Langoya, C.; Long, C.
Eco-tourism has become an increasingly popular means for local residents to profit from protected areas. This paper described the development of an eco-tourism project, funded by DFID and NORAD, at Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda. A series of village meetings around the forest led to a development plan for eco-tourism and two sites were opened to visitors, whose numbers grew rapidly from 1995 to 1997. Revenues were split to give 60 % for running the two sites, employing 28 local people, and ...
Full Text Available For some years, chimpanzees have been observed eating the pith of decaying palm trees of Raphia farinifera in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. The reasons for doing this have until now been unknown. An analysis of the pith for mineral content showed high levels of sodium to be present in the samples. By contrast, lower levels were found in bark of other tree species, and also in leaf and fruit samples eaten by chimpanzees. The differences between the Raphia samples and the non-Raphia samples were highly significant (p<0.001. It is concluded that Raphia provides a rich and possibly essential source of sodium for the Budongo chimpanzees. Comparison of a chewed sample (wadge of Raphia pith with a sample from the tree showed a clear reduction in sodium content in the chewed sample. Black and white colobus monkeys in Budongo Forest also feed on the pith of Raphia. At present, the survival of Raphia palms in Budongo Forest is threatened by the use of this tree by local tobacco farmers.
Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany
Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consum
Vernon Reynolds; Andrew W Lloyd; English, Christopher J.; Peter Lyons; Howard Dodd; Catherine Hobaiter; Nicholas Newton-Fisher; Caroline Mullins; Noemie Lamon; Anne Marijke Schel; Brittany Fallon
Date of Acceptance: 06/07/2015 Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay ea...
Finding food in tropical forests poses a potentially major problem for chimpanzees, whose ranging is thought primarily to be directed at locating suitable food resources: (1) chimpanzees are frugivorous, large bodied and live in large home ranges; (2) they lack specialised sensory or locomotor abilities, and terrestrial travel is known to be costly; but (3) fruits are randomly distributed in space and time. Evidence from studies of captive individuals suggests chimpanzees are c...
Mugisha, Steven; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine
The use of stick- or probe-tools is a chimpanzee universal, recorded in all long-term study populations across Africa, except one: Budongo, Uganda. Here, after 25 years of observation, stick-tool use remains absent under both natural circumstances and strong experimental scaffolding. Instead, the chimpanzees employ a rich repertoire of leaf-tools for a variety of dietary and hygiene tasks. One use of stick-tools in other communities is in feeding on the aggressive Dorylus 'army ant' species, consumed by chimpanzees at all long-term study sites outside of mid-Western Uganda. Here we report the first observation of army-ant feeding in Budongo, in which individuals from the Waibira chimpanzee community employed detached leaves to feed on a ground swarm. We describe the behaviour and discuss whether or not it can be considered tool use, together with its implication for the absence of stick-tool 'culture' in Budongo chimpanzees. PMID:27038810
Presentation on the effects of forest decentralization reforms in Uganda on both forest sustainability and livelihoods. Presents findings of data gathered using the Poverty and Environment Network method. LTRA-1 (Decentralization Reforms and Property Rights)
Nangendo, G.; A. Stein; Gelens, M.; de Gier, A.; Albricht, R.
Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the impact of burning on biodiversity in the Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda. Woody species at different development stages are compared between a forest stratum and the adjacent grassland stratum. Spa...
Mugisha, Steven; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Cat
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement no 283871. The use of stick- or probe-tools is a chimpanzee universal, recorded in all long-term study populations across Africa, except one: Budongo, Uganda. Here, after 25-years of observation, stick-tool use remains absent under both natural circumstances and strong experimental scaffolding. Instead, the ...
In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness. PMID:12285370
McCarthy, M.S.; Lester, J.D.; Howe, Eric John; M. Arandjelovic; Stanford, C.B.; Vigilant, L.
Background As habitat degradation and fragmentation continue to impact wildlife populations around the world, it is critical to understand the behavioral flexibility of species in these environments. In Uganda, the mostly unprotected forest fragment landscape between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests is a potential corridor for chimpanzees, yet little is known about the status of chimpanzee populations in these fragments. Results From 2011 through 2013, we noninvasively collected 865 chimpanzee ...
Kuhar, Christopher W.; Bettinger, Tammie L.; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Townsend, Stephanie; Cox, Debbie
While there are many conservation programs in east Africa, relatively little is invested in environmental education or capacity building within the community. With this in mind, the National Forest Authority of Uganda, the Ugandan Ministry of Education and Sports, Disney's Animal Kingdom[R], and the Jane Goodall Institute--Uganda entered into a…
Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi
Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females. PMID:26243503
This study deals with the stem growth and seedling regeneration of different native tree species in two East African rainforests influenced by human disturbance in Kenya (Kakamega Forest) and Uganda (Budongo Forest), also considering spatially and temporally variable environmental influences. In the lower montane rainforest (1500 to 1700 m a.s.l.) Kakamega Forest (KF) surveys were conducted on trees ≥ 5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) on an overall area of 2.08 ha (1 ha plot and 27 plot...
Nummelin, M.; Zilihona, I.J.E.
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/03781127 The structure of arthropod communities in the forest floor vegetation in four differently managed forest sites (virgin forest, lightly selectively logged, heavily selectively logged, and exotic Pinus caribaea plantation) in Kibale Forest National Park, western Uganda, was studied by sweep net between March and May 1985 and July 1995. For the analysis three (or four) 800 sweeps samples were collected from each habitat. In the samples eig...
Goldberg, Tony L.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Estoff, Elizabeth L.; Chapman, Colin A.
We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were ≈75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased ≈3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased ...
Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud
Processes of deforestation, known to threaten tropical forest biodiversity, have not yet been studied sufficiently in East Africa. To shed light on the patterns and causes of human influences on protected forest ecosystems, comparisons of different study areas regarding land cover dynamics and potential drivers are needed. We analyze the development of land cover since the early 1970s for three protected East African rainforests and their surrounding farmlands and assess the relationship between the observed changes in the context of the protection status of the forests. Processing of Landsat satellite imagery of eight or seven time steps in regular intervals results in 12 land cover classes for the Kakamega-Nandi forests (Kenya) and Budongo Forest (Uganda) whereas ten are distinguished for Mabira Forest (Uganda). The overall classification accuracy assessed for the year 2001 or 2003 is similarly high for all three study areas (81% to 85%). The time series reveal that, despite their protection status, Kakamega-Nandi forests and Mabira Forest experienced major forest decrease, the first a continuous forest loss of 31% between 1972/1973 and 2001, the latter an abrupt loss of 24% in the late 1970s/early 1980s. For both forests, the temporally dense time series show short-term fluctuations in forest classes (e.g., areas of forest regrowth since the 1980s or exotic secondary bushland species from the 1990s onwards). Although selectively logged, Budongo Forest shows a much more stable forest cover extent. A visual overlay with population distribution for all three regions clearly indicates a relationship between forest loss and areas of high population density, suggesting population pressure as a main driver of deforestation. The revealed forest losses due to local and commercial exploitation further demonstrate that weak management impedes effective forest protection in East Africa. PMID:19330457
McLennan, Matthew R
Insects are a nutritious food source for many primates. In chimpanzees, insectivory is most prevalent among communities that manufacture tools to harvest social insects, particularly ants and termites. In contrast to other long-term study sites, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest and Kibale National Park, Uganda, rarely eat insects and have small foraging tool kits, supporting speculation that infrequent insectivory--technically aided or otherwise--characterises chimpanzees in this part of Uganda's Rift Valley. To expand the dataset for this region, insect foraging was investigated at Bulindi (25 km from Budongo) over 19 months during two studies in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013. Systematic faecal analysis demonstrated that insectivory is a habitual foraging activity at this site. Overall levels of insect consumption varied considerably across months but were not predicted by monthly changes in rainfall or fruit intake. Unlike their Budongo and Kibale counterparts, Bulindi chimpanzees often consume ants (principally weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda) and use sticks to dig out stingless bee (Meliponini) ground nests. In other respects, however, insectivory at Bulindi conforms to the pattern observed elsewhere in this region: they do not manufacture 'fishing' or 'dipping' tools to harvest termites and aggressive or hard-to-access ants (e.g., army ants, Dorylus spp.), despite availability of suitable prey. The Bulindi data lend support to the supposition that chimpanzees in this part of the Rift Valley rarely exploit termites and Dorylus ants, apparently lacking the 'cultural knowledge' that would enable them to do so most efficiently (i.e., tool use). The study's findings contribute to current debates about the relative influence of genetics, environment and culture in shaping regional and local variability in Pan foraging ecology. PMID:24522970
Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading
Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.
We investigated how local scale variation in human impacts influenced forest structure and tree species richness within Mt Elgon National Park, Uganda. We assessed basal area (BA), stem density, diameter at breast height (dbh) and indicators of human activity in 343 plots in four study sites, on tra
Uganda's population increased from 4.7 million in 1950 to 15.5 million in 1985, representing a present growth rate of 3.5%. The government realizes that rapid population growth has created underemployment and unemployment, but does not view the issue as critical to present development. Death rates have declined rapidly but birth rates have remained high, largely due to poverty, early marriage by females, illiteracy, and women's low educational status. The government has recently developed an official policy to decrease population growth and is now working with the Family Planning Association of Uganda to 1) lower the population growth rate from 3% to 2.6% and 2) increase the population's physical, mental, and social quality. Current life expectancy is now 52 years, and infant mortality is 94/1000. Health care has deteriorated in recent years as hospitals have closed and medical personnel have left the country. Government priorities include maternal and child health care, diarrhoeal control, and environmental sanitation. The fertility rate is projected to fall from the current 6.9 rate to 6.3 by the year 2000. Government fertility reduction plans include 1) merging family planning and maternal and child health services, 2) sex education in schools, 3) population education, 4) maternity and paternity benefits, and 5) raising the legal marriage age. Abortion for contraception purposes is illegal; sterilization is legal. 1) Refugee repatriation to Sudan, 2) Indo-Pakistani expulsion (1972), and 3) mass flight in the 1970s have affected Uganda's recent development. The government encourages skilled Ugandans living abroad to return home. Urban growth has increased from 8% in 1979 to 14% in 1985; to slow rural to urban migration, the government plans to encourage and educate people to remain on the land, encourage the development of specific areas, repair and maintain urban areas, and improve land access and resettlement opportunities. PMID:12314238
Coleman, E.; Fleischman, F.; Bauer, J.
In this paper we assess the institutional and environmental impacts of forest decentralization policies in Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico, and Uganda. Although decentralization is often described as if it were a single policy intervention, many different types of reforms have been described as decentralization. We develop theories of institutional impacts based upon the specific decentralization reforms in the specific context of each country and then argue that decentralization impacts are moderated...
Full Text Available Over the past few years, the Ugandan government has repeatedly initiated proceedings to clear one-fourth of the Mabira natural forest reserve in central Uganda and give the land to a sugar company controlled by a transnational business conglomerate. Each time the government took steps to execute the Mabira project, civil society groups organised large-scale protests that pressurised the government into shelving its plans. The Save Mabira Forest campaign has been widely cited as an example of how sustained protests by civil society groups serve as a corrective of democratic deficits in decision-making processes pertaining to the commons and as a deterrent to profit-driven business schemes hatched in collusion with carefree or corrupt bureaucrats and politicians. However, an in-depth analysis of the campaign suggests that ecological and social justice concerns are mixed up with identity politics and exclusionist agendas. Examining the complex web of interactions between state, big business and civil society in Uganda, this paper sheds light on the multi-layered and often ambiguous role played by non-governmental organisations in post-conflict societies of sub-Saharan Africa.
Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M.; Vandvik, Vigdis
Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and rich...
Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded: 22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture; 12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.
Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis
Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20-40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916
McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline
Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan
Petrášová, J.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků, M.; Profousová, Ilona; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.
Roč. 79, č. 5 (2008), s. 370. ISSN 0015-5713. [Congress of the European Federation for Primatology /2./. 03.09.2007-07.09.2007, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasites * chimpanzee * Uganda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Petrášová, J.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků, M.; Profousová, Ilona; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.
