome size, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, and Aegilops tauschii. Density functions obtained under a model where gene locations follow a homogeneous Poisson process and thus are not clustered are compared with a model-free situation quantified through a non-parametric density estimate. A simple homogeneous Poisson model for gene locations is not rejected for the small O. sativa and B. distachyon genomes, indicating that genes are distributed largely uniformly in those species, but is rejected for the larger S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii genomes, providing evidence for clustering of genes into islands. It is proposed to call the gene islands "gene insulae" to distinguish them from other types of gene clustering that have been proposed. An average S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii insula is estimated to contain 3.7 and 3.9 genes with an average intergenic distance within an insula of 2.1 and 16.5 kb, respectively. Inter-insular distances are greater than 8 and 81 kb and average 15.1 and 205 kb, in S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A greater gene density observed in the distal regions of the Ae. tauschii chromosomes is shown to be primarily caused by shortening of inter-insular distances. The comparison of the four grass genomes suggests that gene locations are largely a function of a homogeneous Poisson process in small genomes. Nonrandom insertions of LTR retroelements during genome expansion creates gene insulae, which become less dense and further apart with the increase in genome size. High concordance in relative lengths of orthologous intergenic distances among the investigated genomes including the maize genome suggests functional constraints on gene distribution in the grass genomes.

Gottlieb A; Müller HG; Massa AN; Wanjugi H; Deal KR; You FM; Xu X; Gu YQ; Luo MC; Anderson OD; Chan AP; Rabinowicz P; Devos KM; Dvorak J

2013-01-01

252

Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

Bwire KM; Njau KN; Minja RJ

2011-01-01

253

Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb. PMID:21411942

Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

2011-01-01

254

Biomass Partitioning Following Defoliation of Annual and Perennial Mediterranean Grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted in northeastern Israel to study the effects of various defoliation regimes on biomass partitioning between vegetative and reproductive structures in a perennial and an annual Mediterranean grass. Greater insight into the mechanisms regulating biomass partitioning after defoliation enables ecologists and rangeland managers to interpret and predict population and community dynamics in Mediterranean grasslands more efficiently. Two typical Mediterranean grasses, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual species, and Hordeum bulbosum, a perennial species, were grown in containers in the open. They were subjected to a series of defoliation treatments that comprised three clipping frequencies and three clipping heights in a full factorial combination. In addition, individuals of both species were sampled in the field, in paddocks that were grazed, and in a control exclosure that was closed to grazing during the growing season. The experiment was conducted over two growing seasons, one unusually dry and one unusually wet. The clipping treatments invariably caused a reduction in the amount of biomass partitioned to the reproductive organs, but had little effect on the vegetative components of the plants. Greater tillering following defoliation compensated, to a large degree, for the loss of photosynthetic biomass following defoliation. The effect of grazing on biomass partitioning was much lower than the effect of clipping. Under grazing, the investment in reproductive biomass was considerably higher than when the grasses were clipped. The results of this experiment help to elucidate the reasons for the persistence of these species and, especially, for the dominance of Hordeum bulbosum in many eastern Mediterranean grasslands.

Mario Gutman; Imanuel Noy-Meir; Daniel C. Pluda; No'am Seligman; Steven Rothman; Marcelo Sternberg

2002-01-01

255

Torrefaction of pellets from reed canary grass and softwood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work an energy crop, Reed Canary Grass (RCG) has been studied in comparison with Norway Spruce (NS ) when treated in a torrefaction process. In the torrefaction process biomass is heated in an inert atmosphere (250-340 deg C) and physical and chemical characteristics are then enhanced and the product becomes more similar to coal. Co-firing of torrefied biomass with coal in existing CHP plants, and gasification of torrefied biomass has recently been demonstrated in industrial scale with positive results.

Oerberg, Haakan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Pommer, Linda; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

2012-11-01

256

Prevalence of Copepod Ectoparasites of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and twenty grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, were examined over a period of one year from March 1998 to February 1999 at Government Fish Hatchery, Mian Channu, Punjab, Pakistan. Four species of copepod ectoparasites recovered were Lernaea (L.) polymorpha (Yu, 1938), L. cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1761), L. lophiara (Harding, 1950) and L. ctenopharyngodonis. The parasitic infestation was low during the summer months when temperature ranged between 30-32?C and highest in winter months when temperature was between 13 -23?C.

Zahida Tasawar; Rabia Naseem; Masood Akhtar

1999-01-01

257

CLEANOUT MECHANISM FOR GRASS DISCHARGE AND COLLECTION CHUTE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cleanout mechanism is disclosed for a grass discharge and collection chute on a mower. The cleanout mechanism includes a door pivotable downwardly from the chute to provide an opening in a bottom surface of the chute, and a wiper pivotable rearwardly along the bottom surface of the chute toward a position adjacent the opening. An operator control is connected through linkages to the door and the wiper to pivot both of the door and the wiper while permitting continued operation of the mower.

BENWAY RANDY EDWARD

258

Evaluation of Annual Wild Grass Species for Leaf Rust Resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual wild grass species of wheat i.e. Aegilops tauschii, Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta, Ae. variables, Ae. speltoids and Ae. triunciallis were screened against leaf rust Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desmaz.f.sp. tritici (Eriks. &E.henn.) D.M. Henderson . The frequency of immune and resistant accessions was fairly high in Ae. geniculata, Ae. variables and Ae. tauschii while low in the accessions of Ae. neglecta. No accession of Ae. geniculata were found to be susceptible. All the tested accessions of Ae. variables, Ae. speltoides and Ae. triunciallis were immune to the prevalent races of leaf rust in this region.

Tariq M.Shah; Javed Ahmed; M. Asghar; N. Iqbal; Shafqat Farooq

2000-01-01

259

A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed. PMID:17234253

Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

2007-01-17

260

A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed.

Wen CG; Chen TH; Hsu FH; Lu CH; Lin JB; Chang CH; Chang SP; Lee CS

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Narrow grass hedge control of nutrient loads following variable manure application  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrient transport in runoff has been shown to be reduced by the placement of stiff-stemmed grass hedges on the contour along a hill slope. This study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge in reducing runoff nutrient transport soon after manure application. Beef cattle m...

262

Fundamental Environmental and Landscape Forming Influence of Close Grass Cenosis on the Moisture Circulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The condensation of transpiration and advective water fallows (further—the phenomenon) under the close grass cenosis can be compared to the quantity of precipitation. The phenomenon depends on physical and meteorological features of the closed grass cover. For instance, close gras...

Alexander Y. Rakov

263

Genetic diversity among napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) nursery accessions using AFLP markers  

Science.gov (United States)

Pennisetum purpureum Schum. (napier grass) is a perennial grass used for forage especially in South America and Africa. The species has large morphological variation and over the last thirty years a USDA-ARS nursery has been established in Tifton, GA. Accessions have been collected worldwide and thi...

264

Degradation of Bermuda and Orchard Grass by Species of Ruminal Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiber degradation in Bermuda grass and orchard grass was evaluated gravimetrically and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after incubation with pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Lachnospira multiparus D-32 was unable to degrade plant cell wall components. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49 de...

Akin, Danny E.; Rigsby, Luanne L.

265

AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER: TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION ABOVE A GRASS SEED FIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal airborne bacterial concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured above a grass seed field in the Willamette River Valley, near Corvallis, Oregon, in the summer of 1993. he report describes the changes in the atmospheric surface layer over a grass seed field ...

266

[In sacco degradability of grass silage and bacterial contamination of residues].  

Science.gov (United States)

The in sacco degradability of wilted grass silage, harvested at 2 stages of maturity, and of direct cut silage was determined in 6 heifers. The date of cutting had a pronounced effect on ruminal degradation and bacterial contamination of the feed residues. On the contrary, wilting of the grass prior to ensiling did not influence these parameters. PMID:2206302

Teller, E; Vanbelle, M

1990-01-01

267

[In sacco degradability of grass silage and bacterial contamination of residues  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The in sacco degradability of wilted grass silage, harvested at 2 stages of maturity, and of direct cut silage was determined in 6 heifers. The date of cutting had a pronounced effect on ruminal degradation and bacterial contamination of the feed residues. On the contrary, wilting of the grass prior to ensiling did not influence these parameters.

Teller E; Vanbelle M

1990-01-01

268

Determination of concentration of iodine in grass and cow milk by NAA methods using reactor neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumental and preconcentration methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been standardized for the determination of concentration of iodine in grass and cow milk samples, respectively. To study the transfer of iodine from grass to milk, known quantity of grass spiked with potassium iodide solution was fed to a cow. The spiked grass samples and milk samples, obtained from the cow after the ingestion of spiked grass, were collected. Iodine was separated from the milk samples chemically using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin. Spiked grass and ion exchange resin samples were neutron irradiated and radioactive assay was carried out using a 45 % relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to an 8k channel analyzer. Iodine concentrations in spiked grass samples were found to be in the range of 1,487-2,002 mg kg-1. Concentration of iodine in milk after 12 h of feeding the cow with spiked grass was 871 ± 56 ?g L-1 which was reduced to 334 ± 32 ?g L-1 after 48 h. (author)

2012-01-01

269

Diversity and habitat selectivity of harpacticoid copepods from sea grass beds in Pujada Bay, the Philippines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The spatial diversity of meiofauna from sea grass beds of Pujada Bay (the Philippines), was studied with special emphasis on harpacticoid copepods. Sediment cores were obtained from areas adjacent to the different species of sea grasses. Meiofauna was enumerated at higher taxon level and harpacticoi...

De Troch, M.; Melgo-Ebarle, J.L.; Angsinco-Jimenez, L.; Gheerardyn, H.; Vincx, M.

270

Harvester or tractor front set type grass reaping and flattening machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a front positive displacing type pasture grass reaping and flattening machine of a harvester or a tractor, which belongs to the technical field of a pasture grass harvester. The utility model mainly comprises a cutting mechanism 3, a double roll-shaped feeding flattening mechanism 2 and a mechanical driving device, wherein a machine frame 1 is in a front positive displacing suspension elevation type structure. The utility model is characterized in that the utility model overcomes the insufficiency of the prior art, the haulms of pasture grass can be effectively flattened simultaneously at the time of the harvesting operation of the pasture grass, the drying speed of the pasture grass can be enhanced by more than 50 percent, the haulms and the blades simultaneously achieve desired water content at the time of collection, the protein loss in the pasture grass is reduced, the quality of forage grass is enhanced and the utility model can be positioned on the right front part of a combined harvester or the tractor. The utility model has the advantages of power source saving, no need of the arrangement of a technology path at the time of operation, convenient operation and repair, flexibility, practicality, reliability, simple structure low cost of manufacture and use, reduced harvest loss and wide purposes. The utility model can be suitable for the harvest of the lodging pasture grass, and the utility model is especially suitable for the operation of fractional livestock farms.

LIU HUANXIN HAO

271

Root lifespans of four grass species from habitats differing in nutrient availability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. In grass species that occur in pastures or hay meadows, life spans of roots determine much of the carbon and nutrient loss from the plant in addition to the amounts that are lost by mowing or grazing. We hypothesized that grass species from nutrient-poor habitats had longer root life spans and ...

Krift, T.A.J., van der; Berendse, F.

