Sample records for budi chile consideraciones

  1. Determinación del nivel de antropización de humedales como criterio para la planificación ecológica de la cuenca del lago Budi, IX Región de La Araucanía, Chile

    Fernando Peña; Patricia Gutiérrez; Gonzalo Rebolledo; Miguel Escalona; Enrique Hauenstein; Carlos Bertrán; Roberto Schlatter; Jaime Tapia


    Se determinó el nivel de antropización de los humedales de la cuenca del Budi, en función del grado de alteración de cuencas y el grado de alteración de humedales. El primero, evaluado a partir del análisis espacial de la fragilidad y estabilidad de la hoya hidrográfica. El segundo, a través de un modelo de impacto modificado, con panel de expertos que valoró el cumplimiento de funciones de humedales y su estado. Se reconocieron principalmente 4 tipos de humedales: estuarino, palustre, ribere...

  2. Chile.


    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  3. Chile.


    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  4. Chile.


    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  5. Consideraciones biogeográficas y ecológicas de equinodermos arquibentónicos de Chile Central (com excepción de crinoidea

    Héctor Andrade Vasquez


    Full Text Available 30 echinoderm species (the crinoias excepted have been recorded from the archibenthos off Central Chile. Samples were taken at 5 stations (from Los Vilos to Quíntero. 250-450 m depth range, every 15 days for one year. The concept of Region or Province, usually related to the intertital fauna from high latitudes are showed to be impractical using them with archibenthal echinoderms. The presence oj some species that had been registered as characteristic from the Antarctic Region and/or present in the Argentinian and Magellanic Province is related with the Antarctic Intermediate Water Mass, which is at the capture depth in the sampled area.

  6. Perilaku Kenakalan Remaja di SMA Panca Budi Medan



    Juvenile delinquency is a delinquency that is contrary to existing norms in society and at school. Most teens are not able to act positively in the face of pressures facing it so that teenagers have a high risk of the occurrence of juvenile delinquency. Based on data obtained from SMA Panca Budi student population brings about as much as a field of 150 people and the number of samples in the study are using the formula sarwono, i.e. as many as 60 people. This research was conducted with the a...

  7. Spínané budiče LED

    Doležal, Miroslav


    V této bakalářské práci jsou popsány tři základní typologie budičů (sniţující, zvyšující a sniţující i zvyšující výstupní napětí). Následně je vybráno 5 konkrétních integrovaných obvodů, které splňují poţadavky pro napájení LED diod konstantním proudem. Výstupem této práce je návrh a sestavení budiče s vybraným integrovaným obvodem pro napájení vysoce svítivých LED diod o konstantním výstupním proudu 900 mA.

  8. Analisis Pengaruh Perilaku Konsumen dan Lingkungan Pemasaran terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Graparikios Telkomsel Komplek Setia Budi Medan

    Dewi, Debby Chitia


    Formulation of the problem in this study is whether consumer behavior and marketing environments have a positive and significant impact on customer satisfaction Graparikios Telkomsel Komplek Setia Budi Medan. The purpose of this study to determine and analyze the environmental impact of consumer behavior and marketing to customer satisfaction Graparikios Telkomsel Komplek Setia Budi Medan. Primary data collection through questionnaires distributed to subscribers Telkomsel complex Grapariki...

  9. Pengaruh Faktor Pribadi dan Psikologis terhadap Pengambilan Keputusan Pembelian pada Distro Innocent Jalan Setia Budi No. 78F Medan

    Azhary, Hadryansyah


    The research objectives was determine and analyze the influence of personal and psychological factors on purchase decision on innocent Distro Jl. Setia budi no. 78F Medan. Interesting authors hypothesized that there is influence between the personal and psychological factors against purchasing decisions on innocent Distro Jl. Setia budi no. 78F Medan. The population in this study is the consumers who buy the Innocent Distro Jl.Setia budi No. 78F Medan amounting to 500 people. Sampling coll...

  10. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations



    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow

  11. Pengembangan Instrumen Evaluasi Budi Pekerti Siswa SMU Negeri di Kabupaten Bantul

    Esti Setiawati


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan instrumen evaluasi budi pekerti siswa SMU Negeri. Untuk itu perlu dirumuskan langkah-langkah pengembangan instrumen dan menyelidiki karakteristik instrumen tersebut. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa SMU Negeri di Kabupaten Bantul. Penentuan banyaknya sampel dilakukan dengan teknik Purposive sampling sesuai dengan tujuan pengembangan. Instrumen penelitian ini adalah inventory Data dianalisis dengan analisis faktor. Ha...


    Rizki Amalia Sholihah; Suharti Suharti


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sikap dan pemertahanan terhadap bahasa Indonesia pada siswa kelas X kelas internasional dan non-internasional di SMA Budi Mulia Dua. Sikap dan pemertahanan bahasa tersebut ditinjau dari tes menulis siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan gabungan antata pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan kuesioner menunjukkan bahwa di kelas X GAC terdapat 9 siswa yang memiliki pemerta-hanan bahasa negati...


    irmawati, farizha; Oktaviana, Ika; Rahayu, Lia


     ABSTRACTThe development of rapid information technology makes learners freed in obtaining teaching materials. One of them is a web-based teaching materials. The purpose of the research is to produce a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of Environmental Sciences to enhance student motivation Budi Utomo Malang Teachers' Training College. Development of teaching materials based website using ADDIE models. Development research was conducted from April to December 2015. Based on the res...

  14. Jenis-Jenis Buta Warna Pada Siswa Smp Panca Budi Medan Tahun 2014

    Sari, Julia


    Background : Color blindness is inability or decreased ability to see color, or perceive color differences, under normal lighting conditions. Color blindness can be classified as acquired and inherited or congenital. There are two types of inherited or congenital color blindness: dyschromatopsia, achromatopsia. Methods : This is a descriptive observational study with cross sectional method. Color vision was tested in Students of SMP Panca Budi Medan using Ishihara 14 test plate after indir...

  15. Budič světlometů s LED diodami

    Christen, Jiří


    Diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací budiče LED diod, který je založen na integrovaných obvodech NCV78703 a NCV78723 od firmy ON Semiconductor. Cílem je vytvořit demonstrační aplikaci s těmito obvody pro potřeby firmy. Jedná se o obvody speciálně určené pro buzení světlometů s LED diodami v automobilovém průmyslu. Budič je řízen mikrokontrolérem, který rovněž komunikuje se softwarem na PC přes rozhraní USB. Tento software umožňuje jednoduše nastavovat parametry budiče a tím měnit int...


    Silvia Hayandani


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to analyze 1 competitiveness of catfish Aquaculture business in the Indragiri Hulu District, 2 the impact of government’s input-output policy on the competitiveness of catfish aquaculture business. Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM was employed in this study in order to measure the level of competitive and comparative advantage and effect of government interventions on catfish aquaculture business. The results showed that Catfish aquacultures that use most of the feed from factories are uncompetitive, while the catfish aquaculture that use alternative feed has high competitiveness. The impact of government policy on the output of catfish aquaculture business indicates positive result. It  means that the government intervention has been effective so the prices received by farmers are higher than international prices. In addition, local governments also facilitate off farm activities so that catfish are sold already in processed form in order to increase the added value received by farmers.Keywords: comparative advantages, catfish aquaculture business, policy analysis matrix, policy impactABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan 1 menganalisis tingkat daya saing usaha budi daya ikan patin di Kabupaten Indragiri Hulu, 2 menganalisis pengaruh kebijakan input maupun output yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah terhadap daya saing usaha budi daya ikan patin di Kabupaten Indragiri Hulu. Dalam mengukur tingkat keunggulan kompetitif dan komparatif serta dampak kebijakan pemerintah terhadap usaha budi daya ikan patin digunakan matriks analisis kebijakan atau policy analysis matrix. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa usaha budi daya ikan patin di Kabupaten Indragiri Hulu yang menggunakan sebagian besar pakan komersial (pelet tidak mempunyai keunggulan komparatif, sedangkan usaha yang menggunakan sebagian besar pakan alternatif mempunyai  keunggulan kompetitif dan komparatif. Dampak kebijakan pemerintah terhadap output menunjukkan hasil yang

  17. Pengembangan Instrumen Evaluasi Budi Pekerti Siswa SMU Negeri di Kabupaten Bantul

    Esti Setiawati


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan instrumen evaluasi budi pekerti siswa SMU Negeri. Untuk itu perlu dirumuskan langkah-langkah pengembangan instrumen dan menyelidiki karakteristik instrumen tersebut. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa SMU Negeri di Kabupaten Bantul. Penentuan banyaknya sampel dilakukan dengan teknik Purposive sampling sesuai dengan tujuan pengembangan. Instrumen penelitian ini adalah inventory Data dianalisis dengan analisis faktor. Hasil analisis data uji coba pengembangan Instrumen adalah: 1 Uji coba pertama dengan 85 butir, menunjukkan angka KMO and bartllets test sebesar 0,644 dengan p < 0,05. Setelah butir-butir tersebut dianalisis sejumlah, terdapat 11 butir yang tidak layak analisis yaitu butir 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 32, dan butir 77 karena angka MSA < 0,5. Hasil pengujian ulang dengan 74 &117 butir menunjukkan angka KMO and Bartllets test sebesar 0,761 dengan p < 0,05, berarti mengalami kenaikan sebesar 0,117. Angka kumulatif muatan faktor sebesar 41,351 % dan nilai reliabilitas instrumen sebesar 0, 9656 2 Uji coba kedua dengan 85 butir hasil perbaikan instrumen uji coba pertama, menunjukkan angka KMO and Bartllets test sebesar 0,874 dengan p < 0,05. Setelah butir-butir tersebut dikenakan sejumlah pengujian, terdapat 1 butir yang tidak layak analisis yaitu butir 11 karena angka MSA < 0,5 hasil pengujian ulang dengan 84 butir menunjukkan angka KMO and Bartllets test sebesar 0,876 dengan P < 0,05, yang berarti mengalami kenaikan sebesar 0,002, sedangkan angka kumulatif muatan faktor sebesar 42,775% dan nilai reliabilitas Instrumen sebesar 0,9634. Hasil analisis data tersebut menunjukkan tingkat reliabilitas instrumen tergolong tinggi, namun validitas konstruk masih rendah. Kata kunci: pengembangan instrument, evaluasi budi pekerti.