Prague : Publishing House of the Faculty of Education, Charles University, 2007 - (Vančatová, M.; Vančata, V.). s. 50-51 ISBN 978-80-7290-328-3. [Congress of the European Federation for Primatology /2./. 03.09.2007-07.09.2007, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasites * chimpanzee * Uganda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
McLennan, Matthew R
Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost. PMID:21633915
Insufficient energy supply and low levels of development are closely linked. Both are major issues in Uganda where growing demand cannot be met by overstretched infrastructure and the majority still rely on traditional biomass use. Uganda's renewable energy policy focuses on decentralised sources including modern biomass. In this paper, stakeholder dynamics and potential socio-economic impacts of eight modern bioenergy feedstock production models in Uganda are considered, and key considerations for future planning provided. For these models the main distinctions were land ownership (communal or private) and feedstock type (by-product or plantation). Key social issues varied by value chain (corporate, government or farmer/NGO), and what production arrangement was in place (produced for own use or sale). Small, privately owned production models can be profitable but are unlikely to benefit landless poor and, if repeated without strategic planning, could result in resource depletion. Larger projects can have greater financial benefits, though may have longer term natural resource impacts felt by adjacent communities. Bioenergy initiatives which allow the rural poor to participate through having a collaborative stake, rather than receiving information, and provide opportunities for the landless are most likely to result in socio-economic rural development to meet policy goals. The structured approach to understanding stakeholder dynamics used was found to be robust and sufficiently adaptable to provide meaningful analysis. In conclusion; local, context-specific planning and assessment for bioenergy projects, where all stakeholders have the opportunity to be collaborators in the process throughout its full lifecycle, is required to achieve rural development objectives. -- Highlights: • Stakeholder dynamics and socio-economics in 8 Ugandan bioenergy projects considered. • Key distinctions were ownership, feedstock, value chain and production arrangement. • Small
Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957
Forest-Woodland-Savanna (FWS) mosaics are complex, highly varied and dynamic landscapes.Until recently, they were considered poor in terms of biodiversity. Consequently, only few scientific studies have been done on them and little attention has been paid to their cons
Baker, Julia; Milner-Gulland, E J; Leader-Williams, Nigel
Conflicts between protected-area managers and local people are common, but the drivers of conflict are rarely analyzed. This limits opportunities to identify strategies that reduce conflict and the magnitude of resulting threats to conservation. Integrated conservation and development (ICD) was adopted at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, to reduce conflict during gazettement of the national park, but the success of this approach remains contested. We retrieved documents of conflict written by park staff and local people from 1986 through 2000 (before, during, and after gazettement). We extracted data on 48 incidences of violent conflict and categorized them by gazettement period, area, instigator, and type to undertake a historical analysis of the triggers of violent conflict at Bwindi. Before and during gazettement, local villagers instigated most of the conflict incidents when law-enforcement efforts sought to halt commercial activities within Bwindi. No conflict arose from the arrest of villagers collecting subsistence resources during these periods. After gazettement, prohibitions on commercial activities continued to drive conflict even though villagers collecting subsistence resources were arrested more frequently than before gazettement, and local attitudes toward the park had improved following receipt of ICD benefits. Law-enforcement efforts targeted commercial activities to reduce this threat to Bwindi's mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), although the activities remained important income sources for people in villages near Bwindi. Losing commercial income following gazettement therefore appeared to be their primary motivation for instigating conflict with park rangers. Prohibitions on subsistence resource use triggered conflict less often. Our use of typologies for a multivariate conflict analysis demonstrates that by identifying differences between effects of conservation as drivers of conflict, conflict analysis can enable a more
Full Text Available Faced with a multitude of soil and water amendment technologies, farmers have the task of choosing the technologies to adopt for ensuring subsistence and income sustainability. In 2008, a study to characterize the farmers was conducted around Mabira Forest, to assess the adoption of soil technologies fostering Belowground Biodiversity (BGBD. Eighty-four households (38 participating and 46 non-participants from four villages were randomly selected and interviewed. Results showed that the adoption pattern was significantly driven by farm size, labor, household size, age and wealth status of the house. Also important were farm location, gender of household head, primary occupation, soil and water conservation technologies training, land tenure, and social capital. For the few current adopters, there was a perceived increase in labor demand but overall productivity was higher, partly resulting from increased crop productivity due to soil fertility enhancement and soil structure modification. It is therefore concluded that, around Mabira forest, BGBD technologies will be adopted by farming households with sufficient land, labor and social capital.
Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J
DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. PMID:27180094
Nangendo, G.; Steege, ter H.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.
Forest¿woodland¿savannah mosaics are a common feature in the East African landscape. For the conservation of the woody species that occur in such landscapes, the species patterns and the factors that maintain it need to be understood. We studied the woody species distribution in a forest¿woodland¿sa
Grieser Johns, B.
Although both species of chimpanzees, the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) show a so-called fission-fusion social organisation, they differ significantly in the details of social relationships between and within genders. These differences have been linked to ecological differences between the species, habitats. Common chimpanzees living in forested habitats were put forward as providing a link between common chimpanzees in less forested...
Full Text Available Landscape patterns and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii densities in Kibale National Park show important variation among communities that are geographically close to one another (from 1.5 to 5.1 chimpanzees/km2. Anthropogenic activities inside the park (past logging activities, current encroachment and outside its limits (food and cash crops may impact the amount and distribution of food resources for chimpanzees (frugivorous species and their spatial distribution within the park. Spatial and temporal patterns of fruit availability were recorded over 18 months at Sebitoli (a site of intermediate chimpanzee density and higher anthropic pressure with the aim of understanding the factors explaining chimpanzee density there, in comparison to results from two other sites, also in Kibale: Kanyawara (low chimpanzee density and Ngogo (high density, and furthest from Sebitoli. Because of the post-logging regenerating status of the forest in Sebitoli and Kanyawara, smaller basal area (BA of fruiting trees most widely consumed by the chimpanzees in Kanyawara and Sebitoli was expected compared to Ngogo (not logged commercially. Due to the distance between sites, spatial and temporal fruit abundance in Sebitoli was expected to be more similar to Kanyawara than to Ngogo. While species functional classes consumed by Sebitoli chimpanzees (foods eaten during periods of high or low fruit abundance differ from the two other sites, Sebitoli is very similar to Kanyawara in terms of land-cover and consumed species. Among feeding trees, Ficus species are particularly important resources for chimpanzees at Sebitoli, where their basal area is higher than at Kanywara or Ngogo. Ficus species provided a relatively consistent supply of food for chimpanzees throughout the year, and we suggest that this could help to explain the unusually high density of chimpanzees in such a disturbed site.
The Uganda industrial research institute (UIRI), a traditional incubator run by the government, has made a significant impact by locating value-added processing systems from its Kampala headquarters into farmer communities. While the model lacks the necessary innovation development, UIRI offers small and medium enterprise (SME) clients in these regions the opportunity to expand personal in...
US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...
Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.
SOCIAL JUSTICE, HEALTH AND POVERTY IN UGANDA John Barugahare Injustice in Uganda manifests in many ways. One most serious, yet least discussed social injustice, is inequity in Health. Although there are two equally important aims of health systems – efficiency and equity, in Uganda too much focus has been on ensuring efficiency and as a consequence concerns of equity have been relegated. Ultimately, health policy in Uganda has disproportionately negatively affected the poor’s livelihoods in g...
Uganda is one of the most biologically diverse countries in Africa. Most of its biodiversity is represented within a system of national parks, wild life reserves and forest reserves. In 1991, Bwindi forest was turned into a National Park which led to conflicts between communities and park managers due to resource use restrictions. In 1996, a strategy of local participation was established by Uganda Wildlife Authority. This strategy included the involvement of local people in benefit sharing, ...
This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Uganda and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework1 and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and ...
Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica;
The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133...
Benson, Todd; Mugarura, Samuel
Livestock are an important element of the livelihoods of many Ugandan households, and considerable efforts at economic development by the government of Uganda have focused on the livestock sector. However, these development efforts have suffered due to a lack of detailed data on the distribution of livestock in Uganda to guide the targeting of such programs. In this paper we use data from the 2008 National Livestock Census to develop a better understanding of where in Uganda there might be po...
This PowerPoint summarizes the research and training activities of SANREM’s regional project in Kenya and Uganda. It provides background information on the project’s sites in Kapchorwa, Uganda and Bungoma, Kenya. It summarizes research findings related to presence of weeds, soil organic matter, crop residue utilization, penetration resistance, trace gases, and household characteristics by district. LTRA-10 (CAPS for smallholder farms in eastern Uganda and western Kenya)
The forest are subject to many direct and indirect influences, apart from atmospheric pollutants and the potential effects of climatic changes, timber production and hunting have a major impact in the Austrian forests. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, inorganic fluoride, chloride compounds, heavy metals (cadmium and lead), organic pollutants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, trichloroacetic acid and nitrophenols), acidifying compounds and eutrophying compounds are the main forest pollutants. As forests cover nearly 50 % of the Austrian territory, changes affecting them constitute a potentially significant parameter in the national greenhouse gas balance. Carbon stocks and the annual carbon balance were calculated and a estimation of the potential impact of climate change by means of dynamic computer simulation and risk assesment were performed. The results are illustrated in a cartographic chart. Other topics discussed in this chapter are forest management, forest damage (game, cattle, abiotic and biotic influences), changes in land use, biodiversity, crown condition and long-term monitoring to determine the impact of environmental stress. Figs. 2, Table 1. (nevyjel)
Plumptre, Andrew J; Cox, Debby
Primate census techniques have been developed over the past 35-40 years yet there is still some confusion and great variation in the methods used. This precludes comparisons between sites where different techniques have been used. This paper discusses the variations between the methods that seem to be practiced currently and then describes a census of primates in the forests of western Uganda. Primate density and biomass varied greatly between forests as well as within forests and this is probably related to food availability. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density was strongly correlated with nest encounter rates from reconnaissance walks in the forest. This result can be used to estimate chimpanzee density in forests where it is difficult to survey this species (e.g., due to security reasons). A total of 4,980 chimpanzee was estimated for Uganda which is higher than previously guessed, but still of conservation concern. Only four forests had more than 500 individuals which gives concern for long-term population viability. PMID:16132166
Avitabile, V.; Baccini, A.; Friedl, M.A.; Schmullius, C.
Aboveground woody biomass for circa-2000 is mapped at national scale in Uganda at 30-m spatial resolution on the basis of Landsat ETM + images, a National land cover dataset and field data using an object-oriented approach. A regression tree-based model (Random Forest) produces good results (cross-v
@@ If you think that the typical Africa countryside doesn't offer you rolling emerald1 hills, snow capped mountains,misty forests and deep, crystal dear lakes then you haven't been to Uganda. Even though Uganda is a small country, it offers all of this and a lot more-white water rafting, gorilla2tracking, game viewing and some of the best trekking in Africa. Most importantly, the friendly and relaxed locals all speak excellent English. What more could you ask for from an exotic holiday destination?
Uganda, with a population of about 17 million people, depends largely on the Agricultural Sector both for subsistence and export. Uganda livestock stands at 4 million cattle, 2.5 million goats, 0.7 million sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The life of these animals is being threatened by various tropical diseases. Animal trypanosomiasis is endemic in all the 34 districts of Uganda except the highland areas of the country. These are correspondingly areas of high tsetse fly infestation. For effective control of this disease, therefore, an integrated approach is adopted. The country has been divided into three zones of disease incidence, namely the high, medium and low risk zones. Each zone has a slightly different treatment regime with curative and prophylactic trypanocidals as short term control measures. The long term aim is to eradicate the tsetse fly, and therefore, the disease
Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the context of the Uganda institutional framework, to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. The accountancy profession in Uganda is young, but growing rapidly. Accounting and auditing practices in Uganda suffer from institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules. Various weaknesses were identified in the laws and regulations governing financial reporting. A...
Brunner, Nicole; Semmens, Darius; Hawbaker, Todd
Uganda is one of the world's most biodiverse countries, yet also one of the poorest. Human dependence on natural resources, especially from forests, is most pronounced in developing countries such as Uganda, where many people live in poverty and rely on fuel wood for cooking. These demands often compete with conservation efforts aimed at protecting forests and biodiversity. An understanding of trends in forest condition and local community use of forests is necessary to explore the implications of changing environmental conditions on the sustainability of Uganda's forests and forest-related socioeconomic activities. A human-environment framework is applied to this research by comparing environmental layers derived from remotely sensed imagery with socioeconomic data acquired from household surveys. Statistical modeling was used to explain the relationship between household characteristics (e.g., fuel use) and environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover change) and to quantify the role of spatial arrangement or pattern in understanding human-environment relationships (e.g., access and distance). The findings show that distance from protected forests is related to changes in household fuel type. For example, increases in charcoal as the primary cooking fuel is observed in households a closer distance to protected forests. This change is likely due to access to forest resources. The results of this study could inform policies aimed at protecting forests as well as protecting the interests of people in proximity to protected forests.
Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George
Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208
International Monetary Fund
The Selected Issues paper for Uganda and Rwanda discusses the impact of rising international food and fuel prices on inflation. Unlike in the case of fuel-producing countries, the East African Community countries are major agricultural producers, with agriculture accounting for 20 percent to 40 percent of their GDP. The two most important factors limiting the pass-through of world food commodities are therefore the high degree of self-sufficiency in the production of main tradable food commod...
Much has been written, especially the last five years, about the alleged wave of democracy in Africa. However, the focus has usually been on rather narrow institutional questions such as introduction of multi-party elections, and analyses have in general focused on national politics as played out...... political participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....
This paper examines how biomass supply and consumption are affected by land use change in Uganda. We find that between 2007 and 2012 there was a 22% reduction in fuelwood sourced from proximate forests, and an 18% increase in fuelwood sourced from fallows and other areas with lower biomass availability and quality. We estimate a series of panel regression models and find that deforestation has a negative effect on total fuel consumed. We also find that access to forests, whether through ownership or proximity, plays a large role in determining fuel use. We then explore whether patterns of biomass fuel consumption are related to the incidence of acute respiratory infection using a cross-sectional data set of 1209 women and 598 children. We find a positive and significant relationship between ARI and the quantity of fuelwood from non-forest areas; a 100 kg increase in fuelwood sourced from a non-forest area results in a 2.4% increase in the incidence of ARI for children. We find the inverse effect of increased reliance on crop residues. As deforestation reduces the availability of high quality fuelwood, rural households may experience higher incidence of health problems associated with exposure to biomass burning. - Highlights: • Land use change affects the quality, quantity and type of biomass fuels rural households use. • Use of fuelwood from non-forest areas leads to an increase in ARI for children under 5. • Use of crop residues leads to a decrease in ARI for children under 5
Seromonitoring of rinderpest was carried out in the Northern region of Uganda which covers the sub-regions of West Nile, Northern Uganda, and N.E. Uganda. Three thousand nine hundred ninety two serum samples were collected and tested using the competitive ELISA. The antibody prevalence ranged from 21% to 81%. Although the areas at high risk of rinderpest had low antibody levels their neighbors seem to be establishing immune barrier. Since all the sampled districts were equally supported to carry out vaccination, this survey has emphasized the usefulness of sero monitoring in assessing the success of vaccination programmes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Anguma, S.; Ayikoru, J.
This paper discusses the strategies and importance of introducing space science in Uganda. It proposes that Mbarara University, as a new university focusing on science and technology, would be ideally situated to spearhead the introduction of space science in Uganda. It is our expectation that this will have a spin-off effect to other higher institutions of learning and that consequently space science will become fully incorporated into the national teaching curriculum for all schools in Uganda. Based on the fact that the Government has a deliberate policy of popularizing science and technology to accelerate national economic development, the introduction of space science in the school system is to be enhanced by these efforts. We have charted the way forward for space science in Uganda and outlined the conceptual framework illustrating the spin-off effect into the education system.
Zirnask, Villu, 1966-
Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas
Innocent K. Besigye; Jane F. Namatovu
It is evident that politicians, health managers and academics are realising the potential contribution of Family Medicine to health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The challenge is in training institutions to recruit and train enough Family Physicians in order to meet expectations. The 3rd Family Medicine Conference in Uganda, held in October 2013, explored innovative ways of scaling up Family Medicine training and practice in Uganda.
Wilhelm-Solomon, M. M.; Alexander, Jocelyn; Daley, Patricia
This doctoral project, entitled 'Displacing AIDS: Therapeutic Transitions in Northern Uganda' examines the biosocial transitions engendered by the treatment of HIV, focusing on antiretroviral therapy (ART/ARV) interventions, and the ways these are intertwined with the social transitions of conflict, displacement and return. The research involved an inter-disciplinary qualitative study with internally displaced communities living with HIV in northern Uganda, during 10 months fieldwork between ...
Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.
Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.
Full text: In response to a request from the Government of Uganda, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations organization with competence in nuclear safety and security, has secured a radioactive source in Uganda. The radioactive source contained a significant amount of cobalt-60 and had been impounded by authorities following its discovery. Following the discovery of a radioactive source, two IAEA radiation safety specialists were sent to Uganda this week to provide assistance. The IAEA team checked the integrity of the shielded container, measured the level of radiation, verified the security of the location and concluded that the source is currently safe and secure and does not pose any immediate threat to the public. The IAEA team also assisted Ugandan authorities in their effort to ascertain whether other insecure sources might similarly be found in the country. No evidence of such sources was found. (I.A.E.A.)
Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; White, Libby
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies observed changes in rainfall and temperature in Uganda, based on an analysis of a quality-controlled, long time series of station observations throughout Uganda. Extending recent trends forward, it also provides a current and near-future context for understanding the actual nature of climate change impacts in the country, and a basis for identifying climate adaptations that may protect and improve the country's food security.
Innocent K. Besigye
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 It is evident that politicians, health managers and academics are realising the potential contribution of Family Medicine to health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The challenge is in training institutions to recruit and train enough Family Physicians in order to meet expectations. The 3rd Family Medicine Conference in Uganda, held in October 2013, explored innovative ways of scaling up Family Medicine training and practice in Uganda.
In 2012, Uganda joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...
Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…
Uganda Breweries Limited
This is a borderline scheme that presents an interesting example of how the private sector recognises wetland services. Uganda Breweries is taking steps to reduce its pollution levels in order to reduce impact on wetlands, and is also supporting the National Wetland Programme. Cash payments to National Wetlands Programme (NWP) to aid in the management of the wetlands and funding environmental education programmes.
This report summarizes the findings of the Uganda Sustainable Land Management Public Expenditure Review (SLM PER). The SLM PER was undertaken to achieve six main objectives: (i) establish a robust data base on SLM-related public expenditure that can support credible empirical analysis; (ii) develop a sound methodology for conducting SLM PERs, which could guide similar work in the future; (...
Brar, Sukhdeep; Farley, Sara E.; Hawkins, Robert; Wagner, Caroline S.
Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set…
<正>At the invitation of the Ministry of Local Government of Uganda and the Botswana-China Friendship Association, a 28-member Delegation of the CPAFFC, local government officials and Entrepreneurs led by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku, paid a goodwill visit to the two countries from May 27 to June 3.
Mukonzo JK; Namuwenge PM; Okure G; Mwesige B; Namusisi OK; Mukanga D
Jackson K Mukonzo,1,2 Proscovia M Namuwenge,1 Gildo Okure,3 Benjamin Mwesige,1 Olivia K Namusisi,4 David Mukanga4 1Center for Operational Research Africa, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 3School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4African Field Epidemiologist Network, Kampala, Uganda Background: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a serious global problem. While resistance to older antibiotics is increasing, development of newer molecules h...
Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette
development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is...... production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the
Okello, Elialilia Sarikiaeli
Background: Depressive disorders are among the most frequent psychiatric disorders, accounting for up to 30% of primary care service utilisation in developing countries in general, and Uganda in particular. However, delays in seeking treatment, misdiagnosis and non-specific treatments have compromised appropriate care for people with depression. The general aim of this thesis is to explore and describe how depressive symptoms are conceptualised and communicated by the Bagand...
Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank; Mutebi, Emmanuel; Karubanga, Gabriel
The purpose of the present study was to assess the performance of plant clinics in Uganda and to identify system factors that are conducive or constraining to clinic performance. Our analytical framework was derived from the health system model of World Health Organisation (WHO), designed to measure performance and health outcomes. The modified plant health system model was based on six system components: Service delivery, Plant health workforce, Plant health information, Input supply, Financ...
Whitney, Cory W.; Gebauer, Jens
Ugandan homegarden systems are sustainable small-scale solutions for food security and conservation containing a great diversity of native plant species and preserving the associated time-tested traditional knowledge for nutrition and conservation. Furthermore, the people of Uganda have a diversity of uses for these native species. However, these systems and traditions are under threat for a variety of reasons. Organic may hold some of the keys for the revitalization of these oases of diversi...
This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...
Jessica Huber; Birkeland, Nina M.
The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.
Full Text Available The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to supportthe work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness.
Poetzsch, Carsten Jochen
From June 1994 to November 1996 a longitudinal study was carried out to investigate disease and production on 56 randomly selected peri-urban dairy farms in south-eastern Uganda. Relationships between animal-, farm-, production- and environmental variables, prevalence of trypanosome and helminth infections and sero-prevalences of Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina were investigated. Despite favourable climatic conditions and an emphasis on dairy production, the poten...
Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...
Rohner, Dominic; Thoenig, Mathias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
We study the effect of civil conflict on social capital, focusing on the experience of Uganda during the last decade. Using individual and county-level data, we document causal effects on trust and ethnic identity of an exogenous outburst of ethnic conflicts in 2002-04. We exploit two waves of survey data from Afrobarometer 2000 and 2008, including information on socioeconomic characteristics at the individual level, and geo-referenced measures of fighting events from ACLED. Our identificatio...
Pentecostal Christianity has gained many followers in the developing world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a corpus of anthropological scholarship on the impact of following Pentecostalism on identities and social change, less has been written from the perspective of the believer, and little from within the field of development studies. In this thesis, which is based on 14months of research in Kampala, Uganda, I explore how followers of this religion appropriate a discourse of...
This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212
Over the past 10 years the government of Uganda has endeavored to increase latrine coverage and promote hygiene with a view to improving health outcomes. In 1997, in the Kampala declaration for sanitation, leaders from all of Uganda's districts pledged to improve sanitation. Then in 2001, three ministries, the Ministry of Water, Lands, and Environment; the Ministry of Education and Sports;...
Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu
Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole
political elites to focus on policies they perceive to be able to gain votes. This is based on analyses of six landmark decisions made during the last fifteen years in the social, productive and public finance sectors in Tanzania and Uganda. Such policies share a number of key characteristics: they are...... Tanzania and Uganda....
Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith
Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…
Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…
Gorsevski, Virginia B.
The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region
The establishment of tree plantations in rural areas in Uganda could provide renewable energy to rural communities, while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from conventional electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could be produced by biomass based energy systems in Anaka, a rural settlement in the Amuru district in northern Uganda. Two alternative energy uses are explored: a) electricity production through wood gasification and b) traditional fuelwood use. It is estimated that a small-scale wood gasifier could provide electricity for basic community services by planting less than 10 ha of new short rotation coppices (SRCs). The gasification system could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by traditional diesel based electricity generators in terms of CO2-eq. (0.61–0.83 t MWh−1 or 7.1 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). It was also estimated that traditional use of fuelwood in households is currently unsustainable, i.e. the consumption of wood is higher than the annual growth from natural wood resources in the study area. It is estimated that 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could render the current consumption of wood sustainable. In this way, the CO2 emissions produced through unsustainable extraction of wood could be avoided (2.0–7.3 t per capita per year or 50–130 t y−1 per hectare of SRCs). -- Highlights: ► We assessed the GHG benefits of short rotation coppices for bioenergy in Uganda. ► The GHG benefits of two energy uses are explored: gasification and fuelwood use. ► The gasifier could save 50–67% of the GHG emissions produced by diesel generators. ► 0.02–0.06 ha per capita of plantations could avoid unsustainable fuelwood use. ► Fuelwood production is more efficient in terms of GHG savings per hectare
Since the early 1990s, Uganda has been one of Africa's fastest growing countries. However, at the sub-national level, growth has been uneven due to civil conflict in the northern region. Using a panel of household and community level data, this paper examines the links between security and economic growth. It is found that security is a pre-condition for successful economic development and that there is in fact a threshold level of security below which public investments in infrastructure and...
Tabuti, John R.S.
Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK has a role to play for households and community well-being in Uganda. However, IK is undergoing significant change and is on the decline in Uganda because of factors such as acculturation or the loss of IK through exposure to external cultures. In this paper we review some of the roles of, and threats to, IK with particular reference to the local community of Kaliro District. We make some recommendations on how to conserve IK in Kaliro and elsewhere in Uganda.
To meet the need for the serological surveillance of the current rinderpest vaccination campaign in Uganda, the FAO/IAEA ELISA based system was introduced into the national testing laboratory at the Animal Health Research Centre. Sero-surveillance for rinderpest antibodies in Uganda started in January 1988. To date 4579 pre-vaccination samples from fourteen districts and 1347 post-vaccination samples from 7 districts have been collected. All the samples have been tested for the presence of antibodies to rinderpest virus using the FAO/IAEA ELISA kit. A pre-vaccination antibody prevalence of the sampled sub-populations ranged from 0-24%, with a national prevalence of 9%. Post-vaccination antibody prevalence ranged from 20-63%, with a national prevalence of 55%. Although the post-vaccination survey is not yet complete, a significant rise was recorded in the number of animals sero-converted although it is still well below the target figure of 85%. There is, therefore, a clear need to continue extensive vaccination coupled with sero-surveillance for some time to come. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs
Mutambi, Joshua; Byaruhanga, Joseph K.; Trojer, Lena; Buhwezi, Kariko B.; Lating, Peter Okidi
Uganda, like many other African countries has not been developing primary science, technology and innovation Indicators and to make them accessible to public and private sector decision makers for social economic development and investment purposes. Indicators have not been given serious attention as engines of long-term development. This paper reports the results of a research undertaken to develop a set of relevant science, technology and innovation Indicators for Uganda. From a population ...
Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu
Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...
Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Sekabira, Haruna; Nattembo, Fiona
Uganda has seen impressive economic growth and substantial poverty reductions over the past few decades. Today, official headcount poverty stands at about 20 per cent. However, recent research relying on non-monetary wealth indicators challenges official poverty statistics and suggests that headcount poverty is about 60 per cent higher. We argue that an outdated poverty line that does not take into consideration the spatial variation of diets in Uganda could explain the divergence. In this pa...
This thesis examines the framework for effective management of digital records in Uganda, which was undertaken by a detailed study of the 23 ministries, which form the Uganda Public Service (UPS). Areas of research inquiry included establishing the current state of digital records in the UPS and revealing the factors impeding the managing of digital records. This raised many issues about the way in which digital records are created, maintained and used, including possible lines of action to r...
The paper aims at mapping out the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda with a view to identify areas for further research in a systematic and more detailed way. The economic and social upgrading/downgrading conceptual framework to guide the Capturing the Gains research agenda was used in this process. The paper briefly presents the mobile phone domains, emphasising the relevant parts for Uganda, which include; software development, sales and marketing, mobile service provision and end...
Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom
• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....
This paper reports the results of a survey of almost all certified and in-conversion organic export operations in Uganda in late 2005. It covers products exported, company size and ownership, standards exported to, certification costs, total export values, value-added in Uganda, marketing channels, crop procurement systems, management of organic operations and the main challenges experienced by exporters. Findings include that numbers of certified exporters are growing rapidly. Export values ...
Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira
As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries...
Nuwagaba, Godfrey; Delpy, Lisa
Sponsorship is one of the biggest challenge facing Olympic sports in Uganda. Many sports disciplines have not been able to identify, recruit, and sustain sponsors.. This has hampered team preparations, training, provision of kits, and consequently poor performance of individuals and teams at all levels. To avert this situation, Uganda Olympic Committee (UOC) needs to identify and recruit capable sponsors in order to allow long term planning and execution of strategic plans. This research stud...
Okware, Samuel Ikwaras
Three separate outbreaks of Ebola associated with high fatality occurred in Uganda between 2000 and 2011. A country wide national response contained each epidemic with various degrees of success .The experiences challenges and successes are described in Gulu, Bundibugyo and Luwero outbreaks.Objectives: The study linked the following objectives: to describe the three Ebola outbreaks and the national response in Uganda from 2000-2011; to establish the risk factors associated with...
Questa tesi è composta di tre saggi collegati relativi a povertà, distribuzione del reddito e stato di nutrizione dei bambini in Uganda. Il primo saggio intitolato “Poverty reduction and Income Distribution Impacts of Exogenous Policy Shocks in Uganda: A Social Accounting Matrix Perspective” analizza come e quali settori ed agenti economici sarebbero maggiormente colpiti da shock esogeni di politica economica che abbiano l'obiettivo della crescita economica, distribuzione del reddito e della ...
Mitchell, C. J.
This report describes the mineralogical characterisation and processing of several industrial minerals collected by Dr DJ Morgan in October 1991 during a visit to Uganda (Visit report WG/91/31R). The industrial minerals included raw materials (see Table 1) from African Ceramics Ltd (Mutaka kaolin, feldspar and ball clay) and samples collected by the Geological Survey and Mines Department Uganda (the remaining kaolin, talc and diatomite). The aim of this study was to assess thei...
Notwithstanding a decade of unprecedented social and economic reforms in Uganda, poverty, vulnerability, and child labour severely undermine the government's overarching goal of poverty eradication. This thesis unfolds by disclosing unprecedented insight on the relationship between vulnerability and poverty, the merits of quantitative vis-a-vis qualitative approaches to poverty analysis, and the role of child labour in Uganda. Chapter I generates the first ever appraisal of vulnerability i...
Tusime, Immaculate; Musasizi, Yunia; Nalweyiso, Grace
The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between leadership styles and managed change in Public Universities in Uganda. A cross sectional design and a quantitative approach was adopted for this study. The study used a population census since the study population was small, hence the population comprised of public universities in Uganda which are 5 in total. The data was tested for reliability, analysed using SPSS and results presented based on the study objectives. Results r...
Bingh, Lars Petter
The energy system in Uganda is largely based on biomass and especially wood. The high demand for wood results in fast reductions of the available wood stocks. This thesis is focusing on biomass waste as a supplement to the existing energy carriers. This thesis includes agricultural residues from the main cash and food crops in Uganda, as well as municipal solid waste (MSW) in Kampala. The available biomass waste resources are mapped, the energy content is examined and possible ways of utiliza...
A survey of otters in Uganda was carried from 1986 onwards, together with other mammals. The information presented here was re-checked in the last three years. All three African otters are found in Uganda: the spotted-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis). the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis) and the swamp otter or Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congica). The first two are widely distributed throughout the country with the exception of the dry North eastern region. The swamp otter has a limited ...
O’Shea, Brian J.; Wigginton, Martin J.; Bruggeman-Nannega, Maria A.; Hedenäs, L.; Matcham, H. W.; Frahm, Jan-Peter; Porley, Ron D.; Ellis, Len; Watling, M.C.; Bates, J. E.; Vána, Jiri
12 hepatics and 32 mosses are reported new to Uganda, 1 moss being also new to Africa, and 1 liverwort new to mainland Africa. Ectropothecium plumigerum (Broth.) Hedenäs is a new combination (basionym: Isopterygium plumigerum Broth.) with a new synonym Taxicaulis plumirameus Müll.Hal. nom. nud., and Taxiphyllum maniae (Renauld & Paris) M. Fleisch. is a new synonym of Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) M.Fleisch. Three mosses are removed from the Uganda list.
Earthquake occurrence in Uganda is mostly related to East Africa Rift System. The country's western border lies within the Western branch of this system while the Eastern branch is only 200 km from its eastern border. The two tectonic features contribute to seismicity in Uganda. These are the Aswar shear zone running from Nimule at the border of Uganda and Sudan, to Mount Elgon on the Eastern border and Katonga fault break which cuts across the country from the foot hills of mount Rwenzori to the Western side of Lake Victoria. This unique tectonic setting makes Uganda one of most seismically active countries on the African continet as exemplified by some destructive earthquakes that have hit the country. For this reason the Government of uganda is in the process of setting up an earthquake monitoring system, the National Seismological Network, with efficient detectability, efficient data transmission and processing facilities so that earthquakes in Uganda can be properly assessed and seismic hazard studies of the country cunducted. The objectives of the said network, the seismic developments for the last two decades and its current satus are described
Mayers, James; Bhattacharya, Prodyut; Diaw, Chimere [and others
Forests are power bases, but often for the wrong people. As attention turns from making an international deal on REDD to making it work on the ground, the hunt will be on for practical ways of shifting power over forests towards those who enable and pursue sustainable forest-linked livelihoods. The Forest Governance Learning Group – an alliance active in Cameroon, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam – has developed practical tactics for securing safe space, provoking dialogue, building constituencies, wielding evidence and interacting politically. It has begun to have significant impacts. To deepen and widen those impacts, FGLG seeks allies.
Adong, Annet; Mwaura, Francis; Okoboi, Geofrey
Government of Uganda and its development partners are targeting farmer groups as the vehicle for agricultural development because of the potential role they could play in promoting value addition, market and credit access. However there is limited empirical evidence on what drives membership to these groups. Using the Uganda Census of Agriculture 2008/9 data, this study reveals low levels of membership both at individual and household levels, with marked differences in regional participation....
Krister P. Andersson
Full Text Available A significant challenge in the assessment of forest management outcomes is the limited ability to compare forest conditions quantitatively across ecological zones. We propose an approach for comparing different forest types through the use of reference forests. We tested our idea by drawing a sample of 42 forests from the Midwest USA, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, Bolivia, Uganda, and Nepal. We grouped these forests by shared characteristics and selected a reference forest to serve as a baseline for each forest type. We developed an index of disturbances using ratios of several forest measurements to assess differences between each study forest and its reference forest. None of the study forests was known to have been impacted by major natural disturbances during the past 50 years. Therefore, the disturbances in these forests appear to be largely related to human activities. The forests most similar to their reference forests have had limited human interventions. Our results indicate the potential of this approach to compare different forest conditions across biomes. We argue that development of this approach could facilitate analyses of forest management institutions, promote reliable indicators to compare management outcomes, and contribute to improved policies for conservation.
Wielgosz, Benjamin; Kato, Edward; Ringler, Claudia
Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a par...
Full Text Available Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk production is noticeable. The economy shows evident difficulties mainly due to the so called mismanaged Amin's regime and the ensuing Liberation War. Comments are made on the Queen Elisabeth National Park and some prices are given.
Uganda needs to focus on improving the effectiveness of its roads investment strategy for rural Uganda and improving the manner in it procures and implements roads contracts at the national level. In recent years the Government of Uganda has shifted the priorities in its national development strategy as there was accumulating evidence that infrastructure deficiencies had become a binding c...
Investigations in this portfolio of manuscripts broadly advance understanding of how institutional arrangements influence impacts of population growth and integration into non-local markets on forest and tree-cover change. This research integrates methods of the natural and social sciences including remote sensing, geographical information systems, vegetation plot analysis, key informant interviews, and archival research. In combination, these methods are applied for longer-term analyses of the role of institutional arrangements in land-cover change in West Mengo, Uganda. Over the past fifty years, tree cover on settled areas (cultivated and grazed lands and home-gardens) in West Mengo has increased while forest cover (particularly outside of state reserves) is more diffuse. One finding is that the underlying, traditional sociopolitical structure in West Mengo does facilitate, on aggregate, customary arrangements in identifying diverse strategies to maintain the flow of forest products and benefits under growing population and market pressures (avoiding local tragedies). But, these customary arrangements may or may not be able to maintain ecosystem services (produced from large-scale forest patches) outside of the local sociopolitical unit under these conditions. Boundaries of state forest reserves in West Mengo were found to have remained stable for over fifty years despite population and market pressures. Another finding is that formal state arrangements can, but don't always, stem deforestation under conditions of high population and market pressures. When design principles for robust, large-scale commons are adopted in the process of creating adaptive arrangements for governance of large extents of working forests that the arrangements and desired outcomes (e.g., stable forest cover and flow of subsistence products in the West Mengo case) may endure over the long term. And, when not adopted, you may find a relatively fast breakdown in the institutional
Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis
One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because of ...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....
Wrangham, R W; Conklin, N L; Chapman, C A; Hunt, K D
Four categories of plant food dominated the diet of chimpanzees in Kibale Forest, Uganda: non-fig tree fruits, fig tree fruits, herbaceous piths and terrestrial leaves. Fruit abundance varied unpredictably, more among non-figs than figs. Pith intake was correlated negatively with fruit abundance and positively with rainfall, whereas leaf intake was not influenced by fruit abundance. Piths typically have low sugar and protein levels. Compared with fruits and leaves they are consistently high in hemicellulose and cellulose, which are insoluble fibres partly digestible by chimpanzees. Herbaceous piths appear to be a vital resource for African forest apes, offering an alternative energy supply when fruits are scarce. PMID:1685575
Full Text Available Effective utilization of quality business information is crucial in attaining long-term and sustainable economic growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. It is established that SMEs in northern Uganda operate in a business environment that is characterized by fragmented and incomplete information. It is a situation where an awareness of markets, technology, policies, regulations and finance is limited because businesses fail to receive timely business information. This article reports a portion of the results of a larger study using a descriptive design with survey research and other techniques. The study examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in the region and attempted to establish whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information as should be expected. The study’s respondents included the SMEs, information providers and business policy makers with the response rate of 87.3%; 72% and 85% respectively. The article proposes strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs. It concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs
Education in Uganda is perceived to be the instrument of development. Uganda was one of the first developing countries to introduce universal primary education (UPE). It is one of the millennium development goals to be achieved by 2015. This research focuses on everyday activities and the perceived importance of education and school of rural children in Uganda. This explores, the daily activities children engage in, how daily activities, poverty and other challenges affect thei...