272

Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found to be statistically significant only in London. The ratio of street/roof level concentrations was compared with temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. Results indicated that the concentration ratio responds to wind direction with respect to relative canyon orientation and local source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were not found to be significant in either location. These results suggest a tendency for monitoring station data to overestimate exposure in the canyon environment.

Peel RG; Kennedy R; Smith M; Hertel O

2013-09-01

273

Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter) when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

Denise Baptaglin Montagner; Domicio do Nascimento Júnior; Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa; Hélio Henrique Vilela; Márcia Cristina Teixeira da Silveira; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Sila Carneiro da Silva; Marciele Neves Carloto

2012-01-01

274

Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

1971-01-00

275

Combining Ability in Mixtures of Prairie Grass and Clovers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the combining ability among cultivars of forage species, commonly sown in temperate regions of Argentina using a short rotation system. Three genetically diverse cultivars of prairie brome grass (Bromus catharticus, cv Copetona, cv Ñandú and cv Tango), a white clover cultivar (Trifolium repens, cv Lucero) and a red clover cultivar (T. pratense, cv Tropero) were evaluated. A randomized complete block design experiment was established in 2005. The treatments included five monocultures and ten binary mixtures. The experiment was harvested 6 times over an 18-month period. Cumulative dry matter yield (kg?ha–1) was calculated as the sum of the six individual harvests. Diallel analysis provided estimates of the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA). Red clover in monoculture and mixtures produced the highest yields, with significant positive GCA effects (P P P P < 0.01). Given the short-term nature of this study, we must limit our inference to short-term pastures (<2 years). Under these conditions, red clover had the best combination with prairie brome grass.

Miguel Jacinto Arturi; Mónica Beatriz Aulicino; Oscar Ansín; Gustavo Gallinger; Rodolfo Signorio

2012-01-01

276

Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO3) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 ?m and 5 ?m iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 ?m particles, 5 ?m particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

1982-01-01

277

Biosynthesis and assembly of cell wall polysaccharides in cereal grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have just completed the second year of a three-year project entitled Biosynthesis assembly of cell wall polysaccharides in cereal grasses.'' We made significant progress on two aspects of cell wall synthesis in grasses and greatly refined gas-liquid and high- performance liquid chromatographic techniques necessary to identify the products of synthesis in vitro and in vivo. First, Dr. David Gibeaut, a post-doctoral associate, devised a convenient procedure for the enrichment of Golgi membranes by flotation centrifugation following initial downward rate-zonal separation. Based on comparison of the IDPase marker enzyme, flotation centrifugation enriched the Golgi apparatus almost 7-fold after the initial downward separation. This system is now used in our studies of the synthesis in vitro of the mixed-linkage {beta}-D-glucan. Second, Gibeaut and I have devised a simple technique to feed radioactive sugars into intact growing seedlings and follow incorporation of radioactivity into and turnover from specific cell wall polysaccharides. The project has also provided a few spin-off projects that have been productive as well. First, in collaboration with the group of Prof. Peter Kaufman, University of Michigan, we examined changes in cell wall structure concomitant with reaction to gravistimulation in the gravisensing oat pulvinus. Second, Dr. Gibeaut developed a simple clean-up procedure for partially methylated alditol derivatives to remove a large amount of undesirable interfering compounds that confound separation of the derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography. 5 refs.

Carpita, N.C.

1991-04-01

278

Study of the Drying Kinetics of Lemon Grass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The thin- layer drying experiments were conducted to examine the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics. Approach: A model to estimate the drying behavior of Lemon grass was developed). Results: Four different thin-layer drying models were compared with respect to their coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Bias Error (MBE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The one with highest (R2) and lowest (MBE) and (RMSE) was selected to better estimate the drying curves. Three temperatures (35, 45 and 55°C) and three humidities (30, 40 and 50%) were investigated with a fixed air velocity of 1 m sec-1. Conclusion/Recommendation: The increase in the drying air temperature increased the drying process and decreased the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) of Lemon grass. The drying process decreased as the air humidity increases. The effect was less than that of the temperature. The EMC have high values with high relative humidity.

Mustafa Ibrahim; K. Sopian; W. R.W. Daud

2009-01-01

279

Influence of bromoxynil on annual grass control by graminicides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effect of mixing bromoxynil with clethodim, sethoxydim, fluazifop-P, fluazifop-P plus fenoxaprop-P, or quizalofop-P on annual grass control. Antagonism with mixtures of bromoxynil and graminicides was dependent upon species and the graminicide in the mixture. Goose-grass control was unaffected by mixing bromoxynil with any graminicide. Mixing bromoxynil with clethodim, sethoxydim, fluazifop-P, or fluazifop-P plus fenoxaprop P had no effect on control of Texas panicum, but the rate of quizalofop-P required for 80% control was increased 240%. Mixing bromoxynil with clethodim or sethoxydim had no effect on control of large crabgrass or yellow foxtail, but the rate of fluazifop-P, fluazifop-P plus fenoxaprop-P, or quizalofop-P required for 80% control was increased 180 to 290%. Antagonism of large crabgrass and yellow foxtail control with mixtures of quizalofop-P and bromoxynil increased as the rate of bromoxynil increased. Antagonism toward large crabgrass and yellow foxtail was alleviated by applying bromoxynil 6 d before the graminicides or 3 or 6 d after the graminicides.

Culpepper AS; York AC; Brownie C

1999-02-01

280

Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait differences between groups allows us to predict changes in the exotic-native balance under climate change scenarios. Exotic species are more likely to be annual, taller, with larger leaves, larger seeds, higher specific leaf area, and higher leaf N percentage than native species. Across the state, all these traits are associated with regions with higher temperature. Therefore, we predict that increasing temperatures will favor trait states that tend to be possessed by exotic species, increasing the dominance of exotic species. This prediction is corroborated by the current distribution of exotic species richness relative to native richness in California; warmer areas contain higher proportions of exotic species. This pattern was very well captured by a simple model that predicts invasion severity given only the trait–climate relationship for native species and trait differences between native and exotic species. This study provides some of the first evidence for an important interaction between climate change and species invasions across very broad geographic and taxonomic scales.

Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Silicon accumulation and water deficit tolerance in Brachiaria grasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The beneficial effects of silicon (Si) fertilization have been observed for several plant species, especially when submitted to stress, either biotic or abiotic. Among the possible reasons for the greater adaptability and resistance of brachiaria grass in areas of low fertility soils in Brazilian savanna, stands its capacity of absorbing and accumulating Si in aerial parts. To evaluate the effect of Si on dry matter yield of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf and Brachiaria brizantha Hochst, grown under two soil moisture regimes, a trial was set up in a completely randomized design factorial scheme (5 × 2 × 2), with five Si rates: (0; 242; 484; 968 and 1,452 kg ha-1), two soil water tensions (60% and 80% of field capacity) and the two brachiaria species. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse, using one of the most representative soils in the region under cerrado, Typic Haplustox. Both brachiaria species can be considered Si-accumulating plants, since they present high Si contents in their aerial parts. Application of Si to the soil increased the contents of this element in both grass species but did not change their tolerance to water deficit, and did not affect dry matter yield.

Melo Suzana Pereira de; Korndörfer Gaspar Henrique; Korndörfer Clotilde Maria; Lana Regina Maria Quintão; Santana Denise Garcia de

2003-01-01

282

Report on the grass ecosystem project: results for 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Shortly after the Chernobyl accident, some 20 grass samples were collected over a wide area of Europe by a carefully prescribed protocol. The samples were dried, homogenized, and distributed by the IAEA to Member States who had expressed an interest in participating in their analysis. Thirteen radionuclides were measured in these samples, and the range in activity ratios for some radionuclides was over a hundredfold. This variability appears to be associated with particulate versus vaporized radionuclide releases from the reactor core, and/or the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide source term at the time of the release. The radionuclide concentrations observed by the various laboratories generally indicated good analytical consistency, and the few cases where consistency does not seem to hold may possibly be attributed to inhomogeneity of aliquots (hot particles) of the grass samples. The wide geographic coverage of this sampling programme, together with multiple laboratory analyses, provides a data resource which should be valuable for comparing and understanding the nature of Chernobyl fallout which was deposited at selected sites throughout Europe. (author). Figs and tabs

1989-01-01

283

Ecological selection pressures for C4 photosynthesis in the grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasses using the C4 photosynthetic pathway dominate grasslands and savannahs of warm regions, and account for half of the species in this ecologically and economically important plant family. The C4 pathway increases the potential for high rates of photosynthesis, particularly at high irradiance, and raises water-use efficiency compared with the C3 type. It is therefore classically viewed as an adaptation to open, arid conditions. Here, we test this adaptive hypothesis using the comparative method, analysing habitat data for 117 genera of grasses, representing 15 C4 lineages. The evidence from our three complementary analyses is consistent with the hypothesis that evolutionary selection for C4 photosynthesis requires open environments, but we find an equal likelihood of C4 evolutionary origins in mesic, arid and saline habitats. However, once the pathway has arisen, evolutionary transitions into arid habitats occur at higher rates in C4 than C3 clades. Extant C4 genera therefore occupy a wider range of drier habitats than their C3 counterparts because the C4 pathway represents a pre-adaptation to arid conditions. Our analyses warn against evolutionary inferences based solely upon the high occurrence of extant C4 species in dry habitats, and provide a novel interpretation of this classic ecological association.

Osborne, Colin P.; Freckleton, Robert P.

2009-01-01

284

[Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0.925 Pa, respectively.

Zhao CH; Gao JE; Xu Z

2013-01-01

285

Decomposition of leaf litter from tropical forage grasses and legumes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In tropical pastures which are generally underutilized, nutrients are returned to the soil mainly via plant litter. The release and recycling of nutrients from litter is known to be a function of climate and litter composition. However, little is known about the decomposition of tropical forage species in pastures. We compared rates of above ground litter decomposition and changes in nutrient contents of six legume and four grass species in litter bags over the wet and dry season of a well-drained isohyperthermic savanna of Colombia. Decomposition constants and litter half-lives were estimated by fitting a single exponential model to the data. Litter production was measured monthly in pure stands using matched quadrats. Of the six legume species studied, rates of decomposition of organic matter (OM) were fastest in Stylosanthes capitata and Arachis pintoi and slowest in Desmodium ovalifolium. The remaining legumes, Centrosema acutifolium, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis, decomposed at rates similar to the grasses Andropogon gayanus, Brachiaria decumbens, B. dictyoneura and B. humidicola. Rates of litter decomposition decreased and litter half-lives increased during the onset of the dry season. Rates of release of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) generally followed a pattern similar to that of OM, although the absolute amounts of N, K and Ca released were greater in the legumes than in the grasses due to higher initial concentrations in legumes. Immobilization of N occurred only in litter with high C:N ratios (> 109) and high lignin:N ratios (> 25). Of the chemical variables studied the lignin:N and (lignin + polyphenol):N ratios were linearly correlated with the loss of OM from grass and legume litter (r = 0.66). Losses of N were best correlated with the % lignin + (C:N ratio) (r = 0.67) but lignin: N, (lignin + polyphenol):N and C-to-N ratios also gave similar correlations (r = 0.61-0.67). The linear relationship between the lignin-to-N ratio and the loss of OM was improved when rainfall was included in a multiple regression (r = 0.82). The use of polyphenols as an indicator of litter decomposition is discussed but not recommended using the current simple methodologies available. The rates of N released were estimated from the litter decay equations and the mean monthly rates of litter production from pure stands of each species and were related to the N requirements of a tropical pasture producing 0.85-1.7 kg DM m-2 yr-1 The estimates indicated a slow and inadequate rate of N release from grasses and a wide variation in rate of release amongst the legumes and hence a variable, species-dependent, ability to supply a substantial proportion of a pasture's requirements from leaf litter decomposition.