  18. Pengaruh Pengetahuan Kewirausahaan, Motif Berprestasi, dan Kemandirian Pribadi Terhadap Perilaku Kewirausahaan pada Jajanan Malam Jalan Setia Budi Medan

    Wahyuni, Erli


    The objective of this study is to know the influence of knowledge in entrepreneurship, motive in performance and personal independence against business behavior on café-night at Jalan Setia Budi area of Medan. This study is descriptive analysis research, in this case adopted a multiple linear regression analysis method. Data available in this research such as primary and secondary data. Population in this research involved total 60 respondents, in taking the sample is known with a saturated s...

  19. Artritis reumatoide: consideraciones psicobiológicas

    Japcy Margarita Quiceno; Stefano Vinaccia


    En la literatura es bien conocido el peso de las emociones negativas en la fisiopatología de la artritis reumatoide, pero hay poca información empírica del impacto de variables psicosociales positivas sobre esta enfermedad. Por tanto, el propósito de este trabajo es hacer énfasis en los factores psicobiológicos relacionados con la artritis reumatoide. Se describen las consideraciones epidemiológicas, los síntomas físicos constitutivos, los factores psicosociales más relevantes, como el papel ...

  20. “ TÍO, DEJE UNA MONEÍTA”: CONSIDERACIONES LINGÜÍSTICAS SOBRE UN USO NO LITERAL DE LOS TÉRMINOS DE PARENTESCO EN EL ESPAÑOL DE CHILE “Tío, deje una moneíta”: Linguistical considerations on the non literal usage of kinship terms in the Chilean Spanish

    Gastón Salamanca


    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis de los términos de parentesco con significado no literal --presentes en expresiones como “qué va a llevar mamita” o “es media porfiá mi tía”-- y se proponen hipótesis explicativas para sus usos en Chile. Estas hipótesis explicativas se resumen en un esquema compuesto por un eje graduado de ordenadas y abscisas, el cual da cuenta de las relaciones de subordinación y distancia afectiva, y permite generar nuevas expresiones. El trabajo concluye con los aspectos más destacados descritos en la investigación, y algunas posibles proyecciones del mismo.In this article we introduce the analysis on kinship terms with non literal meaning --found in expressions such as “qué va a llevar mamita” or “es media porfiá mi tía”-- and some explanatory hypothesis are proposed on their usage in Chile. These explanatory hypothesis are summarized in a graphic compound by a numerical coordinate and axis. This graphic shows the subordination and affective distance relations, and allows the production of new expressions. This project concludes with the most outstanding aspects described in the research and some of the possible projections of them.

  1. Online Comic in Mandarin Chinese’s Vocabulary Learning: A Case Study of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Nuning Catur Sri Wilujeng


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate 1 the improvement of CFL elementary-school students’ skill in learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin vocabulary through creating comic without online resources, creating online comics individually and collaboratively, 2 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of comics in learning Mandarin vocabulary, and 3 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of collaborative activities in learning Mandarin vocabulary. The research design was based on a quasi-experiment using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Three classes participated in this study: one class was the control group using text-based instruction without online resources; the other two classes were the experimental groups 1 and 2. In the experimental group 1, students worked individually on online comic whereas in the experimental group 2, students worked collaboratively on online comic. All participants were Grade 5 students of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The collected and analyzed data included performances on Mandarin vocabulary, in-class observation, questionnaires, and interview. In Mandarin vocabulary performances, the experimental group 2 outperformed the other two groups and the experimental group 1 performed better than the control group. In the students’ attitude, the experimental group 2 behaved more positively than the two other groups, and the control group behaved more positively than the experimental group 1.


    Erna Luciasari


    Full Text Available Number of the elderly is increasing relatively fast in Indonesia. It is estimated by the US Bureau of the Cencus that this country will be the fourth in the world regarding the big number of it. As they are becoming older the physiological functions become weaker, it includes the function of intestine which influence the kind of food they can eat. This study has been carried out as to collect information's regarding level and variety of foods consumed by the elderly. A number of 53 elderly reside in two nursing homes, i.e. Budi Luhur and Hanna in Yogyakarta have been involved in the study. Important results show that most of the elderly used to eat main dish meal three times and snacks one-two time daily. The main staple food is rice which contributes 60-70% of total energy intake. Foods of fat sources contribute 15-20% of energy intake. Foods of animal protein sources are consumed 30-50 gram daily, and 50-100 gram of plant protein sources such as fermented soybean (tempe. Drinking water are drunk 6-9 glasses a day. By consuming such level and variety of foods, 47% of elderly are relatively thin, 47% sedentary and 6% relatively obese.Keywords: foods consume, elderly, nursing home

  3. Porovnání vlastností spínaných LED budičů

    Káňa, Vojtěch


    Tato bakalářská práce pojednává o vlastnostech spínaných LED budičů. Je vybráno a porovnáno pět integrovaných obvodů. Posléze je vybrán jeden z nich, který bude obsažen v topologiích buck-boost a SEPIC. Tyto měniče budou porovnány v simulačním prostředí a dále budou navržena a vyrobena jejich obvodová zapojení. Vyrobená zařízení budou otestovány a porovnány jejich dosažené vlastnosti. Oba dva měniče musí splňovat zadané požadavky pro konstantní výstupní proud, napětí na LED a vstupní napětí....

  4. Analisis Faktor – Faktor Yang Mendorong Keberhasilan Usaha Pada Usaha Cafe Mandiri Dan Café Joulie Kompleks Setia Budi 2 Medan

    Prasetyo, Erfandy


    This study aims to Know the factors that drive business success in the business Cafe Mandiri and Café Joulie complex Medan Setia Budi 2. It is important to know what factors are driving the success of the business in the Cafe Independent and Café Joulie. Results from this study is that there is a positive and significant correlation between the factors that drive the success of entrepreneurs to the success of a new venture in the Cafe Independent and Café Joulie. population in this study i...

  5. Simbiosis: Consideraciones terminológicas y evolutivas

    Luko Hilje


    Full Text Available Se redefinen los tipos de asociaciones simbióticas más conocidas, a partir de consideraciones sobre su significado conceptual y biológico. Se plantea un esquema preliminar de clasificación, con dos categorías de simbiosis: recíproca y antagónica. La primera muestra una sola línea evolutiva, tendiente a mayor especificidad entre los organismos asociados, e  incluye al comensalismo, protocooperación y mutualismo. La segunda muestra tres líneas evolutivas separadas, con diferentes grados de especificidad, e involucra el amensalismo, depredación y parasitismo.

  6. Consideraciones generales acerca de la lógica lineal

    Nunes de Medeiros, Maria da Paz; Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Norte


    En este trabajo se hacen consideraciones generales acerca de la lógica lineal, tomando especialmente en cuenta sus motivaciones y su formalización. En primer lugar, se explica la necesidad de expandir el conjunto usual de conectivas lógicas en la lógica lineal. Siguiendo a Girard (1987), se presenta una formalización para la lógica lineal como un cálculo de secuentes y se esboza el teorema de eliminación de corte para este sistema. Finalmente, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de la traducc...

  7. Transformační procesy venkovské krajiny v České republice na příkladu území Budišovska

    Klusáček, Petr

    Bratislava : Geografický ústav SAV, 2004 - (Ira, V.; Vaishar, A.), s. 19-25 ISBN 80-968365-6-0. [Časovo-priestorové aspekty transformačných procesov v Českej Republike a v Slovenskej Republike. Bratislava (SK), 20.11.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK3046108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : microregion of Budišov * radon * leather industry Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  8. Fundacion Chile Incubator : Chile Case Study

    World Bank


    Foundation Chile was created in 1976 as a nonprofit governed jointly by the Chilean government and a large American conglomerate. It proactively introduces technology innovations and develops companies in target industries including agribusiness, marine resources, forestry, environment and chemical metrology, human capital, and information and communication technologies. Among its successe...

  9. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo


    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  10. Marine Energy in Chile

    Antonio Levy


    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  11. Revisión y estudio de los restos fósiles de mastodontes de Chile (Gomphotheriidae): Cuvieronius hyodon, Pleistoceno superior

    Alberdi Alonso, María Teresa; D. Frassinetti


    Se describen y sitúan taxonómicamente los restos de mastodontes de las localidades chilenas. Se identifica una sola forma: Cuvieronius hyodon (Fischer) para el Pleistoceno superior en Chile. Se analizan sus características y se comparan con aquellas de mastodontes de otras localidades de América del Sur. Asimismo se revisan consideraciones de tipo paleoecológico, y se discuten sus probables vías de migración desde el norte hacia el territorio chileno.

  12. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio


    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  13. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Juan Carlos Gentina


    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  14. Consideraciones didácticas para la aplicación de estrategias de lectura

    Solé, Maira


    Resumen: El propósito de este escrito es el de establecer ciertas consideraciones didácticas para la correcta aplicación de las estrategias de lectura. La estrategia por sí sola no genera ningún producto, es necesario que la maestra o el maestro la domine íntegramente aplicando la técnica adecuada para la consecución de los objetivos propuestos en el contenido. Se expondrán tres bloques de consideraciones didácticas: las de índole contextual, las constructivas y las de orden operativo o de ac...

  15. Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Hinojosa, Sergio


    To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chiles government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and then operate the infrastructure for a set of number of years, recover...

  16. The Geology of Chile

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere


    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  17. Chile's Madam President


    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  18. Consideraciones sobre ética, derecho y ambiente

    Pierre Foy Valencia


    Full Text Available El presente ensayo aborda la importancia que progresivamente está adquiriendo la ética ambiental en relación con las variadas formas del ejercicio contemporáneo del Derecho, así como de sus diversificadas áreas o especialidades y, por cierto, en particular respecto del Derecho Ambiental. Para ello, en primer lugar, identificaremos conceptualmente el escenario y el proceso de la ética ambiental como presupuesto condicionante que impacta en los múltiples mecanismos de actuación social —léase la política, la economía, la educación, los sistemas jurídicos, entre otros—.2 Luego, estableceremos algunas premisas sobre la responsabilidad profesional en particular del abogado y cómo estas deberían ser integradas en una perspectiva ético-ambiental o, si se quiere, basadas en una ética de la sostenibilidad. Finalmente, interpretaremos cómo tales consideraciones debieran articularse con el ejercicio de las disciplinas jurídicas, en especial con el Derecho Ambiental, enfatizando la cuestión de la corrupción con la preocupación ambiental.