This study reports the concentrations and radiation exposures to the inert and naturally occurring radioactive gas radon (222Rn) in Kilembe copper - cobalt mines and some selected residences around Kampala. The Kilembe copper-cobalt mines are generally deep underground mines situated on the South-Eastern slopes of Mt. Rwenzori in the midst of the western arm of the East African rift system. Kampala is the Capital city of Uganda. Radon gas is produced from the uranium and thorium decay series. Radon concentrations in the mines and residences were investigated using activity concentrations of uranium and thorium, and the radon exhalation rates of ore samples. Concentrations of uranium and thorium in rock samples were determined using the high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer. Concentrations of radon gas were determined using the Atmos Radon Gas Monitor. Activity concentrations of uranium and thorium in the Kilembe copper - cobalt mines ranged from 50 to 300 Bqkg-1 and from 5 to 50 Bqkg-1 respectively. Radon gas concentration in Kilembe copper-cobalt mines ranged from 330 to 6980 Bqm-3 and from 10 Bqm-3 to 420 Bqm-3 in residential houses in Kampala. Samples from Kilembe Copper Mines contained mainly pyrites and chalcopyrites. Some of these results are quite high and exceed action levels for concentrations of radon in mines or buildings set by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, International Atomic Energy Agency and several other countries. Radiation exposure to radon in Kilembe copper-cobalt mines and in some selected residences around Kampala ranges from 0.24 mSv/year to 34 mSv/year. Several results of radiation exposure to radon are above 1 mSv/year - the dose limit for the general public and 20 mSv/year - the dose limit for occupational radiation workers. The problem of radiological risk due to radiation exposure to radon affecting some miners and members of the public has been identified and remedies suggested. The concentrations of
The growth of Information Technology(IT) in Africa has led to an increase in the utilization of communication networks for data transaction across the continent. A growing number of entities in the private sector, academia, and government, have deployed the Internet as a medium to transact in data, routinely posting statistical and non statistical data online and thereby making many in Africa increasingly dependent on the Internet for data transactions. In the country of Uganda, exponential growth in data transaction has presented a new challenge: What is the most efficient way to implement data privacy. This article discusses data privacy challenges faced by the country of Uganda and implementation of data privacy techniques for published tabular data. We make the case for data privacy, survey concepts of data privacy, and implementations that could be employed to provide data privacy in Uganda.
Whyte, Susan Reynolds
In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology for diagnosing and treating them. The response to the AIDS epidemic in Uganda provides an important context for, and contrast with, the emergence of hypertension and diabetes as social phenomena. Ethnographic fieldwork shows the interplay between experience of these conditions and the political economy of treatability. PMID:26233676
Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal
Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and...... cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....
Mubiru, Drake N.; Komutunga, Everline; Agona, Ambrose;
Uganda is vulnerable to climate change as most of its agriculture is rain-fed; agriculture is also the backbone of the economy, and the livelihoods of many people depend upon it. Variability in rainfall may be reflected in the productivity of agricultural systems and pronounced variability may...... based on monthly and annual timescales. The results show that variability in rainfall onset dates across Uganda is greater than the variability in withdrawal dates. Consequently, even when rains start late, withdrawal is timely, thus making the growing season shorter. During the March–May rainy season...
In this paper, I examine the role of household income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Peru and Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household consumption increases the bribery probability by 0.2-0.4 percentage points in Peru, compared to a bribery rate of 0.8%; doubling household expenditure in Uganda increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rat...
Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C
Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25875201
Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.
M.E. Presa García
Las enfermedades y lesiones no de combate han sido y siguen siendo en nuestros días una amenaza muy importante para nuestras tropas. Entre ellas, las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores artrópodos ocupan un lugar importante, como es el caso del paludismo en Uganda. La prevención Sanitaria incluye una fase previa al despliegue, una fase de despliegue y otra fase posterior al despliegue. Durante nuestra misión en Uganda se ha perseguido cada una de estas fases para hacer frente a este riesgo...
The change from natural forest cover to tea and Eucalyptus is rampant in protected areas of western Uganda. The objectives were; to examine the trend in land-use /cover change and determine the effect of these changes on the physico-chemical properties of soils around Kibale National Park. The trend in land use/cover change was assessed by analyzing a series of Landsat images. Focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used for land-use/cover reconstruction. Three major land uses were included; wood lot (Eucalyptus grandis; 5 years old) ), tea (57 years old) and natural forest used as a control. Each of these land-uses were selected at two different North facing landscape positions and were replicated three times. A total of 36 composite soil samples were taken at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth from natural forest, Tea plantation and eucalyptus on three ridges. Results showed that small scale farming, tea and eucalyptus plantation and built up area have increased over time, to the expense of wood lot and forest cover. Tea and Eucalyptus have induced changes in: exchangeable Mg and Ca, available P, SOM, ph, and bulk density of sub soil (P<.05). Landscape positions within land use also significantly influenced most soil properties (P<.05). Similar findings were observed by Wang et al. (2006) in commercial tea plantations in China that received nitrogen fertilizers.
Ota, Narumi; Hasegawa, Hideo; McLennan, Matthew R; Kooriyama, Takanori; Sato, Hiroshi; Pebsworth, Paula A; Huffman, Michael A
Oesophagostomum spp. are parasitic nematodes of mammals, including humans and other primates. To identify species and determine phylogeny, we analysed DNA sequences of adult and larval Oesophagostomum from wild chimpanzees in Bulindi, Uganda, which inhabit degraded forest fragments amid villages. Oesophagostome larvae and/or eggs from baboons in Tanzania and South Africa and from a Japanese macaque were also sequenced. Based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) of mtDNA, O. stephanostomum and O. bifurcum were identified from chimpanzees. Bulindi is the second locality where molecular detection of O. bifurcum in wild chimpanzees has been made. While most O. stephanostomum had ITS2 genotypes recorded previously, three new genotypes were detected. Among four ITS2 genotypes of O. bifurcum from chimpanzees, one was identical to that from various monkey species in Kibale, Uganda, and baboons from Tanzania and South Africa; another was shared by a baboon from Tanzania. No genotype was identical with that of the cryptic species reported from humans and monkeys in Kibale. Phylogeny based on Cox1 sequences of O. stephanostomum showed locality-dependent clades, whereas those of O. bifurcum formed clades composed of worms from different hosts and localities. PMID:26716002
Bin Mushambanyi Théodore Munyuli
Full Text Available On-farm pollination experiments were conducted in 30 different small-scale coffee fields to determine monetary value attributable to pollination services in coffee production and to identify the degree of influences of various socio-ecological drivers in Uganda. Ecological-economic approaches were applied to determine the economic value of pollinating services. Economic value of bees increased significantly with increase in coffee farm size, bee diversity, and cover of seminatural habitats. The value of bees declined sharply (P<0.05 with forest distance and cultivation intensity. Economic values of pollinating services associated with coffee fields established in regions with low intensity were found to be high. Organically managed small-scale coffee fields were 2 times more profitable than commercially managed farms. The annual value of pollinating services delivered by wild bees oscillated between US$67.18 and US$1431.36. Central Uganda produces in total 0.401 million tons of coffee beans for an approximate economic value of US$214 million from which US$149.42 million are attributable to pollination services. Policy makers should strengthen environmental/agricultural extension service systems to better serve farmers. Farmers are recommended to protect/increase the cover of natural and semi-natural habitats in the vicinity of their coffee fields to receive high economic benefits from pollinating services delivered by bees.
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. As it adopts ICT in education, Uganda faces the same challenges as most developing economies -...
Dreise, Marieke; Galiwango, George; Hodges, Andrew
Objective: The purpose of the study was to estimate the need for resources for cleft repairs in Uganda by determining the overall incidence of oral-facial clefts and the ratio of isolated cleft lip to isolated cleft palate to cleft lip and palate. Design: A 1-year prospective study was implemented i
Mor, Siobhan M.; Tumwine, James K; Naumova, Elena N; Ndeezi, Grace; Tzipori, Saul
We show that the microsporidian fungus Enterocytozoon bieneusi is associated with lower rates of weight gain in children in Uganda with persistent diarrhea. This relationship remained after controlling for HIV and concurrent cryptosporidiosis. Children with microsporidiosis were predicted to weigh 1.3 kg less than children without microsporidiosis at 5 years of age.
World Bank Group
The Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife, and Antiquities (MTWA) instituted a sample survey of tourists exiting Uganda in 2012-the Tourism Expenditure and Motivation Survey (TEMS). This survey collected data on tourist expenditures, duration of stay, tourist activities, sites visited, levels of satisfaction, and suggestions for improvements in the sector. The purpose of this report is to present ...
Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia;
Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...
Full Text Available A survey of otters in Uganda was carried from 1986 onwards, together with other mammals. The information presented here was re-checked in the last three years. All three African otters are found in Uganda: the spotted-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis. the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis and the swamp otter or Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congica. The first two are widely distributed throughout the country with the exception of the dry North eastern region. The swamp otter has a limited distribution in the country and reaches its most easterly extension in western Uganda. Although otters are still relatively common in most of their traditional habitats, they are under pressure from hunters, fishermen, land developers and general habitat destruction. Digging up the stream bed, swamp drainage and destruction of natural vegetation has produced silting, lowered the water table and adversely affected otters in addition to other aquatic biota. The wetland, ecosystem, and therefore otter habitat, are under-represented in Uganda national parks (Baranga 1990. That leaves most of the otters numerically out of the strict conservation areas and thus exposed to potential danger. Suggestions to improve the conservation status of Ugandan otters are made in a more detailed article which will be published as part of the proceedings of the Sixth International Otter Symposium.
Deininger, Klaus; Castagnini, Raffaella
While there is a large, though inconclusive, literature on the impact of land titles in Africa, little attention has been devoted to the study of land conflict, despite evidence on increasing incidence of such conflicts. The authors use data from Uganda to explore who is affected by land conflicts, whether recent legal changes have helped to reduce their incidence, and to assess their impa...
Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner
At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos
Burgeoning population growth and declining natural sources of fish in the sub-Saharan Africa is driving an unsustainable destruction of wetlands and riparian buffers. Fish farming in Uganda is predominantly practiced by poor people in villages for subsistence with ponds of...
Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.
This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual…
Mellerup, Natja; Sørensen, Bjarke Lund; Kuriigamba, Gideon K.;
hospital in Uganda. METHODS: A partially completed criterion-based audit was conducted comparing actual to optimal care. The audit criteria cover initial clinical assessment of vital signs and management of common severe complications such as sepsis and haemorrhage. Sepsis shall be managed by immediate...
Beck, T.H.L.; Homanen, M.; Uras, Burak
We explore the empirical interaction between firm growth, financing constraints and job creation. Using a novel small business survey from Uganda, we find that the extent to which small businesses expand skilled employment as their sales and profits increase depends significantly on access to extern
Eesti üliõpilaskondade liidu juhatuse aseesimees M.-L. Alop kirjutab vastuse M. Heidmetsa artiklile 6. jaan. Eesti Päevalehes "Eestis nagu Ugandas", kus tõstatati Eestis üldise õppemaksu kehtestamise vajadus, mis vähendab vähem kindlustatute võimalusi kõrgharidust omandada
Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George;
Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed...
Openjuru, George Ladaah; Lyster, Elda
In this article, we examine how Christianity provides the impetus for local literacy practices in a rural community in Uganda. These Christian literacy practices form a central part of the literacy activities of the community and are manifested in a variety of contexts from public to private, using a wide variety of readily available religious…
Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M
An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case
Full Text Available Aboveground biomass (AGB contained in privately-owned forests is less frequently measured than in forest reserves despite their greater likelihood of degradation. We demonstrate how density changes in contrast to species compositional changes have driven AGB changes in privately-owned fragments in Uganda over two decades. Data on tree assemblages in fragments were obtained by re-sampling a 1990 dataset in 2010 and AGB estimated using generalised allometric equation that incorporates diameter at breast height (DBH and species-specific wood density. AGB were highly variable between fragments and over time. Structural changes contributed a higher proportion of change in AGB than species compositional changes in all forests. Non-pioneer species constituted over 50% of AGB in reserve forest, in contrast to private forests where pioneer species dominated. Our study demonstrates the potential of private forests to hold comparable AGB to plantation. Reduction in exploitation pressure is required if fragments are to mitigate carbon emissions.
