Sample records for buddhism

  1. Buddhism in Denmark

    Borup, Jørn


    Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism.......Introductory article on Buddhism in Denmark following historial lines and typological divides between "ethnic" and "convert" Buddhism....




    Full Text Available The outstanding characteristics of Buddhism are the fundamental features of Buddhism to understand clearly what Buddhism is. There is no secret doctrine in Buddhism. Everything Buddha taught is open to the public for investigation or for understanding. Buddhism allows not only freedom of thought but also tolerance. Buddhism is self-reliance and self-responsibility without relying on any other. There is no caste system and distinction in enlightenment between men and women in Buddhism.

  3. Two Buddhisms, Three Buddhisms, and Racism

    Wakoh Shannon Hickey


    Over the past several decades, observers of American Buddhism have created numerous typologies to describe different categories of Buddhists in the United States. These taxonomies use different criteria to categorize groups: style of practice, degree of institutional stability, mode of transmission to the U.S., ethnicity, etc. Each reveals some features of American Buddhism and obscures others. None accounts adequately for hybrids or for long-term changes within categories. Most include a div...




    The outstanding characteristics of Buddhism are the fundamental features of Buddhism to understand clearly what Buddhism is. There is no secret doctrine in Buddhism. Everything Buddha taught is open to the public for investigation or for understanding. Buddhism allows not only freedom of thought but also tolerance. Buddhism is self-reliance and self-responsibility without relying on any other. There is no caste system and distinction in enlightenment between men and wo...

  5. Buddhism and Counselling.

    de Silva, Padmal


    Discusses the relevance of the principles and practices of Buddhism to the field of counseling. As Buddhism espouses the notion of a productive and healthy life, it offers ways of dealing with problems and difficulties, and of improving psychological well-being. Cites examples of relevant Buddhist techniques and their application. (JPS)

  6. Two Buddhisms, Three Buddhisms, and Racism

    Wakoh Shannon Hickey


    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, observers of American Buddhism have created numerous typologies to describe different categories of Buddhists in the United States. These taxonomies use different criteria to categorize groups: style of practice, degree of institutional stability, mode of transmission to the U.S., ethnicity, etc. Each reveals some features of American Buddhism and obscures others. None accounts adequately for hybrids or for long-term changes within categories. Most include a divide between convert Buddhists, characterized as predominantly Caucasian, and “heritage” or “ethnic” Buddhists, characterized as Asian immigrants and refugees, as well as their descendants. This article examines several typologies, and considers two dynamics: the effects of white racism on the development of American Buddhist communities; and the effects of unconscious white privilege in scholarly discourse about these communities. It critiques “ethnic” categories and proposes other ways to conceptualize the diverse forms of Buddhism outside Asia.

  7. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    Borup, Jørn

    Zen Buddhist ideas and practices in many ways are unique within the study of religion, and artists, poets and Buddhists practitioners worldwide have found inspiration from this tradition. Until recent years, representations of Zen Buddhism have focussed almost entirely on philosophical, historical...... religiosity and how different kinds of Zen Buddhists (monks, nuns, priest, lay people) interact and define themselves within the religious organization. Living Zen portrays a living Zen Buddhism being both uniquely interesting and interestingly typical for common Buddhist and Japanese religiosity...

  8. Buddhism in Muslim Indonesia

    Karel Steenbrink


    This article presents an overview of various ways in which Buddhists and Muslims have lived together in Indonesia since the arrival of Islam about 1200. It tells how Buddhism has slowly disappeared and become a religion for mainly the Chinese who, until the late 19th century, have often converted to Islam. This article analyzes the role of three key figures in the recent government–supported revival of Buddhism. These figures are the Chinese–Indonesian monk Ashin Jinarakkhita, the Balin...

  9. Spread of Buddhism in China


    The spread of Buddhism to China began at the beginning of the first century, when Indian Buddhism spread inland along the Silk Road to Xinjiang. Centered in Chang’an (present-day Xi’an) and Luoyang, Buddhism slowly spread across the country, eventually taking root in

  10. A Secular Buddhism

    Stephen Batchelor


    Full Text Available This essay explores the possibility of a complete secular redefinition of Buddhism. It argues that such a secular re-formation would go beyond modifying a traditional Buddhist school, practice or ideology to make it more compatible with modernity, but would involve rethinking the core ideas on which the very notion of “Buddhism” is based. Starting with a critical reading of the four noble truths, as presented in the Buddha’s first discourse, the author proposes that instead of thinking of awakening in terms of “truths” to be understood one thinks of it in terms of “tasks” to be accomplished. Such a pragmatic approach may open up the possibility of going beyond the belief-based metaphysics of classical Indian soteriology (Buddhism 1.0 to a praxis-based, post-metaphysical vision of the dharma (Buddhism 2.0.

  11. Introduction to Zen Buddhism.

    Strawn, Virginia

    A lesson plan, divided into four learning activities, introduces the topic of Zen Buddhism by presenting one of many possible approaches to the academic study of religion in a secondary setting. The lesson plan is designed for integration into world history, global studies, or sociology classes in secondary schools. Learning activity one focuses…




    Full Text Available Emperor Ashoka (304-232 BCE was the third king of the Maurya Dynasty. Heruled a truly massive kingdom that stretched from the Hindu Kush to the Bay of Bengal.It was India's first great empire. It is not just that Ashoka ably ruled this huge empire butthe quality of social justice that he brought to his already strong administration.Remorseful after his bloody campaign and conquest of Kalinga, Ashokaembraced Buddhism. Thereafter reverence for life, tolerance, compassion and peacefulco-existence were the cornerstones of his administration. Under him the earliest knowbans on slavery and capital punishment as well as environmental regulations came intoplace.




    Kanchipuram was the home of the various religious movements of India. In south India Buddhism and Jainism reached their zenith here, Saivism and Vaishnavism had their beginnings at Kanchi. There are relics of every religious movement, which reached South India, Buddhist stupas and statues, Jaina shrines, Saivite and Vaishnavite temples. The various cultural streams met here-Aryan and Dravidian, Vedic and nonVedic, Hindu, Buddhist and Jain. This paper portrays on development of Buddhism in Kac...

  14. Buddhism In Salinger's Work

    陈文铁; 郝利群


    Salinger was strongly influenced by Buddhism, so in his works the philosophy of Buddhism was clearly seen everywhere. His characters are all his spokesmen of his Buddhist philosophy, and the following essay exemplifies his philoeophical thinking through his representative works.

  15. Buddhism: A Brief Guide to Reference Sources.

    Drost, Jerry

    The annotated bibliography lists 48 articles, atlases, dictionaries, bibliographies, and general and subject indexes on Buddhism. The bibliography is intended to provide college students with an introduction to the more complex literature of Buddhism and to stimulate further research and study. Topics include the history of Buddhism; the practice…

  16. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.


    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  17. Buddhism in the West: Phases, Orders and the Creation of an Integrative Buddhism

    Baumann, Martin


    Following Heinz Bechert's proposal to distinguish Buddhist history by periods into a canonical, traditional and modern Buddhism, the paper focuses on the form and characteristics Buddhism has started to take in the incipient period of post-modernity. As one prominent feature of post-modern or global Buddhism, approaches are found particularly in the modern contexts of Western, industrialized societies. Part One of the paper sketches the chronological and geographical dissesmination of Buddhis...

  18. Pain Perception in Buddhism Perspective.

    Waikakul, Waraporn; Waikakul, Saranatra


    Dhamma, which Lord Buddha has presented to people after his enlightenment, analyzes every phenomenon and objects into their ultimate elements. The explanation of sensory system is also found in a part of Dhamma named Abhidhammapitaka, the Book of the Higher Doctrine in Buddhism. To find out the relationship between explanation of pain in the present neuroscience and the explanation of pain in Abhidhamma, the study was carried out by the use of a comprehensive review. The comparisons were in terms of peripheral stimulation, signal transmission, modulation, perception, suffering, determination and decision making for the responding to pain. We found that details of the explanation on pain mechanism and perception in Abhidhamma could associate well with our present scientific knowledge. Furthermore, more refinement information about the process and its function in particular aspects of pain perception were provided in Abhidhammapitaka. PMID:26112611

  19. Buddhism as Orientalism on American Cultural Landscape: The Cinematic Orientalization of Tibetan (Tantric Buddhism

    Che-ming Yang


    Full Text Available In this paper I will just cite two American movies—Little Buddha and Music and Lyrics—to illustrate how (Tibetan Buddhism (or Dharma has long been misrepresented and Orientalized on American cultural landscape. Since its spread to the West in the 19thcentury, Buddhism has long been a target or source in the Westerners’ creation of Orientalism in the arts or even mass media. In mass media, Buddhism (especially Tibetan Buddhism has long been a source for commercial films (e.g. The Little Buddha, directed by Bertrolucci in 1993. Some of them may have been an attempt to present Buddhism as some Oriental spiritual practice or an Oriental mysticism that looks appealing to the American/Western audience and thus satisfies the Westerners’ exotic taste. Reasons of the Americanization or secularization of Buddhism may be caused by Buddhist diasporas that lead to the alienation and contestation of Dharma in a Christian context. Hence, misinterpretation is the way of understanding/interpreting a new culture. On the other hand, the misrepresentation is an inevitable phenomenon when an idea or object is translated into a foreign culture in which there is no equivalent to the idea/object. Since cinema is a main medium for public entertainment and commercial profit in the contemporary postmodern world, it could easily reflect the mass consensus of some cultural phenomenon. Hence, the misinterpretations or stereotypes of Buddhism revealed on the American cinema at least highlight the emerging need and popularity of the Dharma/Buddhism in western spiritual practice as well as its decline.

  20. The Art of Buddhism. A Teacher's Guide.

    Forsgren, Krista; Benskin, Elizabeth

    While the art of Buddhism has an enduring tradition throughout Asia, this teaching guide focuses on the cultures of three countries in which the Smithsonian's Freer and Sackler Galleries' collections are particularly strong: India, China, and Japan. The guide identifies grade level appropriateness for some lessons and activities. It contains 15…

  1. The Adulthood of Buddhahood: Buddhism, Lifelong Learning and the Education of Desire.

    MacPherson, Sonia


    Buddhism as a philosophy of education is examined through discussion of the three trainings: ethics, meditative stabilization, and special wisdom. Tantric Buddhism and Protestant Christianity are compared. (SK)


    A Shin Sobita Dhama


    Full Text Available The socio-political ideology in Buddhism is the vital ethics which lead to co-existence in peace with mutual understanding and respect and fundamental philosophy to realize the reason of reality and existence, to solve the problems in any society. It has played an important role in shaping the spiritual, philosophical, and social modes of in the eastern world. Many social laws, cultures, and traditions in the east have been dominated by the Buddha’s doctrine. Buddha is a vast source of inspiration in the arts and sciences in education.

  3. Buddhism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Manchuria

    James Carter


    Full Text Available This essay attempts to characterize Tanxu’s experiences in Manchuria and north China between 1920 and 1945, focusing especially on the war years. Tanxu’s actions during this time have been seen, broadly, in three different ways. First, as examples of Chinese nationalism, or "cultural patriotism," and thus resistance to Japanese encroachment; second, as accommodation of, if not collaboration with, the Japanese; and third—what Tanxu himself proclaimed—as apolitical actions intended to promote Buddhism. I attempt to reconcile these views in order to understand how Tanxu’s Buddhist activism can contribute to our understanding of the complex and controversial categories of resistance and collaboration.

  4. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

    Tadayoshi Murakami


    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional—from Myanmar to Thailand— and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid border crossing of people, goods, and information in spite of rigid border control by the Thai government. In the religious sphere, the Thai government has been institutionalizing and standardizing “Thai Buddhism” since the early twentieth century. The government’s efforts seem to have succeeded, resulting in the unified organization of “State Sangha” and a systematized curriculum for monastic education. In the process, local Sanghas (Buddhist monastic communities in the kingdom have been integrated into the State Sangha of Thailand. However, Shan Buddhism in the border area has not been totally assimilated into Thai Buddhism and maintains its unique seasonal festivals, religious rites of passage, practices using Shan manuscripts, and temple architecture. By focusing on the movement of people in the border area, where strong state control and a porous border coexist, this paper analyzes the important role of border migration in the continuation and development of Shan Buddhist practices in Northern Thailand.

  5. A Brief Introduction to the Tibetan Buddhism


    Despite the rolling of high plateau and stunning Himalayas, Tibet has a nickname of “Holy Land” with its ancient history and colorful culture. Refered as Shangri-La, the roof of the world and many more, the mysterious kingdom remained closed to others, exerting a strong hold on the imagination of the world. For centuries, it has fascinated mankind in various ways. Its religion is one of astonishing one. Here we have questions! What is Tibetan Buddhism about? How many sects it has? What about each one's doctrine? Have you ever known its architectures, its religious arts, as well as its incarnation of Living Buddha? People feel curious about its powerful inspiration and cohesive strength,

  6. A Visual Narration of Hells in Buddhism and Islam

    Ary Budianto


    Full Text Available The visualization of the Hell’s Tortures both in Buddhism and in Islam is exactly similar. However, their kind of ‘theological’ tendencies may result different outcome. By comparing the visual narration of the Buddhism and Islamic comic books dealing with hell illustrations, I made an‘imaginary’ dialogue between the concept and visuality of hells tortures that exist in both traditions, and see the impact on how far a sincere dialogue could be achieved in these two religious people. During this comparison, I found that both Buddhism and Islam in Java had ever made such an interesting dialogue.Keywords: Hell tortures, Islam-Buddhism comparison, encounter of Java-IndonesiaDOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i1.995

  7. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

    Anna Halafoff


    Full Text Available In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008 posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in recent years, a comprehensive analysis of Buddhism in Australia, and particularly its impact on Australian life and culture, is yet to be conducted. This paper argues that such a study is both timely and necessary, given that Buddhism is the second largest religion in Australia, and we appear to be entering an "Asian century."

  8. Dr. Ambedkar's Dhamma and the Untouchables' Conversion to Buddhism


    The starting point of this thesis is the mass conversion to Buddhism, in Nagpur in October 1956. The people who converted were all untouchables, and most of them were Maharashtrian Mahars, the caste to which Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956) belonged. Ambedkar was the undisputed leader of the conversion movement, and it was due him his followers chose Buddhism. In 1935, he said he would leave Hinduism. I try to understand how Ambedkar provided legitimacy and support for the conversion to...

  9. Buddhism in Australia: An Emerging Field of Study

    Anna Halafoff; Ruth Fitzpatrick; Kim Lam


    In 2006, Paul D. Numrich (2008) posed the question of whether contemporary scholarship on North American Buddhism constituted a distinct "field of study" and identified several factors that defined both academic disciplines and fields. This paper applies Numrich's criteria to the study of Buddhism in Australia, in its multiple and diverse forms, suggesting that it is an emerging field of study. While there has been an increase in historical, anthropological, and sociological scholarship in re...

  10. Buddhism in the United States: an Ethnographic Study

    Jaeyeon Choe


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Buddhism in America, an neglected area of inquiry in anthropological study. There is a need for modern ethnographic studies to shed light on historical issues, paradigms for comparative inquiry, and thus, explore the impact of Buddhism on modern American society (Glazier, 1997. The enormous growth of Buddhism in the last quarter century (Smith, 2002 makes this an especially pertinent topic in American anthropology. We utilize Glazier’s model to add Buddhism as a topic in the area of modernity studies. This is a preliminary study of the nature of Buddhism in America. We conducted participant observation with a Buddhist meditation group in a north eastern state in the US for four months in the spring of 2010. Based on our preliminary ethnographic data, we believe that a unique perspectives of Buddhism in America can be identified: non-religious and therapeutic involvement or use of Buddhism. Also, new forms of practice become evident, for example, ‘walking meditation’ and ‘bowing to other Buddhists,’ are identified as characteristics of Buddhism in America. It is interesting to note that at the end of meditation sessions, participants not only bow to the Buddha statue, but also bow to each other. This is a unique ritual dynamic which appears to be consistent with the worldview of American people - being equal and individual. The meditation group also practiced ‘walking meditation’ which is easy to do in everyday life. Additionally, we observed that American meditation rooms provide additional cushions to sit on which are a further element, along with walking meditation, which help American beginners to meditate more easily. These study observations shed light on the current situation by providing new lenses from which to understand and focus on different ritual performances/interpretations of Buddhism, and their meanings and functions in society. The most important reflection is that religious change is not an

  11. Is Buddhism the low fertility religion of Asia?

    Vegard Skirbekk


    Full Text Available Background: The influence of religion on demographic behaviors has been extensively studied mainly for Abrahamic religions. Although Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion and is dominant in several Asian nations experiencing very low fertility, the impact of Buddhism on childbearing has received comparatively little research attention. Objective: This paper draws upon a variety of data sources in different countries in Asia in order to test our hypothesis that Buddhism is related to low fertility. Methods: Religious differentials in terms of period fertility in three nations (India, Cambodia and Nepal and cohort fertility in three case studies (Mongolia, Thailand and Japan are analyzed. The analyses are divided into two parts: descriptive and multivariate analyses. Results: Our results suggest that Buddhist affiliation tends to be negatively or not associated with childbearing outcomes, controlling for education, region of residence, age and marital status. Although the results vary between the highly diverse contextual and institutional settings investigated, we find evidence that Buddhist affiliation or devotion is not related to elevated fertility across these very different cultural settings. Conclusions: Across the highly diverse cultural and developmental contexts under which the different strains of Buddhism dominate, the effect of Buddhism is consistently negatively or insignificantly related to fertility. These findings stand in contrast to studies of Abrahamic religions that tend to identify a positive link between religiosity and fertility.