  19. Spent Fuel in Chile

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  20. Waste management in Chile

    The main radioactive waste management issues to be faced by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) are discussed herein. Research reactor spent fuel management is the most outstanding challenge at the beginning of the 21st century. Interim storage appears to be the most promising alternative, allowing fuel safekeeping until a definitive step is taken. The situation regarding radioactive waste resulting from radioisotope applications in Chile will not undergo considerable change in the near future. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste management is being safely performed followed by interim storage of conditioned wastes. The strategy in the radioactive waste management plan, to be described as well, is meant to ensure the safe storage of radioactive wastes produced in Chile. (author)

  1. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  2. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Jesús Aular


    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  3. Integrated design for the development of energy efficient housing in Chile: Threading abilities

    Underlea Miotto Bruscato


    Full Text Available El diseño integrado es una estrategia para desarrollar proyectos de arquitectura sustentable, incorporando trabajo multidisciplinario y evaluaciones de desempeño, que ha demostrado ser un aporte relevante en la ejecución de edificios públicos de países desarrollados. Este artículo presenta la revisión de aspectos de diseño integrado para la elaboración de viviendas energéticamente eficientes en la zona sur de Chile, destinadas en particular a la reconstrucción post terremoto del 27 de Febrero del 2010. Realizando primeramente una síntesis de características de los procesos de diseño integrado, sus condiciones implícitas, participantes, etapas, recursos y resultados esperados según referencias internacionales. Luego se contrasta con la práctica regular de diseño de viviendas en Chile según la regulación vigente y entrevistas a profesionales. Posteriormente se analizan procesos de diseños de casas experimentales y conjuntos habitacionales particularmente enfocados al desempeño energético, realizando seguimientos y entrevistas para revisar aspectos significativos. Identificando algunas consideraciones y recursos relevantes aplicados en el diseño de las viviendas que permitieron el logro de mejoramientos ambientales.

  4. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  5. Biomasa en Chile

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos


    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  6. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded



    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  7. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  8. Presencia de Hippidion y Equus (Amerhippus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla y su distribución en el Pleistoceno superior de Chile

    Frassinetti, D.


    Full Text Available Fossil remains belonging to Equidae fram Chilean localities are described and taxonomically determined. Equus (Amerhippus and Hippidion species are identified; its geographic distribution in Chile and relations with others South American Equidae are given; a Late Pleistocene age is regarded for them. Stratigraphic and paleoecological considerations are also included.Se describen y sitúan taxonómicamente los restos de équidos de las localidades chilenas. Se identifican distintas especies de Equus (Amerhippus e Hippidion, señalando su distribución geográfica y relaciones con otros équidos sudamericanos, además de referirlos al Pleistoceno superior. Se analiza su situación estratigráfica así como consideraciones de tipo paleoecológico.

  9. Eso's Situation in Chile


    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  10. complejidad en Chile

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla


    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (




    PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  12. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Shen; Danyang


      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  13. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Shen Danyang


    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.




    Full Text Available PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  15. Consideraciones educativas de la perspectiva ecológica de Urie Bronferbrenner

    Gifre Monreal, Mariona; Esteban Guitart, Moisès


    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar las bases teóricas y algunas aplicaciones contemporáneas de la teoría de Urie Bronfenbrenner. En primer lugar, se describe su biografía. Posteriormente, se explica su teoría ecología, su modelo “Proceso-Persona-Contexto-Tiempo” (PPCT) y su reciente aproximación bioecológica. A continuación, exponemos algunas consideraciones educativas de su teoría. Más específicamente, destacamos seis temas basados en algunas ideas de Bronfenbrenner: 1) la relación en...

  16. Consideraciones epistemológico-conceptuales para el estudio del cuerpo en la danza

    María Carolina Escudero


    Las reflexiones expuestas en este trabajo se originan en la tarea de investigación que llevo adelante para la realización de mi tesis doctoral y responden a un doble interés. Formalizar, para mis pares, algunos de los problemas que la investigación sobre el cuerpo genera y explicitar algunas consideraciones metodológicas que al menos en mi caso particular, permitieron resolverlos. Se trabajará con las categorías foucaultianas de problematización, experiencia y hermenéutica. Sobre ellas se rea...

  17. Consideraciones historiográficas para una historia de la ontología

    Vélez León, Paulo


    [ES]Una historia de la ontología que pretenda dar cuenta de su acontecer de manera integral y equilibrada, ha de considerar tanto los aspectos historiográficos y filosóficos de sus fuentes así como los relativos a su contexto socio-cultural y necesariamente en relación con los de la metafísica, pues sus historias están indisolublemente ligadas, aunque ello no significa que necesariamente sean las mismas. En este trabajo, se intenta de manera elemental y mínima bosquejar dichas consideracione...

  18. Consideraciones sobre diferentes procesos productivos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente

    Caridad Ramos Alvariño


    En el presente trabajo se exponen algunas consideraciones sobre diferentes procesos productivos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente. La disminución del impacto negativo de algunas producciones sobre el medio ambiente es favorable, pero el problema va más allá y de lo que se trata es de la necesidad de una transformación sostenible de las producciones que puedan conducir a una vida agradable y una naturaleza conservada entre otras muchas cuestiones que agobian hoy al mundo. La solución...

  19. Consideraciones éticas en la evaluación educativa

    Moreno Olivos, Tiburcio


    En este artículo se abordan algunas consideraciones éticas respecto a las prácticas de evaluación educativa. Se analiza el papel de la ética en la conducta profesional evaluadora, así como algunos dilemas y controversias éticas que afrontan los evaluadores. Se recuperan aportes teóricos de especialistas del campo de la investigación y evaluación cualitativas, los cuales brindan un conjunto de orientaciones que se deben atender en el proceso de investigación educativa para asegurar que éste se...

  20. Consideraciones sobre el estudio de catálisis homogénea y heterogénea

    Adolfo Brown


    El propósito de este trabajo es brindar información sobre catálisis, su fundamento y algunas consideraciones esenciales sobre el empleo de la catálisis homogénea y heterogénea en nuestros tiempos, así como ventajas y diferencias a nivel industrial.

  1. The biomethane potential in Chile

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  2. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    World Bank


    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  3. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando


    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De social...

  4. Consideraciones didácticas para la aplicación de estrategias de lectura

    Solé, Maira


    Full Text Available Resumen: El propósito de este escrito es el de establecer ciertas consideraciones didácticas para la correcta aplicación de las estrategias de lectura. La estrategia por sí sola no genera ningún producto, es necesario que la maestra o el maestro la domine íntegramente aplicando la técnica adecuada para la consecución de los objetivos propuestos en el contenido. Se expondrán tres bloques de consideraciones didácticas: las de índole contextual, las constructivas y las de orden operativo o de actividad. La finalidad es analizar cada una de ellas, conocer cómo influyen y por último efectuar su aplicación en el proceso de lectura.Abstract: The intention of this writing is to establish certain didactic considerations for the correct application of the reading strategies. The strategy by itself does not generate any product, is necessary that the teacher dominates it completely applying the technique adapted for the attainment of the objectives proposed in the content. Three blocks of didactic considerations will be exposed: those of contextual nature, the constructives and those of operative order or activity. The purpose is to analyze each one of them, to know how they influence and finally to carry out its application in the reading process.

  5. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Sommer, Marcos


    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  6. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G


    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  7. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz


    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  8. Consideraciones sobre los fundamentos y desarrollo de la econometría

    Antoni ESPASA


    Las consideraciones sobre los fundamentos y el desarrollo de la econometría que se realizan en este trabajo se agrupan en los siguientes puntos: definición de la Econometría, Teoría económica y datos económicos, la distribución de Haavelmo, el proceso reductor para la obtención de los modelos econométricos, exogeneidad y determinación de los parámetros de interés, esquema integrador de los modelos ecométricos más usuales y diseño y evaluación de modelos.

  9. Consideraciones sobre la justicia y las políticas de derechos

    Claudia Yarza


    Full Text Available La legitimidad política se asienta en las ideas de orden y de justicia. Sin embargo, somos conscientes de la tenacidad con la que lo jurídico, en lugar de acoger a la justicia, sirve para ocultar situaciones de injusticia que se perpetúan, se metamorfosean, se naturalizan. Por ello, este trabajo intenta vincular una serie de consideraciones sobre la idea de justicia que surgen en la escena filosófica contemporánea, donde se da cuenta de su dimensión trascendente respecto de los poderes fácticos y, con ello, apunta a solventar un tipo de reflexión sobre las políticas públicas basadas en los derechos humanos.

  10. Consideraciones didácticas sobre el método de Arquímedes

    Salazar Caicedo, José Alonso


    Nos proponemos en las líneas que siguen, mostrar algunas consideraciones didácticas sobre el método de Arquímedes, tomando un ejemplo en particular: El cálculo del área de un sector parabólico ACO inscrito en un triángulo rectángulo ACF, (figura 1), advirtiendo de paso que si bien los argumentos empleados no gozan de todo rigor matemático, permiten conjeturar de un modo plausible los resultados finales en una forma elegante y convincente que a su vez sirve de motivación e introducción a un...

  11. Volver a hablar de aura: Algunas consideraciones metodológicas

    Cecilia Bettoni


    Full Text Available Este artículo parte de la premisa de que la elaboración del concepto de aura ha dependido sustancialmente de las formulaciones expresadas por Walter Benjamin en “La obra de arte en la época de su reproductibilidad técnica”. Dado este sesgo infligido por la teoría del arte, proponemos expandir los rendimientos que este concepto puede alcanzar hoy, para lo que emprendemos una rehabilitación que busca inscribirlo en otro marco epistemológico: el de la experiencia. Con miras a este objetivo, revisamos una serie de consideraciones metodológicas referentes a la interpretación del concepto de aura, al tiempo que proponemos una lectura crítica que vincula distintos ensayos de Walter Benjamin en torno a esta noción.

  12. Consideraciones Legales Relativas a la Privacidad en Proyectos de Cloud Computing en el Exterior de Argentina

    Juan Cruz González Allonca


    Full Text Available El modelo de prestación de servicios de cómputo en la nube (cloud computing ofrece múltiples ventajas tanto técnicas como económicas para las empresas y organismos que deciden implementarla. Este modelo, sin embargo, requiere tener consideraciones de carácter legal y de cumplimiento normativo desde el inicio del proyecto. Este estudio se propone recorrer la normativa argentina relativa a la protección de datos personales bajo esta plataforma, brindándole al lector un panorama sobre el cuerpo normativo vigente que debe ser aplicado a servicios de cloud computing en el exterior del país. A su vez identifica los riesgos asociados a estos servicios que deben ser contemplados con el fin de evitar responsabilidades.