Thomas RJ; Asakawa NM

1993-10-01

286

Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional ?-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency.

Kallioinen A; Uusitalo J; Pahkala K; Kontturi M; Viikari L; Weymarn Nv; Siika-Aho M

2012-11-01

287

Feasibility of incorporating waste grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) in particleboard composites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated some of the important physical (thickness swelling) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond) properties of single-layer particleboard panels made from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), waste of grass clippings (Lolium perenne L.) and combinations of the two. The chemical properties (pH, holocelluse and alpha cellulose contents, and water, alcohol-benzene and 1% sodium hydroxide solubilities) of the raw materials were also determined. Panels with a 6:94 ratio of grass-to-eucalyptus particles had the required mechanical properties for interior fitments including furniture and general uses. Boards manufactured with 100% grass clippings exhibited the lowest quality. The overall panel properties improved with a lower percentage of grass clippings added. Based on initial results, it also appears that grass should compose no more than 13% to achieve acceptable panel properties for interior fitments and general uses.

Nemli G; Demirel S; Gümü?kaya E; Aslan M; Acar C

2009-03-01

288

Raising mode for growing and cutting grass on farmland ridges to feed cattle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The technology of the invention relates to a raising mode for growing and cutting grass on farmland ridges to feed cattle, belonging to the technical field of traditional agriculture and mainly applied to rural areas in which farmland ridge cattle raising is the main mode of farm cattle raising. By stopping the cattle graze on farmland ridges, eliminating weeds and shrubs other than forage grass from the farmland ridges and growing the fine-quality forage grass, the aim of changing the raising mode of farmland ridge cattle graze into the raising mode of cutting the grass to feed the cattle can be achieved. The technology is characterized by eliminating the work for grazing the cattle, reducing the loss of crops due to the stealthy crop eating of the cattle on the farmland ridges, expanding the forage grass growing quantity and growing area, increasing the number of the raised cattle and improving the conditions of the farmland and the dry farms.

BAOPING LIU

289

Effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In present study, 60Co ?-rays was used to irradiate soil with doses of 3.0 kGy and 25.0 kGy, respectively, to discriminate between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other soil microorganisms, while soil without irradiation was used as control to study the effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass. The results showed that the AM infection rates in ryegrass and bahia grass were 48.0% and 28.0% in the control soil, respectively which indicated that both grass species were prone to forming AM symbiosis with AM fungi. Although AM fungi and other soil microorganisms had no significant effect on above ground biomass in ryegrass and bahia grass, both AM fungi and other soil microorganisms decreased the uptake of 89Sr in the two grass species, though to a more or less extant. (authors)

2006-01-01

290

Photosynthesis of a C[sub 3] grass and a C[sub 4] grass under elevated CO[sub 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The net photosynthetic rate (P(N)), intercellular CO[sub 2] concentration (C(i)), transpiration rate (E), stomatal resistance (r(s)), and water potential (PSI(W)) of a C[sub 3] grass (Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L.) and a C[sub 4] grass (big bluestem, Andropogon gerardii Vitman) growing in the spring in a tall grass prairie under two levels of CO[sub 2] (ambient and twice ambient) were compared. Elevated CO[sub 2] (HC) increased P(N) of Kentucky blue grass (C[sub 3]) by 47.0% but did not affect P(N) of big bluestem (C[sub 4]). HC increased C(i) of both grasses by about the same amount but reduced E (and parallelly increased r(s)) of big bluestem more than those of Kentucky bluegrass. HC increased PSI(W) of both grasses by about 30%. Kentucky bluegrass had a lower PSI(W) than big bluestem, but HC increased PSI(W) of Kentucky bluegrass to values more similar to those of big bluestem under ambient CO[sub 2](LC). Hence a high PSI(W), resulting from HC, was necessary for a high P(N).

Nie, D.; He, H.; Kirkham, M.B.; Kanemasu, E.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

1992-01-01

291

Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON), natural (NAT) and grass-fed (GFD) production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate) in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t), intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t) and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t). The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

Judith L. Capper

2012-01-01

292

Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp. PMID:23108805

Wang, Lu; Shang, Na; Feng, Hong; Guo, Qionglin; Dai, Heping

2012-10-30

293

Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp.

Wang L; Shang N; Feng H; Guo Q; Dai H

2013-08-01

294

Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and in soil N2O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N2O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N2O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N2 as a source of N2O. 2: examining the link between N2O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N2O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N2O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m-2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor explaining the high initial N2O emission from simulated urine patches. The results are discussed in relation to the national N2O inventory guidelines issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the environmental impact of organic farming practises are also considered. Suggestions for future research are outlined. (au)

2005-01-01

295

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Como na maior parte das gramíneas, num determinado momento do seu ciclo de vida, o meristema vegetativo da cana-de-açúcar é convertido em meristema reprodutivo. Em cana-de-açúcar há pelo menos duas conversões meristemáticas distintas entre a indução para o florescimento e a formação do florete. Em espécies dicotiledôneas modelo, a conversão sucessiva das identidades dos meristemas, bem como o arranjo concêntrico de órgãos florais são controlados geneti (more) camente. Todos os genes e/ou proteínas sabidamente envolvidos no desenvolvimento floral foram anotados e identificados no banco de dados do SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project). Comparações de seqüências entre genes reconhecidamente envolvidos no controle do desenvolvimento floral revelaram a conservação evolutiva entre os mecanismos de formação do padrão de desenvolvimento floral entre mono- e dicotiledôneas, bem como entre as gramíneas. Nossos estudos se concentraram na análise das famílias multigênicas dos fatores de transcrição do tipo MADS-box e AP2, uma vez que estes têm um papel importante na regulação do desenvolvimento reprodutivo vegetal. Também são apresentadas considerações sobre a genética evolutiva do desenvolvimento das flores de gramíneas e sua relação com o modelo ABC do desenvolvimento floral. Abstract in english In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been sho (more) wn to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Project (SUCEST) database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2) family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Rodriguez, Adriana P.M.

2001-12-01

296

A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp) as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret). In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Project (SUCEST) database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2) family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.Como na maior parte das gramíneas, num determinado momento do seu ciclo de vida, o meristema vegetativo da cana-de-açúcar é convertido em meristema reprodutivo. Em cana-de-açúcar há pelo menos duas conversões meristemáticas distintas entre a indução para o florescimento e a formação do florete. Em espécies dicotiledôneas modelo, a conversão sucessiva das identidades dos meristemas, bem como o arranjo concêntrico de órgãos florais são controlados geneticamente. Todos os genes e/ou proteínas sabidamente envolvidos no desenvolvimento floral foram anotados e identificados no banco de dados do SUCEST (Sugarcane EST Project). Comparações de seqüências entre genes reconhecidamente envolvidos no controle do desenvolvimento floral revelaram a conservação evolutiva entre os mecanismos de formação do padrão de desenvolvimento floral entre mono- e dicotiledôneas, bem como entre as gramíneas. Nossos estudos se concentraram na análise das famílias multigênicas dos fatores de transcrição do tipo MADS-box e AP2, uma vez que estes têm um papel importante na regulação do desenvolvimento reprodutivo vegetal. Também são apresentadas considerações sobre a genética evolutiva do desenvolvimento das flores de gramíneas e sua relação com o modelo ABC do desenvolvimento floral.

Marcelo C. Dornelas; Adriana P.M. Rodriguez

2001-01-01

297

Zuloagaea, a new genus of neotropical grass within the "bristle clade" (Poaceae: Paniceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent molecular data indicate that “Panicum” section Bulbosa does not belong in the genus Panicum. Previously published phylogenies strongly support its inclusion in the “bristle clade,” a monophyletic group in the Paniceae that includes the genera Setaria, Cenchrus, and Pennisetum, among others. The morphological synapomorphy for the clade is the presence of bristles (sterile branchlets) in the inflorescence, but Panicum bulbosum has no bristle-like structures at any stage of development, and is otherwise morphologically quite distinct from any of its close relatives. We have evaluated several possible taxonomic placements for section Bulbosa, reflecting the need to remove it from Panicum. Our conclusion, based on previously published molecular and current morphological data, is to erect a new genus, Zuloagaea, to accommodate section Bulbosa. We have also evaluated whether there are one, two, or three taxa within sect. Bulbosa. We have used principal components analysis of 33 morphological characters and find no distinct morphological groups within the section, and hence conclude that the group represents a single species.

Bess EC; Doust AN; Davidse G; Kellogg EA

2006-10-01

298

[Immunomodulating properties of pectin from seawater grass Zostera].  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunomodulating activity of zosterin was studied. Zosterin is a pectin from sea grass belonging to Zostera with pronounced antibacterial activity and therapeutic efficacy in experimental infections. It was shown that parenteral administration of the drug 24 hours before the antigenic irritation stimulated the humoral and cellular immunity in F1 (CBA X C 57 BL/6) mice: an increase in the number of the antibody cells in the spleen, the DTH and the index of the splenocyte spontaneous proliferation. In the animals treated with injections of zosterin and infected intraperitoneally with a virulent strain of S. enteritidis there was observed a marked increase in migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the abdominal cavity accompanied by an increase in their phagocytic activity. The results suggested the possible use of zosterin as a drug with associated antibacterial and immunomodulating activities. PMID:1755708

Zaporozhets, T S; Besednova, N N; Liamkin, G P; Loenko, Iu N; Popov, A M

1991-08-01

299

Potential of ozonolysis as a pretreatment for energy grasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of ozonolysis on Miscanthus×giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracillimus', Saccharum arundinaceum and Saccharum ravennae, collectively referred to as 'energy grasses'. Studies were conducted at three different ozone concentrations (40, 50 and 58mg/l) using two ozone flow configurations - uni-directional and reversed flow. Pretreatment conditions for each variety were optimized based on lignin content and glucan recovery in ozonated solids. Results showed that ozonolysis was effective in removing up to 59.9% lignin without cellulose degradation. However, subsequent hydrolysis of pretreated solids with Cellic® CTec2 at 0.06g/g raw biomass provided glucan conversion lower than untreated samples suggesting enzyme inhibition by lignin degradation products formed during ozonolysis. Future studies investigating hydrolysis efficiency of washed pretreated solids with higher enzyme loadings are therefore warranted to optimize the hydrolysis process and make it functionally feasible. PMID:24050926

Panneerselvam, Anushadevi; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Kolar, Praveen; Ranney, Thomas; Peretti, Steven

2013-08-30

300

Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The effect of soybean curd waste supplementation on water buffalo ration offered local grass a basal diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A trial has been conducted to determine the optimal level of soybean curd waste supplementation on growing water buffalo offered local grass as a basal diet. Four ration given to water buffalo were assigned in 4 x 4 latin square design consisting of local grass +0.25% soybean curd waste (A), local grass +0.50% soybean curd waste (B), local grass + 0% soybean curd waste (C), and local grass +0.75% soybean curd waste (D). The result indicated that total intake (P

1988-01-01

302

Immunological relationships among group I and group V allergens from grass pollen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Specific IgE antibodies have been affinity-purified from recombinant grass pollen allergens, and used to identify isoforms of the two major allergens of rye-grass pollen, Lol p I and Lol p V and cross-reactive allergens in other grasses. Lol p I-specific IgE (affinity-purified from the recombinant protein expressed by clone 13R which encodes amino acids 96-240 of Lol p I) identified four isoforms of the allergen. The same probe recognized cross-reactive epitopes in pollen proteins from 14 out of 16 grasses. The allergens identified by Lol p V-specific IgE (affinity-purified from the recombinant protein expressed by clones 12R or 19R which encode the full Lol p V protein) varied more in their physicochemical characteristics than the Group I isoforms. At least eight isoforms of Lol p V were identified by the Lol p V-specific IgE. The same probe recognized cross-reactive epitopes in pollen protein from 13 out of 16 grasses. Group I proteins were identified in grasses from two sub-families of the Poaceae, while the Group V allergens were only identified in pollen of grasses from one sub-family, the Pooideae.