  12. The Coming of Secular Buddhism: a Synoptic View

    Winton Higgins


    Full Text Available Secular Buddhism is coalescing today in response to two main factors. First, it rejects the incoherence of Buddhist modernism, a protean formation that accommodates elements as far afield as ancestral Buddhism and psychotherapies claiming the Buddhist brand. Second, it absorbs the cultural influence of modern secularity in the West. Historically understood, secularity has constituted a centuries-long religious development, not a victory of "science" over "religion." Today's secularity marks a further stage in the cultural decline of "enchanted" truth-claims and the intellectual eclipse of metaphysics, especially under the aegis of phenomenology. In Buddhism as in Christianity, secularity brings forth a new humanistic approach to ethical-spiritual life and creative this-worldly practices.

  13. Interpreting the Diamond Way: Contemporary Convert Buddhism in Transition

    Burkhard Scherer


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the broader issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. It looks at the Diamond Way, a contemporary Karma bKa' brgyud lay movement founded by the Danish lay teacher Ole Nydahl. The paper aims to open this area of study by employing a balanced approach between a hermeneutics of suspicion and a hermeneutics of trust, and by adding the historical-critical approach of Tibetan Buddhist Studies to the perspectives of sociology and cultural anthropology. Acknowledging Nydahl as both a charismatic and controversial figure within contemporary Buddhism, the discussion focuses on notions of lay and yogi Buddhism in the Diamond Way and on the question of westernization in Diamond Way practices. The paper concludes by raising questions about the future, continuity and change of Nydahl's heritage after his death.

  14. Building More Solid Bridges between Buddhism and Western Psychology

    Sugamura, Genji; Haruki, Yutaka; Koshikawa, Fusako


    Introducing the ways of cultivating mental balance, B. A. Wallace and S. L. Shapiro attempted to build bridges between Buddhism and psychology. Their systematic categorization of Buddhist teachings and extensive review of empirical support from Western psychology are valuable for future study. However, it remains a matter of concern that some more…

  15. Non-Buddhist Buddhism and non-Christian Christianity in Japan

    Harry Thomsen


    Full Text Available The New Religions in Japan, is in disguise a real renascence of Buddhism. That, for one thing, it forces Buddhism into accommodating and streamlining for the new age at a much more rapid pace than would otherwise have been possible, and that, for another, the New Religions themselves in reality represent Buddhism with its fantastic ability to change. It may to some extent be said that Buddhism is a religious idea in constant movement more than a religion as such—and some observers might be tempted to say that Buddhism, as represented by the New Religions, has moved so far that it has been cut off from its roots and no more is master of its development. The Buddhist will probably answer that this is exactly the main pride of Buddhism, that it always accommodates, that it thrives on syncretism and religious cocktails, that it is always in evergreen renascence, modern to all times.

  16. Japanese psychoanalysis and Buddhism: the making of a relationship.

    Harding, Christopher


    This article explores the making of a relationship between Japanese psychoanalysis and Buddhism, in the life and work of Kosawa Heisaku. Kosawa did not work out the compatibility of psychoanalysis with Buddhism in abstract, theoretical terms; rather, he understood them as two different articulations of the same practical approach to living well. He saw this approach in action in the lives of Freud and Shinran, the latter a thirteenth-century Japanese Buddhist reformer. For Kosawa, both individuals exemplified the 'true religious state of mind', at the achievement of which Kosawa understood psychoanalytic psychotherapy as ideally aiming. This article uses newly available documentary and interview material to examine the historical dynamics both of Kosawa's work in this area and of the broader 'religion-psy dialogue' of which it is an early example. PMID:24840215


    Janaka; C. Balu


    The doctrine of paticcasamuppada [dependent origination] taught by the Buddha is profound; consequently, majority of people cannot understand the law of dependent origination. Nonetheless, it is as valid today as it was when the Buddha explained the doctrine to Ven. Ananda some 2500 years ago. The doctrine of dependent origination, the core of Buddhism, is so difficult to comprehend that people commit serious errors in understanding it, and thereby distort the Buddha Dhamma.

  18. What buddhism taught cognitive science about self, mind and brain

    Federman, Asaf


    In the past twenty years, new optimism about the relevance of Buddhism to cognitive science has been expressed by a number of established researchers. In this article I ask what are the conceptual roots of this optimism, and which forms of development it inspired, with particular focus on selfhood, embodiment and meditation. The latter contains three distinct points of contact that are also reviewed: the introduction of first person methods, neuroscientific research of meditation, and using m...


    Kranti Gawali


    The understanding about status of women in India and their empowerment needs to also take into account the contribution of Buddhism towards their emancipation.This paper traces the changes in the status of women in India from the pre-buddhist times to the current .Social reformers and constitution maker were influnced by the Buddhist ideology of equality and spiritual development of women ,which reveals through their social reform activities aimed at women's empowerment.Resear...

  20. Buddhism among Tamils in Tamilakam and Īlam : Part 3 - Extension and Conclusions


    This book is the result of a conference in Bangkok in January 2012 mainly financed by Vetenskapsrådet in Stockholm (426-2011-1299). In Bangkok, not only pre-colonial Buddhism among Tamils was discussed but also Buddhism during the colonial and post-colonial period, like the Buddhism of Pēriyar, of the Ambedkar movement inYālppāṇam (Jaffna) in the 1950s, and the expansion of siṃhala budusamayam (Siṃhala Buddhism) into areas of Tamil speakers. The field of Buddhist Studies—in Europe and the Ame...

  1. Between Buddhism and Science, Between Mind and Body

    Geoffrey Samuel


    Full Text Available Buddhism has been seen, at least since the Theravāda reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as particularly compatible with Western science. The recent explosion of Mindfulness therapies have strengthened this perception. However, the 'Buddhism' which is being brought into relation with science in the context of the Mindfulness movement has already undergone extensive rewriting under modernist influences, and many of the more critical aspects of Buddhist thought and practice are dismissed or ignored. The Mind and Life Institute encounters, under the patronage of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, present a different kind of dialogue, in which a Tibetan Buddhism which is only beginning to undergo modernist rewriting confronts Western scientists and scholars on more equal terms. However, is the highly sophisticated but radically other world of Tantric thought really compatible with contemporary science? In this article I look at problem areas within the dialogue, and suggest that genuine progress is most likely to come if we recognise the differences between Buddhist thought and contemporary science, and take them as an opportunity to rethink scientific assumptions.

  2. Conceptions and Misconceptions about "Western Buddhism": Issues and Approaches for the Classroom

    Berkwitz, Stephen C.


    This article responds to the exponential growth in academic textbooks on Western or American Buddhism by arguing that popular trade books written by Buddhist teachers in the West make more effective tools for teaching and learning about the growth of Buddhism in western societies. The use of such texts in the classroom provides students with…

  3. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Waree, Chaiwat


    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  4. A Preliminary Assessment of Buddhism's Contextualisation to the English RE Classroom

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas


    In a preliminary study, 20 "migrant" Buddhist parents and children from England participated in semi-structured interviews to compare their home nurture with classroom presentation of Buddhism. In the home Buddhism received more time allocation and was presented mainly by the mother and monks--the content being that of "perpetuating structures",…

  5. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    Sander, William


    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  6. Buddhism in Čampā Le Bouddhisme au Champa

    Anne-Valérie Schweyer


    Full Text Available Čampā is a Far East country, whose Māhāyana Buddhism is known from 7th to 14th century. In fact, Sanskrit and Cam Inscriptions mostly attested Tantric practices, belonging to the Vajrāyana Buddhism, mixing Śaiva and Buddhist believes. More precisely, side by side Śiva and the three Buddha’ emanations, Śākyamuni, Amitābha and Vairocana, are honoured in Čampā, alone with the Goddess Prajñāpāramitā, the true substance of the Doctrine, and, secondary, with Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara and Vajrasattva. The confrontation of the epigraphic testimonies with the archaeological remains is very useful to understand the Buddhism of Čampā, crossroads of trade roads between India and China. Therefore, epigraphic and artistic evidences are used to propose a chronological presentation, with a special development on the revival of the 10th century, and especially, the esoteric way.Le Čampā, pays du centre Vietnam, connut un bouddhisme Māhāyana du xe au xive siècle. Les inscriptions en sanskrit et en cam montrent que ce bouddhisme était essentiellement tantrique, relevant du bouddhisme Vajrāyana, mêlant pratiques Śivaïtes et bouddhiques. Plus précisément, le bouddhisme cam montre qu’aux côtés de Śiva sont honorées les trois émanations du Bouddha, Śākyamuni, Amitābha et Vairocana, avec la déesse Prajñāpāramitā, la Vraie Substance de la Connaissance ; on trouve également Vajrapāni, Lokeśvara et Vajrasattva. La confrontation des témoignages épigraphiques et archéologiques permet de mieux appréhender le bouddhisme cam, à la croisée des routes commerciales entre l’Inde et la Chine. Cet article exploite ces témoignages dans une perspective chronologique, avec un développement particulier pour le Bouddhisme ésotérique au xe siècle.

  7. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

    Jakub Urbaniak


    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56




    Full Text Available According to this Buddhist doctrine of re-becoming, there could be continuity of individuality in various planes of existence. Such survival, as the Kathāvatthu explains, is either in the gross material world (kāma-loka, the subtle world (rūpa-loka, or the immaterial world (arūpa-loka. There is no intermediate existence (antarābhava apart from existence in one of these three planes of becoming. Since human existence is a mixture of good and evil, the usual pattern as the texts make out is to survive as a discarnate spirit and come back to a human existence. The practice of Buddhism by the cultivation of faith (saddhā, virtue (sīla, learning (suta, selflessness (cāga and wisdom (pañña makes it possible for a person to determine his future birth on the human or celestial planes.

  9. Macho Buddhism: Gender and Sexualities in the Diamond Way

    Burkhard Scherer


    Full Text Available Western Tibetan Buddhist movements have been described as bourgeois and puritanical in previous scholarship. In contrast, Ole Nydahl’s convert lay Karma Kagyu Buddhist movement, the Diamond Way, has drawn attention for its apparently hedonistic style. Focussing on the interpretation of Nydahl’s approach to gender and sexualities, this paper addresses the wider issues of continuity and change during the transition of Tibetan Buddhism from Asia to the West. Nydahl’s pre-modern gender stereotyping, the hetero-machismo of the Diamond Way and the mildly homophobic tone and content of Nydahl’s teaching are interpreted on the background of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist sexual ethics and traditional Tibetan cultural attitudes on sexualities. By excavating the emic genealogy of Nydahl’s teachings, the paper suggests that Nydahl’s and the Diamond Way’s view on and performance of gender and sexualities are consistent with his propagation of convert Buddhist neo-orthodoxy.

  10. Aloha Buddha-the secularization of ethnic Japanese-American Buddhism

    Jørn Borup


    Full Text Available The relations between religion, migration, transnationalism, pluralism, and ethnicity have gained increasing focus in religious, cultural, sociological, and anthropological studies. With its manifold transfigurations across time and location, Buddhism is an obvious case for investigating such issues. Hawaii, with its long migration history and religious pluralism, is an obvious living laboratory for studying such configurations. This article investigates Japanese American Buddhism in Hawaii, focusing on the relationship between religion and ethnicity. By analyzing contemporary religious life and the historical context of two Japanese American Zen temples in Maui, it is argued that the ethnic and cultural divide related to spirituality follow a general tendency by which the secularization of Japanese Americans' communal Sangha Buddhism is counterbalanced by a different group's spiritualization of Buddhism

  11. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong; Wisanee Siltragool; Anchalee Chantapo


    Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve...

  12. Analysis of Scholarly Communication Activities in Buddhism and Buddhist Studies

    Edoardo Magnone


    Full Text Available There is little knowledge regarding the exchange of academic information on religious contexts. The objective of this informational study was to perform an overall analysis of all Buddhism-related communications collected in the Web of Science (WoS from 1993 to 2011. The studied informational parameters include the growth in number of the scholarly communications, as well as the language-, document-, subject category-, source-, country-, and organization-wise distribution of the communications. A total of 5407 scholarly communications in this field of study were published in the selected time range. The most preferred WoS subject category was Asian Studies with 1773 communications (22.81%, followed by Religion with 1425 communications (18.33% and Philosophy with 680 communications (8.75%. The journal with the highest mean number of citations is Numen: International Review for the History of Religions—with 2.09 citations in average per communication. The United States was the top productive country with 2159 communications (50%, where Harvard University topped the list of organization with 85 communications (12%.

  13. Liang Shu-min and Buddhism%梁漱溟与佛学



    Liang Shu-min was a celebrated figure in modern Chine se history,famous for his life principle “upright and independent, honest and frank". Speaking from his academic thought, he considered the essence of his thought was Confucianism and Buddhism. From the reasons why he believed in Buddhism, his contributions to Buddhism in India and his comparisons between the Buddhism and Confucianism, one can see that Liang Shu-min's Buddhism thought was not only an ideology he accepted but also the essential motive that he practiced all his life.%梁漱溟是中国现代史上一位著名人物。他以“特立独行、一代直声”饮誉后世。在学术思想上,他自认思想的根本是儒家和佛家。从他为什么会信佛和他对印度佛学研究的贡献及对于儒佛异同的比较等几个方面,可以看出梁漱溟佛学思想不只是他终身服膺的一种思想学说,也是他一生践履的根本动力。

  14. How Is Buddhism Relevant to Career Counseling in an International High School in Hong Kong? A Counsellor's Reflection

    Ng, Vinci; Yuen, Mantak


    This paper reflects upon the relevance of Buddhism to counselling in general and to career counseling in particular by discussing a program implemented at an international school in Hong Kong. The authors provide an analysis of the pertinent literature related to relevant concepts within Buddhism. This topic has not yet been adequately researched…

  15. A Study of Gelug pa sect with comparison to Nyingma pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet

    Singh, Vijay Kumsr


    Short synopsis and layout of Chapters of the thesis entitled, “A study of Gelugpa sect with comparison to Nyingma Pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet”Around 2500 years ago, a prince of Sākya clan rose against the anguish of life & death and determined to find out the way through which these torments end. That prince was Siddhartha; and whole world came to know him by his enlightened name; Buddha; his path became famous after his name Buddhism. Centuries gone, millennium changed its numbers; still th...

  16. Experiencing Change, Encountering the Unknown: An Education in "Negative Capability" in Light of Buddhism and Levinas

    Todd, Sharon


    This article offers a reading of the philosophies of Emmanuel Levinas and Theravada Buddhism across and through their differences in order to rethink an education that is committed to "negative capability" and the sensibility to uncertainty that this entails. In fleshing this out, I first explore Buddhist ideas of impermanence, suffering…

  17. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)


    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  18. The Ethics of the "Real" In Levinas, Lacan, and Buddhism: Pedagogical Implications.