  13. Consideraciones epistemológico-conceptuales para el estudio del cuerpo en la danza

    María Carolina Escudero


    Full Text Available Las reflexiones expuestas en este trabajo se originan en la tarea de investigación que llevo adelante para la realización de mi tesis doctoral y responden a un doble interés. Formalizar, para mis pares, algunos de los problemas que la investigación sobre el cuerpo genera y explicitar algunas consideraciones metodológicas que al menos en mi caso particular, permitieron resolverlos. Se trabajará con las categorías foucaultianas de problematización, experiencia y hermenéutica. Sobre ellas se realiza una lectura en clave epistemo-metodológica con la función y el objetivo de mostrar un proceso y de poner en común una manera de pensar, un pensamiento. Saber de qué manera usamos las palabras que usamos y mostrar el movimiento subjetivo que implica pensar

  14. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel


    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  15. La industria lítica de las facies coluviales del yacimiento achelense de As Gándaras de Budiño. El Locus V en las excavaciones de Vidal Encinas



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las excavaciones de Emiliano Aguirre en As Gándaras de Budiño inauguran los trabajos en el yacimiento más importante del Paleolítico gallego y uno de los más importantes de la Península Ibérica. Desde este momento, las polémicas por su cronología y su industria lítica fueron frecuentes. Las excavaciones de Aguirre afectaron exclusivamente a niveles “coluviales”, donde la industria estaba desplazada de su posición original. El intento de datación de K. W. Butzer, mediante la técnica del C14, deparó resultados totalmente anómalos. Apoyándose en las mencionadas dataciones, situaron la ocupación achelense del yacimiento en un momento avanzado del Pleistoceno Superior. Ahora bien, ni el rango de aplicación del método de datación, ni el propio contexto de la industria (posición secundaria, justifican la adscripción cronológica propuesta. Trabajos posteriores, de Julio Vidal Encinas, ponen de manifiesto la existencia de industrias achelenses en un contexto estratigráfico diferente (terraza fluvial y sin alteraciones postdeposicionales importantes. La posición morfoestratigráfica de la terraza es propia de la segunda mitad del Pleistoceno Medio. Así mismo, las características de estas industrias son idénticas a las de cualquier otro yacimiento achelense mesopleistoceno de la Península Ibérica. En este artículo analizamos los materiales (inéditos procedentes del “Locus V” de las excavaciones de Vidal Encinas. Esta industria procede de niveles análogos a los identificados en las excavaciones de Aguirre. La comparación con los materiales, recuperados en niveles fluviales, sugiere que se trata de conjuntos semejantes, es decir, que forman parte de una misma ocupación (en sentido amplio. Las únicas diferencias apreciables derivan de los procesos sedimentarios (clasificación por tamaños principalmente, que intervinieron en la deposición de la industria de los niveles “coluviales”.ABSTRACT: Emiliano

  16. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    World Bank, (WB)


    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  17. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile

    Saragoni, G. R.


    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  18. Sistema de salud de Chile

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel


    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...




    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  20. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Amado M. Padilla


    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  1. President of Chile at CERN


    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  2. Chile's energy


    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  3. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    José Bengoa


    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  4. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Baring-Gould, E.I.


    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  5. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  6. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    West, Michael


    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  7. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  8. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  9. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    Mario Donoso Scroppo


    This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to d...

  10. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation


    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  11. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  12. Desigualdad geográfica en Chile

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Brown, Philip H.


    Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measu...

  13. Trade and Integration Sector Note: Chile

    Mauricio Mesquita Moreira


    This Trade and Integration Sector Note addresses a few different factors for trade in Chile: export diversification, trade and regional disparities, preferential agreements, trade and transport costs. The final section looks beyond the conventional tariff and non tariff-barriers to trade, and focuses on the role of transport costs. Given Chile's low tariff and non-tariff barriers and its network of trade agreements, the reduction of non-conventional trade costs are bound to offer the best ret...

  14. ¿Es eficaz el terrorismo? Consideraciones, problemas y marco de investigación futura

    Richard English


    Full Text Available La cuestión de «si es eficaz el terrorismo» es de vital importancia tanto desde el punto de vista práctico como intelectual; no obstante, ha sido ampliamente eclipsada por otras consideraciones desarrolladas dentro de la literatura académica sobre el terrorismo. En este contexto, el presente artículo aborda algunas de las aportaciones recientes al debate emergente relacionado con dicha cuestión; destaca varias de las problemáticas inherentes a la discusión académica con respecto a este tema surgidas hasta la fecha; y, por último, esboza un marco para que la investigación académica futura en esta área tenga un carácter más inclusivo, sistemático y fructífero en el plano dialógico que el que ha tenido hasta la fecha.

  15. Consideraciones sobre el concepto de Arma de Fuego en la Balística Judicial

    Amaury Suárez González


    Full Text Available El empleo de armas de fuego como uno de los medios en la comisión de hechos delictivos no ha dejado de ser una constante dentro de la ocurrencia del delito y de hecho su uso se ha venido incrementando si no significativamente sí de forma sostenida, lo cual repercute en la necesidad de una mayor atención a este tema. En el caso específico de la Criminalística nos ha tocado muy a menudo dilucidar si determinado ingenio constituye o no un arma de fuego y de serlo que tipo, lo cual redunda de una forma u otra en la posterior apreciación que se forma con relación a nuestro dictamen el tribunal que tiene ante si esta problemática. El presente trabajo expone reflexiones sobre esta temática, así como, el juicio o punto de vista del autor sobre el particular, además de sus consideraciones al respecto que dicho sea de paso intenta tanto en el orden jurídico como en el orden técnico ayudar a comprender las principales premisas del tema ,brindando a su vez una conceptualidad fundamentada y junto a esta la clasificación brindada como resultado de las investigaciones Criminalísticas en el país y el exterior como un material de consulta para los Juristas y demás interesados

  16. Consideraciones sobre el concepto de salud y su enfoque en relación a la salud bucal

    Judit Martínez Abreu; Estela de los Ángeles Gispert Abreu; Pastor Castell-Florit Serrate; Clara Luz Alfonso Pacheco; Heydi Diago Trasancos


    Generalmente, la salud ha estado vinculada a la enfermedad y de acuerdo al momento histórico, las corrientes de pensamiento y el sistema socioeconómico imperante. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, con el objetivo de relacionar algunas consideraciones sobre los conceptos de salud y su enfoque en los diferentes contextos, así como su expresión en la salud bucal. Se utilizaron los motores de búsqueda y base de datos Cochrane, Medline/Pubmed, Lilacs y Scopus. Se obtuvieron un total de 20 ref...

  17. Algunas consideraciones sobre la globalización y el papel del Estado en el nuevo orden mundial

    Juan Carlos Morales Mancur; Diego Leal


    El artículo aborda algunas consideraciones sobre las transformaciones del mundo a partir del llamado proceso globalizador. Se analizan los fundamentos teóricos o sustratum de este proceso, partiendo de sus definiciones y alcances, tratando de plasmar una aproximación filosófica del mismo, para luego tratar de aproximarse al análisis del papel del Estado bajo las circunstancias que plantean los retos del mundo actual y la posible gestación de un nuevo orden mundial. De esta manera, se abarca...

  18. Consideraciones generales en la atención de urgencia a la paciente obstétrica politraumatizada

    Mejías Paneque, C.; Duarte González, L.; García González, S.


    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo principal que los sanitarios conozcan las modificaciones fisiológicas que se producen en la mujer embarazada y que precisan consideraciones especiales en la atención de urgencias prehospitalaria para conseguir mejores resultados materno-fetales. Para su elaboración se ha procedido a una búsqueda sistemática de las principales bases de datos: Cinahl, Pubmed, Cuiden, Cochrane, Google académico y Revista Matronas Profesión con las palabras clave: Poli...

  19. Consideraciones teóricas y empíricas sobre la privatización de epm.

    Maya M., Guillermo


    Para satisfacer algunas preguntas que me han formulado últimamente personas interesadas en el debate sobre la privatización de EPM, propuesta presentada a la comunidad de Medellín por el Grupo de Definición Empresarial de la Gerencia de EPM ("el municipio debería poner como norte de su estrategia en servicios públicos la enajenación total de sus activos vinculados a esa actividad" es importante hacer algunas consideraciones teóricas, en referencia a las fallas del mercado, el caso de las exte...

  20. La autoevaluación en el proceso de calidad educativa para un centro de secundaria (I): consideraciones iniciales

    Flores Correa, María de los Ángeles; Lorenzo Rodríguez, Carmelo; Negrín Medina, Miguel A.


    Los autores hacen una serie de consideraciones sobre el proceso de calidad educativa, en relación con su evaluación, en un centro de secundaria de Tenerife (España) a través de un proyecto de formación en centros educativos. En este primer reporte, los autores adaptan el trabajo de Escudero (1997) sobre el proceso de calidad que ha permitido reflexionar sobre qué es y qué se pretende con la evaluación interna de un centro de secundaria y de la necesidad de un modelo autoevaluativo que se adap...

  1. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子


    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  2. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)


    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  3. Isotope hydrology in northern Chile

    Environmental isotope analyses were done on samples from aquifers in the Pampa del Tamarugal and the Salar de Atacama drainage basin in northern Chile. In the Pampa it is possible to delineate individual groundwater bodies on the basis of their 18O and deuterium contents and, in some cases, to relate these to specific recharge areas. A marked displacement from the meteoric water line indicates that river recharge is an important mechanism for groundwater renewal. Groundwater ages appear high at distance from the Andes and much of the water found in the Pampa may have to be treated as a non-renewable resource. The groundwaters, springs and rivers of the Salar de Atacama drainage basin vary between -6.09 and -8.06%. No difference between the different waters can be recognized and an evaporative isotope enrichment indicates that also here river recharge is an important process. Some groundwaters adjacent to the Salar are very salty but 18O and deuterium data show that these waters are not refluxed brines but simply salty freshwater. The 14C contents in groundwaters and springs are very low but their delta13C values are high. It is concluded that this is probably due to the uptake of volcanic CO2. 14C age dating is thus not possible unless the delta13C values of all possible carbon sources can be defined and the geochemical evolution of the groundwaters is better understood. (author)

  4. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  5. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  6. Consideraciones sobre diferentes procesos productivos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente

    Caridad Ramos Alvariño


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exponen algunas consideraciones sobre diferentes procesos productivos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente. La disminución del impacto negativo de algunas producciones sobre el medio ambiente es favorable, pero el problema va más allá y de lo que se trata es de la necesidad de una transformación sostenible de las producciones que puedan conducir a una vida agradable y una naturaleza conservada entre otras muchas cuestiones que agobian hoy al mundo. La solución al problema puede ser alcanzada con mayor prioridad en la reducci ón de la fuente primaria de la contaminación, seguida por el reciclaje y el desarrollo de tecnologías limpias. La reducción en la fuente se aplica por los cambios de productos y procesos. El cambio de la fuente se relaciona con la composición o el uso de los productos intermedios y finales, que reduzcan los residuos de producción, su uso o la disposición de los productos. Los cambios de procesos están relacionados con la sustitución de las materias primas de entrada, la modificación de las tecnologías y las mejoras operacionales. Las opciones específicas pueden incluir: el uso de materiales menos tóxicos, el aumento de la automatización, los procedimientos para las operaciones y el mantenimiento, el control de inventario, entre otros.