Smith PM; Ong EK; Knox RB; Singh MB

1994-04-01

303

Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

1980-01-01

304

MR imaging of the knee : Three-dimensional fourier transform GRASS technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional(3D) Fourier transform(FT) gradient refocused acquisition in steady state (GRASS) technique for MR imaging of the knee. Sixty-three knees in 61 patients were imaged on the 1.5T MR system. We compared 3DFT GRASS technique with 2D spin echo(SE) technique in terms of conspicuousness of the lesions of internal knee structures based on the results of arthroscopy or open surgery. As a SE technique, sagittal T1-and T2-weighted, and coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequences were performed using 3D GRASS technique, and we also evaluated arbitrarily reformatted images produced from the original axial voxel images. For the depiction of the tear, 3DFT GRASS was superior to 2D SE in three cases of medial meniscus, one of lateral meniscus, and two of anterior cruciate ligament. Specificity of 3D GRASS was also higher than that of 2D SE in evaluation of lateral meniscus and anterior cruiciate ligament. There was no significant difference in MR diagnosis for tears of the posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. 3D GRASS was superior in evaluating the extent and morphology of the torn menisci. The 3DFT GRASS technique was comparable or even superior to the 2D SE technique in the evaluation of the internal structure of the knee, and can be expected to supplement standard MR knee techniques, especially in complicated cases of meniscal or ligamentous tears.

Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; No, In Gye; Chin, Seoung Bum; Kim, Joon Sik; Choi, Jae Yeul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-04-01

305

Estimation of grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for emergency situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several studies have been reported on soil to grass equilibrium transfer factors and grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for 137Cs for the environs of different nuclear power plants of both India and other parts of the world. In such studies, the activity concentration of 137Cs is measured in grass collected from different places. Cow's milk samples are collected from nearby localities or from milk dairies and analyzed for 137Cs and the grass to cow's milk transfer coefficient is estimated. In situation where 137Cs is not present in measurable activity concentrations, its stable counterpart (Cs) is measured for the estimation of transfer coefficients. These transfer coefficient values are generally used in theoretical models to estimate the dose to the population for hypothetical situation of emergency. It should be noted that the transfer coefficients obtained for equilibrium conditions may not be totally applicable for emergency situation. However, studies aimed at evaluating transfer coefficients for emergency situations are sparse because nuclear power plants do not release 137Cs during normal operating situations and therefore simulating situation of emergency release is not possible. Hence, the only method to estimate the grass to milk transfer coefficient for emergency situation is to spike the grass with small quantity of stable Cs. This paper reports the results of grass to milk transfer coefficients for stable isotope of Cesium (Cs) for emergency situation

2012-01-01

306

Chemical Compositions and Nutrient Degradation of Elephant Grass Silage Ensiled with Black Tea Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical compositions and nutrient degradation during ensiling of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage with black tea waste (BTW) addition. Four silage treatments were elephant grass (S0); elephant grass + 100 g BTW/ kg fresh matter (S1); elephant grass + 200 g BTW/kg fresh matter (S2); elephant grass + 300 g BTW/kg fresh matter. About 220 g of silage material were ensiled for 30 days at room temperature (approximately 28°C). Three replicates were prepared for each treatment. Results showed that dry matter, organic matter and crude protein contents of silages increased linearly (P<0.01) with increasing black tea waste. There were linear decreases in dry matter and crude protein degradations (P<0.01) and organic matter degradation (P<0.05) during ensiling with increased black tea waste addition. Dry matter degradation values varied from 15.03 to 30.71% and were higher than degradation value of ideal silage. It was concluded that black tea waste has potential as a silage additive to improve nutritive value and fermentation quality of elephant grass silage. (Animal Production 9(2): 160-165 (2007)Key Words: Elephant grass, black tea waste, silage additive, degradation

B Santoso; MN Lekitoo; Umiyati

2007-01-01

307

Structure-function analysis of grass clip serine protease involved in Drosophila Toll pathway activation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grass is a clip domain serine protease (SP) involved in a proteolytic cascade triggering the Toll pathway activation of Drosophila during an immune response. Epistasic studies position it downstream of the apical protease ModSP and upstream of the terminal protease Spaetzle-processing enzyme. Here, we report the crystal structure of Grass zymogen. We found that Grass displays a rather deep active site cleft comparable with that of proteases of coagulation and complement cascades. A key distinctive feature is the presence of an additional loop (75-loop) in the proximity of the activation site localized on a protruding loop. All biochemical attempts to hydrolyze the activation site of Grass failed, strongly suggesting restricted access to this region. The 75-loop is thus proposed to constitute an original mechanism to prevent spontaneous activation. A comparison of Grass with clip serine proteases of known function involved in analogous proteolytic cascades allowed us to define two groups, according to the presence of the 75-loop and the conformation of the clip domain. One group (devoid of the 75-loop) contains penultimate proteases whereas the other contains terminal proteases. Using this classification, Grass appears to be a terminal protease. This result is evaluated according to the genetic data documenting Grass function.

Kellenberger C; Leone P; Coquet L; Jouenne T; Reichhart JM; Roussel A

2011-04-01

308

On the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in Melbourne, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Melbourne, Australia, airborne grass pollen is the predominant cause of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) during late spring and early summer, with levels of airborne grass pollen also influencing hospital admissions for asthma. In order to improve predictions of conditions that are potentially hazardous to susceptible individuals, we have sought to better understand the causes of diurnal, intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability of atmospheric grass pollen concentrations (APC) by analysing grass pollen count data for Melbourne for 16 grass pollen seasons from 1991 to 2008 (except 1994 and 1995). Some of notable features identified in this analysis were that on days when either extreme (>100 pollen grains m(-3)) or high (50-100 pollen grains m(-3)) levels of grass pollen were recorded the winds were of continental origin. In contrast, on days with a low (?100 pollen grains m(-3)) during the study period were characterised by an average downward vertical wind anomaly in the surface boundary layer over Melbourne. Together these findings form a basis for a fine resolution atmospheric general circulation model for grass pollen in Melbourne's air that can be used to predict daily (and hourly) APC. This information will be useful to those sectors of Melbourne's population that suffer from allergic problems. PMID:20814699

de Morton, Julian; Bye, John; Pezza, Alexandre; Newbigin, Edward

2010-09-04

309

Management practices to overcome the incidence of grass tetany.  

Science.gov (United States)

To minimize the incidence of grass tetany, winter pastures should be established on soils containing Mg-rich minerals, drainage should be improved on five-textured soils, legumes should be included in the sward and soil pH should be at least 5.5. Liming acid soils with dolomitic lime increases forage Mg by supplying Mg and by raising soil pH. Calcitic lime applications also can increase Mg availability to plants on soils with adequate Mg. Low rates of application of soluble Mg salts (less than 100 kg/ha of Mg) effectively increase Mg uptake from noncalcareous soils with low cation exchange capacity. Potassium levels in soils and plants should be kept in the lower range of recommended values. Nitrogen application should be regulated to provide the desired level of forage production. Nitrogen fertilizers, especially the nitrate form, stimulate plant Mg uptake if Mg is available in the soil. The most practical and cost-efficient method of supplementing dietary Mg intake is to provide free-choice Mg. Supplements must be palatable and placed in locations frequently used by cow herds. Including a high-energy feed in the supplement may at times increase its preventive effectiveness by increasing Mg absorption and reducing lipolysis. Regardless of the supplement formulation, Mg intake should be monitored on a regular basis, and formulation or management changes should be initiated if Mg consumption is below required levels. In severe grass tetany outbreaks, foliar application of Mg or administration of Mg via the drinking water may be warranted. PMID:2693422

Robinson, D L; Kappel, L C; Boling, J A

1989-12-01

310

Management practices to overcome the incidence of grass tetany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To minimize the incidence of grass tetany, winter pastures should be established on soils containing Mg-rich minerals, drainage should be improved on five-textured soils, legumes should be included in the sward and soil pH should be at least 5.5. Liming acid soils with dolomitic lime increases forage Mg by supplying Mg and by raising soil pH. Calcitic lime applications also can increase Mg availability to plants on soils with adequate Mg. Low rates of application of soluble Mg salts (less than 100 kg/ha of Mg) effectively increase Mg uptake from noncalcareous soils with low cation exchange capacity. Potassium levels in soils and plants should be kept in the lower range of recommended values. Nitrogen application should be regulated to provide the desired level of forage production. Nitrogen fertilizers, especially the nitrate form, stimulate plant Mg uptake if Mg is available in the soil. The most practical and cost-efficient method of supplementing dietary Mg intake is to provide free-choice Mg. Supplements must be palatable and placed in locations frequently used by cow herds. Including a high-energy feed in the supplement may at times increase its preventive effectiveness by increasing Mg absorption and reducing lipolysis. Regardless of the supplement formulation, Mg intake should be monitored on a regular basis, and formulation or management changes should be initiated if Mg consumption is below required levels. In severe grass tetany outbreaks, foliar application of Mg or administration of Mg via the drinking water may be warranted.