    Jagodzinski, Jan


    Explores the unstated ethics that exist in the silent space between teacher and students, highlighting Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Buddhism. The paper uses the juxtaposition of west and east to help illuminate ethical pedagogy, and it argues that there is an unknowable dimension which raises the question of ethics in human relations that…

  19. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw


    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  20. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  1. 杜甫与大乘佛法%Du Fu and Mahayana Buddhism



    More than forty Du Fu’ s poems which are definitely related to Buddhism and Zen indicated his satisfaction on being a virtuous man , apprehension of the actual emptiness of existence and seeking Buddhism .we can feel that he studied more thoroughly on the Buddhism theory, seeking on the First Dogma, searching the Unsticking Minds thus showing his spiritual requirements and at the same time consciously and unconsciously carried on Returning Life theory Mahayana Buddhism has been advocating .%杜甫早年即修习禅宗法门,晚年亦“不落旁门小乘”。杜甫的生命意识与人性关怀,深契大乘义学度己度人、悲智双修的精神主张。中国大乘佛法所确立的积极人生的落脚点,转身回向的实践精神,与根植在杜甫头脑中的“民胞物与”的儒家思想不谋而合。综观杜甫一生,始终以一个精神探索者的身份,汲取佛禅智慧,一为“己”求心灵慰藉;一为“群”寻救世良方。

  2. Zen Buddhism and the Psychotherapy of Milton Erickson: A Transcendence of Theory and Self.

    Becker, Susan Kelly; Forman, Bruce D.


    Compares Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy of Milton Erickson. Explores their similarities with respect to theory, change relationship between teacher/student and therapist/client, and acceptance of nature. Compares Ericksonian psychotherapy with Zen-based Morita therapy to concretize philosophical underpinnings of both systems. (Author/ABL)

  3. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve the quality and efficiency of Pra Na Wa Ka because currently most of the monks who are the teachers lacked knowledge and are not ready to act as the Pra Na Wa Ka teacher, because lack of the teaching media, lack of the proper knowledge of the teacher vocational, the lesson plan arrangement, the psychology of teaching, lack of technique variety of teaching methods. Most of the temple had no education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka who ordained in short-term, within 3 days 7 days 15 days or to one month, lack of the short period course to study about Buddhism, the Pra Na Wa Ka cannot accurately recite the Pali words, the Pra Na Wa Ka who were ordained were not motivated and faithful in learning and low morality. Approach: This research intended to study the history of the education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka (Newly ordained monk and to study about the problems and need of the Pra Na Wa Ka in knowledge about Buddhism and to develop the curriculum and the training package of the Pra Na Wa Ka in Buddhism. Results: The Pra Na Wa Ka traing course is a curriculum to study Buddhism through 3 training courses; (1 Basic Course: 3 days for initiation 7 days, (2 Intermediate course 7 days for initiation 15 days and (3 Long period course 15 days for initiation more than 30 days. The training courses were accompanied by a training kit to understand the main precepts of morality, concentration and wisdom. The curriculum was successful in providing Pra Na Wa Ka

  4. The Wild Irish Girl and the "dalai lama of little Thibet": the long encounter between Ireland and Asian Buddhism

    Cox, Laurence; Griffin, Maria


    Ireland lies on the margins of the Buddhist world, far from its homeland in northern India and Nepal and the traditionally Buddhist parts of Asia. It is also in various ways "peripheral" to core capitalist societies, and Irish encounters with Buddhism are structured by both facts. Buddhism, for its part, has been a central feature of major Eurasian societies for over two millennia. During this period, Irish people and Asian Buddhists have repeatedly encountered or heard about each other, in w...

  5. Feminist Debate in Taiwan's Buddhism: The Issue of the Eight Garudhammas

    Chiung Hwang Chen


    Full Text Available In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules, regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas and situates the debate within Taiwan's cultural terrain as well as the worldwide Buddhist feminist movement. I argue that while Zhaohui's call resulted in the abolishment of the rules neither at home nor abroad, it profoundly affected nuns' position in Buddhism and contributed to broader discussions on women and religion. In making this argument, I revisit the impact of Western feminism (and Western Buddhist feminists on Eastern religions and reconsider the tensions this relationship encompasses.

  6. Down-to-Earth Zen: Zen Buddhism in Japanese Manga and Movies

    Elisabetta Porcu


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some examples of the interconnections between Zen Buddhism and popular culture, notably manga and movies. In particular, it explores the recent manga Bōzu days (2007–2011 and the movies Fancy Dance (1989 and Abraxas matsuri (2010. In these works, Zen’s everyday and down-to-earth character comes to the fore, while zazen meditation occupies a relatively small place. As amply explored by scholarly works over the last few decades, the former aspect is usually overlooked in Zen presentations in the West while the latter is in line with a view of this religious tradition that has been adapted for its dissemination outside of Japan. My analysis aims to shed light on how aspects of popular culture employ Zen Buddhist features to create commercial products that are meant to reach a wide audience, and how Zen Buddhism is represented in these products.

  7. Filial piety in Chinese Buddhism = Zhongguo fo jiao de xiao dao guan

    Cheng, Ho-ming; 鄭可萌


    Filial piety is regarded the most fundamental values of the Chinese culture, and the root of all good virtues. When Buddhism first came to China, it faced the criticisms from Chinese scholars, especially from the Confucianism, the dominant ideology of Chinese society, on ethical grounds. Confucian scholars criticized the life of Buddhist monks, who were required to leave their homes and families, shave their heads, and live in celibacy, was incompatible with the Confucian practice of filial pi...

  8. Feminist Debate in Taiwan's Buddhism: The Issue of the Eight Garudhammas

    Chiung Hwang Chen


    In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules), regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas an...

  9. On the Fusion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in Chinese Cognitive Membrane

    Jiawei Geng; H. J. Cai


    The coexistence of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in China is phenomenal through world cultural history, which was explained by putting emphasis on the particularity or complementarity of those three doctrines. We proposed that, Chinese long-term self-assertiveness demands and their evolution lead to enduring competitions among them and eventual fusion of them, within Chinese Cognitive Membrane. It is emphasized that Chinese Cognitive Membrane needs further fusion with spirits of modern sc...




    Full Text Available This paper discusses the core teachings of Buddha and the extension of his teachings through his followers in different lines over successive times. Buddhist philosophy is the elaboration and explanation of the delivered teachings of the Buddha as found in the Tripitaka and Agama. Its main concern is with explicating the dharmas constituting reality. A recurrent theme is the reification of concepts, and the subsequent return to the Buddhist middle way. Early Buddhism avoided speculative thought on metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology, but was based instead on empirical evidence gained by the ayatana. Nevertheless, Buddhist scholars have addressed ontological and metaphysical issues subsequently. Particular points of Buddhist philosophy have often been the subject of disputes between different schools of Buddhism. These elaborations and disputes gave rise to various schools in early Buddhism of Abhidhamma, and to the Mahayana traditions and schools of the prajnaparamita, Madhyamaka, Buddha-nature and Yogacara. Above all, the four noble truths and the eightfold path remain the authentic foundation.

  11. Limited Engagements: Revisiting the Non-encounter between American Buddhism and the Shin Tradition

    Galen Amstutz


    Full Text Available An apparent discrepancy exists between (on one hand recent interests among non-Asian American Buddhists (that is, persons of European extraction, hereafter referred to as NAABs in inventing a democratic, egalitarian form of the Buddhism and (on the other hand the simultaneous, continuing disinterest regarding conversation with the large Shin Buddhist tradition in Japan. The discrepancy is not best explained by "Asian ethnicity" in the familiar sense. A better analysis considers the peculiar minority position of any relatively "communalist" religion in the USA. The sector of Americans who are currently communalist are Judeo-Christian and are not "shopping" for Buddhism; on the other hand the NAAB sector, which is looking for non-Christian alternatives, may express a surface interest in egalitarianism but at the same time favors individualistic, non-communalistic forms of religious practice. In the absence of deeper cultural shifts, the pattern suggests that social or "engaged Buddhism" in the USA will remain quite limited in scope.

  12. Chen Yingning and Buddhism%陈撄宁与佛教



    Abstract As an advocate of the xianxue (theory of Celestial Beings)in Republican China,Chen Yingning had a close relationship with Buddhism.In his early years he had read the Buddhist sutra extensively and had promoted the integration of Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism.After 1936 he began to work for the independence of the xianxue.In the 1940s,Chen reconsidered his early theory about xianxue,and turned to Buddhism once again.Chen's reasons for advocating the independence of the xianxue and even urging its separation from Buddhism consist in his disappointment with traditional Taoism and his dissatisfaction with the criticism from Buddhism,as well as in the impact of the �New Cultural Movement�upon Chinese traditional religions.As for his later reduced discussions on xianxue and reflection on his early opinion,three matters may suffice to explain the effect of the generosity and tolerance of Monk Taixu,the impact of the death of Chen's wife,and his complex feelings to traditional Taoism.%民国时期“仙学”代表人物陈撄宁曾与佛教有着密切的关系。他早年曾遍览佛藏,主张“三教一贯”,后则倡导“仙学独立”。二十世纪四十年代,陈撄宁曾对其早期倡导的“仙学”有所反思,再度亲近佛教。陈撄宁之所以极力主张“仙学独立”乃至“仙佛判决”,除起因于对传统道教的失望以及对佛教批评的不满,可能还有二十世纪初传统宗教遭受“新文化运动”冲击的缘故;至于后来陈撄宁减少有关“仙学”的议论并对“仙学独立”有所反思,则一方面是“感于”佛教太虚法师的“洪度雅量”,另一方面也可能受其夫人吴彝珠患病离世的影响,同时还与他对于传统道教的“纠结”情结有关。

  13. The Analysis of Confucian Followers Understanding of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island - Indonesia

    Sugiato Lim


    Full Text Available Indonesia is a multi-ethnic, multi-culture, and multi-faith country. This piece of land combines a lot of ethnic elements into one. For example, Confucianism in Indonesia is combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism characteristic in many ways. Aim of this paper is to find out the features of Confucianism as a religion or a belief for its followers in Bangka. In addition, this paper also focuses on finding out the followers view towards their Gods in their perspectives. In this article, classification of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism is presented based on direct social observation. In this paper, analysis of Confucian followers understanding towards Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island Indonesia is presented respectively. In conclusion, characteristics of these three religions have blended perfectly and there is no more distinction in Confucius, Buddhist or Taoism Gods in Confucian followers community in Bangka Island.

  14. STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN JAPAN : On syncretism religion and monastery arrangement plan

    Antariksa Antariksa


    Full Text Available Zen Buddhism was introduced to China in the sixth century. After going through a long process in China, finally Zen came to Japan in the thirteenth century brought by Japanese monks. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries. During the process of spreading of Zen Buddhism there were influences experienced by two Chinese great religions, Tao and Confucian. This study will discuss the philosophy and architectural aspects of the Zen monastery arrangement plan. Zen Buddhism is syncretism from Taoism and Confucianism.The layout plan of the Zen monastery temple principally was placed on a single axis and facing south. The typical layout plan was borrowed from the architecture of the Chinese monastery.

  15. Zhang Hu and Buddhism and Taoism%张祜与佛道



    As a scholar from the lower class in the late Tang characteristics of people in the Tang Dynasty-to ease the depression which is also the tree value of the poet. Dynasty, Zhang Hu still embodies the of the mind with the Buddhism and the common Taoism.%作为中晚唐时期的下层文人,在张祜的身上仍然体现着整个唐代的共同特性:以佛道来缓解心灵的压抑。而这种共同性,也正是诗人的真正价值所在。

  16. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Koichi Miyata


    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  17. STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN JAPAN : On syncretism religion and monastery arrangement plan

    Antariksa Antariksa


    Zen Buddhism was introduced to China in the sixth century. After going through a long process in China, finally Zen came to Japan in the thirteenth century brought by Japanese monks. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries. During the process of spreading of Zen Buddhism there were influences experienced by two Chinese great religions, Tao and Confucian. This ...

  18. Disentangling the neural mechanisms involved in Hinduism- and Buddhism-related meditations.

    Tomasino, Barbara; Chiesa, Alberto; Fabbro, Franco


    The most diffuse forms of meditation derive from Hinduism and Buddhism spiritual traditions. Different cognitive processes are set in place to reach these meditation states. According to an historical-philological hypothesis (Wynne, 2009) the two forms of meditation could be disentangled. While mindfulness is the focus of Buddhist meditation reached by focusing sustained attention on the body, on breathing and on the content of the thoughts, reaching an ineffable state of nothigness accompanied by a loss of sense of self and duality (Samadhi) is the main focus of Hinduism-inspired meditation. It is possible that these different practices activate separate brain networks. We tested this hypothesis by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The network related to Buddhism-inspired meditation (16 experiments, 263 subjects, and 96 activation foci) included activations in some frontal lobe structures associated with executive attention, possibly confirming the fundamental role of mindfulness shared by many Buddhist meditations. By contrast, the network related to Hinduism-inspired meditation (8 experiments, 54 activation foci and 66 subjects) triggered a left lateralized network of areas including the postcentral gyrus, the superior parietal lobe, the hippocampus and the right middle cingulate cortex. The dissociation between anterior and posterior networks support the notion that different meditation styles and traditions are characterized by different patterns of neural activation. PMID:24975229

  19. Indigenizing or Adapting? Importing Buddhism into a Settler-colonial Society

    Sally McAra


    Full Text Available In this paper I problematize the phrase "indigenization of Buddhism" (Spuler 2003, cf. Baumann 1997 through an investigation of a Buddhist project in a settler-colonial society. An international organization called the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT is constructing a forty-five-meter high stupa in rural Australia with the intention "to provide a refuge of peace and serenity for all." In 2003, a woman of Aboriginal descent met with the stupa developers to express her concern about the project. While her complaint does not represent local Aboriginal views about the stupa (other Aboriginal groups expressed support for it, it illustrates how in settler-colonial societies, Buddhist cultural imports that mark the land can have unexpected implications for indigenous people. This paper offers a glimpse of the multi-layered power relations that form the often invisible backdrop to the establishment of Buddhism in settler-colonial societies and suggests that we need to find terms other than "indigenization" when analyzing this.

  20. Skeptic Spirituality or the Accidental Buddhism of Machado de Assis's O Segredo do Bonzo

    Dilip Loundo


    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to support the idea that Machado de Assis’ work conforms well to what may be called a non-religious spirituality. For that, the article’s main focus is the analysis of the short story “O Segredo do Bonzo: Capítulo Inédito de Fernão Mendes Pinto”, published in 1882’s collection titled Papéis Avulsos, where the main principles of that spirituality, which is spread all over his work,  are given in a nutshell. In a first moment, we analise the intertextuality between Machado’s short story “O Segredo do Bonzo” and Portuguese Renaissance writer’s travelogue Peregrinação and the Machado’s nineteen century critique of the west’s main universalizing proposals: Christianity, scientificity and Enlightenment. In a second moment, we analise the philosophical implications of the primacy given to ‘opinion’ as an existential foundation and as a constitutive element of reality, in a context of close proximity with the soteriological traditions of ancient Greek skepticism, on the one hand, and Buddhism, on the other. A critic of religion, specially of Christian religion, Machado’s  ‘accidental’ association with Buddhism is symptomatic of a very peculiar form of non-religious spirituality.

  1. 佛教的生命健康观刍议%Humble Opinion on Buddhism Life and Health Views



    Thinking about life and birth and death is the important reason of the origin of religion and Buddhism. Buddhism makes up its life and health view on the base of doctrinairism and origin theory round the thought of life and birth and death. Buddhism's life can be divided into macroscopical and microcosmic life and health view. The two kinds of views become one of Buddhism's life and health views, which show certain social and effective worth today.%对生命和生死的思考是宗教起源的重要原因,同样也是佛教产生的重要原因.佛教围绕着生命和生死的思考,在其“空论”和“缘起论”的核心主张基础上建构了自己的生命健康观,可以分为大生命健康观和小生命健康观.两种生命健康观彼此依存共成一体,在当前社会具有较大的价值和功用.