  7. Consideraciones sobre el servicio de asesoramiento al regante para las condiciones de Cuba

    Enrique Cisneros Zayas


    Full Text Available Los Servicios de Asesoramiento al Regante (SAR son sin duda una de las herramientas más interesantes para hacer del regadío una actividad sostenible, al tener como finalidad principal la mejora en la eficiencia en el uso y la gestión integral del agua de riego. En Cuba, el riego y el drenaje son imprescindibles para tener producciones de calidad, es por ello que no podemos renunciar a su ejecución. Por otra parte la mecanización masiva del riego, mediante la extensión de las máquinas de pivote central y otras, aunque logran elevadas productividades de áreas regadas por hombre, muestran signos de poca efectividad agrícola y baja eficiencia en el uso del agua, que están relacionada generalmente a su empleo incorrecto y al desconocimiento del modo de operar estas tecnologías, una de las vías para mejorar esta situación es a través de los SAR. En nuestro país se pretende poner en funcionamiento este servicio y ya se cuenta con algunas experiencias, las que están propiciando un flujo de información y conocimientos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo dar a conocer las experiencias adquiridas en Cuba durante su creación, se completa la información con los resultados obtenidos y se dan algunas consideraciones a tener en cuenta para su futura puesta en marcha.

  8. Consideraciones sobre los conceptos de nación y colonia en la independencia de la India

    Saurabh Dube


    Full Text Available Este artículo pone en perspectiva algunos enfoques novedosos para el estudio crítico de los conceptos de nación, imperio e historia. En primer lugar, se realiza una discusión alrededor de los conceptos clave para el estudio de la nación y el nacionalismo –por lo tanto, del Estado y la modernidad– surgidos de los estudios sobre la India. En segundo lugar, el artículo examina cómo dichos “desarrollos conceptuales” están vinculados, en las investigaciones académicas sobre la región, a consideraciones cruciales sobre el colonialismo y el imperio. En tercer lugar, se mira “hacia atrás” para enfocarse en los fascinantes atributos de las formaciones nacionalistas y explorar, con mayor detalle, los términos, texturas y transformaciones de los nacionalismos subalternos en el subcontinente. En cuarto lugar, el trabajo resalta las implicaciones más importantes de los enfoques antes revisados, para ofrecer una perspectiva novedosa en cuanto a la naturaleza de la escritura de la historia. Finalmente aparecen, en lugar de conclusiones, algunas consideraciones relacionadas a la manera en que se podría abordar, históricamente, la construcción de la descolonización y del nacionalismo, a futuro.

  9. Consideraciones bioéticas en estudios experimentales de evaluación de impacto de programas

    Edna Magaly Gamboa-Delgado


    Full Text Available Todo tipo de estudio con intervención en personas requiere consideraciones éticas. Los estudios de evaluación de programas que utilizan diseños aleatorizados requieren consideraciones importantes en sus fases de selección, asignación de la intervención y seguimiento a través del tiempo. En la fase de selección es necesario un especial enfoque hacia la equidad en el proceso de inclusión de los sujetos como participantes de los estudios, el consentimiento informado y la confidencialidad desde el inicio del estudio. En la fase de asignación de la intervención es necesario tener en cuenta la privación de beneficios de los programas en el grupo que sirve como control, la asignación de los beneficios por sorteo y la justicia en la asignación de las intervenciones. En la fase de seguimiento, es relevante considerar los resultados adversos de las intervenciones y las retribuciones que requieren los participantes del estudio. Las implicaciones éticas de la aleatorización de individuos beneficiarios de programas requieren amplio análisis y organización de procesos de consenso, así como la divulgación de guías de lineamientos éticos para investigadores y evaluadores.

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  11. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    Alain Hourton


    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  12. Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

    J. LÓPEZ


    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  13. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor


    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  14. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    World Bank


    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...


    Maria-Mihaela Győri


    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  16. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Laval, Enrique


    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  17. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene


    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  18. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  19. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  20. Bioética y asignación de recursos para la atención odontológica del adulto mayor en Chile Bioethics and dental health care resource allocation for elderly people in Chile

    I Espinoza Santander


    Full Text Available Una creciente preocupación entre quienes reconocen que los recursos sanitarios son finitos y que el deseo de beneficios en salud puede ser ilimitado, ha promovido una discusión sobre qué es una distribución justa y equitativa de los servicios en salud. En este escenario, la asignación de recursos para la atención sanitaria de adultos mayores es objeto de debate. La planificación de programas odontológicos para adultos mayores, necesita conocer la magnitud y distribución de las patologías en la población y costo-efectividad de las terapias. Sin embargo, una discusión que justifique la asignación de recursos debe ser planteada previamente, y más que datos demográficos y epidemiológicos, requiere incluir las consideraciones éticas que sostengan estas políticas. En esta revisión se expone brevemente las principales características de la salud oral de los adultos mayores en Chile. Posteriormente, se analizan algunas consideraciones bioéticas que pueden limitar o sustentar la asignación de recursos en este grupo de edad. Finalmente, se concluye que los fundamentos de Justicia en Salud y Bioética de la Protección deben aplicarse a la discusión sobre la asignación de recursos para programas de atención odontológica en los adultos mayores y otros grupos susceptibles que deberían ser el foco de la protección.A growing concern among those who recognize that healthcare resources are finite and that desire for health benefits can be unlimited has promoted in recent years a policy of cost reduction, accountability, and an analysis of what is a fair and equitable health service. In this scenario, the resource allocation for health care for older adults has been debated. Planning for dental programs for older adults, like any other, needs to know the magnitude and distribution of diseases in the population and what are the cost-effective therapies. However, a discussion justifying the allocated resources should be raised previously


    Danilo Alfonso López Sarmiento


    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivos centrales hacer una revisión del estado del arte de IPTV (Televisión a través de IP y una propuesta para la implementación de esta tecnología en Colombia sobre una red IPv6. La convergencia de las teleco-municaciones ha dado origen a aplicaciones IP que permiten acceso a contenidos audiovisuales digitalizados a través de re-des que hacen uso de dicho protocolo. Se abordanestudios ac-tuales que tratan características fundamentales de televisión sobre la red de datos,  como el funcionamiento, la arquitectura, los estándares en los que se basa, propuestas para evaluar las políticas de calidad de servicio y por ultimo consideraciones técnicas para su implementación en una red IPv6.

  2. Original inacabado del trabajo "L'Evolution Humaine Apercue Generale" de José Antonio Valverde, introducción y consideraciones generales

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Original inacabado del trabajo "L'Evolution Humaine Apercue Generale" de José Antonio Valverde, introducción y consideraciones generales, que hizo público en una conferencia impartida en el Musèe de l'Homme de París, y patrocinada por la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, el 21 de marzo de 1963.

  3. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  4. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    Mario Donoso Scroppo


    Full Text Available This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to describe in general terms the main aspects of Operation Access and the National Hemostasis and Thrombosis Program, the results of which will be described in a subsequent article of this series.

  5. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi3O8) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi3O8) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika

  6. Consideracions sobre el currículum en el Projecte de Reforma de l'Ensenyament

    Vicenç Benedito i Antolí


    Full Text Available Get article prend en considération le curriculum dans le Proyecto de Reforma de la Enseñanza. Apres une introduction générale du pro jet, quelques idées de base sont exposées sur les tendances les plus actuelles dans la théorie et le projet de curriculum. L'intention est de délimiter, dans la mesure du possible, les commentaires postérieurs, par le point de vue de l'auteur, lequel, a son pour, repose sur des conceptions alternatives comme celles de Skilbeck, Lawton, et Stenhouse. L'auteur analyse ensuite la conception curriculaire breve exposée dans le projet. Il insiste sur la nécessité de propositions souples, ouvertes et orientatives, qui retiennent l'intéret des professeurs pour qu'ils se sentent engagés dans le développement du curriculum. Il attire l'attention sur la nécessité de disposer de moyens suffisants et de former les enseignants, de véritables "seconds créateurs" du curriculum dans chaque centre.The purpose of the article is to make a number of points about the curriculum in the educational reform project. Following an introduction focusing on discussion and general assessment of the project, a few basic ideas are put forward on current trends in curricular design and theory. The intention is to create a framework, insofar as possible, for later discussion, according to the author's view, which is based in turn on alternative conceptions like those of Skilbeck, Lenton and Stenhouse. This is followed by an analysis of the brief curricular conception contained in the project. The need i5 stressed for flexible, open and orientative proposals that will capture the interest of faculty so they will feel committed to carrying it through. And attention is drawn to the need to have sufficient means available and to train faculty, who are the true re-creators of the curriculum in each center.El objetivo del artículo es ofrecer algunas consideraciones sobre el currículum en el proyecto de reforma de la enseñanza. Despu

  7. Evolution of Housing Prices in Chile

    Eric Parrado H. /; Paulo Cox P.; Marcelo Fuenzalida C.


    The availability of real estate data is clearly limited in Chile, which makes more complex the discussion of the possible vulnerabilities of households and the financial sector to risks arising from real estate markets. This paper proposes a set of housing price indicators for measuring the potential pressures that could be developing in the credit market. Using these price measures, we find that the recent sustained rise in home prices coincides with the sustained increase in disposable inco...

  8. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita


    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  9. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    Claudio, Sapelli


    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  10. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei


    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 an...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum annuum Capsicum_annuum_L.png Capsicum_annuum_NL.png Capsicum_annuum_S.png Capsicum..._annuum_NS.png htt...p:// ...