Robinson DL; Kappel LC; Boling JA

1989-12-01

311

Determination of 90Sr in soil, grass and cereals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

90Sr was measured in environmental samples in Upper Austria in the year 2005. After the nuclear weapon tests the average deposition of 90Sr in Austria amounted to 3.3 kBq/m2. In 1986 the average deposition was 0.9 kBq/m2. To assess the actual condition in soil, grass and cereals 90Sr was measured in these samples. For all samples oxalate precipitation was conducted and strontium specific columns (Eichrom Industries, Inc.) were used. The calcium concentration in these samples was determined to estimate the amount of resin needed for the preparation. For grass and cereal samples columns were packed with the 100-150 ?m resin to gain a lower limit of detection LLD below 2 and below 0.1 Bq/kgdrymatter respectively. The prepacked 2 mL columns with particle size 100-150 ?m were used for soil (LLD below 2 Bq/kgdrymatter). After digestion of soil samples, hydroxide precipitation was used as an additional separation step. The 90Sr was measured by liquid scintillation counting. For quality control reasons, first the initial strontium concentration in the sample was determined then a strontium carrier solution was added and after the separation steps the chemical recovery was determined by ICP-MS. Thus, no radioactive tracer and just a small amount of the measuring solution were needed. The results are presented and discussed. These results will be used as reference for further 90Sr analyses which will be conducted in a 5 year period to detect any radiological impact of the nuclear power plant Temelin on the environment of Austria. (author)

2010-01-01

312

C-isotope composition of fossil sedges and grasses  

Science.gov (United States)

C4 plants differ from C3 plants regarding their anatomy and their C-isotope composition. Both features can be used in the geological record to determine the presence of C4 plants. Yet, the evolution of the C4 pathway in the fossil record is enigmatic as palaeobotanical and geological evidence for C4 plants is sparse. The oldest structural evidence for Kranz anatomy has been found in Late Miocene permineralized grass leaf remains. But studies on the C-isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter indicate that abundant C4 biomass was present in N-America and Asia throughout the Miocene in expanding savannahs and grasslands. The success of C4 plants appears to be related also to an increasing seasonal aridity in the tropical climate belts and the co-evolution of grazers. However, C- isotope composition of palaeosols or vertebrate teeth only allows to estimate the abundance of C4 plant biomass in the vegetation or in the diet without further taxonomical specification which plant groups would have had C4 metabolism. In this contribution the first extensive C-isotope analysis of fossil seeds of sedges and a few grasses are presented. The age of the carpological material ranges from Late Eocene to Pliocene and was collected from several central European brown coal deposits. The 52 different taxa studied include several species of Carex, Cladiocarya, Eriopherum, Eleocharis, Scirpus, Sparganium. Most of them representing herbaceous elements of a (sub)tropical vegetation growing near the edge of a lake. The C-isotope composition of the fossil seeds varies between -30 and -23 o/oo indicating C3 photosynthesis. This first systematic inventory shows that C4 plants were absent in the European (sub)tropical brown coal forming wetland vegetation during the Tertiary. These preliminary data are in agreement with phylogenetic studies which predict the origin of C4 plants outside the European realm.

Kurschner, Wolfram M.

2010-05-01

313

Temperature and functional traits influence differences in nitrogen uptake capacity between native and invasive grasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Performance differences between native and exotic invasive plants are often considered static, but invasive grasses may achieve growth advantages in western North America shrublands and steppe under only optimal growing conditions. We examine differences in N uptake and several morphological variables that influence uptake at temperatures between 5 and 25 °C. We contrast two native perennial grasses in western North America: Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata; two invasive annual grasses: Bromus tectorum and Taeniatherum caput-medusae; and one highly selected non-native perennial grass: Agropyron cristatum. The influence of temperature on N uptake is poorly characterized, yet these invasive annual grasses are known to germinate in warm soils in the autumn, and both experience cool soils during the short growing season following snowmelt in the spring. To further explore the influence of temperature on the correlation between morphological variables and N uptake, our data are applied to a previously published path model and one proposed here. Differences in N uptake between native and invasive grasses were small at the lowest temperature, but were large at the highest temperature. At lower temperatures, uptake of N by annuals and perennials was correlated with leaf N and mass. At higher temperatures, uptake by annuals was correlated only with these leaf traits, but uptake by perennials was correlated with these leaf traits as well as root N and mass. Consequently, our results imply that annual grasses face fewer morphological constraints on N uptake than perennial grasses, and annual grasses may gain further advantage in warmer temperature conditions or during more frequent warm periods.

Leffler AJ; James JJ; Monaco TA

2013-01-01

314

Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass) has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

Maréchal, PY.; Henriet, F.; Vancutsem, F.; Bodson, B.

2012-01-01

315

THE IDENTIFICATION OF SOME OF THE MORE COMMON NATIVE OKLAHOMA GRASSES BY VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing interest in grassland management in Oklahoma reveals the need for some means of identifying grasses by their vegetative characters. Native grasses comprise a major component of the state?s grazing resources; hence, this work concerns itself only with those species. Several keys of local scope have been prepared for various localities, but thus far none has been made specifically for Oklahoma. It is hoped that this work will prove helpful in identifying grasses when only the vegetative part is present.

William Franklin Harris

2010-01-01

316

Degradation of softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses by two steptomyces strains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Streptomyces strains, S. viridiosporus T7A and S. setonii 75Vi2, were grown on softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses, and lignocellulose decomposition was followed by monitoring substrate weight loss, lignin loss, and carbohydrate loss over time. Results showed that both Streptomyces strains substantially degraded both the lignin and the carbohydrate components of each lignocellulose. However, these Streptomyces strains were more efficient decomposers of grass lignocelluloses than of hardwood or softwood lignocelluloses; in particular, they were more efficient decomposers of grass lignins than of hardwood or softwood lignins.

Antal, S.P.; Crawford, D.L.

1981-08-01

317

Degradation of softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses by two Steptomyces strains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Streptomyces strains, S. viridosporus T7A and S. setonii 75Vi2, were grown on softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses, and lignocellulose decomposition was followed by monitoring substrate weight loss, lignin loss, and carbohydrate loss over time. Results showed that both Streptomyces strains substantially degraded both the lignin and the carbohydrate components of each lignocellulose; however, these actinomycetes were more efficient decomposers of grass lignocelluloses than of hardwood or softwood lignocelluloses. In particular, these Streptomyces strains were more efficient decomposers of grass lignins than of hardwood or softwood lignins.

Antai, S.P.; Crawford, D.L.

1981-08-01

318

Fire Control - A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis wedd and lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identified as fire threatened species and it has been observed that their sociological attributes were hampered severely by fire. Hence, the conservation of such species is needed through effective fire control measures.

Paulsamy S; Sivakumar R; Balasubramaniam V; Arumugasamy K; Nagarajan N

2001-04-01

319

Fire Control - A Conservation Tool for certain Medical Plants in Grass Hills Ecosystem, The Western Ghats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grass Hills ecosystem lies in Anaimalais. The western ghats possesses rich biodiversity, The annual summer fire, an integral part of this ecosystem, promotes the ecological status of certain perennial grasses including the dominant grass. Chrysopogon zeylanicus Thw. On the other hand, some medicinal plants Viz., Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Drosera peltata Sm Osbeckia parviflora Arn., Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis Wedd. And Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identiflora Arn. Emilia sonchifolia Dc. Lecanthus penduncularis wedd and lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne were identified as fire threatened species and it has been observed that their sociological attributes were hampered severely by fire. Hence, the conservation of such species is needed through effective fire control measures. PMID:22557019

Paulsamy, S; Sivakumar, R; Balasubramaniam, V; Arumugasamy, K; Nagarajan, N

2001-04-01

320

Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive plants are a growing concern worldwide for conservation of native habitats. In endangered wet meadow habitat in the Upper Midwestern United States, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a recognized problem and its prevalence is more widespread than the better-known invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Although resource managers are concerned about the effect of reed canary grass on birds, this is the first study to report how common wet meadow birds use habitat in relation to reed canary grass cover and dominance. We examined three response variables: territory placement, size of territories, and numbers of territories per plot in relation to cover of reed canary grass. Territory locations for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) were positively associated with reed canary grass cover, while those for Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) were not. Only Swamp Sparrow (M. georgiana) territory locations were negatively associated with reed canary grass cover and dominance (which indicated a tendency to place territories where there was no reed canary grass or where many plant species occurred with reed canary grass). Swamp Sparrow territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and litter depth. Common Yellowthroat territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and shrub cover. Song Sparrow territories were negatively associated with litter depth. Reed canary grass cover within territories was not associated with territory size for any of these four bird species. Territory density per plot was not associated with average reed canary grass cover of plots for all four species. Sedge Wrens and Song Sparrows may not respond negatively to reed canary grass because this grass is native to wet meadows of North America, and in the study area it merely replaces other tall lush plants. Avoidance of reed canary grass by Swamp Sparrows may be mediated through their preference for wet areas where reed canary grass typically does not dominate. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Kirsch, E. M.; Gray, B. R.; Fox, T. J.; Thogmartin, W. E.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails  

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Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis) showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks) on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type) which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1) no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2) vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3) vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4) vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5) vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6) vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v). Vaccination program by 1) Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2) Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05). It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05) In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001).

Chethanond, U.; Watanasit, S.; Prommeung, P.; Towatana, N.

2005-01-01

322

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (G (more) BGWL) 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961). In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

Win, Nang Kyu Kyu; Jung, Hee-Young

2012-02-01

323

Photosynthetic Response to the Low Temperature in Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Zea mays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Photosynthetic CO2 uptake and the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) of C4 grasses (Pennisetum purpureum and Zea mays) were studied at 14 and 25 °C. P. purpureum showed superior photosynthetic rates at chilling tempe...

Abdulkhaliq A. AL-Shoaibi

324

Effects of watering frequency, shade and glyphosate application on Paspalum conjugatum Berg (sour grass).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine effects of shade, water and a combination of either watering frequency or shade and glyphosate on growth of Paspalum conjugatum Berg. (sour grass). Plant height, shoot and root dry weight and numbers of leaves and tillers decreased as light and water levels decreased. The combined effect of glyphosate application and reduced watering frequency influenced shoot and root growth of plants receiving daily watering. Glyphosate had less effect on shoot and root dry weight and injury ratings of sour grass grown under water stress. Reduction in the growth of sour grass treated with 0.2 kg/ha glyphosate was greater under shade (52% and 69%) than under exposed conditions (0% and 36% shade). Visible injury to sour grass with 0.05 kg/ha glyphosate was greater under 69% shade than under exposed conditions.

Sahid IB; Ibrahim RB; Kadri S

1996-02-01

325

Growth response of some cultivars of bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon L.) to salt stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turfgrasses range from extremely salt sensitive to highly salt tolerant. Turf grass improvement for salinity tolerance requires reliable assessment for their adaptability to saline conditions, which vary among grasses. In the present study, four Bermuda grass cultivars - Tifway, Tifdwarf, Dacca and Khabbal (local ecotype) were assessed for salinity tolerance using half-strength Hoagland's solution culture system under green house conditions. The cultivars were exposed to five salinity levels viz., 2.4 (control) 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl). Increasing salt concentration in the nutrient media caused: (a) a reduction in number of stolons/plug, number of roots/plug, length of shoot, dry weights of root and shoot, turf quality, and potassium content in stolons, (b) increase in sodium and chloride content in stolons. Overall, cv. Tifway was found to be the most tolerant to salinity while Khabbal the most sensitive, among all four grass cultivars. (author)

2012-01-01

326

A novel grass hybrid to reduce flood generation in temperate regions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on the evaluation of a novel grass hybrid that provides efficient forage production and could help mitigate flooding. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is the grass species of choice for most farmers, but lacks resilience against extremes of climate. We hybridised L. perenne onto a closely related and more stress-resistant grass species, meadow fescue Festuca pratensis. We demonstrate that the L. perenne × F. pratensis cultivar can reduce runoff during the events by 51% compared to a leading UK nationally recommended L. perenne cultivar and by 43% compared to F. pratensis over a two year field experiment. We present evidence that the reduced runoff from this Festulolium cultivar was due to intense initial root growth followed by rapid senescence, especially at depth. Hybrid grasses of this type show potential for reducing the likelihood of flooding, whilst providing food production under conditions of changing climate.