  2. “The First Buddhist Priest on the Baltic Coast”: Karlis Tennison and the Introduction of Buddhism in Estonia

    Mait Talts


    Full Text Available Karlis Tennison(s is an essential, although controversial figure inthe history of Buddhism in Estonia and Latvia. He was, without doubt, the first to disseminate Buddhism in the Baltic countries and also one of the earliest disseminators of Buddhism in Eastern Europe. Karl August Tõnisson, born in 1883 near Põltsamaa, Estonia, later repeatedly changed his biography (for example, transformed from an Estonian to a Latvian and simultaneously became ten years older. The article focuses on the development of his ideas. All his books and other publications, which are modest in volume and usually self-published, were issued between 1909–1916 and 1925–1930. The development of his views can be divided into three main periods: the pre-Buddhist period (before 1911; the ‘theosophical Buddhist’ period (1911–1916 and the period of ego-Buddhism or neopaganism (1925–1930. Around 1910–1911 Tennison ultimately converts to Buddhism. As he did not identify with any particular school, we may call him an ‘abstract’ Buddhist. In 1925 Tennison published a book in Latvian and from 1928 to 1930 three books in Estonian. In the publications of this period, Tennison retreats from the principles of Buddhism and allots more space to the glorification of his own personality and to criticism of Christianity, which was typical of neopaganism popular in Europe at the period. One of the most peculiar ideas in Tennison’s books is that of the Pan-Baltonian Empire. In that period Tennison also began to disseminate his view that Estonians’, Latvians’ and Lithuanians’ pre-Christian beliefs were somewhat similar to the religious and philosophical systems of India in the Vedic period, which, in the present-day world, are represented in their purest form in Buddhism.In 1930, Tennison, accompanied by Friedrich V. Lustig, left the Baltics and a year later also Europe, settling for the period 1932–1949 in the Kingdom of Siam. After leaving the Baltics, Tennison


    Wolf, Ruth


    The medical approach as summarized by Leibowitz--"We must treat the person, not just the disease"--highlights the importance of treating the sick person and not only the illness' pathology. This approach calls for healing not only the physical side, but also--and mainly--the mental aspect of the patient. One of the goals of this article is to turn physicians' attention towards the compassion necessary in treating a person with a severe or chronic illness, or a person who is dying--precisely because sometimes there is no medical cure for the physical state of such a patient. Therefore, physicians' attention does need to be directed to providing emotional assistance to such a patient. Sometimes, the emotional strength the patient draws from the medical team that is treating him can change his view of, and approach to, the illness, and can enable his body to muster the emotional strength necessary to deal with his situation. Buddhism's approach enables the sick patient to experience his illness in a different way, by making peace with one's situation and, sometimes, even viewing the situation differently--viewing the illness as a type of renewal. Buddhism, therefore, enables a sick person to choose a different point of view when his energy is exhausted and he loses hope, providing quality of life to patients. In such a situation, a sick person finds emotional strength in the knowledge that the end of his life is actually a renewal somewhere else. The limited life expectancy of the terminally ill patient demands that he be able to spend his time with minimal concerns and worries, and does not leave much time for treating the emotional side--the patient's fear. In light of this fact, the patient's ability to look ahead and grasp at hope is the most important issue. As much as possible, this is accomplished in an atmosphere of acceptance and with the absence, or reduction, of fear. The freedom to decide for oneself how to behave, according to one's own approach, is what

  4. The practice of mindfulness: from Buddhism to secular mainstream in a post-secular society

    Liselotte Frisk


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the practice of mindfulness, which has migrated from being part of a religion, Buddhism, to being an integral part of Western psychology. Mindfulness is especially used in cognitive behavioural therapy, but also in, e.g., dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT. In Sweden several doctors, psychologists and psychiatrists use and recommend mindfulness for therapeutic purposes. Mindfulness is used today in many segments of mainstream medical and therapeutic care. Mindfulness is also used outside the mainstream medical and therapeutic sector, in the area of personal development or spirituality, as well as in more traditional Buddhist groups and innovative Buddhist groups such as vipassana groups. This paper investigates the migration of mindfulness from a religious to a secular sphere, and discusses whether mindfulness is a religious practice or not.

  5. Good feelings in christianity and buddhism: religious differences in ideal affect.

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Miao, Felicity F; Seppala, Emma


    Affect valuation theory (AVT) predicts cultural variation in the affective states that people ideally want to feel (i.e., "ideal affect"). National and ethnic comparisons support this prediction: For instance, European Americans (EA) value high arousal positive (HAP) states (e.g., excitement) more and low arousal positive (LAP) states (e.g., calm) less than Hong Kong Chinese. In this article, the authors examine whether religions differ in the ideal affective states they endorse. The authors predicted that Christianity values HAP more and LAP less than Buddhism. In Study 1, they compared Christian and Buddhist practitioners' ideal affect. In Studies 2 and 3, they compared the endorsement of HAP and LAP in Christian and Buddhist classical texts (e.g., Gospels, Lotus Sutra) and contemporary self-help books (e.g., Your Best Life Now, Art of Happiness). Findings supported predictions, suggesting that AVT applies to religious and to national and ethnic cultures. PMID:17312321

  6. Religion and suicide: Buddhism, Native American and African religions, Atheism, and Agnosticism.

    Lizardi, D; Gearing, R E


    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that religiosity can potentially serve as a protective factor against suicidal behavior. A clear understanding of the influence of religion on suicidality is required to more fully assess for the risk of suicide. The databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE were used to search peer-reviewed journals prior to 2008 focusing on religion and suicide. Articles focusing on suicidality across Buddhism, Native American and African religions, as well as on the relationship among Atheism, Agnosticism, and suicide were utilized for this review. Practice recommendations are offered for conducting accurate assessment of religiosity as it relates to suicidality in these populations. Given the influence of religious beliefs on suicide, it is important to examine each major religious group for its unique conceptualization and position on suicide to accurately identify a client's suicide risk. PMID:19347586

  7. Buddhism and Ancient Chinese Novel%佛教与中国古代小说



    "Fiction"appeared in the "zhuangzi"at the first time and reached peak in the dynasties of Ming and Qing .Ancient Chinese novels have a history of thousands of years .During this time,we can feel a mysterious force which has been always throughout this period of history.It's the fantastic force that Buddhism affacted Chinese novel .The religion transmitted from foreign countries was accepted because of its own mysterious character .This paper will discuss that ancient Chinese novel was affacted by Buddhism at the three aspect of character shaping , plot and artistic expression.%从《庄子?外物》中首先提出“小说”这个名称,到明清时期的长篇小说的顶峰成就,中国古代小说经历了上千年的发展历史。在这幅历史长卷中,我们可以感受到一股神秘的力量一直贯穿着这段历史的始终,这股带有奇幻色彩的力量就是佛教对中国小说的影响。这个由外域传入的宗教,因其自身的神异特点而被人们接受,小说就从这里开始受到它的作用。本文从小说的人物塑造、情节内容和艺术表现三个方面谈谈佛教对中国古代小说的影响。

  8. Freedom of Religion in Islam and Buddhism: A Comparison Study of the Barriers That Determines the Freedom of Religion

    Mutsalim Khareng; Jaffary Awang; Zaizul Ab. Rahman; Rohanee Machae; Khaidzir Ismail


    Freedom of religion is the human right that supports the individual to choose and practice a religion or belief. In the context of a multiracial society, freedom of religion should be debated openly to avoid any misunderstanding that distracts from harmonious social living. This research is a comparative study that focuses on the principles that determine the barriers of freedom of religion between Islam and Buddhism. For means of accuracy and relevancy of information, the researcher adopts t...

  9. Buddhism and the formation of the religious body: a Foucauldian approach

    Malcolm Voyce


    Full Text Available Poststructuralist debates around the body have demonstrated how our knowledge of the body is constituted in specific cultural and historical circumstances and in the context of particular relations of power. This article develops this approach to the body in Buddhism and thus attempts to show how the body has been represented within different discourses in Buddhist texts. Implicit in this account is the remedying of the failure in some Buddhist scholarship to recognise different types of bodies (negative and positive and to show how these aspects of the body, as enumerated by texts, operate together to constitute forms of identities capable of being constituted within different historical moments out of the pressure of new social and material changes. At the same time the body is seen as being capable of self modification in terms of that discourse. The term ‘body’ is used here in the sense that it implies not only a physical aspect (flesh, bones, liquids etc., but that it is connected to various cognitive and emotional capacities as outlined in the khandhas (see below explanation of the human constitution. The author's concern in his treatment of the body is to avoid the problems of psychological analysis, as this form of analysis often implies the existence of a psyche or soul along with the ideas of complete individual self-determination.

  10. Research of the Social Function on Ethical Moral of Buddhism%佛教伦理道德的社会功能及当代价值



    The ethical moral of Buddhism guides people to the moral action which is used to deal with something and the moral relation in practice.The ethical moral of Buddhism include five dots.These root in many ideas.The ethical moral of Buddhism has the especial social functions.%佛教伦理道德是指佛教伦理指导处理人与人之间在实践中所应有的道德行为和人们之间的道德关系。佛教伦理道德包含的内容十分丰富。佛教伦理道德与其它宗教伦理道德社会功能相比,既有特殊性也有共性。在和谐社会中,佛教伦理道德具有很强的当代价值。

  11. 南朝祭祀与佛教%The Sacrifice in the Southern Dynasties and Buddhism



    Buddhistic vegetarianism has influence of Buddhistic vegetarianism, some c far-reaching influence on traditional Chinese culture. Under the hanges took place in traditional Chinese sacrifice during the period of the Southern Dynasties. People started to offer vegetarian sacrifices at funerals and national ancestral temples. These changes have some influence on the later generations, but don' t last long in terms of large scope. And this just reflects the leading position of Confucian rituals changes are recorded in the historical tive stands. materials and books of Buddhism, in traditional Chinese society. These and these records reflect their respective stands.%佛教素食对中国传统文化影响深远,表现之一就是南朝时期在佛教素食观的影响下,中国传统的祭祀曾发生过一些变化,在丧礼和国家宗庙天地祭祀中都出现了用蔬食祭祀的现象。这些变化对后世有一定影响,但从大的范围看,并没有持续太长的时间,这恰好反映了儒家礼制在中国传统社会的主导地位。佛教方面的史料和正史对这些变化都有一定的记载,这些记载反映了各自不同的立场。

  12. Buddhist Philosophy: A Study of Buddha Images for Perpetuating Buddhism in Isan Society

    Thidarat Duangsin


    the usefulness of Buddhist Philosophy for daily life and perpetuation of Buddhism in Isan society (Northeast society of Thailand.

  13. "All Beings Are Equally Embraced By Amida Buddha": Jodo Shinshu Buddhism and Same-Sex Marriage in the United States

    Jeff Wilson


    Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA) began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that ther...

  14. The Analysis of Confucian Followers Understanding of Gods in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in Bangka Island - Indonesia

    Sugiato Lim


    Indonesia is a multi-ethnic, multi-culture, and multi-faith country. This piece of land combines a lot of ethnic elements into one. For example, Confucianism in Indonesia is combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism characteristic in many ways. Aim of this paper is to find out the features of Confucianism as a religion or a belief for its followers in Bangka. In addition, this paper also focuses on finding out the followers view towards their Gods in their perspectives. In this articl...

  15. Buddhist Contribution to the Socialist Transformation of Buddhism in China: Activities of Ven. Juzan during 1949–1953

    Xue Yu


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by Chinese Buddhists, especially the so-called "progressive Buddhists," in the socialist transformation of the sangha at the early stage of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. I concentrate on the case of Ven. Juzan (1908–1984. While the focus on one individual does not reveal the whole story about Chinese Buddhists’ involvement in the Chinese Communist Party’s project of reshaping the sangha, the career of Juzan does provide a window on the issue. By exploring various sources, including Modern Buddhist Studies (Xiandai foxue and government documents, I investigate how Juzan urged his fellow Buddhists to work with the Communist leadership, and how he justified government policies on Buddhism by reinterpreting Buddhist doctrines. In so doing, this study intends to show that Chinese Buddhists’ collaboration with the Communist regime was a significant dimension of the socialist transformation of the Chinese sangha, a process that laid the foundation for full-scale persecution of Buddhism during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976.

  16. "All Beings Are Equally Embraced By Amida Buddha": Jodo Shinshu Buddhism and Same-Sex Marriage in the United States

    Jeff Wilson


    Full Text Available Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that there are three factors in particular—institutional, historical, and theological elements of American Shin Buddhism—that must be attended to as contributing reasons why ministers were supportive of same-sex marriage.

  17. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    Brice, Maximilien


    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  18. 《牟子理惑论》中所见的老子∗%Lao Tze Presented in Mou Zi's Understanding of Buddhism



    《弘明集》首篇《牟子理惑论》中出现的老子,有三种形式,一是称引《老子》中的话语,二是称述老子名氏和著述以代表其学说,三是讲到老子的外在形象。在称引《老子》话语的内容上,其中有关于老子“道”、“无为”思想的借用,来解说佛教存在的价值;还有从道家生命哲学及生死观的角度,说明佛老的相通及其与道教养生术的差别。从《牟子理惑论》本身来看,道家老子的学说在其中就成为既值得继续弘扬,又可以与外来传入的佛教共存,当然也还有儒家孔子所代表的思想学说,三教共存乃至三教合一就成为其突出的主题思想。%Lao Tze presented in MouZi's Understanding of Buddhism,the first part of Hung-ming Ji,saw its appearance in three different forms,including the quotations from Lao-zi,statement about the name and the works of Lao Tze on his doctrine,and finally,the image of Lao Tze .The idea of"Taoism"and"inaction"quoted from Lao-zi effectively demonstrates the value of Buddhism.From the perspective of life philosophy and the view of life and death in Taoism ,there explains the common themes between Buddhism and Taoism by Lao Tze ,as well the difference between those two and Taoism health.In terms of Mou Zi's Understanding of Buddhism,the theory of Lao Tze is such a great doctrine that it coexists with Buddhism and Confucianism,which has been energetically carried forward.Thus,the coexistence,even the combination of these three religions turns out to be the main thought of Mou Zi's Understanding of Buddhism.

  19. 甘孜州藏传佛教文化与旅游%On the Tibetan Buddhism Culture and Tourism in Garze Prefecture



    The Tibetan Buddhism , as a main religious culture in Garze prefecture , has many sects or schools with abundant cultural accumulation .The tourism resources in that area , including the natural scenes, ethnic customs , tourism aesthetics , and tourism subjects are closely related to the Tibetan Bud-dhism culture .Therefore , the development of tourism industry and tourism products in Garze prefecture should take the Tibetan Buddhism culture into consideration , and make it serve to the tourism industry . This method will be much significance to the culture connotations and the design of creative products .%甘孜州宗教文化以藏传佛教为主体,历史悠久,教派众多,文化积淀丰厚。藏传佛教与甘孜旅游相辅相成,与自然景观、民族风情、旅游审美、旅游主体追求紧密相连。甘孜旅游经济发展、旅游产品开发过程中深入挖掘藏传佛教中相关因素,使其服务于旅游,对于增强甘孜旅游的文化内涵,形成文化旅游创意产品具有十分重要的意义。

  20. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen


    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event. PMID:24475109

  1. Evolution of the Five-Buddha Images in Esoteric Buddhism with Chinese Characteristics at Dunhuang and Thoughts on Dharmakaya%敦煌显密五方佛图像的转变与法身思想



    敦煌佛教一直以汉传体系的佛教为主流,随着唐密的兴起,密教逐渐将一些显教的神祇及其功能移植到密教经典中,开始吸收或利用显教的图像内容和构图形式。密教中央法身大日如来化现四方佛的义理与华严毗卢遮那佛化现“十方三世诸如来”的法身思想有一致性,密教五方佛是以大乘经典和图像为基础组织起来的神祇系统,敦煌石窟为我们展示了这一图像发展、演化过程。说明显密结合、显体密用是敦煌密教发展的主流,而敦煌显密五方佛图像的转变就是显体密用的一个典型例证。%Buddhism with Han Chinese characteristics has always constituted the mainstream of Dunhuang Buddhism. With the rise of the Tang Tantra, a few gods of exoteric Buddhism, together with the content and compositions, were absorbed into esoteric Buddhism. The doctrine of the Esoteric Buddhism is that the Buddhas in the four directions are direct emanations from Mahavairocana at the center, consistent with the Huayan sect doctrine, which says that the Buddhas in the ten directions and of the three ages are direct emanations from Mahavairocana. The five-Buddha image in esoteric Buddhism is based on Mahayana scripture and images. Its development has been exhibited in the Dunhuang caves, and this demonstrates that the main trend of esoteric Buddhist art at Dunhuang was the combination of exoteric and esoteric Buddhism as well as the absorption of exoteric Buddhist elements into esoteric Buddhism, well exemplified by the evolution of the five-Buddha image in esoteric Buddhism with Han Chinese characteristics.