Full Text Available Jackson K Mukonzo,1,2 Proscovia M Namuwenge,1 Gildo Okure,3 Benjamin Mwesige,1 Olivia K Namusisi,4 David Mukanga4 1Center for Operational Research Africa, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 3School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4African Field Epidemiologist Network, Kampala, Uganda Background: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a serious global problem. While resistance to older antibiotics is increasing, development of newer molecules has stalled. Resistance to the existing antibiotics that is largely driven by their high-volume use is a global public health problem. Uganda is one of the countries where prescription-only drugs, including antibiotics, can be obtained over the counter. We determined the rate of antibiotic dispensing and use in Uganda. Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional study design to determine the number of antibiotic "prescribed" daily doses per 1,000 clients. Data were collected from one health center II, eight general/district hospitals, one national referral hospital, and 62 registered community pharmacies. From each study site, data were collected for five consecutive days over the months of November 2011 to January 2012. Results: The overall antibiotic issue rate was 43.2%. Amoxicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole–trimethoprim, cloxacillin, and ampicillin, belonging to the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical classifications of penicillin with extended spectra, imidazole derivatives, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamide–trimethoprim combinations, constituted 70% of the issued antibiotics. About 41% of antibiotics were issued over the counter. At community pharmacies, where 30% of antibiotic dispensing occurred, the number of prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients was 4,169 compared to 6,220, 7,350 and 7,500 at general/district hospitals, the national referral hospital, and the health center, respectively. Conclusion
Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.
M.E. Presa García
Full Text Available Las enfermedades y lesiones no de combate han sido y siguen siendo en nuestros días una amenaza muy importante para nuestras tropas. Entre ellas, las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores artrópodos ocupan un lugar importante, como es el caso del paludismo en Uganda. La prevención Sanitaria incluye una fase previa al despliegue, una fase de despliegue y otra fase posterior al despliegue. Durante nuestra misión en Uganda se ha perseguido cada una de estas fases para hacer frente a este riesgo potencialmente mortal, pero fácilmente evitable. Presentamos el caso de malaria cerebral padecido por una enfermera de nacionalidad italiana y no militar del Role 2 de Bihanga, de evolución rápida que falleció en un hospital de Nairobi.Non-combat diseases and injuries have always posed, and still do, a serious threat to our troops. Among these, arthropod-transmitted diseases are of particular relevance, as in the example of malaria in Uganda. Mission health prevention has before, during, and after deployment phases. Throughout our mission in Uganda, we have focused on each of these phases in order to tackle this deadly yet easily avoidable risk. We report the case of cerebral malaria suffered by a nurse of Italian nationality and non-military, that belong to Role 2 of Bihanga, rapidly progressive who died in a hospital in Nairobi.
Kenneth, Akankwasa; Gerald, Ortmann; Edilegnaw, Wale; Wilberforce, Tushemereirwe
ABSTRACT Despite the research efforts to introduce the newly developed, improved banana ’Matooke’ hybrids to the farming communities in Uganda, to date no attempt has been made to document the likelihood of farmer adoption of these hybrid bananas in Uganda. The paper has analyzed farmers’ perceptions regarding the newly developed improved Matooke hybrid banana attributes in Uganda to ex ante understand farmers’ likelihood of adoption of these varieties. Descriptive statistics and data reducti...
Fogde, Anne-Sofie; Majlund, Anne-Sofie
The Anti Homosexuality Bill of 2009 included the death penalty for aggravated homosexuality and was propounded as a private member’s bill to the Parliament of Uganda. The bill sparked an international outcry, and since then the debate on the legitimacy of homosexuality has been heated both in- and outside Uganda. Governments and NGOs in the Global North have been condemning the bill, while conservative Christians in Uganda and America have been condemning homosexuality, as they believe it is ...
A casual study of the hydrological map of Uganda would convince every serious fisherman and fisheater that he is most favoured to be in Uganda. The extent and distribution of the country's aquatic system plus the rich variety of fish species there is promises a fishery potential of considerable magnitude: The open waterways comprised by the Uganda portions of Lakes Victoria, Albert and Edward; and Lakes Kyoga, George plus minor lakes Wamala, Kijanebarora, mutanda, etc. occupy about 15% of ...
Odongo, Bob Denis
The study aimed at investigating the level of independence and freedom of the mass media industry in Uganda. It explored the challenges that media professionals practically go through and face in the process of carrying out media work and practicing their professions in Uganda, and secondly, it identified how both the existing and newly proposed laws impact on the mass media freedom in Uganda while drawing from the domestic, national, regional and international laws. Qualitative methods were...
Full Text Available Nodular Oesophagostomum genus nematodes are a major public health concern in some African regions because they can be lethal to humans. Their relatively high prevalence in people has been described in Uganda recently. While non-human primates also harbor Oesophagostomum spp., the epidemiology of this oesophagostomosis and the role of these animals as reservoirs of the infection in Eastern Africa are not yet well documented.The present study aimed to investigate Oesophagostomum infection in terms of parasite species diversity, prevalence and load in three non-human primates (Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis, Colobus guereza and humans living in close proximity in a forested area of Sebitoli, Kibale National Park (KNP, Uganda. The molecular phylogenetic analyses provided the first evidence that humans living in the Sebitoli area harbored O. stephanostomum, a common species in free-ranging chimpanzees. Chimpanzees were also infected by O. bifurcum, a common species described in human populations throughout Africa. The recently described Oesophagostomum sp. found in colobine monkeys and humans and which was absent from baboons in the neighboring site of Kanyawara in KNP (10 km from Sebitoli, was only found in baboons. Microscopic analyses revealed that the infection prevalence and parasite load in chimpanzees were significantly lower in Kanyawara than in Sebitoli, an area more impacted by human activities at its borders.Three different Oesophagostomum species circulate in humans and non-human primates in the Sebitoli area and our results confirm the presence of a new genotype of Oesophagostomum recently described in Uganda. The high spatiotemporal overlap between humans and chimpanzees in the studied area coupled with the high infection prevalence among chimpanzees represent factors that could increase the risk of transmission for O. stephanostomum between the two primate species. Finally, the importance of local-scale research for zoonosis risk
Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij
The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...
Joanna R. Quinn
Full Text Available This contribution traces the importance of traditional institutions in rehabilitating societies in general terms and more particularly in post-independence Uganda. The current regime, partly by inventing “traditional” cultural institutions, partly by co-opting them for its own interests, contributed to a loss of legitimacy of those who claim responsibility for customary law. More recently, international prosecutions have complicated the use of customary mechanisms within such societies. This article shows that some traditional and cultural leaders continue to struggle to restore their original institutions, some having taken the initiative of inventing new forms of engaging with society. Uganda is presented as a test case for the International Criminal Court’s ability to work with traditional judicial institutions in Africa.
This chapter addresses private sector investment in the production of households renewable energy technologies (RETs) and provides recommendations for the large-scale manufacture and dissemination of these RETs in Uganda. The following four RETs are examined in detail: improved households cookstoves, institutional stoves, biomass briquettes and biogas. The household energy sector in Uganda relies heavily on biomass, with fuelwood providing 95.5 per cent, followed by charcoal which accounts for 2.7 per cent. Petroleum products and electricity contribute 1.4 per cent and 0.5 per cent, respectively. Charcoal and fuelwood are used mainly in the open fire and the traditional metal stove whose efficiencies are very low. In parts of the country where the fuelwood deficit is imminent, agricultural wastes are the major substitutes. (Author)
Science and technology play a key role in economic development; and Universities have a direct stake in this process. A knowlwdge based ecomony requires scientific and technological expertise which are both strongly influenced by the strength of training in science and technology. However, in Uganda not many students opt for science subject at higher levels, and subsquently in the University. Therefore, there is need to encourage and motivate students to study science subjects in order for this to be successful. This can be achieved through introduction of stimulating subjects such as astronomy in the university curriculum. Astronomy is considered as the most appealing subject and an excellent tool for conveying scientific knowledge to young students. In this paper, the role astromony has played to motivate and interest students to study physics in Mbarara University of Science and Technology, in Uganda, is discussed.
Mukungu, D M
Rural Uganda faces a lot of problems caused by poor sanitation facilities such as pollution of water sources, a high rate of waterborne diseases, high expenditures on curative health care, and the threat of reduced educational performance of children through illness, early school drop out, especially of girls. Limited budgets and expenditures for the health sector, lack of staff, lack of accountability and transparency are important factors affecting sanitation status on the national level. Other restrictions can be found at the community level, e.g. taboos, cultural and customary beliefs, ignorance, poverty, or in soil conditions. To address the poor level of sanitation, the Government of Uganda has set up both a whole string of laws and guidelines and an institutional and management framework. One main emphasis was placed on the Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation Programme (PHAST) introduced in 1994 and since then adopted by several non-governmental organisations (NGO's). PMID:10842841
This paper examines and discusses the influence of western media or press over Uganda’s position with the anti homosexuality issue. In other words, the rationale of this research was to review how the western media portrays Uganda; as a tourist destination; after Uganda’s parliament majority, voted in favour of the anti-gay 2009. Undoubtedly, the bill has caused Uganda, to be on the defensive, since 2009. Indeed the amount of criticism over Uganda is a cause for fear about how the western wor...
John Mary Matovu
Uganda has undertaken various trade policy reforms over the past 15 years. The size and dispersion of tariffs have been substantially reduced; export taxes have been abolished; quantitative trade restrictions and non-tariff barriers to trade (such as trade licensing, prohibitions/bans, quotas, administrative pricing and foreign exchange rate controls) have been greatly reduced. Using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, we implement simulations reflecting the various trade reforms ...
Deininger,Klaus W.; Mpuga, Paul
Although there is broad agreement that well functioning land rental markets will play an important role to increase productivity and household welfare as agrarian economies develop, evidence from Africa on the actual performance and impact of such markets is limited. We use data from Uganda to test for differences in the performance of rental, as compared to sales markets and their evolution over time, based on a framework where markets are affected by differences in ability and imperfections...
Johnson, Susan; Niño-Zarazua, Max
Policy emphasis has recently shifted to 'Finance for All' given evidence that financial sector development (FSD) contributes to growth but that the primary effects on poverty do not arise from pro-poor provision. This paper uses data from Financial Access Surveys carried out in 2006 in Kenya and Uganda to investigate the socio-economic, demographic and geographical factors causing access to and exclusion from formal, semi-formal and informal financial services. It approaches this from the per...
Alsan, Marcella M.; Cutler, David M.
Uganda is widely viewed as a public health success for curtailing its HIV/AIDS epidemic in the early 1990s. The period of rapid HIV decline coincided with a dramatic rise in girls’ secondary school enrollment. We instrument for this enrollment with distance to school, conditional on a rich set of demographic and locational controls, including distance to market center. We find that girls’ enrollment in secondary education significantly increased the likelihood of abstaining from sex. Using a ...
"Changing agricultural research and extension systems mean that informal mechanisms of information diffusion are often the primary source of information about improved seed and practices for farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates the interactions between gender, social capital and information exchange in rural Uganda. Within the framework of farmer-to-farmer models, we conceptualize the informal information diffusion process to comprise social capital accumulation and informat...
Gerhard Van Zyl
Full Text Available "I was conceived in rape."[i] At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference. [i] Opening line of Butterflies of Uganda.
Deininger, Klaus; Ali, Daniel Ayalew
While the need for land-related investment for sustainable land management and increased productivity is well recognized, quantitative evidence on agricultural productivity effects of secure property rights in Africa is scant. Within-household analysis of investments by owner-cum-occupants in Uganda points toward significant and quantitatively large investment effects of full ownership. Registration is estimated to have no investment effects, whereas measures to strengthen occupancy rights at...
In October 2009, a private member introduced the Anti-Homosexuality Bill to Uganda’s Parliament for consideration. This article analyzes the Bill within a broader context of transnational antigay activism, specifically the diverse ways that antigay activism in Uganda is shaped by global dynamics (such as the U.S. Christian Right’s pro-family agenda) and local forms of knowledge and concerns over culture, national identity, and political and socio-economic issues/interests. This article lends...
Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia; Doruk Ozgediz; Sudha Jayaraman; Patrick Kyamanywa; Milton Mutto; Kobusingye, Olive C.
Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and i...
Okaronon, J.O.; Muhoozi, L.; Bassa, S.
A total of 457 hauls were taken during experimental bottom trawl surveys in the Uganda sector of Lake Victoria between November 1997 and June 1999 to estimate composition, distribution and abundance of the major fish species in waters 4-60 m deep. Fifteen fish groups were caught with Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.), constituting 94% by weight. Haplochromines and L. niloticus occurred in all areas sampled, while Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and other tilapiines were restricted to ...
Uganda’s economy is agro-based; although the country is land locked it has great potential for industrial development. It is well endowed with natural resources and salubrious climate, but with little success in transforming its agricultural and mineral wealth into processed commodities for local, regional and international markets. The Uganda’s National Development Plan 2010- 2014 and Uganda Vision 2040 call for a transformed Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country ...