Macleod CK; Humphreys MW; Whalley WR; Turner L; Binley A; Watts CW; Skøt L; Joynes A; Hawkins S; King IP; O'Donovan S; Haygarth PM

2013-01-01

327

Roles of the grass-Neotyphodium association in pastoral agriculture systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neotyphodium (syn. =Acremonium) endophytes are a group of fungi which live for all, or at least a significant part of their life cycle asymptomatically within grass plant parts. Innumerable studies on graminicolous endophytic fungi have been carried out internationally in the fields of mycology, pasture agronomy, animal and plant sciences and veterinary science during the last 25 years. Research on endophytes started in the early 1990's in China. In this paper research progress on the grass-endophyte association both in China and overseas was reviewed and key areas for further study were suggested. Fourteen Neotyphodium species have been formally identified and reported from 23 genera of grasses in the world literature. Endophytes have been found in 13 genera and 25 species of forage grasses in native grasslands in China. Among these host plants, Descampsia, Hordeum and Leymus genera have not been reported as Neotyphodium hosts previously in the world literature.

Nan Zhibiao; Li Chunjie

2004-01-01

328

Liveweight performance of crossbred and Zebu cattle grazing on native or Rhodes grass pastures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two experiments are described involving 33 crossbred (mainly Simmental and Jersey X Zebu) and 33 Zebu (Horro and Boran) bulls and steers. In experiment I, growth rates of crossbred and Zebu cattle rotationally grazed on either native pasture or Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) were compared during a 140 day grazing period at a stocking rate of 2.4 animals/ha. In experiment II, growth rate of cattle rotationally grazed for 140 days on native pasture was compared with that of a similar group grazed on Rhodes grass either rotationally or continuously at a stocking rate of seven animals/ha. On native pasture the average daily gain by Zebu animals was similar to that of the crossbreds whilst on Rhodes grass liveweight gain of Zebu animals was lower than that of the crossbreds. Daily gains of cattle were significantly (P less than 0.01) greater on continuous compared with rotationally grazed Rhodes grass.

O'Donovan PB; Woldegebriel A; Taylor MS; Gebrewolde A

1978-11-01

329

'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' associated with white leaf disease of golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A phytoplasma was detected in golden beard grass (Chrysopogon acicalatus) displaying white leaf symptoms near vegetative fields at the Tatkone region in Myanmar, 2011. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, including the 16S-23S spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene, the phytoplasma was identified as a member of the Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (BGWL) group. The golden beard grass white leaf phytoplasma (GBGWL) 16S rRNA gene sequence exhibited over 98.7% similarity with all members of BGWL group phytoplasmas and 99.5% similarity with Thailand Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma (AF248961). In addition, the GBGWL phytoplasma was confirmed to be a member of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' by phylogenetic analyses.

Nang Kyu Kyu Win; Hee-Young Jung

2012-01-01

330

Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Functional trait differences and trait adjustment in response to influences of the biotic environment could reflect niche partitioning among species. In this study, we tested how variation in above-ground plant traits, chosen as indicators for light and nitrogen acquisition and use, differs among taxonomically closely related species (Poaceae) to assess their potential for niche segregation at increasing plant diversity. METHODS: Traits of 12 grass species were measured in experimental grasslands (Jena Experiment) of varying species richness (from 1 to 60) and presence of particular functional groups (grasses, legumes, tall herbs and small herbs). KEY RESULTS: Grass species increased shoot and leaf length, investment into supporting tissue (stem mass fraction) and specific leaf area as well as reduced foliar ?(13)C values with increasing species richness, indicating higher efforts for light acquisition. These species-richness effects could in part be explained by a higher probability of legume presence in more diverse communities. Leaf nitrogen concentrations increased and biomas s : N ratios in shoots decreased when grasses grew with legumes, indicating an improved nitrogen nutrition. Foliar ?(15)N values of grasses decreased when growing with legumes suggesting the use of depleted legume-derived N, while decreasing ?(15)N values with increasing species richness indicated a shift in the uptake of different N sources. However, efforts to optimize light and nitrogen acquisition by plastic adjustment of traits in response to species richness and legume presence, varied significantly among grass species. It was possible to show further that trait adjustment of grass species increased niche segregation in more diverse plant communities but that complementarity through niche separation may differ between light and nutrient acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that even among closely related species such as grasses different strategies are used to cope with neighbours. This lack in redundancy in turn may facilitate complementary resource use and coexistence.

Gubsch M; Buchmann N; Schmid B; Schulze ED; Lipowsky A; Roscher C

2011-01-01

331

Invasive Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) is an ecosystem transformer of nitrogen relations in Australian savanna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasion by the African grass Andropogon gayanus is drastically altering the understory structure of oligotrophic savannas in tropical Australia. We compared nitrogen (N) relations and phenology of A. gayanus and native grasses to examine the impact of invasion on N cycling and to determine possible reasons for invasiveness of A. gayanus. Andropogon gayanus produced up to 10 and four times more shoot phytomass and root biomass, with up to seven and 2.5 times greater shoot and root N pools than native grass understory. These pronounced differences in phytomass and N pools between A. gayanus and native grasses were associated with an altered N cycle. Most growth occurs in the wet season when, compared with native grasses, dominance of A. gayanus was associated with significantly lower total soil N pools, lower nitrification rates, up to three times lower soil nitrate availability, and up to three times higher soil ammonium availability. Uptake kinetics for different N sources were studied with excised roots of three grass species ex situ. Excised roots of A. gayanus had an over six times higher-uptake rate of ammonium than roots of native grasses, while native grass Eriachne triseta had a three times higher uptake rate of nitrate than A. gayanus. We hypothesize that A. gayanus stimulates ammonification but inhibits nitrification, as was shown to occur in its native range in Africa, and that this modification of the soil N cycle is linked to the species' preference for ammonium as an N source. This mechanism could result in altered soil N relations and could enhance the competitive superiority and persistence of A. gayanus in Australian savannas. PMID:19769102

Rossiter-Rachor, N A; Setterfield, S A; Douglas, M M; Hutley, L B; Cook, G D; Schmidt, S

2009-09-01

332

Invasive Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) is an ecosystem transformer of nitrogen relations in Australian savanna.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invasion by the African grass Andropogon gayanus is drastically altering the understory structure of oligotrophic savannas in tropical Australia. We compared nitrogen (N) relations and phenology of A. gayanus and native grasses to examine the impact of invasion on N cycling and to determine possible reasons for invasiveness of A. gayanus. Andropogon gayanus produced up to 10 and four times more shoot phytomass and root biomass, with up to seven and 2.5 times greater shoot and root N pools than native grass understory. These pronounced differences in phytomass and N pools between A. gayanus and native grasses were associated with an altered N cycle. Most growth occurs in the wet season when, compared with native grasses, dominance of A. gayanus was associated with significantly lower total soil N pools, lower nitrification rates, up to three times lower soil nitrate availability, and up to three times higher soil ammonium availability. Uptake kinetics for different N sources were studied with excised roots of three grass species ex situ. Excised roots of A. gayanus had an over six times higher-uptake rate of ammonium than roots of native grasses, while native grass Eriachne triseta had a three times higher uptake rate of nitrate than A. gayanus. We hypothesize that A. gayanus stimulates ammonification but inhibits nitrification, as was shown to occur in its native range in Africa, and that this modification of the soil N cycle is linked to the species' preference for ammonium as an N source. This mechanism could result in altered soil N relations and could enhance the competitive superiority and persistence of A. gayanus in Australian savannas.

Rossiter-Rachor NA; Setterfield SA; Douglas MM; Hutley LB; Cook GD; Schmidt S

2009-09-01

333

Purification of wastewater using different grass species; Rening av avloppsvatten med olika graesarter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sewage treatment is an expensive but necessary measure. There are good methods for phosphorus cleansing but no good methods for nitrogen removal. Small sewage treatment plants are mostly built by the principle of phosphorus fixation, in a sand bed, while nitrogen continues to surface or groundwater. As a complementary or substitutional method of sewage treatment among others, plant uptake can be used. In Surahammar sewage treatment with ley plants is tested. The species were Reed canary grass, Meadow foxtail, Smooth brome grass and Reed meadow grass and they were sown like ordinary agricultural crops, except Reed meadow grass which was planted, and irrigated with nutrient rich wastewater. The species were irrigated and harvested according to previous made schedules. The two main harvests were taken at times when ordinary ley harvest take place in the area. The year was a bit abnormal with a dry and very hot summer with day temperatures around 30 deg C periodically. I have been studying the growth in the two irrigation levels. The levels were irrigation corresponding to evaporation minus rainfall and twice the evaporation minus rainfall. At the lower irrigation level Reed canary grass yield the most in the main harvest with 8470 kg/ha and Reed meadow grass the least with 5500 kg/ha. At the higher irrigation level the Smooth brome grass yielded the most in the main harvests with 10 560 kg/ha and Reed meadow grass the least with 7590 kg/ha. If a one harvest system had been an alternative the Meadow foxtail would have yielded the most with 9260 kg/ha and 11 740 kg/ha respectively Examination paper no 930. 47 refs, 5 figs, 12 tabs, 6 photos

Troedson, R.

1997-12-31

334

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

Xia Jun; Liu Feng; Zhu Ze; Fu Jianjun; Feng Jianbin; Li Jiale; Yue Gen

2010-01-01

335

Günther Grass and the Pirates: The Stuff of Myth and the Baltic Sea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grass’s Flounder contributes to our work of locating, dislocating, and relocating literature in the Baltic Sea region by challenging us to give attention to the lost or hidden stories that are ignored or played off against each other in the official versions of history that would fix our position in space. While Grass counters the seduction of the big story — universal history — he also reveals himself by getting caught in the contradiction of his own storytelling.

Kenneth J Knoespel

2013-01-01

336

Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly contribute to understanding how different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic grid are regulated. Given the conservation of the selected regulators in other grasses, results derived from this project are likely to provide important tools for the manipulation of phenolic compounds in other emerging biomass producers (e.g., switchgrass or miscanthus), either through conventional breeding techniques (e.g., marker-assisted breeding) or by using transgenic approaches.

Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

2013-07-26

337

Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

2008-09-24

338

Crude Protein and Crude of Fiber Benggala [Panicum Maximum] and Elephant [Pennisetum Purpureum] Grasses on Drought Stress Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of crop response to water is essential for proper irrigation management. Research was conducted at Forage Crop Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Department, Faculty Of Animal Husbandry, Diponegoro University during 9 month trying two type grass that were benggala ( Panicum maximum) and elephant ( Pennisetum purpureum) with treatment of the following dry stres : S0 = control, without stress; S1 = 1 times drought stress, S2 = 2 times drought stress , and S3 = 3 times drought stress by lay out of complete random design( factorial pattern). Parameter perceived were( 1) forage production , (2) dry matter production, (3) percentage of crude protein, and (4) percentage of crude fibre. Data collected to be analysed by analysis of varians continued with Duncan multiple range test. Result of research indicate that forage production of elephant grass (103,79 g/pot) bigger than benggala (53,08 g/pot). Dry matter production of elephant grass was 18,77 g/pot higher than benggala grass( 14,54 g/pot). Drought stres do not affect to forage production also dry matter production : Percentage of crude protein of benggala grass (9,10%) higher than elephant grass (7,02%), while percentage crude fibre of benggala grass (35,64%) higher than elephant grass (31,67%). Drought stres do not influence percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala and elephant grasses. Conclusion from research were (1) elephant grass have higher forage production and dry matter production than benggala grass (2) percentage of crude protein and crude fibre of benggala grass higher than elephant grass, (3) drought stres do not affect to forage production , dry matter production, percentage of crude protein and crude fibre. (Animal Production 11(2): 109-115 (2009) Key Words : crude protein, fiber, drought stress

ED Purbajanti; S Anwar; S Widyati; F Kusmiyati

2009-01-01

339

Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

Beuzelin JM; Mészáros A; Reagan TE; Wilson LT; Way MO; Blouin DC; Showler AT

2011-10-01

340

Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations. PMID:22251716

Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Porter, D.; Edwards, D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

342

Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with their implications for genome duplication and evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae) and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae) diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

Zhong Lei; Yu Xiaomu; Tong Jingou

2006-01-01

343

The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela

2013-01-01

344

The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper: targeted use of genome resources for comparative grass genomics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

Pfeifer M; Martis M; Asp T; Mayer KF; Lübberstedt T; Byrne S; Frei U; Studer B

2013-02-01

345

Field growth comparisons of invasive alien annual and native perennial grasses in monocultures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Throughout the western United States, the invasive annual grass, medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae L. Nevski), is rapidly invading grasslands once dominated by native perennial grasses, such as bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A). It is also invading grasslands dominated by less undesirable invasive annual grasses, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Understanding medusahead growth dynamics relative to native perennial grasses and cheatgrass is central to predicting and managing medusahead invasion. We hypothesized that medusahead would have a higher relative growth rate (RGR), a longer period of growth, and as a consequence, more total biomass at the end of the growing season than the native perennial grass and cheatgrass. In 2008 (dry conditions), 250 seeds and in 2009 (wet conditions), 250 and 100 seeds of each species were sown in 1 m2 plots with 5 replicates. Shoots were harvested on 3-25 day intervals throughout the growing season. The native perennial grass had more biomass and higher RGR than medusahead in the dry year, but the relationship was reversed in the wet year. Precipitation in 2008 was well-below average and this level of drought is very infrequent based on historical weather data. Medusahead had a longer period of growth and more total biomass than cheatgrass for both years. We expect that medusahead will continue to invade both native perennial and less undesirable invasive annual grasslands because of its higher RGR and extended period of growth.

Mangla S; Sheley RL; James JJ

2011-02-01

346

Wyoming big sagebrush density: Effects of seeding rates and grass competition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining industry commonly seeds shrubs and grasses concurrently on coal-mined lands of northeastern Wyoming, but ecological interactions between seeded shrubs and grasses are not well documented. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) is the dominant pre-mining shrub on many Wyoming mine sites. Despite past failures to establish Wyoming big sagebrush, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Land Quality Division's rules and regulations require establishment of 1 shrub per m2 on 20% of post-mined land in Wyoming. A study was established at the Belle Ayr Coal Mine south of Gillette, Wyoming to evaluate the effects of sagebrush seeding rates and grass competition on Wyoming big sagebrush seedling density planted during winter 1998-1999. Grass density and production in the year 2000 suggest that adequate grass production (greater than or equal to75 g/m2) was achieved by seeding at 6 to 8 kg pure live seeds (pls)/ha. Within these grass seeding rates, four or more sagebrush seedlings per m2 were attained when sagebrush was seeded at 2 to 4 kg pls/ha. Use of these seeding rate combinations in mine reclamation can achieve Wyoming big sagebrush standards and reduce reseeding costs.

Williams, M.I.; Schuman, G.E.; Hild, A.L.; Vicklund, L.E. [New Mexico State University, Mora, NM (United States). Mora Research Center

2002-07-01

347

The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper: targeted use of genome resources for comparative grass genomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species. PMID:23184232

Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F X; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

2012-11-26

348

Water changes in soil and water use during seedling growth of three herbaceous grasses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three herbaceous grasses which were switchgrassPanicum virgatum, Old World bluestem Bothriochloa ischaernurn and foxtail millet Setaria italica seedlings were subjected to five different soil moisture treatments in growth chamber, which were high level HW, 80 % FC, 14.72 % and drying from HW DHW,low level LW,50% FC,9.2% and drying from LW DLW,and then rewatered to LW RLW. The results showed that all the three grasses had significantly the highest seedling biomass and transpiration water use efficiency TWUE under HW. The seedling biomass,TWUE and total water consumption of foxtail millet were also the biggest under each treatment as compared with switchgrass and Old World bluestem. The root/shoot ratio of each grass under HW and LW were not significantly different P0.05. In each treatment foxtail millet had the smallest and switchgrass had the biggest root/shoot ratio. After from LW to DLW and then RLW treatments, the seedling biomass and TWUE of three herbaceous grasses were significantly improved 16.7%-98.7% and 28.2%-118.2% respectively, and Old World bluestem had the biggest increasement. The difference among the three grasses in root and shoot biomass growth and water use reflected the soil water eco-adaptation characteristics of native,cultivated and introduced herbaceous grass seedlings to semiarid loess hilly-gully region.

Xu Bingcheng; Shan Lun; Li Fengmin

349

GOLDEN EYE GRASS - A MAGICAL REMEDY BY NATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the dawn of civilization, medicinal plants are known to be part of human society to combat diseases. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and various evidences have been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. India officially recognizes over 3000 plants for their medicinal value. It is generally estimated that over 6000 plants in India are in use in traditional, folk and herbal medicine. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Curculigo orchioides, Amaryllidaceae also known as “Golden eye grass”. It possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medicinal value. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for various ailments. The rhizome is rich in Curculigoside, other glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and also contains various polyphenolic compounds. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of the rhizome shows antioxidant, anti inflammatory, spermatogenic, aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antiasthamatic, supporting its traditional uses. In this review article, we have focused our interest on phytochemistry, traditional uses, tissue culture study and its reported pharmacological properties.

Nidhi Soni et al

2012-01-01

350

Evidence for rapid evolution of phenology in an invasive grass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evolutionary dynamics of integrative traits such as phenology are predicted to be critically important to range expansion and invasion success, yet there are few empirical examples of such phenomena. In this study, we used multiple common gardens to examine the evolutionary significance of latitudinal variation in phenology of a widespread invasive species, the Asian short-day flowering annual grass Microstegium vimineum. In environmentally controlled growth chambers, we grew plants from seeds collected from multiple latitudes across the species' invasive range. Flowering time and biomass were both strongly correlated with the latitude of population origin such that populations collected from more northern latitudes flowered significantly earlier and at lower biomass than populations from southern locations. We suggest that this pattern may be the result of rapid adaptive evolution of phenology over a period of less than one hundred years and that such changes have likely promoted the northward range expansion of this species. We note that possible barriers to gene flow, including bottlenecks and inbreeding, have apparently not forestalled evolutionary processes for this plant. Furthermore, we hypothesize that evolution of phenology may be a widespread and potentially essential process during range expansion for many invasive plant species.

Novy A; Flory SL; Hartman JM

2013-02-01

351

Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. (Dept. of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1990-03-01

352

UV-screening of grasses by plant silica layer?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UV-screening by terrestrial plants is a crucial trait since colonization of terrestrial environments has started. In general, it is enabled by phenolic substances. Especially for grasses it remains unclear why plants grown under the absence of UV-B-radiation exhibit nonetheless a high UV-B-screening potential. But this may be explained by the UV-screening effect of the silicon double layer. It was shown for seedlings of soybeans (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that enhanced silicon supply reduces stress induced by UV-radiation. Even more important is a direct correlation between silicon content in the epidermis near area (intercellular spaces) and the absorption of UV-radiation in this area shown in other papers. The silicon double layer may act like a glass layer and decreases the transmission of UV-radiation at the epidermis near area. In summary, the absorbance/reflection of ultraviolet radiation is dependent on the characteristics of the epidermis near area of leaves, particularly the occurrence (qualitatively and quantitatively) of phenolic substances and/or a silicon double layer in this area. Consequently, UV-screening by plant silicon double layer should get more attention in future research with emphasis on effects of UV-radiation on plant physiology.

Schaller J; Brackhage C; Bäucker E; Dudel EG

2013-06-01

353

Genome diversity in wild grasses under environmental stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patterns of diversity distribution in the Isa defense locus in wild-barley populations suggest adaptive selection at this locus. The extent to which environmental selection may act at additional nuclear-encoded defense loci and within the whole chloroplast genome has now been examined by analyses in two grass species. Analysis of genetic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) defense genes revealed much greater variation in biotic stress-related genes than abiotic stress-related genes. Genetic diversity at the Isa defense locus in wild populations of weeping ricegrass [Microlaena stipoides (Labill.) R. Br.], a very distant wild-rice relative, was more diverse in samples from relatively hotter and drier environments, a phenomenon that reflects observations in wild barley populations. Whole-chloroplast genome sequences of bulked weeping ricegrass individuals sourced from contrasting environments showed higher levels of diversity in the drier environment in both coding and noncoding portions of the genome. Increased genetic diversity may be important in allowing plant populations to adapt to greater environmental variation in warmer and drier climatic conditions. PMID:22173638

Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Shapter, Frances M; McDonald, Stuart; Waters, Daniel L E; Chivers, Ian H; Drenth, Andre; Nevo, Eviatar; Henry, Robert J

2011-12-15

354

Is Campanula glomerata threatened by competition of expanding grasses?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In East Germany, a high percentage of species-rich, semi-natural dry grasslands has been converted into species-poor communities dominated either by Poa angustifolia or Festuca rupicola. The disappearance of low-intensity types of agricultural land-use such as mowing and grazing has been the cause for the decline of many grassland species, as lack of biomass extraction leads to a new situation in competition. Here we evaluate the performance of the rare forb Campanula glomerata in competition with P. angustifolia and F. rupicola using a replacement design experiment. C. glomerata responded to the presence of these grass species in contrasting ways: whereas the presence of P. angustifolia had a negative effect on C. glomerata biomass and fitness, the presence of F. rupicola affected the forb in a positive way. The results of an additional sowing experiment revealed that the germination and establishment rates of C. glomerata decrease in accordance with increasing density of P. angustifolia. Thus the response of this rare forb varies among neighbour species.

Bachmann U; Hensen I; Partzsch M

2005-01-01

355

Management of diabetic dyslipidemia with subatmospheric dehydrated barley grass powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP) supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36) and control groups (n=23). BGP (1.2 g/day) in the form of capsules (n=4) was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C) and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.