  12. Structural Volatility in Chile: A Policy Report

    Ricardo J. Caballero


    This paper identifies Chile's economic weaknesses and offers policy recommendations for increasing stability. Current problems include weak international financial links, a Central Bank mandate that is ill-designed to deal with terms of trade shocks, a propensity to waste scarce liquidity in the banking system; and limited development of financial markets. The paper's policy recommendations include improving external financial links, molding terms of trade contingencies into anti-cyclical pol...

  13. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  14. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Walter, Amy R.


    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  15. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    World Bank


    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  16. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana


    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  17. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners


    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  18. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto


    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  19. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  20. Los Maestros en Chile: Carreras e Incentivos

    Alejandra Mizala; Pablo González; Pilar Romaguera; Andrea Guzmán


    La reforma educacional que Chile está implementando requiere para su éxito que los maestros se pongan a la cabeza de la reforma, y para ello es necesario fortalecer la profesión docente y la carrera de pedagogía. Diseñar políticas efectivas hacia los maestros supone estudiar las características socioeconómicas y motivacionales de éstos, así como los incentivos y factores institucionales que determinan la composición del cuerpo docente y que influencian su desempeño profesional. Esto es lo que...

  1. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos


    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  2. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application


    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  3. Algunas consideraciones sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología en América Latina.

    Zaida González Fernández


    Full Text Available En el artículo se presentan algunas consideraciones sobre el estado actual del desarrollo de la ciencia y la tecnología en América Latina. Se realiza un análisis sobre las consecuencias que provoca la transferencia de tecnología de punta en estos países y su impacto en la sociedad, así como la disparidad que sufre la región en comparación con el Primer Mundo en materia de Investigación más Desarrollo, publicación científica y número de profesionales y científicos dedicados a esta labor. Además, se pone a consideración las causas del subdesarrollo científico - tecnológico de la región, así como el camino a seguir para salir de esta situación.

  4. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)


    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  5. The ecology of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Schofield, C J; Apt, W; Miles, M A


    Chagas disease probably affects over half a million people in Chile, principally in rural communities in the fertile valleys of the arid 'norte chico' region, north of Santiago. The main domestic vector is Triatoma infestans, but Triatoma spinolai, although mainly in rocky sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes, also invades houses. Since the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century, and particularly during the last 100 years, the endemic region has suffered an ecological breakdown, largely due to excessive timbering and over-grazing, which has led to a denuded landscape with severe loss of agricultural productivity. This breakdown, combined with uneconomically sized farms and poor marketing, exacerbates the poverty of the rural communities. As in other similar areas of Latin America, the combination of poverty and poor education discourages improvements in housing which would reduce the risk of vector-transmitted Chagas disease. This paper reviews the historical and ecological background of the endemic region of Chile, both as a basis for further work, and as a point of comparison with other endemic areas. The review attempts to show how the current status of Chagas disease is likely to be maintained through its association with poor quality housing, poverty and ecological degradation, drawing parallels with other endemic++ areas and suggesting ways by which the ecological damage might be reversed. PMID:6821391

  6. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A


    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  7. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration


    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  8. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D


    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. PMID:26340665

  9. Consideraciones para la medición del capital intelectual en el sector público, el caso de las universidades

    Juan Rivas Maldonado


    El estudio examina las consideraciones que colocan al capital intelectual como herramienta de medición del conocimiento creado en el interior de las organizaciones, revisa la evolución de métodos y modelos para la explicitación de este intangible ocupados por el sector público para la elaboración de nuevo conocimiento necesario de definir, medir y gestionar. La revisión realiza un acercamiento del enfoque para la medición del capital intelectual a las universidades, considerando diferencias y...

  10. Mutaciones de la subjetividad en la comunicación digital interactiva. Consideraciones en torno al acontecimiento en los nativos digitales

    Juan Carlos Amador


    El artículo explora algunas consideraciones teóricoconceptuales acerca de las mutaciones de la subjetividad en las infancias contemporáneas, comprendidas como el conjunto de tránsitos, continuidades e irrupciones en las formas de ser y estar en el mundo de estos sujetos, en particular, por medio de la producción de lenguajes, saberes y convergencias culturales que proceden de su vinculación a la comunicación digital interactiva. Para tal efecto, se desarrolla el concepto de comunicación digit...

  11. Algunas consideraciones teóricas y metodológicas para el desarrollo de un modelo de competencias críticas (MCC): un enfoque operante

    Giovanni León-Sanabria; Diego Quirós-Morales; Alfonso Villalobos-Pérez


    El presente documento expone algunas consideraciones teóricas y metodológicas para el desarrollo de un modelo de competencias críticas (MCC).Este se define como un conjunto de habilidades y conocimientos funcionalmente organizados que permiten alcanzar resultados medibles con consecuencias positivas para los objetivos estratégicos del negocio. Para el desarrollo de la propuesta, se abordaron planteamientos teóricos sobre el modelo clásico de competencias laborales, el modelo contemporáneo de ...

  12. Evaluar la equidad de los sistemas educativos: consideraciones teórico-metodológicas para el desarrollo de un Modelo Dimensional de Evaluación.

    Sánchez Santamaría, José


    La equidad educativa es una cuestión de primer orden en las evaluaciones de los sistemas educativos. Esta situación es deudora de las políticas educativas modernas amparadas en los principios de la “Educación para todos” de la UNESCO. Estas políticas conciben que el sustento real del derecho universal a la educación reside en una educación de calidad dentro de un contexto de equidad. En este sentido, este artículo presenta un conjunto de consideraciones teóricometodológicas ...

  13. Restricciones Verticales, Residual Claimant y Predación Vertical: Algunas Consideraciones sobre la Distribución de Cerveza en Venezuela

    Enrique R. González Porras


    Restricciones Verticales, Residual Claimant y Predación Vertical: Algunas Consideraciones sobre la Distribución de Cerveza en Venezuela Resumen: Si bien la literatura de competencia y economía industrial reconoce las posibles eficiencias que puedan generarse de contratos de distribución exclusiva, también se reconoce que de este tipo de organización Inter.- empresarial se desprende un poder de mercado por dependencia económica. Asimismo, es un hecho común o notorio encontrar la imposición de ...

  14. Chile; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    International Monetary Fund


    Chile's economic performance was very strong during most of the 1990s, but the country suffered a recession in 1998–99. In early 1998, Chile faced a widening external current account deficit—resulting from surging domestic demand and a large drop in copper export prices—which together with turbulence in world financial markets weakened investor confidence and put downward pressure on the currency. Chile has maintained a very open trade regime and has continued with the unilateral phased...

  15. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G


    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735




    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  17. Evaluating the Chile Solidario program: results using the Chile Solidario panel and the administrative databases

    Fernando Hoces de la Guardia


    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una evaluación de tres años realizada en las primeras cohortes del Programa Chile Solidario, el programa de reducción de la pobreza más importante de Chile. El artículo presenta una descripción del programa, haciendo hincapié en el mecanismo por el cual las personas fueron admitidas en el programa. A continuación, propone estrategias de evaluación y discute su validez. 8a evaluación final se realiza mediante un estimador de "Matching" (pareo, y se discuten los principios en base a los cuales se trataría de un método de evaluación válida. Los resultados iniciales usando el Panel de Chile Solidario sugieren que el programa ha tenido efectos positivos sobre el bienestar psicosocial y en la adopción de subsidios y programas sociales. Sin embargo, no es posible obtener resultados fiables debido a las deficiencias de datos, en particular la falta de una línea de base. Con el fin de resolver el problema, hemos generado una base de datos utilizando seis años de datos administrativos, incluyendo alrededor de 1.000.000 de registros de familias por año. Un método para superar el problema de sustitución de tratamiento es discutido y aplicado. Los resultados son mucho más robustos que los del Panel de Chile Solidario y muestran pequeños, pero evidentes efectos positivos de varias variables, especialmente relativos al número de trabajadores en el hogar, el porcentaje de trabajadores en el hogar y el empleo del jefe de hogar.

  18. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Mario Lulo C


    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  19. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A


    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437



    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  1. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    Carter Leal, L.M.


    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  2. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    Ximena Moreno


    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  3. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    Bronfman, Javier


    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  4. Transportation in Developing Countries: Greenhouse Gas Scenarios for Chile

    Raúl O'Ryan; Daniel Sperling; Tom Turrentine; Mark Delucchii


    Chile is a lightly populated country of 15 million that has undergone large economic transformations. Over the past 25 years, the economy has evolved from a slow-growing state-directed economy into a fast growing, market-oriented economy. Its South American neighbors are imitating this transformation. The changes have been especially great in the transport sector, with the private sector taking over many traditional public sector activities. This report addresses the implications of Chile's e...

  5. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto


    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  6. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  7. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto


    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."




    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los problemas de salud de la adolescencia se caracterizan por una carga psicosocial elevada y un nivel de daño relativamente bajo en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad, sin embargo, la disminución de la edad promedio de la menarquia y el inicio precoz de actividad sexual coital son factores de riesgo para el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS entre los adolescentes. En este trabajo se investigó la infección por Trichomonas vaginalis y los factores epidemiológicos y obstétricos relacionados entre 300 adolescentes embarazadas de la ciudad de Antofagasta, cuyas edades variaron entre 12 y 18 años, de las cuales el 87,7 % se concentró en el rango 15 y 17 años, en tanto que el 76,0 % tuvo su menarquia entre los 12 - 14 años y el 27,3 % inició su actividad sexual antes de los 15 años. Se determinó una tasa de infección por T. vaginalis de un 5,7 % .TRICHOMONOSIS IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENT FROM ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE A large psychosocial load and a relatively lower impact in terms of morbidity and mortality characterize adolescence’s health problems. For adolescents, however, a decrease in the average for the first menstruation and an early start in sexual activity, are two risk factors for both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this work, we have investigated Trichomonas vaginalis’ infection and its related epidemiological and obstetric factors, among 300 pregnant adolescents from Antofagasta in northern Chile, between the ages of 12 to 18. Most adolescents studied (87.7% were in the range of 15-17 years old; 76.0% had the first menstruation at the range of 12-14 years old and 27.3 % started sexual activity before the age 15. A T. vaginalis’ infection rate of 5.7 % was obtained

  9. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz


    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  10. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa


    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  11. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.