  2. 从身心观之异看佛教对中国传统医学的影响%Buddhism Affecting the Development of Chinese Medicine from the Difference between Physical and Mental

    李铁华; 王欢


    中国本土文化把“身心合一”的人体小宇宙融入“天人合一”的大宇宙,从正面论证了以气、心、神为核心的身心融合观念.佛教以“缘起论”为理论基础,以“空”、“苦”等为基本的世界观和人生观,通过“四大”、“五蕴”从反面论证了身心的空幻性和过程性.佛教传入后,对中医学的发展产生了深远影响.%The small universe of the body and mind harmonization was reintegrated into the universe of the harmony between nature and human in Chinese traditional culture. Chinese traditional culture explained the concept of the harmony between physical and mental which was interpreted with the gas, heart and spirit. The law of Dependent Origination is the basic principle of Buddhism. The outlook on world and life of Buddhism is explained with "Emptiness", "Suffering". Buddhism interpreted the void and formative life with "Four Great" and "Five aggregates" from the negative side. After the introduction of Buddhism to China, the idea of the Buddhism influenced the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  3. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya


    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1 to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences, (2 to investigate the current situations of the assimilation of culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences and (3 to determine a suitable assimilation model of culture beliefs and rite concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for peace of Thai society in Bangkok and circumferences. Approach: A qualitative research was used for this research. Research areas were these: (1 Yannawa Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (2 Lum Charoen Satta Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (3 Brahma House at the Erawan Hotel, Lum Phini sub district, Pathumwan district , Bangkok, (4 Phai Lom Temple, Phra Pathom Chedi, Muang district, Nakhon Pathom Province, (5 Sisa Thong Temple, Sisa Thong sub district, Nakhon Chaisi, Nakhon Pathom Province, (6 Phra Sri Maha Uma Thewi Temple, Silom sub district, Bangkok district, Bangkok, (7 Visanu temple, Thung Wat Don sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (8 Thep Nimit Temple, Khok Phaed sub district, Nong Chok district, Bangkok, (9 Brahman Temple, Sao Chingcha sub district, Phra Nakhon district, Bangkok and (10 Ganesha House at Ratchada crossroads, Huay Khwang district, Bangkok. Deity worships have been held at these areas for a long time and a lot of people have participated in these worships. A population was the people who lived in 9 districts. A sample

  4. 试论汉化佛教对新罗乡歌产生的影响%Analysis of Impact of Sinicization of Buddhism on the Shilla Ballad

    张雨雪; 雷霆


    新罗乡歌是学界公认的韩国最早的国语文学体裁。收录在《三国遗事》中的十四首是保留较为完整的。三国时期是朝鲜民族文化从原始的神文过渡到人文的文化转型时期。一种文学体裁的萌芽,首先就要有孕育她的土壤,而在孕育乡歌的这片土壤中不得不提到的元素就是佛教。佛教起源于印度,最早在中国汉明帝永平11年(公元68年)传入中国。由于地缘因素以及当时中国文化的扩散,高句丽、百济、新罗三国无论从社会、政治、经济方面还是文化教育、文学创作等诸多领域都深受中国的影响。4世纪佛教经中国传入朝鲜半岛,新罗统治阶层把佛教定为国教,佛教的影响力由此可见一斑。基于此史实可以推定,当时传入朝鲜的佛教是经过汉化了的中国佛教。在此大的思想背景下,本文从原始佛教汉化的过程出发试论当时对乡歌产生的影响。首先分析新罗的社会背景,由此阐述乡歌出现的必然性,进而从乡歌的创作阶层与社会功能上管窥当时汉化佛教对其产生的影响。%Ballad is a universally acknowledged type of literary genre by the field of education in the South Korea .The fourteen pieces of Ballad preserved in the book SanguoYishi are regarded as a complete one .It is during the period of Three Kingdoms that Korea national culture changed from primitive ’ s divinity culture to a human one .Buddhism descends from India , which is intro-duced into China in the year of Yongping 11th of the Han Dynasty in China (68A.D).Kokuli, Paekche and Shilla are all influ-enced by Chinese culture both in the political , economic education and the literature creation .In the 4th-century, Buddhism was introduced into the Korean peninsula .The ruling classes of Shilla appointed the Buddhism as the national religion .Based on the historical facts , it is concluded that the Buddhism which was introduced into

  5. Analysis of the influence of Internet to the spread of Buddhism%简析互联网对佛教传播的影响



      互联网对佛教传播既有着积极的推动作用,又有着消极的负面影响。一方面,互联网有利于佛法的传播,有利于增进社会的和谐。另一方面,歪理邪说也借助互联网得以迅速地传播并流毒甚广,这不仅影响了佛教的声誉,而且还在某种程度上不利于社会的稳定。因此,需要尽量减少互联网对佛教传播的不利影响。对策是:政府要优化环境;政府要完善法律体系;强化对互联网的监管;寺院要加强网站建设。%  there are positive roles and negative impact on the spread of Buddhism of the Internet, on one hand, internet is helpful for Dharma transmission and can promote social harmony. On the other hand, fallacies also using the Internet to spread rapidly and pernicious influence far and wide, This not only affects the Buddhism's reputation, but also do not conducive to social stability to some extent. So we should minimize the adverse effects of the Internet on the spread of Buddhism.

  6. 《佛教文化与国际交流》课程建设初探--以钦州学院为例%Course Construction of Buddhism Culture and International Communication---A Case Study of Qinzhou University



    中国佛教文化是中华文化的重要组成部分,佛教入华是世界文化交流史上的一件大事,当今世界,国际交流日益频繁,佛教文化在国际交流中的地位是不容小觑的。广西沿海地区是我国“海上丝绸之路”的重要口岸,早在两千年前佛教已通过海陆两条通道传入中国。广西是佛教在我国传播较早的地方之一,至今还有很多佛教文物古迹遗存,所以在钦州学院开设《佛教文化与国际交流》课程有天然的优势与现实意义。%Chinese Buddhism culture is an important part of Chinese culture.The introduction of Buddhism into China is al-so an important event in the history of world culture communication.Nowadays, Buddhism still plays a crucial role in international communication.Being a key harbor of the maritime silk road, Guangxi costal area was one of the areas where Buddhism was first-ly spread when introduced into China two thousand years ago.There are still many Buddhism cultural relics remained in Guangxi. Therefore, it’s of great significance to open the course of Buddhism Culture and International Communication in Qinzhou Universi-ty.




    Chan Buddhism was developed with an unprecedented scale in Song dynasty and at that time the scholar contact with it closely. Chan Buddhism not only influence SuShi' life attitude but also blend in the writing idea unconsciously with its humour and way of thinking in manifestation mode and image feature which influeneed SuShi'humouous relegation poem greatly.%禅宗在宋代空前发展,文人与它的联系颇为紧密。禅宗不仅深入影响到了苏轼的生活态度,它的幽默特色及思维方式都潜移默化地融入到诗人的创作理念中。从表现方式。意象特色上对苏轼诗歌尤其是贬谪诗的谐谑特色产生了极大影响。

  8. 明初高丽僧人满空与泰山佛教的复兴%The Great Gaoli Monk Mankong and the Revival of Mountain Tai Buddhism During Early Ming Dynasty



    自唐中叶以来,佛教在中国由盛而衰,类似隋唐频繁的中外佛教交往已鲜见于史。几百年之后,在中华文化根深蒂固的泰山,一位来自高丽的僧人满空,通过重建竹林寺,复兴普照寺,在泰山兴佛取得了成功。这是泰山佛教历史的盛事,也是中韩两国在文化交往史上的佳话。%Since the middle of Tang Dynasty, Buddhism began to decline in China, and such international Buddhism communication as that of Sui and Tang Dynasties was witnessing its rarity. Several hundred years later, at the foot of Mountain Tai which is ingrained with Chinese culture, a great monk Mankong from Gaoli, recovered Puzhao Temple, a decayed Chinese temple. It is a grand event in the history of Mountain Tai Buddhism, and also a significant occasion in the history of cultural communication between China and Korea. The paper probes into the abrupt but non - accidental event with Mountain Tai historical inscriptions, local chronicles and the evolution of Chinese Buddhism.

  9. 藏传佛教寺院诵经音乐初论%Elementary Theory for the chanting music in Tibetan Buddhism temples



      In the music o f Tibetan Buddhism,the tone of Buddhists chanting sutras is the very produc-tion filled with Tibetan culture accumulation . Of course,its coming into being must have follo wed certain foundation and laws . T he tone o f chanting sutras in Tibetan Buddhism shares the feature of recitative, closely near to the tone o f languages . When coming to the tone of chanting sutras in Tibetan Buddhism, we will find that the most representative part is brought scribes . T hey would lead the Lamas to recite and chant the scriptures together . T he brought scribes often adopt the way of subw oofer chanting to make themselves heard by thousand of people wherever in the hall . In this way they should pronounce loudly, but the pitch of voice must be low and deep,to express a feeling of solemn and respectful,dignified and holy .%  在藏传佛教音乐里寺院僧人诵经的音调是极赋有藏族文化积淀的产物,它的产生必定有其遵循的基础和规律。藏传佛教音乐诵经音调具有宣叙性,接近于语言的音调,最具代表性的当属寺院的领经师由他带领众喇嘛集体吟诵、唱诵相关的经文。领诵经文的经师常采用超低音的唱法,声调发音宏亮、低沉、穿透力强,并能产生一种肃穆、庄严浓厚、神圣的感觉,坐满几千人的大经堂每个角落都能清楚地听到领经师的声音。

  10. Buddhism and medical futility.

    Chan, Tuck Wai; Hegney, Desley


    Religious faith and medicine combine harmoniously in Buddhist views, each in its own way helping Buddhists enjoy a more fruitful existence. Health care providers need to understand the spiritual needs of patients in order to provide better care, especially for the terminally ill. Using a recently reported case to guide the reader, this paper examines the issue of medical futility from a Buddhist perspective. Important concepts discussed include compassion, suffering, and the significance of the mind. Compassion from a health professional is essential, and if medical treatment can decrease suffering without altering the clarity of the mind, then a treatment should not be considered futile. Suffering from illness and death, moreover, is considered by Buddhists a normal part of life and is ever-changing. Sickness, old age, birth, and death are integral parts of human life. Suffering is experienced due to the lack of a harmonious state of body, speech, and mind. Buddhists do not believe that the mind is located in the brain, and, for Buddhists, there are ways suffering can be overcome through the control of one's mind. PMID:23188402

  11. Research on Datong“Buddhism Capital”Tourism Cultural Brand Construction%大同佛都旅游文化品牌建设研究

    赵彪; 江海旭


    大同旅游资源丰富,多为历史文化价值极高的佛教旅游资源。针对当前大同存在城市形象模糊、旅游品牌不鲜明等问题,研究大同佛都旅游文化品牌建设具有重要的现实意义。大同文化特色在北魏辽金,精华在佛教,重点在古都,因此大同可定位于“魏辽佛教文化旅游之都”,以云冈石窟为主体,构筑平城文化体系,以古都为载体,打造大同佛都旅游胜境。%Datong is rich in tourist resources, many of which are Buddhist tourist resources of high historical and cultural value. For the city's image is fuzzy and the tourist brand is not distinguishable, there is much practical significance to study Datong“Bud-dhism Capital” tourism cultural brand construction. Based on the definition of Buddhism tourism culture and tourism cultural brand, this is the first time to study Datong “Buddhism Capital” tourism cultural brand construction, for which we will propose the evi-dences, position the image, establish the slogan, and finally put forward the construction strategies. We wish that this research could be referred by Datong tourism planning.

  12. Eski Uygurca Metinlere Göre Budizmin Manihaizme Etkisi The Effect Of Buddhism On Manichaeism In Old Uighur Texts

    Hacer TOKYÜREK


    Full Text Available Mani's Buddhism, Zurvanizm, Christianity and Manichaeism which was formed by his own thoughts has created a strong followers group in the east and west. These teachings spread rapidly as a result of being adopted especially by Soğds and Tochars in the east, and then by Chinese and Uighurs. But this teaching, which has spread rapidly, faced with other religions or teachings in its regions. Thus, Manichaeism which lived together with many religions or teachings, hasbeen affected by them and later disappeared for various reasons. AmongUighurs, it is known that Bögü's Manichaeism was declared as theofficial state religion in 762/3 for political reasons.Along with defending this religion, Uighurs have demonstratedmany religious works but not as much as the Buddhist works focusingon this faith. In this context, when we compare the texts of BuddhistUighurs and Manihaist Uighurs we can see that many terms arecommon. In the texts of Buddhist Uighurs and Manihaist Uighurs someterms which are fundamental in both doctrine such as Buddhas, theteachings of Buddha and Mani, the world of the Gods, the world of theliving, morality, agony, fate and the idea of time show resemblance orare in common. These terms are compared in both teachings and theirmeanings are given. Thus, it has been identified that these twoteachings show similarities and the terms are used not entirely butapproximately in the same way. Mani’nin Budizm, Zurvanizm, Hristiyanlık ve kendi düşüncelerinden oluşturduğu Manihaizm, doğuda ve batıda güçlü bir taraftar kitlesi yaratmıştır. Doğuda özellikle Soğud ve Toharların ve daha sonra da Çin ve Uygurların bu öğretiyi sahiplenmeleri sonucunda bu öğreti hızla yayılmıştır. Fakat bu hızlı bir yayılma alanına sahip olan öğreti gittiği, yerlerde de başka dinlerle ya da öğretilerle karşılaşmıştır. Böylece pek çok din ya da öğretilerle yan yana yaşayan Manihaizm, çeşitli nedenlerden dolay

  13. 无我:佛教中自我观的心理学分析%No-self:the Psychological Analysis of Self-view in Buddhism

    彭彦琴; 江波; 杨宪敏


    "No-self", the core of Buddhist psychology, gives distinctive opinions on the nature of self: 1) the subtle manas is the root of self; 2) eastern Zen-meditation is the method of self-researching; 3) self is the illusion gathered by five skandha; and 4) "no-self" is the unity of unreal self and real self. Buddhist psychology reveals the truth of self by "no-self', which is a supplement and transcendence to the self research-paradigm in westem psychology.Different from the western self-psychology which takes self as one's consciousness and cognition, Buddhist psychology takes a deeper level analysis on self. It argues that self originates from the mamas which is subtle and can't be realized by human beings. Most importantly. manas is one of the citta that persists alaya-vijnana and regards it as "self". That's why we human beings are different from the "Buddha". Alaya is a concept about the internal structure of the mind beyond the subconscious in modern psychology. Moreover, the "seed", which is storied in alaya, can regencrate, and it is a path that is never ended- one's behavior can be converted into new seeds and be storied in alaya. However, in western self-psychology, libido (subconscious) and collective subconsciousness can only be obtained through genetic, which seems a " bottom - up " process from generation to generation in western psychology.Then, we'll see how "self" originates from manas in Buddhist psychology in the first part of this paper.Empirical Research Methods prevents western psychology analyzing "self" on a deeper level while Buddhism can make it benefiting from a kind of mental experience- Zen-meditation. First of all.Zen-meditation is the unity of subjective and objective in contrast to western dualism. Dualism can be used in Natural objects-researching, but we will find problems when it is used in subjective world. For instance, when we use Dualism to research "self ", we're just using "self " to research "self", and this can't succeed

  14. 佛家养生思想对现代体育养生观的启示%Enlightenment of Health Preserving Concepts of Buddhism to Modern Sports Health Preserving

    邓奎; 宋海燕; 黄诚


    By literature materials,it explained the health preserving concepts of Buddhism and the results show that the Buddhism concept and the healthy idea the modern humans pursuing have a lot in common.The Buddhism advocated nourishing heart and preserving the body and maintaining mental tranquility while modern sports advocates self-adjustment mentally and physically and living with nature and universe with moderate amount of physical exercise.The two avocations are actually consistent.The Bud-dhism typical concept should be absorbed in a critical way and applied in modern sports health preserving practices which is of re-alistic significance in developing life science and improving both the quality of individuals and comprehensive qualities of our na-tional people.%采用文献资料法就佛家养生思想关于人体健康的观点进行了解读,结果表明:佛家先哲的养生思想与现代人追寻的健康理念有很多相同点,它主张的养心、养形、养气与现代体育主张的自我身心调节、和谐自然、适度体育运动相一致。将佛家特有养生思想批判地吸收到现代体育养生实践中对我国生命科学的发展、公民的个体素质提高和国民综合素质的提升有着重要的现实意义。

  15. On LanRe' s Traditional Meaning and Zen Buddhism Connotation in "Quan Tang Shi"%《全唐诗》中“兰若”的传统内涵及佛禅意蕴



    Introduction of Buddhism is a major event on the Chinese intellectual history and the history of literature. Culturally, combination of Buddhism and traditional culture, scholars in literary creation of citation and Buddhism in the Buddha allusion, lan- guage, such as image, this kind of phenomenon also is very common in the Tang Dynasty, " LanRe" that is as an example. But with the ordinary Buddhist allusions it is different, both in Buddhist meaning, and traditional culture connotation, thus has the particularity.%佛教的传入是中国思想史、文学史上的重大事件。文化上,佛教文化与传统文化相融合,文人在诗文创作中大量引用与佛教有关的佛语、典故、意象等,这种现象在唐诗中也极为常见,“兰若”即为一例。但它与普通的佛教典故不同,既有佛教的意蕴,又有传统的文化内涵,因而具有特殊性。

  16. A Summary on Buddhism and the History and Culture of Chaoshan%佛教与潮汕历史文化综论



      佛教从南朝刘宋年间传入潮汕,1500多年来历朝历代的基本面貌虽有不同,但对潮汕文化的塑造产生了巨大的影响。佛教传入潮汕后,逐渐适应本地的自然、人文环境,并积极参与到社会文化的发展进程中,与社会经济、道德、习俗等相互渗透、相互作用、相互构筑,从一个重要的侧面塑造了特质鲜明的潮汕文化。从潜藏的思想观念到触目可见的文化事相,潮汕文化无不透露出众多的佛教元素,诸如饮食文化中的素食、建筑文化中的寺塔建筑、方言文化中的佛教俗语、民间艺术中的潮州佛乐、礼仪文化中的佛化葬俗、节俗文化中的佛教节日以及组织文化的善堂等,就是其中荦荦大者。%Buddhism was introduced into Chaoshan Area during the Liu Song years of Southern Dynasty and had an important role in shaping the Chaoshan culture over the past 1500 years, during which China wit-nessed changes with different dynasties. After its arrival, Buddhism gradually adapted to the local natural and human environment, and participated actively in the development process of social culture, and thus created the distinctive characteristics of Chaoshan culture from an important side through mutual penetration, interac-tion, mutual construction with social economic, moral, custom. Whether from its hidden concepts or from some visible cultural events and phenomena, Chaoshan culture always reveals plenty of Buddhist elements, of which most essential points include vegetarian in Chaoshan’s food culture, the temple constructions in architectural culture, the Buddhist proverbs in the dialect culture, the Chaozhou Buddhist music in folk arts, the Buddhist fu-neral custom in etiquette culture, Buddhist festivals in festival culture and the almhouses in organizational cul-ture.