Venugopal Shonima; Iyer Uma

2010-01-01

356

Ecological risk assessment of pesticide runoff from grass surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An ecological risk assessment was performed for runoff of 37 pesticides registered for use on grass surfaces (lawns and golf courses) in the U.S. The assessment was based on 100-yr simulations using TPQPond, a newly developed model of pesticide runoff and subsequent accumulation in a receiving pond. One-in-10 yr pond concentrations were compared with acute toxicity end points for fish, invertebrates, and algae. Simulations were performed for pesticides applied at label rates on lawns, fairways, and greens using weather data for nine U.S. locations. Runoff of 4 of the 37 pesticides produced potential acute risk to invertebrates or fish. Two chemicals posed a comparable danger to plants. Risk was highest with fairways and lowest for greens. Locations with long growing seasons and large amounts of precipitation produced the highest risks. The risk assessment followed the general protocols recommended by USEPA, but with different models, weather data, and scenarios. In spite of the differences, the results confirmed that most but not all of the pesticides which had survived the USEPA registration process were also demonstrated safe, with respect to acute risks, by this independent assessment. The five exceptions were explained by differences in models, simulation scenarios, and input data. These results do not mean that the studied pesticides are free of any ecological dangers. In particular, no attempt was made to evaluate chronic risk.

Haith DA

2010-08-01

357

Biogenic hydrogen and methane production from reed canary grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The composition, biodegradability, abundance, availability and cost determine the amenability of carbonaceous substrate for fermentative hydrogen and methane production systems. The aim of the present work was to determine suitability of lignocellulosic material, reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea L.), for hydrogen and methane production at 35 C by utilizing solid RCG and acid hydrolyzed soluble RCG. Synthetic cellulose was used as control substrate. Acid hydrolysis released 61.7 mg g{sup -1} (dw) and 115 mg g{sup -1} (dw) of reducing sugars from synthetic cellulose and chopped RCG, respectively. More hydrogen was produced from acid hydrolyzed RCG than from solid RCG, the highest yield being 1.25 mmol H{sub 2} per g (dw) RCG. Methane production from solid RCG resulted in the highest yield of 8.26 mmol CH{sub 4} per g (dw) RCG. In summary hydrogen and methane was produced from RCG, and acid hydrolysis was required for hydrogen, but not for methane production. (author)

Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Koskinen, Perttu E.P.; Nevatalo, Laura M.; Kaksonen, Anna H.; Puhakka, Jaakko A. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

2011-02-15

358

Biological consequences of invasion by reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although they are typically assumed to be negative, the consequences of plant invasions for native diversity or biological integrity are seldom broadly quantified (i.e., for multiple taxa or across large regions). We investigated the impacts associated with invasion of wetlands by reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.; RCG) on plants and several animal groups. In a local study, we compared plants, arthropods, and small mammals on treatment plots with reduced RCG dominance to those on highly invaded plots. We also conducted a companion study, where we measured RCG dominance and plants, arthropods, and birds in 82 randomly selected wetlands across Illinois (USA) to determine if our experimental results were consistent in communities across the region. Plant diversity, floristic quality, and diversity and abundance of Homopteran insects decreased with RCG dominance in all instances. Richness and abundance of all other arthropods decreased with increasing RCG in the local study, but no trend was detected in communities statewide. No relationship between total abundance or richness of small mammals (local) or birds (statewide) with RCG was detected. However, voles and shrews were more abundant, and mice less abundant, in RCG-dominated plots. These results support the hypothesis that there are negative effects for multiple taxa from RCG invasion. Because negative effects observed in the local study either corroborated, or were neutral with respect to results from statewide surveys, they suggest that native biodiversity and biological integrity are being dampened across wide areas of this invader's range.

Spyreas Greg; Wilm BrianW; Plocher AllenE; Ketzner DavidM; Matthews JeffreyW; Ellis JamesL; Heske EdwardJ

2010-05-01

359

Grass Deschampsia cespitosa (L. ) Beauv. from the Sudbury smelting area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation was conducted into the multi-element tolerance of the grass Deschampsia cespitosa growing around a nickel/copper smelting complex at Coniston, near Sudbury, Ontario. Tolerances for nickel, copper, aluminium, zinc, lead and cadmium in this population were compared with those of control populations growing on uncontaminated pastures. Distinctive population differences were found in distributions of copper and nickel tolerances, indicating that elevated tolerance to these elements had evolved in the Coniston population. More subtle differences between the populations in aluminium, zinc and lead tolerance were also noted, with increased tolerances showing in the smelter area population, despite a lack of elevation in zinc and lead levels in the soils. Various individuals in the Coniston population demonstrated a positive response to nickel and copper at levels as high as 0.3 ..mu..g cm/sup -3/ in water culture. This need for the metals was reflected in the seed population from Coniston which germinated and survived better in the copper/nickel-contaminated soils than in the control soil. In contrast, germination of the control seed population was uniformly good, but seedling survival was poor on the metal contaminated soils compared with that of the Coniston seedlings. The relevance of these findings to evolution of multi-metal tolerances and the possible uses of the species for reclamation are discussed. The occurrence of coincidental metal tolerances is considered. 45 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Cox, R.M.; Hutchinson, T.C.

1980-01-01

360

Saccharopolyspora jiangxiensis sp. nov., isolated from grass-field soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An actinomycete isolated from soil from a field of grass was analysed using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The organism, designated strain W12(T), was found to have a range of chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Saccharopolyspora. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for the strain was aligned with corresponding sequences for representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora, using two tree-making algorithms. The novel organism formed a monophyletic clade with the type strain of Saccharopolyspora antimicrobica, but the DNA-DNA relatedness value was low. Strain W12(T) also had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from recognized representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora. It is evident from the combined genotypic and phenotypic data that the new organism should be classified as a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The name proposed for this new taxon is Saccharopolyspora jiangxiensis sp. nov., with strain W12(T) (=CGMCC 4.3529(T)=JCM 14613(T)) as the type strain.

Zhang J; Wu D; Liu Z

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Identifying urban sources as cause to elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres from this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflects the source areas identified in the inventory, and that these pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near and within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations, there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution, and is thus a local scale phenomenon. Model simulations aiming at assessment of population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulates pollen release in order to calculate urban scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14 m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are in additional available in tabular form.

Skjøth, C. A.; Ørby, P. V.; Becker, T.; Geels, C.; Schlünssen, V.; Sigsgaard, T.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sommer, J.; Søgaard, P.; Hertel, O.

2012-10-01

362

Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three pollen traps and by comparing these observations with a novel inventory of grass pollen sources. The source inventory is based on a new methodology developed for urban-scale grass pollen sources. The new methodology is believed to be generally applicable for the European area, as it relies on commonly available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations of grass pollen in the urban zone reflect the source areas identified in the inventory, and that the pollen sources that are found to affect the pollen levels are located near or within the city domain. The results also show that during days with peak levels of pollen concentrations there is no correlation between the three urban traps and an operational trap located just 60 km away. This finding suggests that during intense flowering, the grass pollen concentration mirrors the local source distribution and is thus a local-scale phenomenon. Model simulations aimed at assessing population exposure to pollen levels are therefore recommended to take into account both local sources and local atmospheric transport, and not to rely only on describing regional to long-range transport of pollen. The derived pollen source inventory can be entered into local-scale atmospheric transport models in combination with other components that simulate pollen release in order to calculate urban-scale variations in the grass pollen load. The gridded inventory with a resolution of 14 m is therefore made available as supplementary material to this paper, and the verifying grass pollen observations are additionally available in tabular form.

Skjøth, C. A.; Ørby, P. V.; Becker, T.; Geels, C.; Schlünssen, V.; Sigsgaard, T.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sommer, J.; Søgaard, P.; Hertel, O.

2013-01-01

363

Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US) populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT) or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT).Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark) with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark). Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of treatment.Conclusion: Budget impact analysis showed that grass AIT is a cost-saving alternative to SCIT when treating patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.Keywords: grass pollen, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergy immunotherapy tablet, subcutaneous immunotherapy, health economics, budget impact analysis

Rønborg SM; Svendsen UG; Micheelsen JS; Ytte L; Andreasen JN; Ehlers L

2012-01-01

364

Production of biogas with grass silage - when is it worthwhile?; Biogas erzeugen mit Grassilage - wann lohnt sich das?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors of the contribution under consideration determine the costs of the supply of grass silage by the example of three grassland regions with dairy cattle farming. Furthermore, the authors discuss the economic thresholds for the use of grass silage in biogas plants. Clearly increased methane yields and clearly smaller costs for the supply of substrate for maize silages speak for the renouncement of grass silage as a substrate for biogas plants. In grassland regions, biogas plants are economical if liquid manure as basic substrate and small quantities of grass silage are used for gas production. The use of grass silage only is meaningful in grassland regions with very small costs of supply. In milk cattle regions with high costs of supply, the use of higher amounts of grass silage is meaningful only if the cultivation of grassland is optimized and the associated costs clearly are lowered. Saving potentials are available in the cultivation of grassland.

Hartmann, S.; Hilberth, A.; Doehler, H. [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

2007-07-01

365

A trial of the suitability of switchgrass and reed canary grass as biofuel crops under UK conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project summary report describes the aims, objectives, method, results and conclusions of a field trial to determine the suitability of switchgrass and reed canary grass as a biofuel crop under UK conditions. Switchgrass, reed canary grass and miscanthus were established in 2001 at nine research plots at a range of sites across the UK and monitored for yield, production cost and incidence of pests and diseases; the performance of switchgrass and reed canary grass was compared with that of miscanthus. Switchgrass is a forage grass from North America while reed canary grass is native to the UK. Each site had a fully replicated and randomised design. Details of the test plots, varieties grown, fertiliser application, growth patterns, yield variations, estimates of commercial growing costs and costs per ton are given. The trials demonstrated that switchgrass and reed canary grass can be successfully grown using commercial equipment. More work is needed to demonstrate the full yield potential and productivity of the crops.

NONE

2006-09-15

366

Use of a by-product of peat excavation, cotton grass fibre, as a sorbent for oil-spills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sorbents used to collect oil in case of oil-spills are mostly synthetic, which limits the possibilities of their disposal. We studied the absorption capacities and rates of cotton grass fibre, a by-product of peat excavation, and cotton grass mats for several oil types and compared them with a synthetic, commercially available oil sorbent. We found cotton grass fibre to have superior absorption properties: Cotton grass sorbent absorbed oil approximately two to three times as much, and two to three times as fast as the synthetic one. Cotton grass fibre absorbed no measurable amount of water in the conditions used in the tests making it ideal for absorbing oil from the surface of water. In removing diesel oil from the surface of water, the efficiency was over 99% up to an absorbing factor of 20 times its own weight. The biodegradable cotton grass fibre proved to be an effective oil sorbent with low raw-material costs. (author)

Suni, S.; Romantschuk, M. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences; University of Helsinki, Lahti (Finland). Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences; Kosunen, A.L. [Runeberginkatu 25 B, Helsinki (Finland); Hautala, M. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Department of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology; Pasila, A. [Seinajoki Polytechnic, Ilmajoki (Finland). Department of Agriculture and Forestry

2004-12-01

367

Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf disease in southern Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A phytoplasma was detected in annual blue grass (Poa annua L. Fienardo), exhibiting white leaf symptoms, that was grown in the fields near Caserta in southern Italy. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences, the phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass white leaf disease was identified as a new member of phytoplasma 16S rRNA group XI (16SrXI) (type strain, rice yellow dwarf phytoplasma). The annual blue grass white leaf phytoplasma is most closely related to Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma found in Asia. Annul blue grass white leaf and Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasmas were designated as the third subgroup (16SrXI-C) of group XI. This is the first report that a plant pathogenic phytoplasma belonging to group 16