    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  12. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H


    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  13. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica


    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  14. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas


    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  15. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s

    Raimundo Soto; Raphael Bergoeing; Timothy Kehoe; Patrick Kehoe


    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  16. Desarrollo de la educación parvularia en Chile - Preschool education development in Chile

    Jaime Caiceo, Chile


    Full Text Available DESENVOLVIMENTO DA EDUCAÇÃO PRÉ-ESCOLAR NO CHILEResumoA educação pré-escolar no Chile tem início na segunda metade do século 19, especialmente por influência alemã, trazida ao país por José Abelardo Núñez. No começo se deu de forma particular, formando-se os primeiros jardins de infância. Somente em 1906 foi fundado o primeiro jardim da infância mantido pelo Estado, anexo à Escola Normal n. 1. Para isso foi contratada a educadora austríaca Leopoldina Maluschka, que usou metodologias inspiradas em Fröebel. Na Universidad de Chile, a partir da década de 1930, teve início um movimento de renovação pedagógica orientado por Irma Salas, que havia se doutorado nos Estados Unidos com Dewey e trouxe o pensamento da Escola Nova para o país. Ela conduziu a criação da Escola de Educadoras de Pré-Escolares em 1944. A primeira diretora dessa escola foi a destacada professora Amanda Labarca. Isto facilitou a criação de berçários e creches no país. Neste texto, de caráter histórico, em que se recorrerá a documentos primários e secundários, se pretende descrever o desenvolvimento que o Estado do Chile tem mostrado pela educação pré-escolar no país, reconhecendo os direitos das crianças.Palavras-chave: jardins de infância, educação pré-escolar, Escola Nova, Junji/Integra. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHILEAbstractPreschool education in Chile has its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century due to the German influence brought to Chile by José Abelardo Núñez. The first kindergarten was formed in a particular way. After that, the first public kindergarten, attached to the Normal School No. 1, was founded in 1906. At the same time, the austrian educator Maluschka Leopoldina was hired and the Froebelian method was used. At the University of Chile, in the 30s of the twentieth century, an improved movement was carried out by Irma Salas who studied for her doctorate in The United States with Dewey

  17. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach


    ... of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regulations to allow the importation into the continental United States of figs and pomegranates from Chile... production that is registered with the Government of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence...

  18. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach


    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  19. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...


    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  20. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach


    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems approach, the fruit must be grown in a place of production that is registered with the Government of Chile...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.


    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  2. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile


    ... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for... the documentation submitted by the Republic of Chile, which we made available to the public review...

  3. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.


    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  4. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore


    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  5. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee


    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  6. The National Immunization Plan for Chile: is it a priority?

    Pedro Crocco


    Full Text Available Since 1978, Chile has an expanded immunization program. Target population is all infants and children in the country, along with the elderly at age 65. If we review available World Health Organization data on the immunization monitoring system, in 2011 all vaccines had below 95% coverage. With the exception of BCG, vaccines are primarily applied in the primary care setting. One way to understand organizational priorities is to identify how present they are in the management systems. Thus, it is possible to determine the priority of the National Immunization Plan in Chile by looking into sectoral planning. A review of the most recent policy documents of the Ministry of Health of Chile, one titled “National Health Strategy to Achieve the Health Objectives of the 2011-2020 Decade" stands out. Upon reviewing this policy paper, the National Immunization Plan is not considered as an outcome as a whole, but only some of the vaccines it includes.

  7. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Claudio A. Agostini


    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  8. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo


    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  9. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile



    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  10. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  11. Consideraciones sobre la definición de los conceptos sistema tecnológico y formación tecnológica integral

    Irene Cruz Martínez; Nadina Travieso Ramos


    Los avances en el campo de las tecnologías médicas y sus implicaciones sociales requieren de la formación integral de los tecnólogos de la salud. A partir del análisis de las particularidades en el contexto actual de las categorías formación y tecnología de salud se abordan consideraciones acerca de la definición de los conceptos: sistema tecnológico de la salud y formación tecnológica integral. Su tratamiento como procesos complejos es pertinente respecto a las posturas epistemológicas actua...

  12. Consideraciones sobre un currículo para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera en el Caribe colombiano

    Clara Inés Fonseca Mendoza


    En este artículo se presenta un avance de algunas consideraciones iniciales tenidas en cuenta para el diseño del nivel de fundamentación de un currículo para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera. En él se propone una interpretación formulada a partir de la hipótesis unidad de producción del discurso de Teun van Dijk (2000), que bien puede explicar el papel del lenguaje en el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras; también se incluyen los puntos de vista sobre el papel de la norma y la ...

  13. Consideraciones sobre un currículo para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera en el Caribe colombiano

    Clara Inés Fonseca Mendoza


    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un avance de algunas consideraciones iniciales tenidas en cuenta para el diseño del nivel de fundamentación de un currículo para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera. En él se propone una interpretación formulada a partir de la hipótesis unidad de producción del discurso de Teun van Dijk (2000, que bien puede explicar el papel del lenguaje en el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras; también se incluyen los puntos de vista sobre el papel de la norma y la variedad lingüística sostenidos al interior del grupo SICELE1 nodo Caribe, organización en la cual se propone el mencionado currículo.

  14. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Francisco Godoy


    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  15. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas


    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by dipping low velocity normal faults. Additionally, we show that the low velocity oceanic crust persists to depths of up to 200 km, well beyond the depth range where the eclogite transition is expected to have occurred. Our results suggest that young subducting lithosphere also has

  16. Holocene and deglacial paleoenvironmental history of the Peru-Chile current system and adjacent continental Chile

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Kim, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Ruehlemann, C.


    A combined analysis of terrigenous and biogenic compounds in marine sediments from the Chilean continental slope allows detailed reconstructions of both the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of this region during the last glacial and Holocene. Based on sediment cores recovered during two cruises with the German R/V Sonne, we found evidence for changes both in continental rainfall, most likely induced by latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies, and marine productivity as well as sea surface temperature (SST) changes within the Peru-Chile Current system on time scales ranging from Milankovitch to centennial-scale. On Milankovitch time-scales, we found strong evidence for precession-controlled shifts of the Southern Westerlies implying e.g. more humid conditions during the LGM in the Chilean Norte Chico and a trend towards more arid climates during the deglaciation culminating in the early Holocene. These shifts are paralleled by paleoceanographic changes indicating generally higher productivity during the LGM mainly caused by increased advection of nutrients from the south through an enhanced Peru-Chile current. SSTs off central Chile were about 3.5 C lower than present during the LGM. On shorter time-scales, extremely high resolution sediment cores from the southern Chilean margin provide evidence of significant short-term Holocene climate changes with bands of variability centred at ca. 900 and 1500 years, periodicities also well known from Northern Hemisphere records. Our data point to strong interhemispheric connections of climate change both on multi-centennial to millennial and Milankovitch time-scales with a major role of the tropics for the interhemispheric transfer of climate signals involving changes within the Hadley circulation and/or probably long-term modifications of the El Ni¤o-Southern Oscillation system. The recently drilled ODP Sites 1233 (ca. 41S) and 1234/1235 (ca. 36S) at the southern Chilean margin have the potential to extent

  17. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena


    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  18. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda


    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  19. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile

    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda


    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  20. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    Varela, Héctor Hugo; Cocilovo, José Alberto


    La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a ...

  1. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William


    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  2. Entendiendo las brechas salariales por genero en Chile

    Marcela Perticara; Ivonne Bueno


    El propósito de este paper es estudiar las brechas salariales por género en Chile usando una nueva base de datos, la Encuesta de Protección Social 2002-2006, la que permite controlar por la experiencia laboral efectiva y el timming de dicha experiencia. Las variables de experiencia laboral potencial no reflejan el patrón de participación laboral intermitente y poco continuo que tienen las mujeres en Chile. Se introducen también correcciones por selección ocupacional y se instrumentan dos vari...

  3. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails:,,; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email:


    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  4. Medición en salud: Algunas consideraciones metodológicas Some methodological issues about measurements in health

    Ana M Alarcon M


    Full Text Available Measurement process is a part of everyday work of health professionals. Technological advances have created precise and sensitive instruments whose results are highly accurate and cast little doubts. However, health care has diversified, becoming a multidimensional and complex task. This means that new aspects, that are difficult to measure, must be addressed, such as health perception by patients or cost usefulness ratios of health actions. Therefore, clinicians and researchers must have a good perception of the quality of measures that they use in their daily work, to make the correct diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic decisions. This article explores the operational concepts that help in the development and assessment of measuring instruments in terms of validity and truthfulness (Rev Méd Chile 2008; 136: 125-30

  5. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno


    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  6. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987


    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  7. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.


    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  8. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes) en Chile

    Daniel González-Acuña; Carolina Silva; Marta Soto; Sergei Mironov; Lucila Moreno; González-Gómez, Paulina L.; Hasan Badrul; Mike Kinsella


    Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile). Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp.) and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis). The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites r...

  9. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Rafael Urriola


    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  10. Política, Educación y Territorio en Chile (1950 - 2010: De las acciones colectivas a las acciones del mercado Política, Educação e Território no Chile (1950 - 2010: Das ações coletivas às ações do mercado Policy, Education and Territory in Chile (1950 - 2010: From Collective Action to Market Action

    Moyra Marcela Castro-Paredes


    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el trayecto de la política educativa territorial en Chile desde un enfoque sustentado en el Estado de Compromiso -anterior a la Dictadura- a un Estado Subsidiario que permanece inalterable en esta época. La primera parte expone la dinámica de la política educativa nacional desde la mitad del siglo pasado hasta la interrupción democrática en 1973; la segunda, la implantación de nuevas políticas educativas diseñadas esencialmente sobre la base de estructuras de /mandamiento que se vinculan a las reformas educativas acontecidas en el último cuarto del siglo XX. En ambas partes se analizan las políticas educacionales desarrolladas durante los periodos en comento y se caracteriza su implementación en el contexto subnacional. El texto finaliza con algunas consideraciones de la política educativa y sus posibilidades de apropiación y progresión en los gobiernos locales.Este artigo descreve o trajeto da política educativa territorial no Chile a partir de um enfoque sustentado no Estado de Compromisso - anterior à Ditadura - a um Estado Subsidiário, que permanece inalterável nesta época. A primeira parte expõe a dinâmica da política educativa nacional desde a metade do século passado até a interrupção democrática em 1973; a segunda, a implantação de novas políticas educativas desenhadas essencialmente sobre a base de estruturas de financiamento que se vinculam às reformas educativas realizadas no último quarto do século XX. Em ambas as partes, analisam-se as políticas educacionais desenvolvidas durante os períodos em comento e se caracteriza sua implementação no contexto subnacional. O texto finaliza com algumas considerações da política educativa e suas possibilidades de apropriação e progressão nos governos locais.The course of territorial policy on education in Chile is described in this article from a standpoint based on the State of Commitment - prior to the dictatorship - to a

  11. Consideraciones sobre la despenalización del aborto en Colombia Remarks on abortion decriminalization in Colombia

    José Antonio García Pereáñez


    Full Text Available

    La Corte Constitucional de Colombia, con la Sentencia C-325 de 2006, proporciona una fuente de análisis e interpretación jurídica para la despenalización del aborto en Colombia. Esa es una tarea difícil, ya que, por un lado, la población colombiana en la actualidad manifiesta una gran polarización respecto al tema, y por otro, la despenalización del aborto es objeto no solo del derecho sino también de diversas disciplinas científicas y filosóficas y de sistemas normativos como la ética, la moral y la religión. En este artículo se analiza, en primer lugar, lo que llevó a la Corte  onstitucional a pronunciarse sobre la despenalización del aborto en Colombia. En segundo lugar, se tratan las consideraciones de la Corte y el debate jurídico-ideológico que tuvo que librar para llegar a su decisión. A renglón seguido, se hace un análisis desde la bioética del debate ético-moral que ha generado tal Sentencia; y por último, se infieren algunas implicaciones de esta norma dentro del complejo funcionamiento de la sociedad colombiana.