  17. On The Integration of Shintoism and Buddhism of Nara Period In Japan%论日本奈良时期的神佛习合



    Japanese Shintoism is a kind of local faith in nature in Japan.From Nara period,after being spread to Japan in Sixth century,Buddhism began the integration process with Shintoism.How could the two religions integrate with each other when one originated from nature worship but the other publicized a belief in a kind of life and world outlook? When we trace it to its causes,we finnd that common ground between the two religions is the most important internal cause though external causes from the whole society can not be ignored.By way of analysis and argumentation,we come to the conclusion that Shintoism and Buddhism have much in common,such as Polytheism and Dharmapala(Dharma Protector),which became the solid foundation of their integration and made their integration possible in Nara Period,and finally created a lasting and profound effect to the development of both religions.%神道是日本本土的自然信仰。佛教于六世纪传到日本后,自奈良时期开始了与神道习合的过程。一方是产生于自然崇拜的原始信仰,一方是宣扬一种人生观、世界观的信仰,两者为何能够习合?究其原因,社会外部原因虽不可忽视,但两者之间存在着的共通之处才是习合发生的最重要内因。通过分析论证,可发现神佛两教在多神及护法善神思想等方面均存在着相通之处,这些共通点使得奈良时期日本神道教和佛教的习合成为可能。

  18. 论鉴真东渡对日本佛教的影响%On the Influence of Jianzhen Crosses the Ocean to Japan to Japanese Buddhism



    鉴真大师是著名的东渡弘法高僧。他不畏艰险曲折,前后经历六次东渡,期间不幸双目失明,最后终于到达日本。鉴真到日本后不仅传授戒律,弘扬佛法,建造了日本历史上第一座律宗寺院——唐招提寺,而且为日本人民传医送药,将唐朝先进的文明带到日本。他为建立、完善日本授戒制度,开创日本律宗作出重大贡献。%Master Jianzhen was the famous monk who crossed the ocean to Japan to promote Buddhism.He twists and turns through thick and thin,and before and after the experience of six east,during the unfortunate blind,and finally arrived in Japan.Jianzhen to Japan not only teach the precepts,and spread the Dharma,the construction of Japanese history a Ritsu temple-Toshodai Temple,and the Japanese people pass medical,drug delivery to the Tang Dynasty advanced civilization to Japan.He established,perfect Japanese Shoujie system,creating the Japanese Ritsu to make a significant contribution.

  19. Bactria and the Hellenistic Buddhism --centered with theMilinda-pa ha%巴克特里亚与希腊化的佛教--以《那先比丘经》为中心



    佛教之所以能够在希腊化的巴克特里亚流行,原因在于其一定程度上的希腊化,或者说是传播方式上一定程度的希腊化。《那先比丘经》的流传即反映了这一情况。作为巴克特里亚希腊人的沾弥利望群和弥兰王并不是因为那先比丘的回答具有多么高明的佛教智慧而心悦诚服,而是因为那先比丘的回答方式和回答内容与古希腊哲学有着密切的关系。弥兰王所接受的佛教带有浓厚的希腊哲学色彩,反映出了希腊文化与印度文化、佛教文化在巴克特里亚所出现的一种多重向度、错综复杂的融合情况。%Buddhism was popular in the Hellenistic Bactria, its reason depends on the extent of the Hellenistic, or its spread on the degree of the hellenistic.Milinda-pa ha responded to this situation, just as what Bactria Greek with Mili hope group and Milinda belived not because of Nagasena replied with a clever Buddhist wisdom and expressed a heartfelt admiration, on the contrary, because Nagasena replied and inherited the thought of Aristotle’s Philosophy. Milinda accepted Buddhism with a strong color of the Greek philosophy. This reflects the Greek culture and India culture, Buddhism culture in Bactria in a multiple dimension and perplexing fusion.

  20. 20世纪以来白族佛教密宗阿吒力教派研究综述%Research Review of Bai Esoteric Buddhism Azhali Religion Since 20th Century


    During Nanzhao Kingdom period, esoteric Buddhism was introduced into Dali area of Yunnan. Struggling with and adapting to the local indigenous religious, absorbing different cultural nutrients from Confucianism, Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Chinese Buddhism etc., Azhali Religion was formed. Nowadays, being a unique esoteric sect, Azhali Religion has a history of over 1000 years. It had a greater impact on the provincial politics, economy, culture and other aspects. Since 20th century, domestic and foreign scholars were widely attracted by Azhali Religion, and many research results appeared. The paper gives an overview of the research progress of Azhali Religion.%  南诏时期佛教密宗传入云南大理地区,与当地的土著宗教从斗争到适应,并吸收融合了儒学、道教、藏传佛教、汉传佛教等多种文化养分,形成了密宗新教派——阿吒力教。阿吒力教作为一个独具特色的密宗教派,至今已有一千多年的历史,它对云南政治、经济、文化等方面产生了较大影响。20世纪以来引起了国内外学者的广泛关注,研究成果颇多。对阿吒力教研究动态进行综述,以便大家更全面地认识阿吒力教研究现状,并开创性地搞好今后的研究工作。

  1. 傣族地区南传上座部佛教的旅游文化建设探讨%Discuss the cultural construction of tourism in Dai region Theravada Buddhism



    傣族地区具有优美的自然风景,丰富的民族、宗教文化资源,是云南旅游的热点地区之一。要打造有特色,高品质的旅游业,南传上座部佛教旅游文化是值得深入研究、策划的内容。立足于建设云南省“桥头堡”战略的大背景下,从宗教学的角度,初步探讨了在转型中,傣族地区佛教旅游的现状,并对当前出现的问题和如何开发利用方面提出了一些想法和建议。%Dai region has beautiful natural scenery ,rich ethnic ,religious and cultural resources ,is one of the hot spots of tourism in Yunnan ,to create unique ,high-quality tourism ,travel Theravada Buddhism culture is worthy of further re-search ,planning content .T his article is based on the construction of Yunnan Province under the“bridgehead” strategic background ,from the perspective of religious studies ,discuss some current problems of Dai Buddhism travel to face some situation in society transformation ,and how to develop these resources put forward some ideas and suggestions .

  2. 河南省佛教文化旅游资源的深度开发研究%Study on the deep development of Buddhism cultural tourism resources in Henan



    In recent years, along with the"religious tourism"national popular, Buddhist culture becomes a kind of development of tourism resources in particular from its deep cultural heritage. This article first elaborated the Henan province tourism culture resources analysis of the development of Buddhism, Buddhism cultural tourism, then puts forward some rationalization proposals, in order to further develop the tourism resources of Buddhist culture plays a certain reference role to better promote Henan tourism development.%近些年,随着“宗教旅游业”的全国盛行,佛教文化以其深厚的文化底蕴成为一种特殊的旅游资源发展开来。本文首先详细阐述了河南省佛教旅游文化资源,分析了发展佛教文化旅游的优势,继而提出一些合理化的建议,以期对佛教文化旅游资源的深度开发起到一定的借鉴作用,促使河南旅游业更好发展。

  3. On Emperor Liang Wu abandoning Taoism to Buddhism Three-religions Debate in the Tang Dynasty%梁武舍道事佛与唐代三教论衡



    It is a great mystery in the history of medieval culture that Emperor Liang Wu adandoned Taoism, which, however, became a special concern in early Tang Dynasty. The article proposes that, rather than commenting on whether the event was true or false, a better way of working out the mystery is to investigate its happenings and functions in the religious and cultural context of Tang Dynasty. Judging from the existing literature, emperors and ministers connected Liang Wu’s Buddhism worship with the national subjugation, which was taken advantage by Taoists who propagated that Buddhism resulted in the subjugation. However, the event itself of Liang Wu’s abandoning Taoism to Buddhism has not been paid any attention to by either Confucianists or Taoists. In early Tang Dynasty, Buddhists responded in a different way to both Confucianist and Taoist criticisms, believing that the event itself was undertaking the mission of attacking Taoism. But influenced by the practice that Confucianism and Taoism collaborated in criticizing Buddhism, the event also functioned in glorifying Buddhism, suppressing Confucianism and diminishing Taoism. The Buddhists’ narration of the event in Tang Dynasty highlighted the adversial relations among the three religions at the time, and the event was a response from Taoists like Fuyi.%梁武帝舍道事佛是中古思想文化史上的一大疑案,但此一说法真正被关注是在唐代。与其斤斤计较此说的真伪,不如从唐代宗教文化环境中考察其发生与功能。从现存文献来看,唐代帝王史臣在反思南北朝政教关系的潮流中,将梁武帝崇奉佛教与萧梁亡国联系起来,道教徒也乘势将此提升为佛教亡国论,但梁武帝舍道事佛并未被儒、道二教关注。唐初佛徒对儒家、道教的批判采取了不同的回应方式,梁武帝舍道事佛主要承担起了抨击道教的使命,但受儒、道联合批评佛教惯例的影响,此事同时具有了

  4. How to Treat Buddhism:the Confucian Doctrine and National Control of Religion%家可出否:儒家伦理与国家宗教管控



    Since the Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty took “Confucianism as the dominant ideology”,the Confucianism has been respected as the orthodox ideology for subsequent dynasties and various Confucian doc-trines have been integrated into national laws either directly or indirectly.For a long time in history,external and internal religious ideologies have also developed and handed down such as Buddhism and Taoism,among which Buddhism ia the most important external religion in China yet has involved conflicts with Confucianism, particularly for the latter’s criticism on the former’s “destruction of humane principle”.Since national laws have been subject to Confucianism,rules pertinent to control of religion have undoubtedly restricted (but rath-er than forbidden)Buddhism wherever there are conflicts.For instance,there are three articles regulated in the Qing Code concerning “defining monks and female monks”,“privately setting up temples and privately undertaking tonsure”,and “monks being obedient to parents”with a constant change of contexts from Tang to Qing Dynasty but the legislative purpose to restrain Buddhism had never altered.The principle of “restricting rather than forbidding”Buddhism has evolved with the national policy on control of religion.%自汉武帝“独尊儒术”之后,儒家一直被尊为历代王朝的正统思想,并有众多儒家之伦理被逐渐直接或间接纳入国家法典之中。但在漫长的历史过程中,儒家之外尚有释、道等外来或本土的思想流派也在这片土地上发扬、流传。以外来宗教中影响最大的佛教为例,其与儒学曾发生一些冲突,其中较为显著的是后者对前者“毁人伦”的批评。作为被“儒家化”的历代王朝法典,深受儒家伦理的影响,在与宗教管控有关的部分,自然也表现出与儒佛冲突相对应的一些对佛教的限制(而非禁止)。如《大清律例》中,这样的律文主要有“

  5. 民族融合进程与辽代佛教繁荣%The Process of National Integration and Prosperity of Buddhism in Liao Dynasty



    辽代作为一个典型的多民族政权,其主体民族从数量上看在国家内部也是居于少数民族地位。辽代统治者对民族问题却处理得比较成功。有辽一代二百年,大部分时间里各民族都能够和谐共处,民族矛盾始终居于次要地位。这一方面归功于其成功的“因俗而治”的民族政策,没有实行激烈的民族压迫政策,顺应了各民族的传统习俗和政治要求,因而得到各民族的响应和拥护;另一方面,宗教特别是佛教在辽代各民族间的广泛传播,在相当程度上成为民族政策的润滑剂,共同的宗教信仰成为维系各民族团结的精神家园。%As a typical multi-national regime, the main subject of the country of Liao, and even in the country, is also in the position of minority nationality. The rulers of the ethnic problems are generally very successful. Liao Dynasty for 200 years, most of the time in which the ethnic groups are able to live in harmony, ethnic conflict has always been in a secondary position. On one hand, it is due to the success of"rule by Morals"of national policy, and did not execute the intense national policy of oppression, it is complied with the nation's traditional customs and political demands, so it has been the nation's response and support. on the other hand, religion, especially Buddhism spread in all ethnic groups Liao, to a considerable extent become lubricant to the national policy of the Empire, the common religious faith has become to maintain the national unity and the spirit of their homes.

  6. 台灣佛教數位典藏資料庫之建置 Digital Archives for the Study of Taiwanese Buddhism

    Jen-Jou Hung


    culture. As part of this program a number of digital archives specifically concerning the history and development of Buddhism in Taiwan have been created. Supported at various stages by the Taiwan eLearning and Digital Archives Project, the Haoran Foundation and the National Science council these archives preserve a wide range of texts and images pertaining to Buddhism in Taiwan from its inception in the 17th century to the present day. This paper describes the creation principles and scope of these digital collections.

  7. 魏晋南北朝时期佛道关系两点论%Two Aspects on the Relationship of Buddhism and Taoism in Wei-Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties

    路高丹; 梁周敏


    Buddhism and Taoism began to prosper in the early period of Wei-jing Southern and Northern Dynasties,a period when the two religions,Buddhist and Taoism,competed with and rejected each other,at the same time absorbed and mixed with each other.This paper analyzes the relationship between Buddhist and Taoism by addressing several controversial issues between Buddhist and Taoism as well as the similarities between the two religions.%魏晋南北朝是佛教初传与道教初兴时期,这一时期佛道二教相互竞争、排斥而又相互吸收、融合。本文主要针对这一时期佛教与道教争论的几个问题及二者的相通之处来研究二者关系。

  8. 内道外佛:许地山的文学世界%The Literature World of Xu Dishan. Taoism on the Inside and Buddhism on the Outside



    许地山的文学世界诸教杂糅,佛教色彩最为明显,这只是表面。道家思想才是许地山作品的内核,他笔下的女性形象昭示着道家的理想人格模式和道家的人生哲学模式。%The literature world of Xu Dishan is a mixture of religions, with Buddhism appearing the most obvious. Actually, Daoism is the root of his literary works. The female images of his works re- veal the ideal personality model and philosophy of life of the Taoism.