Fu, Shengfei; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Nambiar, Padmanand Madhavan; Resurreccion, Anna V.A.; Chinnan, Manjeet S.
The cookie consumption and purchase characteristics of households were investigated in six cities in Uganda using household survey data. Cookies can be fortified with vitamins to improve child nutrition. The application of a Logit model permitted the identification of factors significantly affecting household decision to eat cookies. They are household food buyer/preparer’s age, employment status, education level, household monthly income, household location, number of children from 4 to 18 y...
Diiro, Gracious M.; Ker, Alan P.; San, Abdul G.
Although Uganda has poor soils with low organic matter, fertiliser is not widely adopted, especially by female-headed households. Thus we examine the role of gender in inorganic fertiliser adoption using a national household survey. We estimate separate models for female- and male-headed households to ascertain if the drivers of adoption differ by gender. With respect to male-headed households, we find the number of extension visits, age of head of household, and non-farm earnings significant...
Zaltzman, Tal; Adelgaard, Thea; Hansen, Nanna; Friederich, Andrea; Jensen, Camilla; Lykke, Emilie
This project is an investigation of the reasons behind the negative attitude towards homosexuals in Uganda. By examining the Ugandan history and culture concerning homosexuality, analysing the Ugandan Anti-Homosexual Bill proposed in 2009, along with speeches, interviews and articles posted on the subject, there has been reached an understanding of the multileveled influences, which creates the negative view towards homosexuals. Among others the influence comes from authorities’ statements, t...
Mbuvi, D.; Tarsim, A.
This paper assesses the impact of the early 1980s neoliberalistic reform strategies in urban water distribution in developing countries. It examines in particular, the technical efficiency of two heterogeneous urban water utility-groups in Uganda. Performance is considered in light of the key urban water sector objectives that are to universally increase qualitative water coverage and enhance utility revenue. Using a two-staged bias-corrected metafrontier based on the data envelopment analysi...
Friis-Hansen, Esbern; Bashaasha, Bernard; Aben, Charles
This working paper is the first of two working papers that presentings findings from the Climate Change and Rural Institutions (CCRI) research program on how meso-level institutions in Uganda are responding to climate change and extreme climate events. This working paper analyses national policies that to support climate change mitigation and adaptation and their implementation modalities. The second working paper focuses on the meso-level institutional dynamics of how climate change action i...
Graham, M W; Delate, K.; Burras, C.L.; Mazur, R.E.; Brenner, D.M.; M. M. Tenywa; Nakimbugwe, D.N.; Kabahuma, M.; Abili, A.
Metadata only record Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) are high protein content and protein quality pseudo-cereal crops whose favorable nutritional profile belies their potential to alleviate nutrition and food insecurity in developing countries. Grain amaranth was introduced as a nutrient dense food into the Kamuli District, eastern Uganda, in 2006. However, initial analysis of protein content of amaranth grain pooled from farms in the Kamuli District indicated that protein levels ranged ...
Ovuga, Emilio; Boardman, Jed; Wasserman, Danuta
There is little information on the current mental health of University students in Uganda. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of depressed mood and suicidal ideation among students at Makerere University. Two student samples participated. Sample I comprised 253 fresh students admitted to all faculties at the University in the academic year 2000/2001, selected by a simple random sampling procedure. Sample II comprised 101 students admitted to the Fa...
Sophie King; Sam Hickey
New theories of how democratic development is likely to emerge within developing countries obscure the effects of popular agency, and of ideas, offering an incomplete view of such historical processes and exaggerating the extent to which a particular sequencing of change is required. Insights from the experiences of non-governmental and cooperative organisations in rural Uganda, an unpromising context for the flourishing of democratic development, suggest that certain strategies can achieve m...
Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and
Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 3...
Baland, Jean-Marie; Gaspart, Frederic; PLATTEAU, Jean-Philippe; Place, Frank
This article presents first-hand evidence about land distribution and the impact of land markets in central Uganda. This area is characterized by unequal distribution of land inheritance, rural-rural migration, and active land markets. We show that land markets, and particularly land purchases, tend to reduce the initial inequality in the initial (inherited) distribution of land. Land purchases by landless farmers in their native village represent an important part of this adjustment.
Olupot, Peter Wilberforce
Clay, quartz and feldspar are widely available in Uganda. The location and properties of various clay deposits are reported in the literature, but little is reported on feldspar and quartz deposits. In this work an extended literature on ceramics and porcelains in particular, is documented. Samples from two deposits of feldspar and two deposits of quartz are characterised and found to possess requisite properties for making porcelain insulators. Sample porcelain bodies are made from materials...
Labour is said to be obstructed when the presenting part fails to descend through the birth canal despite strong uterine contractions. The condition is mostly prevalent in low-income countries where the main causes are cephalopelvic disproportion and malpresentation. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the individual, community and health system factors associated with obstructed labour and birth preparedness practices in south-western Uganda. Analysis of 11,180 obstetric re...
Morgan, John C.; Irving, Helen; Okedi, Loyce M.; Steven, Andrew; Wondji, Charles S
Background The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved. Methodology/Principal Findings A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly incre...
Birungi, Patrick; Hassan, Rashid M.
This study investigates the impact of poverty, social capital and land tenure on the adoption of soil fertility management (SFM) and conservation technologies in Uganda. Considering four land management technologies (fallowing, terracing and inorganic and organic fertilizers), the study estimates a multinomial logit model to link farmersâ€™ characteristics to the choice of technologies. The findings show that investments in land management are driven by factors such as land tenure security, l...
Anokbonggo, W. W.; Odoi-Adome, R.; Oluju, P. M.
A total of 292 traditional healers were interviewed in five districts of Uganda to discover how diarrhoeal diseases were treated by them. At least two healers were present in every village visited, and over 42% of their case-load was concerned with diarrhoeal treatment. The investigation showed that a great variety of herbs/plants are used by traditional healers in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. All those interviewed used water as the main vehicle for their herbal preparations, the amo...
Pinkerton, Steven D.
Accurate estimates of the probability of HIV transmission during various stages of infection are needed to inform epidemiological models. Very limited information is available about the probability of transmission during acute HIV infection. We conducted a secondary analysis of published data from the Rakai, Uganda seroconversion study. Mathematical and computer-based models were used to quantify the per-act and per-partnership transmission probabilities during acute and chronic HIV infection...
Eisemon, Thomas Owen; Sheehan, John; Eyoku, George; Van Buer, Franklin; Welsch, Delane; Masutti, Louisa; Colletta, Nat; Roberts, Lee
The authors examine the policy environment for investment in university development in Uganda, with special attention to the needs of Makerere University. They present data on the structure and financing of higher education, which gets a high priority in government educational spending. A second public university and new private universities have been established since 1986, but Makerere accounts for most university enrollment and government spending on higher education and it trains most of ...
Control and management of Uganda fishery resources has been hindered by among other factors the multispecies nature of the resource and the characteristic behaviour of the fishing communities. Fishermen have both genuine and uncompromising attitudes as to why they carry out certain fishing technologies. All fishing activities aim at maximizing the catches or profits while others may fish on a small scale for subsistence. Sensitizing the" fisherfolk on the appropriate fishing technologies. imp...
Control and management of Uganda fishery resources has been hindered by among other factors the multispecies nature of the resource and the characteristic behaviour of the fishing communities. Fishermen have both genuine and uncompromising attitudes as to why they carry out certain fishing technologies. All fishing activities aim at maximizing the catches or profits while others may fish on a small scale for subsistence. Sensitizing the" fisherfolk on the appropriate fishing technologies, imp...
Bukenya, James O.; Hyuha, Theodora; Twinamasiko, Julius; Molnar, Joseph J.
The paper examines profitability and market performance of small-scale fish traders selected randomly from a cross-section of nine fish markets in four districts in Central Uganda. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire which was designed to solicit information on traders’ socio-economic characteristics, marketing characteristics, operating costs and returns, and problems associated with fish marketing in the study area. Percentages were used to describe the socio-economic cha...
Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Elliott D. Green
The importance of pre-colonial history on contemporary African development has become an important .eld of study within development economics in recent years. In particular Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) suggest that pre-colonial political centralization has had an impact on con- temporary levels of development within Africa at the country level. We test the Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) hypothesis at the sub-national level with evidence from Uganda. Using a variety of datasets we obtain results w...
Mjelva, Julie Kilde
Community organizations play crucial roles in many Ugandan communities as they reduce poverty through building employment opportunities in the villages, educate on health, agriculture and leadership, and help villages develop though exploiting the benefits of cooperating. This study uses theory from the New Institutional Economics School and theories on collective action to investigate factors affecting community organizations in Uganda, and especially how the level of market integration of a...
Aron, Janine; Muellbauer, John; Sebudde, Rachel
Forecasting inflation is challenging in emerging markets, where trade and monetary regimes have shifted, and the exchange rate, energy and food prices are highly volatile. Mobile money is a recent financial innovation giving financial transaction services via a mobile phone, including to the unbanked. Stable models for the 1-month and 3-month-ahead rates of inflation in Uganda, measured by the consumer price index for food and non-food, and for the domestic fuel price, are estimated over 1994...
Vegard Iversen; Cecile Jackson; Bereket Kebede; Alistair Munro; Arjan Verschoor
Intra-household efficiency is tested by using experimental data from variants of a public good game from 240 couples in rural Uganda. Spouses frequently do not maximise surplus from cooperation and realise a greater surplus when women are in charge of allocating the common pool. Women contribute less than men. These results cast doubts on many models of household decision making including unitary and collective models and on Sen's (1990) conjecture of greater female identification with househ...
Nakalembe, C. L.
Drought induced food insecurity is chronic to Karamoja of Northeastern Uganda but there have no studies on the temporal and spatial characteristics of drought in Karamoja. Satellite data has been applied extensively in agriculture and forest studies and have unique capability for assessing and monitoring variation in drought extent and severity even in the remotes areas in the in the world. This research draws on well-established methods that have been used to drought and agricultural assessment to develop a decadal assessment of the spatial and temporal variability in drought in Karamoja. This research focused on mapping agricultural drought in Karamoja using NDVI to characterize drought intensity and spatial distribution within the region for the period 2000 to 2011 at peak greenness (June-August). NDVI values range between -1 and +1 with Low (negative values) corresponding severely stressed vegetation. Preliminary research on MODIS-derived NDVI showed considerable pronounced variation from year to year for the study period. The maximum value of the MODIS derived NDVI digital maps are calculated. Results show that 2008 had the lowest NDVI values with the lowest values in the northeastern parts of Karamoja.
Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; Isaji, Mina; Hashimoto, Chie
Cultural variation has been identified in a growing number of animal species ranging from primates to cetaceans. The principal method used to establish the presence of culture in wild populations is the method of exclusion. This method is problematic, since it cannot rule out the influence of genetics and ecology in geographically distant populations. A new approach to the study of culture compares neighbouring groups belonging to the same population. We applied this new approach by comparing ant-dipping tool length between two neighbouring communities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Ant-dipping tool length varies across chimpanzee study sites in relation to army ant species (Dorylus spp.) and dipping location (nest vs. trail). We compared the availability of army ant species and dipping tool length between the two communities. M-group tools were significantly longer than S-group tools, despite identical army ant target species availabilities. Moreover, tool length in S-group was shorter than at all other sites where chimpanzees prey on epigaeic ants at nests. Considering the lack of ecological differences between the two communities, the tool length difference appears to be cultural. Our findings highlight how cultural knowledge can generate small-scale cultural diversification in neighbouring chimpanzee communities. PMID:26198006
James R.K. Kagaari
Full Text Available Orientation: This article focused on the need for improved employer-employee relationships in order for public universities in Uganda to achieve their intended objectives.Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to review the need for appropriate employer-employee relationships that will ensure quality services and service delivery in public universities in Uganda.Motivation for the study: The researchers set out to examine why managers of public universities in Uganda were continuously paying less attention to the needs of the employees.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive research design was employed and 12 respondents, purposively selected from 4 public universities, were interviewed. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo software. This article is based on the perspective of agency theory, and discussed the contractual relationship between management and employees. The agency theory was deemed necessary because of its contribution to organisational literature.Main findings: There is a need to create and nurture a collegial working climate that promotes quality interactions through information sharing. This results in creating and retaining motivated and committed employees, and also helps to overcome the paradox of balancing the high demand for university education whilst offering quality services.Practical/managerial implications: Managers have to continuously monitor and accommodate employee needs and demands.Contribution/value-add: The potential value of the paper is its function as a guide for public universities to have visionary managers that will introduce new approaches to managing public universities in a competitive global environment.
Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness. PMID:23767462
Downing, Julia; Leng, Mhoira; Grant, Liz
Global oncology and palliative care needs are increasing faster than the available capacity to meet these needs. This is particularly marked in sub-Saharan Africa, where healthcare capacity and systems are limited and resources are stretched. Uganda, a country of 35.6 million people in eastern Africa, faces the challenges of a high burden of communicable disease and a rising number of cases of non-communicable disease, including cancer. The vast majority of patients in Uganda are diagnosed with cancer too late for curative treatment to be an option because of factors like poor access to healthcare facilities, a lack of health education, poverty, and delays resulting from seeking local herbal or other traditional remedies. This article describes an innovative model of nurse leadership training in Uganda to improve the delivery of palliative care. The authors believe this model can be applicable to other low- and middle-income countries, where health resources are constrained and care needs are great. . PMID:27105201
Full Text Available Distance education has been in existence in Uganda since the 1960s, and it has grown steadily since that time. It is however a neglected area in terms of data collection and research. The courses that were running between 1960 and 1980s have scanty documentation. What can be traced include the upgrading course for teachers which upgraded 1000 teachers from vernacular teachers to grade 1 and grade II teachers. This was repeated with 789 more teachers. There is hardly any documentation on correspondence courses Ugandans took with the various British based correspondence institutions like Rapid College Correspondence School. In the following section this study takes you through the historical development of distance education in Uganda and through the various donor funded programs of which, some have ended already, but which do offer great lessons to learn from. It also takes you through distance education at higher levels of learning, as well as distance education in non-formal education. In conclusion the study discusses some of the challenges Uganda faces in its attempt to offer modern distance education, the rather scanty achievements so far reached in that area, and proposes a way forward in form of some indicative recommendations
Achen, Stella; Openjuru, George Ladaah
Hollywood movies are popular in Uganda. This paper reports a study that investigated access to English-language Hollywood movies in Uganda, by way of an ethnographic audience study carried out in slum areas of the city of Kampala. The researchers visited and participated in the watching and reviewing of English-language movies in makeshift video…
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J.
After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.
Lincove, Jane Arnold
This study uses household survey data to estimate determinants of schooling in Uganda, with a model that includes the price of school. Uganda's universal education policy offered free tuition, fees, and supplies to up to four children per family, including two daughters. The empirical method includes an estimation of a child-specific price of…
Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Anikin, Vasily; Aarvik, Leif
An overview of 20 Pterophoridae species from Uganda is given. Three of them are described as new to science: Crassuncus agassizi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov., Hellinsia anikini Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. and Hellinsia nawrothi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. Twelve species are recorded as new to the fauna of Uganda. PMID:27395680
Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.
The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how cons
Over the last two decades, there has been substantial progress in the area of blood safety in Uganda. In contrast, little attention has been paid to transfusion safety in Uganda and there are gaps in laboratory and clinical transfusion practices within hospitals. Assessment of the current practice a
In 2002 Save the Children UK carried out a study of child poverty in Uganda, as part of the on-going Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Programme. Using participants from all regions of the country, the researchers asked children about their perceptions of poverty and anti-poverty strategies, as well as questioning adult key informants about…
Howell, R.; Wesselink, O.; Pruyt, E.
Uganda and Botswana present two interesting and contrasting cases in the AIDS epidemic. System dynamics models of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda were created to examine the future development of the virus in both countries and evaluate existing and future policy measures. The effect of exi
Speizer, Ilene S.
This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV-prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women aged 15 to 49 and men aged 15 to 54 were collected between May and October 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.…
Ferrie, Gina M.; Bettinger, Tammie L.; Kuhar, Christopher W.; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Apell, Peter; Kasoma, Panta
Although there are many conservation education projects working in Uganda, there is currently little evaluation of educational initiatives in the communities. A survey was developed to better understand the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of people in 2 districts of Uganda. The main environmental problem listed by the respondents…
Wamala, Robert; Seruwagi, Gerald
The study investigates the influence of teacher competence on the academic achievement of sixth grade students in Uganda. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality (SACMEQ) survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in primary schools in Uganda. The…
Skaates, Maria Anne; Basajjabaka, Abubaker
A comparative analysis of the role of political parties in Denmark, the USA, and Uganda on the basis of political science theories about parties, political participation and political systems.......A comparative analysis of the role of political parties in Denmark, the USA, and Uganda on the basis of political science theories about parties, political participation and political systems....
Jeremy I. Schwartz
Full Text Available Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Methods: Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. Results: In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD, a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Discussion: Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda.
Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona
Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).
Adong, Annet; Mwaura, Francis; Okoboi, Geofrey
Farmer groups have returned to the policy agenda of many developing countries because of their attractiveness as facilitators and accelerators of technical and economic change in rural areas and as potential avenues for mobilizing farmers around a common objective especially in the delivery of services and formulation of policies that support agriculture development. In Uganda, the government and development agencies are targeting farmer groups as the vehicle for agricultural development in t...
Blacker, John; Opiyo, Collins; Jasseh, Momodou; Sloggett, Andy; Ssekamatte-Ssebuliba, John
Between 1980 and 2000 total fertility in Kenya fell by about 40 per cent, from some eight births per woman to around five. During the same period, fertility in Uganda declined by less than 10 per cent. An analysis of the proximate determinants shows that the difference was due primarily to greater contraceptive use in Kenya, though in Uganda there was also a reduction in pathological sterility. The Demographic and Health Surveys show that women in Kenya wanted fewer children than those in Uganda, but that in Uganda there was also a greater unmet need for contraception. We suggest that these differences may be attributed, in part at least, first, to the divergent paths of economic development followed by the two countries after Independence; and, second, to the Kenya Government's active promotion of family planning through the health services, which the Uganda Government did not promote until 1995. PMID:16249155
Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.
As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand how microbes preferentially break-down SOM. Agricultural intensification over the past decade in
Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W
We examined hand preference in the intentional gestural communication of wild chimpanzees in the Budongo forest, Uganda. Individuals showed some tendency to be lateralized, although less than has been reported for begging and pointing gestures in captivity; on average, their absolute bias was around 0.25 (where 1.0 represents complete right- or left-hand use and 0.0 represents no bias). Lateralization was incomplete even in individuals with major manual disabilities. Where individuals had a stronger preference, this was more often toward the right hand; moreover, as age increased, the direction (but not the extent) of hand preference shifted toward the right. While the gestural repertoire as a whole was largely employed ambilateraly, object-manipulation gestures showed a strong right-hand bias. PMID:23600943
Samuni, Liran; Mundry, Roger; Terkel, Joseph; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine
Habituation to human observers is an essential tool in animal behaviour research. Habituation occurs when repeated and inconsequential exposure to a human observer gradually reduces an animal's natural aversive response. Despite the importance of habituation, little is known about the psychological mechanisms facilitating it in wild animals. Although animal learning theory offers some account, the patterns are more complex in natural than in laboratory settings, especially in large social groups in which individual experiences vary and individuals influence each other. Here, we investigate the role of social learning during the habituation process of a wild chimpanzee group, the Waibira community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Through post hoc hypothesis testing, we found that the immigration of two well-habituated, young females from the neighbouring Sonso community had a significant effect on the behaviour of non-habituated Waibira individuals towards human observers, suggesting that habituation is partially acquired via social learning. PMID:24500498
Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;
of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global...... scales. The capacity for new concepts and technologies to be adopted by managers and accepted by society will depend on effective technology transfer and a community-based approach to forest restoration. The many benefits human society gains from forests requires that forest restoration considers...
Isabel van den Wyngaert; Markus Didion; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Clerkx, A. P. P. M. (Sandra); Mart-Jan Schelhaas
Forest management to a large extent determines the possible services that the forest can provide. Different objectives in forest management determine the rotation length and valuation of different stages in forest succession. We present a method of mapping potential forest management at 1-km resolution to inform policy, land use modeling, and forest resource projections. The presented method calculates the suitability of a location to different forest management alternatives based on biotic, ...
We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs
Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.
Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...
Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector
Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.
Lillian Ayebale; Lynn Atuyambe; William Bazeyo; Erasmus Otolok Tanga
Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted a...
Dalsgaard, J.P.T.; Dickson, M; Jagwe, J.; Longley, C.
This report presents the findings and recommendations of a strategic planning mission to reevaluate the feasibility of WorldFish implementing a fish value chain research program in Uganda under the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish (L&F). The over-arching goal of L&F is to increase productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems so as to increase availability and affordability of meat, milk and fish for poor consumers and, in doing so, to reduce poverty through greater parti...
Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the developing world as passive receivers of Western technological development, towards Ugandans whose use and production of technologies entail innovations from the ground up. It is this ‘other’ everyday...
An intensive dairy and crop farming system found in the East African highlands provides manure and urine, taken from stalls of improved dairy cattle, for crops such as banana. By using panel data of 894 rural households in 2003 and 2005 in Uganda, we find that the number of improved cattle per ha increases the organic fertilizer application on banana plots by 218 kilograms per ha. We also find that banana farmers applied more organic fertilizer on less fertile soils. Regarding banana yield, w...
Kjær, Anne Mette; Joughin, James
This article explores the nature of ownership in a reform of the multi-donor-funded agricultural advisory service in Uganda. We argue that although there was a long process of programme formulation in which all stakeholders were heard, ownership was not as encompassing as it first appeared. In...... stakeholders, notably local politicians and officials in the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry, and Fisheries (MAAIF), were shut out from the original programme and this threatened its viability. If a genuine analysis of the economic and political context had been carried out, the donors might have...
Kwagala, Betty; Nankinga, Olivia; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen
Background There is limited research on how the empowerment of women and intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with skilled birth attendance (SBA) among rural women in Uganda. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the association between women’s empowerment, their experience of IPV and SBA in rural Uganda. Methods Using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), we selected 857 rural women who were in union, had given birth in the last 5 years preceding ...
Namulema, Mary Jude
This study examined the relevance of economic valuation of wetlands in Uganda. A case study was done on Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District in Central Uganda using a semi-structured survey. Three objectives were examined i.e.: (i) To identify wetland ecosystem services in Uganda (ii) To identify the economic valuation methods appropriate for wetlands in Uganda (iii) To value clean water obtained from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland. The wetland ecosystem services were identified as provisioning, regulating, habitat, cultural and amenities services. The community had knowledge about 17 out of the 22 services as given by TEEB (2010). The economic valuation methods identified were, market price, efficiency price, travel cost, contingent valuation, hedonic pricing, and production function and benefit transfer methods. These were appropriate for valuation of wetlands in Uganda but only three methods i.e. market price, contingent valuation and productivity methods have been applied by researchers in Uganda so far. The economic value of clean water from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the nearby community was established by using the market price of clean water the National water and Sewerage Corporation charges for the water in Uganda to obtain the low value and the market price of water from the survey was used to obtain the high value. The estimated economic value of clean water service for a household ranges from UGX. 612174 to 4054733 (US 168.0-1095.0). The estimated economic value of clean water service from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the entire community ranges from UGX. 2,732,133,000.0 to 18,096,274,000.0 (US 775,228.0-4,885,994.0).
Lakwo, T L; Garms, R; Rubaale, T; Katabarwa, M; Walsh, F; Habomugisha, P; Oguttu, D; Unnasch, T; Namanya, H; Tukesiga, E; Katamanywa, J; Bamuhiiga, J; Byamukama, E; Agunyo, S; Richards, F
The Itwara onchocerciasis focus is located around the Itwara forest reserve in western Uganda. In 1991, annual treatments with ivermectin started in the focus. They were supplemented in 1995 by the control of the vector Simulium neavei, which was subsequently eliminated from the focus. The impact of the two interventions on the disease was assessed in 2010 by nodule palpations, examinations of skin snips by microscopy and PCR, and Ov16 recombinant ELISA. There was no evidence of any microfilaria in 688 skin snips and only 2 (0.06%) of 3316 children examined for IgG4 were slightly above the arbitrary cut off of 40. A follow up of the same children 21 months later in 2012 confirmed that both were negative for diagnostic antigen Ov-16, skin snip microscopy and PCR. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria of 2001 and the Uganda onchocerciasis certification guidelines, it was concluded that the disease has disappeared from the Itwara focus after 19 years of ivermectin treatments and the elimination of the vector around 2001. Ivermectin treatments were recommended to be halted. PMID:23458325
The study examines the determinants of improved agricultural technologies adoption in Uganda, using a nationally representative panel data set of 1,600 farming households, collected by the Ugandan Bureau of Statistics in 2005/6 and 2009/10. Two agricultural technologiesâ€”improved seeds and fertilizerâ€”out of the seven types identified by the study were further considered and analyzed. Estimates from the probit regression model show that farmers with low education and land holdings are less ...
Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S. (eds.)
Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3