    Ruling C-325 by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Colombia in 2006 constitutes a framework for the interpretation and analysis of restricted liberalization of abortion in Colombia. In the heated context of the Colombian idiosyncrasy, such decision by the Court was a complicated task, made even harder by the fact that the issue of abortion is discussed not only by the Law, but by other

  12. National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects

    Huaquin, Mario


    In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  13. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Viviani, Maria


    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  14. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  15. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo


    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  16. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  17. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  18. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    Ossandón, José


    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique kn...

  19. Reshaping Power Markets-Lessons from Chile and Argentina

    Lalor, R. Peter; García, Hernán


    Power sector reforms in Chile and Argentina are now roughly fourteen and four years old. In both countries, restructuring and deregulation have increased efficiency, led to active entry by new generators, improved the quality of supply, and reduced prices in real terms. The authors' review of experience in both systems confirms that policymakers must apply effective measures to introduce a...

  20. Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile

    Cox Edwards, Alejandra


    In 1981 Chile replaced a mature government-run social security system that operated on a pay-as-you-go basis with a privately managed system based on individual retirement accounts. The new system is more fiscally sustainable because pension benefits are defined by contributions. The minimum pension guaranteed to beneficiaries with at least 20 years is funded from general taxes, preserving...

  1. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  2. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan


    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update



    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  4. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M


    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  5. Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

    World Bank, (WB)


    This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what...

  6. Chile : A Strategy to Promote Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises

    World Bank


    This study is to provide the Government of Chile with a review of the portfolio of small and medium enterprise (SMEs) development programs and the institutions that provide them, leading to recommendations to improve the effectiveness of a streamlined portfolio. This emphasis is important for economic reasons, given the sectors role in employment, and the possibility of improving its integration ...

  7. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar


    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…


    Humberto Nogueira Alcalá


    Este artículo analiza desde una perspectiva procesal constitucional la sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional chileno dictada en control abstracto y reparador de normas jurídicas vigentes a la luz del artículo 94 de la Constitución y de la LOC del Tribunal Constitucional modifcada en 2009. Dicho análisis se acompaña de algunas consideraciones comparativas respecto de otras legislaciones sobre la materia principalmente de América latina.

  9. Antecedentes sobre el desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile Background of carcinology progress in Chile

    Carlos G. Jara


    Full Text Available En Chile continental la utilización de los crustáceos se remonta al menos a 10.200 años atrás. Sin embargo, la descripción formal de los componentes de la carcinofauna chilena se inició hace alrededor de 200 años, reconociéndose a Juan I. Molina como el primer naturalista nacional y el primero en asignar nombres científicos a crustáceos de este país. El desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile es obra de un vasto conjunto de especialistas extranjeros y nacionales. Entre los extranjeros destacan viajeros como el inglés Charles R. Darwin, quien contribuyó al conocimiento de los cirripedios; el francés Alcide D'Orbigny, primero en describir decápodos fósiles de Chile; y el alemán Eduard Poeppig, a quien se debe la temprana descripción de decápodos marinos y dulceacuícolas. Entre las expediciones extranjeras destacan la del buque británico H.M.S."Challenger", la de la Universidad de Lund (Suecia a Chile y la más reciente del B/I alemán "Victor Hensen" a Magallanes. Entre los naturalistas chilenos destacan Claudio Gay, Rodulfo A. Philippi, Carlos E. Porter y Nibaldo Bahamonde, todos ellos relacionados con el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y el último reconocido como el más importante promotor del desarrollo contemporáneo de la carcinología en Chile. Hoy el conocimiento de la carcinofauna chilena de decápodos puede considerarse relativamente completo a nivel de taxonomía alfa, pero es preliminar en relación con la biología y ecología de la mayor parte de las especiesAlthough the utilization of crustaceans in continental Chile is at least 10,200 years old, the formal description of the components of the Chilean carcinofauna only began about 200 years ago; Juan I. Molina having being the first Chilean naturalist to scientifically name autochtonous crustacean species. Many foreign and national scientists have contributed, with their efforts, to the development of carcinology in Chile. Among the foreigners we find

  10. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Goyenechea, Matías


    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile. PMID:27187810

  11. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    Quinn, Edward J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  12. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    Bruno Martorano


    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  13. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  14. El estado de la seguridad ciudadana en Chile

    de Rementería, Ibán


    Este artículo desarrolla, desde una perspectiva crítica, un detallado “estado del arte” de la temática de “seguridad ciudadana” en Chile, delineando cómo esta problemática obedece más bien a una percepción de inseguridad instalada en la ciudadanía desde los medios de comunicación, y legitimada por los expertos interesados en asegurar la sostenibilidad de sus servicios en el emergente “mercado de la seguridad.” Se sostiene en el ensayo que en Chile la situación de seguridad ciudadana es la mej...

  15. Reforma educativa y política en Chile

    Alan Angell


    Full Text Available This article examines two important educational reforms introduced since the return to democracy in Chile. The first one was targeted at the poorest 10% of schools in Chile. The second was a fundamental reform of the primary educational sector. Both have been successful in meeting their objectives, and mark a fundamental shift from the educational reforms of the Pinochet government. The reasons for the success of the reforms are broken down into political, institutional and operational factors. In essence, a small team of trained educational reformers, with widespread support and strong backing from the Minister of Education and the President were able to overcome the resistance of the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Education and that of the school teachers union.

  16. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    Mattelart, M


    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America. PMID:12261387

  17. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  18. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Claudio MANCILLA


    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  19. [Adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile, 1968-1990].

    Taucher, E; Albala, C; Icaza, G


    "The paper starts with a brief analysis of the sources and the quality of the data and the mortality indices [for trends in adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile]....A comparison is made of mortality among the 13 regions of the country and an attempt is made to relate the observed differences to some environmental and life-style factors. Rural-urban and educational differences of mortality by cause of death are also analyzed. The paper ends by comparing mortality by chronic disease in Chile with that of other countries of the Latin American region, noting some difficulties [in] such a comparison and proposing hypotheses for future studies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12290226

  20. Variables perceptuales y emprendimiento naciente en Chile: oportunidad versus necesidad

    Lennon Sabatini, Joaquin; Franetovic Parker, Francisco


    In this work we seek to assess how perception variables affect on the timely decision to undertake in Chile, measured by the nascent entrepreneurship, ie, those entrepreneurs who are starting a new business, including any form of self-employment or commersialisation of all types of goods or services. This, controlling for other relevant variables of demographic and economic nature . It seems particularly interesting to quantify how affect self-confidence, perception of opportunity, fear of fa...

  1. Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Eduardo Zepeda; Diana Alarcón; Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osório


    Insufficient labour income and limited access to employment are critical problems that policy makers must address when designing development strategies in Latin American countries. The persistence of the high incidence of poverty and inequality can be explained largely by the poor performance of labour markets. This Working Paper uses household survey data for Chile, Brazil and Mexico, from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, to examine the link between the growth of labour income, employment...

  2. Physical dating violence among college students in Chile

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Zhao, Zhenxiang


    Dating violence is a serious public health concern both per se and because victimization in the young adult years can be a precursor to more severe incidents of domestic violence later, in the context of cohabitation or marriage. To date, no quantitative studies have examined dating violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, a survey on this topic was administered to students at a major public university. The present analyses focused on the female sample (n=441). Generaliz...

  3. Peer Effects and Relative Performance of Voucher Schools in Chile

    Claudio Sapelli; Bernardita Vial


    The assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of vouchers has been hindered by the lack of sufficient empirical evidence. The Chilean education voucher system was established at a national scale and has data for more than 15 years. The empirical literature developed to evaluate the voucher system in Chile faced methodological and/or data limitations up until late 1999, since there was no individual data available, and papers used the school as a unit of study. Additionally, the studies l...




    This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between t...

  5. Employment Generation, Firm Size, and Innovation in Chile

    Roberto Alvarez; José Miguel Benavente; Rolando Campusano; Conrado Cuevas


    This paper compiles and analyzes several sources of information to shed light on the relationship between innovation and employment growth in the manufacturing industry in Chile in the last 15 years. Our overall conclusions are that process innovation is generally not found to be a relevant determinant of employment growth, and that product innovation is usually positively associated with an expansion in employment. These results seem to be similar regardless of firm size and hold for both lo...

  6. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    Carter Leal, L.M.


    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global markets. Despite this support, a declining number of farmers and an aging population are observed in rural areas. Most rural development programs focus on increasing competitiveness, whereas the stay...

  7. Reviews of National Policies for Education : Tertiary Education in Chile

    Mogollón, Maria Paulina; Crawford, Michael


    Tertiary education in Chile has been transformed radically over the past 20 years. As recently as 1990, tertiary education was an elite system centered on a handful of traditional universities which served a small number of well-prepared students. Today the system is diverse and dynamic, with over 6,000 programs of study offered by more than 200 institutions. More than 800,000 students are...

  8. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile


    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ...




    This paper is intended to contribute to the understanding of the motivations behind the diversification decisions of the Chilean “economic groups”. With this objective we surveyed the largest such groups in Chile. Our results show that the most important reasons for diversification for the top management of the Chilean business groups are managerial synergies (board of directors), financial synergies, information synergies and some specific operational synergies such as economies of scope in ...

  10. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.