  9. 密教传播与宋元泉州石造多宝塔%Research on the Communication of Esoteric Buddhism and Quanzhou Stone Duobao Pagoda in Song and Yuan Dynasty



    As an important town of the Sea Silk Road, Quanzhou was famous for its brilliant maritime transport history and abundant multieuhural. Quanzhou was influenced by overseas cultural, including the Indian culture and Esoteric Buddhism. The 13th century invasion of the islamic in India made exodus of large numbers of tantra monks, corresponds to the frequent transportation between China and India during this period, lots of monks im- migrated to Quanzhou. They made significant impact on esotericism in Quanzhou. There are a large number of architectural monuments influenced by Es- oteric Buddhism, including Buddhist sculptures, Sanskrit seed figure, Quanzhou Kaiyuan temple, etc. Esoteric Buddhism especially influenced the stone Building of Song and Yuan dynasty, including Baoqieyin Pagoda, Duobao Pagoda and stone pillar column. In the Song and Yuan period the impact of Es- oteric Buddhism showed a trend of more intense effect and greater number of remains as time goes by. These trends were synchronous with the Quanzhou overseas transport development and prosperity gradually. This paper, taking the Duobao Pagoda in Song and Yuan dynasty as example, reveals these trends by systematic fieldwork and site investigation.%地处海上交通要道的泉州历来受到海外文化影响.亦包括印度文化及密教的渗透;13世纪伊斯兰世界对印度的入侵使大量密教僧人外逃,与这一时期中印海上交通频繁相对应,对泉州的影响也更为明显。泉州传统建筑遗迹中,有大量受到密教的影响,除在造像、梵文种子图及开元寺大殿等木构建筑中有所体现外,更多表现在宋元时期的石建筑中,如宝箧印塔、多宝塔、石经幢等;其时间段集中在宋元时期,且随着时间推移呈现出影响更浓厚、遗迹数量更多的趋势;这一趋势表现出与泉州海外交通发展渐趋繁荣的同步性。本文通过较系统的现场调研,以宋元泉州石造多宝塔为例

  10. 从《近思录》看宋儒对佛老之学的批判%Neo-Confucianism's Critique of Buddhism and Taoism in Reflections on Things at Hand



    《近思录》首标《异端之学》一目,主要摘录二程和张载对于佛、老之学的批判性文字论述。基于“异端之学”的极大危害性以及维护儒家道统的需要,宋儒尤其是程朱一派对于佛、老之学展开了多角度和多层面地批判。这为儒学新形态的形成与发展扫清了障碍,并对后世中国古代、近代社会三教关系格局产生了极其重大的意义和影响。%Heresy of the Study, the first standard of Reflections on Things at Hand, mainly extracted the dissertation on Cheng Yi, Cheng Hao and Zhang Zai' s critique of Buddhism and Taoism. Based on the extreme hazard of heresy of the Study and the needs to maintain Confucian orthodoxy, Neo-Confucianism, especially the Neo-faction launched the multi-angle and multi-level criticism of Buddhism and Taoism. It clears the way for the formation and development of the new form of Confucianism, and later has very great significance and impact on the relations of the three religions in ancient China and modem society.

  11. 中国俄罗斯侨民文学中儒释道文化研究%Study on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Culture in Chinese Russian Immigrant Literature

    李艳菊; 苗慧


    中国俄罗斯侨民文学是伴随着俄罗斯侨民在中国的定居而产生的。顾名思义,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是俄罗斯的作家以中国社会环境为背景而创作出来的文学作品。泱泱五千年的中华文明史,将博大精深的儒释道文化融于一身,形成了具有独特意蕴的中国传统文化。它不仅影响着整个中华民族的意识形态,同时也对生活在中国半个世纪之久的俄侨作家产生了一定的影响。文章以文本分析形式解读、梳理中国俄侨作品中的中国儒释道文化。%Russian immigrant literature came into being with the settlement of exiled Russians in China. Thus, the so - called Russian immigrant literature in China refers to the literary works written by Russian writers set in the Chinese society. Based on the immemion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism culture, China with 5,000 years of civilization has developed its own peeullar and profound traditional culture, which not only affects the ideology of the whole Chinese nation, but makes a certain impact on the Russian writers living in China for more than half a century. The paper delves into the Confueianism t Buddhism, and Tanism euhure in the Russian immigrant literary works in China by using text analysis techniques.

  12. 真佛山宗教文化旅游资源开发策略探析%Research on Strategy for Developing Tourism Resources of Religion in True Buddhism Mountain

    陈怀松; 罗昌印


    The Dehua Temple in the True Buddhism Mountain is an important group of Temples in Northeast Sichuan, which was constructed or destroyed in the past 200 years,but now becomes a considerable scale and local characteristics of temple buildings.The architectural layout,religious principles,supernatural belief,folk custom activity and heritages of landscape makes up special religious culture of True Buddhism Mountain scenic spot.The development of its tourism resources should be based on obj ective understanding and comprehensive arrangement,follow the rules of using history cultural landscape and religious culture,face the problems and shortcomings of the developing process,highlight charac-teristics of religion cultural,and take reasonable measures to protect and develop.%真佛山德化寺是川东北地区重要的宗教寺庙群,经200多年创建宏法、兴衰存毁,至今已形成了颇具规模和地方特色的庙群建筑,其建筑布局、宗教义理、神灵信仰、民俗活动以及大量的艺术景观遗存构成了真佛山景区独特的宗教文化资源。对真佛山宗教文化资源的旅游开发应建立在客观认识和全面整理的基础上,遵循历史人文景观和宗教文化的利用规律,正视开发过程中的问题和弊病,突出宗教文化特色,并采取规范合理的手段进行保护和开发。

  13. 禅武合一对少林寺体育旅游可持续发展的支持研究%Research on Combining Buddhism With Wushu to Support Sustainable Development of Shaolin Temple Sports Tourism



    The greatest characteristic of the Shaolin Wushu is Buddhism combined with Wushu.This combination plays a tremendous boost role of the Shaolin Temple sports tourism culture.However,there exist some problems with Shaolin Temple sports tourism,such as little experience with sport on the part of the tourists and a lack of fea-ture of sports tourism products etc.A sustainable development of Shaolin Temple sports tourism can be realized by way of carrying out religious research tourism,highlighting the cultural connotation of Buddhism and Wushu,rea-sonably controlling the flow of tourists,improving the sports tourism environment,displaying fully the cultural at-mosphere of Zen and upgrading the quality of the cultural products.%少林武术最大的特点是禅武合一。禅武合一对少林寺体育旅游文化具有很大的助推作用。少林寺体育旅游存在游客体验性低、体育旅游产品特色不突出等问题。开展宗教修学旅游,彰显禅武文化内涵;合理控制游客流量,改善体育旅游环境;彰显禅宗文化氛围,提升文化旅游品位,是实现少林寺体育旅游可持续发展的重要途径。

  14. The Diary in Rehe and the Rites Controversy between Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism---A Historical Anthropological Study on a Multi-ethnic Mixed Imperial Feast%《热河日记》与“儒藏礼仪之争”--一场多民族帝国盛宴的历史人类学考察


    The Diary in Rehe is one of the most important literatures about the relationship of Confucianism and Buddhism during Qianlong years in Qing Dynasty. With the reanalysis about the interactions of Confucianism, Buddhism and the emperor recorded by Pak Chi-Won’s , this paper aims to explain Hevia’s misunderstanding of the ritual space and order in Chengde, which was supposed to be ritual conflicts between the emperor and the inner Asian Buddhism world. The author of this paper argues that the conflicts were brought by Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism. The transforma-tion of Yi-Xia concept and the complexity of the intellectuals’ attitude are the origin of these conflicts in Qing Dynasty.%《热河日记》是清代乾隆年间关于儒佛关系的最重要的文献之一,通过对朴趾源所记录的儒佛与皇帝互动的种种细节的分析,来说明美国历史学家何伟亚关于皇帝与内亚佛教世界的礼仪冲突的看法是对乾隆年间承德的礼仪空间与秩序的误读,认为真正的礼仪冲突产生于儒家与藏传佛教之间,而冲突的根源则在于清代夷夏观念的变革和知识分子心态的复杂性。

  15. Positive Interaction in Political Life between Tantric Buddhism and Bai Ancestors in Nan Zhao and Dali Kingdom Period%南诏大理国时期佛教密宗与白族先民政治生活的积极互动

    周俊华; 雷信来; 赵金元


    Tantric Buddhism has reconstructed the concept of ethnic identity and played a role in the integration of the Bai culture to form the ancient Bai community after it was introduced into the Erhai lake region. It is an important social cultural force for ethnic groups in Erhai region to leap from pre-country period to country period and it remains a positive interactive tool among countries and ethnic groups in Nan Zhao period. Tantric Buddhism in Dali area has combined the political authority, the local culture and the secular society with the corresponding monks and the monk organization. The mutual grafting, absorbing and fusing of Buddhism, Confucianism and Bai culture produce Confucianism Buddhism. The different social roles of Confucianism Buddhist, Confucian Entrepreneurs and squire in different historical periods, shed much light on their own values and functions in the Bai ethnic community.%佛教密宗在洱海地区的传入,重新建构了洱海地区各部族的民族认同观念,为白族先民共同体的形成发挥了文化凝聚的功能,是洱海地区各部族从前国家社会跃进到国家的重要文化力量,成为南诏时期国家与民族之间实现积极互动的工具。佛教密宗在大理地区形成了与政治权威结合、与本土文化融合、与世俗社会结构对应的僧侣和僧团组织;释儒阶层的产生是佛教、儒教与白族本土文化相互嫁接、吸收、融合的产物,从释儒到儒商,再到乡绅,其在不同历史时期演化为不同的社会角色,在白族社会彰显自身价值和作用。

  16. The possibility and limit of the assimilation of learning of mind- heart with Buddhism examined by "neither good nor evil"%从“无善无恶”看心学与佛学交融的可能与限度



    王阳明的“无善无恶”之说在后世引起了极大争论,批评者讥其“源于佛老”。本文通过分析王阳明“无善无恶”学说的提出及其思想内涵,并与佛教特别是禅学的“无善无恶”说进行比较,指出王阳明之“无善无恶”论与佛学确有共通之处,二者均认同本体界无善无恶,现象界有善有恶,均强调形上虚寂本体与形下现实生命的贯通。然心学之“无善无恶”论的理论依据为儒学传统之体用论,与佛教之缘起论迥然有异。就阳明心学的思想实质来看,是援释入儒而以儒为宗,心学与佛学是在保持各自差异基础上的交融。%Wang Yangming' s theory of "neither good nor evil" arouse great controversy. Some critics satirized it as originated from Buddhism and Taoism. Through analysis of the proposition and the connotation of Wang' s theory of "neither good nor evil" and comparison it with the theory of "neither good nor evil" of Buddhism, esp. of Chan school, this essay points out the similarities between Wang and Chan. They both hold that "neither good nor evil" exist in noumenon world whereas "good and evil" exist in phenomenon world. They both emphasize the mutual penetration between the empty and quiet metaphysical noumenon and the physical actual life. However, theory of "neither good nor evil" in learning of mindheart is based on Confucian traditional entity -function theory, which is totally different from Buddhist theory of interdependent origination. Yangrning' s theory is, in fact, Confucianism - oriented absorption of Buddhism into Confucianism, blending the learning of mind - heart with Buddhism keeping each one's characteristic independence.

  17. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Morgan, Jeffrey


    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…




    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the far-and deep-reaching significance of the Buddha's 'Way of Mindfulness', and to give initial guidance to an understanding of these teachings and their practical application. The teachings of the Buddha offer a great variety of methods of mental training and subject of meditation, suited to the various individual needs, temperaments and capacities. This ancient Way of Mindfulness is as practicable to-day as it was 2500 years ago. It is as applicable in the lands of the West as in the East; in the midst of life's turmoil as well as in the peace of the monk's cell.

  19. Buddhism and the Perils of Advocacy

    Ian Reader


    Full Text Available This article raises problems with the use of advocacy in Buddhist Studies, and critiques those who bring their Buddhist beliefs into the classroom and into their research. It argues that the foundations of the academic discipline (Religious Studies within which Buddhist Studies is located are grounded in the search for an objective, non-confessional approach to the study of religion, one that distinguishes Religious Studies from Theology, and that this perspective is what gives the field its integrity. It cites examples of the problems that occur in teaching and research when such objectivity is replaced by confessional approaches, and provides an example from another field (the study of new religious movements in which immense problems have occurred because some scholars have become advocates rather than analysts, to warn of the problems that can arise when confessional approaches become a dominant field paradigm.


    M. George JOSEPH


    This paper tries to conceive a pluralistic, non-centric, auto-regulated, dialectical and dynamic world view that can accommodate diversity or difference and establish a ground for mutual recognition and coexistence. Universe is a common name for the plurality of auto constructing and destructing continuity of existences in dependence. There is neither uniform purpose nor unity among them. Auto constructing and destructing activities of individual units towards the attainment of their ends are...

  1. On the Core Values of the Charitable Theory of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism --Focus on the Confucius, Lao Zi and Hui Neng%儒道佛慈善论的核心价值——以孔老惠为例



    There are rich charitable theories in Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism respectively re- presented by Confucius, Lao Zi and Hui Neng. With common nature on love, kindness, goodness, harmony, righteousness, sincerity and brave, each religion has its respective core values on the charitable theory. The benevolence of the Confucianism is the show of the humanism, subjectivity and universality. The softness of the Taoism is the show of unification, freedom and inclusiveness. The mercy of the Buddhism is the show of secularity, simplicity and equality.%作为中华传统文化的主体内容,以孔子、老子和惠能为代表的儒道佛三教均具有丰富的慈善论,表现出爱、慈、善、和、义、诚、勇等共通性特征。然三教慈善论又各有其内在核心价值,这就是慈仁之善、慈柔之善和慈悲之善。慈仁之善表现出儒学慈善论的人本性、主体性和普世性特质,慈柔之善表现出道家一体性、自在性和包容性特质,慈悲之善则表现出佛禅人间性、简易性和平等性特质。

  2. “大道和生”与佛教“缘起论”--评钱耕森教授的“大道和生学”%Tao's Harmony Giving Birth to the New Things Theory and the Origin of Buddhism--Qian Geng-sen’sTao's Harmony Giving Birth to the New Things Theory



    Professor Qian Gengsen’s philosophical thought regressed to the origin of Chinese philosophy. Through illustrating Shibo’s “harmony actually fosters new things”, he proposed hisTao’s harmony giving birth to the new things theory”, whose theory was regarded as the “new life” in Chinese philosophy history. He observed his theory by putting it in the scope of the origin of the universe. He thought that the world was constituted by different elements not the same ones, and only all the different elements were in a harmonious situation, could things be fostered eventually, which could be illustrated as the theory of the origin of Buddhism, for the origin of Buddhism emphasized that all the laws of the world combined for the harmony of the all the lots. Moreover, there was an equal relation among the lots which was the base of the origin of lot. Not only professor Qian’sTao’s harmony giving birth to the new things theory but also the theory of the origin of Buddhism have guiding significance in building a harmonious society and promoting the peace of the world.%钱耕森教授回归中国哲学的原初意境,通过解读史伯“和实生物”的观点而提出了“大道和生学”,自创新说,堪称当代中国哲学研究之老树发新芽。钱先生将“大道和生学”放在宇宙生成论的范畴来加以考察,指出世界不是由相同的元素而是由不同的元素构成的,而且各种不同的元素只有在和谐平等的状态下才能最终生成万物,这可与佛教的“缘起”论相互诠释相互发明,因为佛教的缘起论强调世界万法皆是众缘和合而成,而且参与缘起的缘与缘之间互相平等,唯其平等,才能缘起。无论是钱先生的“大道和生学”还是佛教的“缘起”论,都对我们今天建设和谐社会和促进世界和平具有指导意义。

  3. An Amphibious Goddess of Both Buddhism and Taoism A Research of the Legend of Cihang Goddess%仙释圆融佛道双栖——慈航真人观世音仙话传说的文化观照



    道教神仙谱系中的慈航真人是一位深受民间崇奉的女仙。慈航真人信仰的形成与佛教的观音菩萨信仰有非常密切的联系。慈航真人观世音这种佛道双栖的现象是中国古代三教合一特别是仙释圆融宗教文化的产物。慈航真人仙话传说中的性别困惑既体现了古代社会性别意识的特殊取向,也反映出观音形象不断演变的历史信息。%As a famous goddess of Taoism, Cihang is astonishingly similar to the Guanyin Bodhisattva. The religion of Cihang has dccp contact with the Guanyin Bodhisattva of Buddhism. This phenomenon is a result of the fusing of the Three Religions in ancient China. There is a special sex puzzlement in those legends about Cihang goddess. It embodies the message of the evolution of Cihang's image in Chinese ancient religious culture.

  4. 礼物交换与佛教经济学--一个西藏“寺院-村落”共同体的互惠与团结%Gifts Exchange and the Buddhism Economics---The Reciprocity and Unity of a Tibetan“Temple-Village”Community


    This article will use the Gifts Exchange theory and the Interpretivism approach for the Economics of Religion to argue that the reciproc-ity between temples and villages is the common relationship among the small scale of societies in Tibet. And this reciprocity system is not only the ethics of Buddhism economics but also offering an abundant knowledge resource for the ways to understand different economics ethics in religious study.%本文借用莫斯的礼物交换理论以及宗教经济学范式的阐释主义视角,通过对日喀则南木林县牛寺与牛村的互惠共生关系,来说明在藏区社会中,寺院-村落社会形成的彼此依赖的互惠共生关系一r以来是村落社会得以整合和团结的机制。而这种互惠共生的关系机制,既是佛教经济学的价值伦理,也为人类学通过阐释主义视角来理解不同宗教的经济伦理提供了宝贵的知识资源。

  5. On the Secularization of Religion:Taking the Secularization of Buddhism in Dai Villages in Yunnan as an Example%宗教世俗化现象探析--以云南傣族村社佛教世俗化变迁为例



    The phenomenon of secularization of religion seems to appear frequently in our daily life in re-cent years.Secularization of religion refers to the weakening of religious ideas and feelings,which results in the gradually narrowing religious activities,the weakening of religious influence and the loss of reli-gious value.Taking the secularization of South-Shangzuo Buddhism in Dai communities in Yunnan as an example,based on the background and connotation,this paper presents the manifestation of the seculari-zation as follows:the social management model changes from unification of the politics and the religion to separation of religion from politics;the basic beliefs transform from godhood to humanity;social religion changes to individual's organizationally;the focus is shifted from that world to this world.The growing trend of secularization theories is likely to be divided into three categories of pessimism,optimism and in-between.%近年来,宗教世俗化的趋势开始越来越频繁地走入人们视野。宗教世俗化是指由于人们对宗教观念和感情的逐步淡化,使得宗教活动范围减小、宗教的社会影响削弱以及宗教价值观念失落等的现象和发展趋势。作者以云南傣族社会南传上座部佛教的世俗化为例,梳理宗教世俗化的出现背景、内涵表现,提出当前世俗化的表现为:“政教合一”的社会管理模式向“政教分离”的社会管理模式转变,基本信念由“神性”中心向“人性”中心转换,组织观念由社会的宗教转变为个人的宗教,关注重点由“彼岸”转向“此世”。世俗化条件下宗教的未来发展趋势目前可以分为悲观论派、乐观论派和中间派等三个理论派别。

  6. Crossing the Divide between Self and Other --Concurrence of The Country of the Pointed Firs and Buddhism%打破人我关——浅析《尖尖的枞树之乡》与佛教思想之暗合



    萨拉·奥恩·朱厄特长期被定位于美国新英格兰乡土作家、区域作家,后又受到关注人与自然关系的女权主义的赞赏,之后,又有评论家从文化政治的角度为她贴上各种标签。朱厄特的作品,特别是代表作《尖尖的枞树之乡》,虽取材于新英格兰,具有鲜明的地域特征,但她所描述的或隔绝、或融合的人类生存境遇却是普遍的,与佛教思想有暗合之处,其主题具有普世性。这也是此书得以传世,并吸引异域读者的原因所在。%Sarah Orne Jewett has long been regarded by critics as a writer of New England local color. With the rise of Feminism, Jewett' s works are highly praised by those feminist critics who are concerned with the relationship between humans and nature. In the recent 20 years, some critics have read various isms into her texts, mainly from the perspective of cultural politics. Though Jewett draws her materials of The Country of the Pointed Firs from New England, and the work is closely related to her age, the human state--secluded or connected--depicted in the no- vel, and the theme of the novel has universal significance. That is why her work may arouse interest in other regions and other ages. The essay analyses the concurrence of The Country of the Pointed Firs and Buddhism, so as to prove the universal significance of Jewett' s most famous work.

  7. The Holy Land of Buddhism%佛门圣地



    @@ 威镇涪江一大佛 那里有一个仅次于乐山大佛的大佛,很值得一看.上世界七十年代初,我和三个朋友在采访途中去游览了乐山大佛寺,对凿壁而成面江而立威镇河神遏制洪水的巨灵神般的大佛感叹不已.

  8. Santi Asoke Buddhism and the Occupation of Bangkok International Airport

    Marja-Leena Heikkilä-Horn


    Full Text Available Thailand experienced dramatic political turmoil from February 2006 to November 2008 culminating in the occupation of the Bangkok International Airport. The demonstrations against then Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his political allies were organised by the People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD. One of the PAD leaders, Major-General Chamlong Srimuang, is an active member of the Buddhist Santi Asoke group. The group is controversial as it is not under the state Buddhist authorities and has implicitly criticised the Thai state Buddhist monks for moral corruption. Known as the ‘Dharma Army’, hundreds of Santi Asoke monks, nuns and lay people participated in PAD demonstrations. This paper analyses what the Santi Asoke Buddhist group represents, what the ‘Dharma Army’ is, how its reality differs from media images, what the ideological reasons for Asoke to initially support Thaksin were, and why the group finally turned against him. The paper argues that the group cannot be viewed as a monolithic community. Instead, it should be considered as an amalgamation of monks and nuns, urban and rural temple residents, lay followers of Asoke monks, practitioners of organic agriculture in Asoke village communities, students and former students of Asoke schools, and supporters of Major-General Chamlong Srimuang. Representatives of all these networks participated in the demonstrations albeit with different intensity. ----- Zwischen Februar 2006 und November 2008 stand Thailand unter dem Zeichen tiefgehender politischer Unruhen, die in der Besetzung des internationalen Flughafens ihren Höhepunkt fanden. Organisiert wurden diese Demonstrationen, die sich gegen den damaligen Premierminister Thaksin Shinawatra und seine politischen Verbündeten richteten, von der Volksallianz für Demokratie (PAD. Einer ihrer Anführer, Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang, ist aktives Mitglied der buddhistischen Santi Asoke Gruppe. Da sich Santi Asoke nicht der staatlich kontrollierten buddhistischen Ordnung beugt und solche Mönche implizit der moralischen Verdorbenheit beschuldigt, hängt ihr ein kontroverser Ruf an. Unter der Bezeichnung „Dharma Armee“ nahmen hunderte Anhänger von Santi Asoke, darunter Mönche, Nonnen und Laien an den PAD- Demonstrationen teil. Inhalt dieses Artikels ist daher die Analyse der Hintergründe und Ziele der Santi Asoke Gruppe und der „Dharma Armee“, Unterschiede zwischen medialer Darstellung und vorgefundener Realität sowie die Motive der anfänglichen Unterstützung Thaksins durch Santi Asoke und ihre spätere Abkehr von ihm. Dabei wird argumentiert, dass die Gruppe nicht als monolithischer Block verstanden werden kann, sondern in ihrer Vielfalt, zusammengesetzt aus Mönchen, Nonnen, EinwohnerInnen städtischer und ländlicher Tempel, Laien, AnhängerInnen biologischer Landwirtschaft in Asoke-Dörfern sowie UnterstützerInnen von Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang begriffen werden muss. RepräsentantInnen all dieser Netzwerke nahmen, wenn auch in unterschiedlicher Intensität, an den Demonstrationen teil.

  9. Inherent Self, Invented Self, Empty Self: Constructivism, Buddhism, and Psychotherapy

    McWilliams, Spencer A.


    Constructivist and Buddhist approaches to counseling and psychotherapy share increasing popularity as well as similar epistemological assumptions and understanding of human dysfunction and its amelioration. These approaches can be seen as consistent with postmodern psychology, which is distinguished from a realist or foundationalist view. This…

  10. The Concept of Self in Buddhism and Brahmanism: Some Remarks

    Andrej ULE


    Full Text Available I contrast briefly the Buddhist concept of Self as a process and a conditional reality with the concept of the substantial metaphysical concept of Self in Brahmanism and Hinduism. I present the criticism of the Buddhist thinkers, such as Nāgārjuna, who criticize any idea of the metaphysical Self. They deny the idea of the Self as its own being or as a possessor of its mental acts. However, they do not reject all sense of Self; they allow a pure process of knowledge (first of all, Self-knowledge without a fixed subject or “owner” of knowledge. This idea is in a deep accord with some Chan stories and paradoxes of the Self and knowledge.

  11. Buddhism, Copying, and the Art of the Imagination in Thailand

    Jim Taylor


    Full Text Available This article theorizes new urban religio-scapes in metropolitan Bangkok, a city space of contradictory modernities. Here, I look at two contrasting Buddhist monastic spaces of sanctity from periods of fieldwork between 1998 and 2002. Firstly, as found in the modern semblance of order and discipline at the radically neo-conservative Dhammakaya Movement (lit. “Body of Dhamma”. Secondly, the chaotic, disordered flamboyant and kitsch space of the Sanam Chan Monastery on the outskirts of the ever-expanding Thai post-metropolis, which has similarities with the consumerist contemporary “Buddhist” feature art of the arcades and shopping centres. I argue that Wat (Monastery Sanam Chan is a postmodern representation of sanctity; it is a response to modernity, while Dhammakaya, aside from its immense spectacle, reflects more the essentialist conditions inherent in modernity. Nevertheless, it is clear that both spaces of sanctity challenge the established religious hierarchy, its perceived orthodoxy, legitimation and the ethical bases of civic religion in Thailand.

  12. Buddhism, Copying, and the Art of the Imagination in Thailand

    Jim Taylor


    This article theorizes new urban religio-scapes in metropolitan Bangkok, a city space of contradictory modernities. Here, I look at two contrasting Buddhist monastic spaces of sanctity from periods of fieldwork between 1998 and 2002. Firstly, as found in the modern semblance of order and discipline at the radically neo-conservative Dhammakaya Movement (lit. “Body of Dhamma”). Secondly, the chaotic, disordered flamboyant and kitsch space of the Sanam Chan Monastery on the outskirts of the ever...

  13. Buddhism in Sarnath: An Account of Two Chinese Travellers

    Dr Anuradha Singh


    This paper aims to draw the religious life in Sarnath (and Varanasi) as accounted by the Chinese travellers—Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang. The accounts not only talk about the stupas, pillars, statues built by King Ashoka; vihars and monks (bhikshus) living in those vihars but also contain the first preachings of Lord Buddha, establishment of Sangha and the story of Mrigajataka that remain significant. With the increased popularity of Buddha dharma in China, the Chinese were attracted towards trave...

  14. The Concept of the Buddha in Early Buddhism

    Guang, X; 廣興


    Some scholars of Buddhist studies consider the Buddha as a mythological figure. This is especially true at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Later on, rational Buddhist scholars argue that the Buddha is a historical personage and the miraculous stories are actually later additions. In this paper, the author has reexamined the identity of the Buddha by using the earliest Buddhist scripture, namely the Pāli Nikāyas and the Chinese Āgamas. An analysis of th...

  15. Buddhism in Sarnath: An Account of Two Chinese Travellers

    Dr Anuradha Singh


    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw the religious life in Sarnath (and Varanasi as accounted by the Chinese travellers—Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang. The accounts not only talk about the stupas, pillars, statues built by King Ashoka; vihars and monks (bhikshus living in those vihars but also contain the first preachings of Lord Buddha, establishment of Sangha and the story of Mrigajataka that remain significant. With the increased popularity of Buddha dharma in China, the Chinese were attracted towards travelling to India. They came to India mainly with the intentions to visit the places related to the fond memories of Lord Buddha, to study the Buddha religion and philosophy and carry the copies of the Buddhist compositions. Fa-Hien and Hiuen-tsang occupy significant places among these Chinese travellers. These accounts can be associated with ancient history as well as with historical geography, religion and philosophy. While Fa-hien in his journey details had described about the Buddha Empire, Hiuen-tsang highlighted the civilisation of India and its cultural landscape, albeit it has been often accepted by the historians that these accounts of their journeys should be considered as significant only when they are backed by historical evidences. They opine that these travellers were mainly influenced by the Buddha dharma and therefore, their accounts are liable to containing exaggerated journey details. It is true that the journey details contain few imaginary instances; nevertheless, these accounts have been validated by the remnants, stupas and vihars at the sites.


    Cezary Wozniak


    Full Text Available Human existence is temporal. In a wider, over-individual dimension, we use the term ‘history’. We usually think about history in the context of historical events, wars, or scientificdiscoveries that have a strong impact both on the life of societies and the existence of individuals. We try to think over history, to point out what makes one fragment different from another, and to distinguish periods which we can define by emphasising their typical features. The aim of such procedures is to understand history. There can be different perspectives on such an understanding. According to Martin Heidegger, the widest, most fundamentaldimension of history seems to be the history of being, i.e. the history of the very understanding of the word ‘is’.The past brings pre-formed concepts and meanings, through which we understand ourselves and the world. These shapes of thought last in time – alone, subject to interpretations, or in new forms. By understanding this history, we can comprehend the present time,and this seems to be of some importance. As hermeneutics teaches, being and its understanding belong to each other; “understanding is the original character of the being of human life itself”1. If we exist, understanding is always a part of our existence, and we alwayssomehow understand the world and ourselves.What can be said about the contemporary situation of human beings, about their understanding of themselves, about how they understand the world today? How can we understand our present time, while also taking into consideration the historical aspect of thisunderstanding? If we accept the thesis on the occidentalisation and globalisation of the contemporary world, these questions become even more universal.

  17. Investigating the universality of primary metaphors: a perspective from Buddhism

    Dennis Tay Zhiming


    Full Text Available In this paper, I conduct a conceptual metaphor analysis of the “Wheel of Life”, a pictorial representation of Buddhist philosophical concepts. Abstract concepts that define our everyday realities (e.g. states, causation are claimed by some to be metaphorically structured, and reducible to a universal set of primary metaphors (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1999, while argued by others to be structured by non-metaphorical cultural understandings instead (QUINN, 1991. Recognizing the need for empirical testing of the universalist claim, I analyze Buddhist conceptualizations of states-of-being, rebirth and event structure for their reducibility to primary metaphors. I show that while some concepts are reducible to universal primary metaphors, others might be constituted by culture-specific understandings instead. I also question the concept of primary metaphor itself, suggesting that supposedly universal primary metaphors already carry culturally-biased preconceptions, and urge the Lakoffian school to justify the assumed universality of subjective experiences which give rise to primary metaphors.

  18. Investigating the universality of primary metaphors: a perspective from Buddhism

    Dennis Tay Zhiming


    In this paper, I conduct a conceptual metaphor analysis of the “Wheel of Life”, a pictorial representation of Buddhist philosophical concepts. Abstract concepts that define our everyday realities (e.g. states, causation) are claimed by some to be metaphorically structured, and reducible to a universal set of primary metaphors (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1999), while argued by others to be structured by non-metaphorical cultural understandings instead (QUINN, 1991). Recognizing the need for empirical te...

  19. Women in Song Dynasty and Buddhism%论宋代妇女与佛教



    On the background of the common customs of Buddish in Song Dynasty,the women believed in Buddish in different class. They had many ways to carry out, such as doing Buddhist nuns, participateing in the feast days of Buddish, building temples, making the figures of Buddha,bringing up the monks and nuns, burn- ing joss sticks and praying to Buddha, writing the sutras, burying temples and cremating, researching the sutras and being well up in the theory; These had some reasons, suah as ailment and death of oneself and folks, the in- fluencement of family, the induction of the monks and nuns, underestimating the fate, women guarding the moral integrity, pursuing the son and riches and honour. The women believing in Buddish had the important influencement of oneself, the around people and the society,%在佛教世俗化的背景下,宋代各阶层有很多信仰佛教的妇女。她们信仰佛教的实践方式多种多样,有出家为尼,虔诚参与各类佛教节日活动,营建佛寺、捐钱造像、饭养僧尼,烧香念佛、刻写经书,死后葬于佛寺、火葬,研佛书、通佛理等。这些佛教实践的原因有自己或至亲疾病和死亡、受家庭影响、弘法僧尼的引导、看破红尘、妇女守节、求子和求富贵等。她们信仰佛教给自身、周边人和社会带来了许多重要影响。

  20. Black Ants and Buddhism: Second Graders Use Classroom Conflict to Explore World Religions

    Cowhey, Mary


    Human nature draws people to conflict. They become curious about the overheard argument at the next table in a restaurant, or a conflict between parent and child in the supermarket. Too often textbooks and other teacher-proof curriculum for young children provide a pat and happy presentation, devoid of conflict. Not surprisingly, these materials…

  1. Blending Buddhism, Shinto, and the Secular: Japanese Conceptualizations of the Divine

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Bruce, Jessica L.; Salmon, Ptamonie Y.; Eich, R. Tony; Brandewie, Erika N.


    This qualitative interview study investigated Japanese understandings of spirituality, religion, and The Divine. Thirteen native Japanese living in central Ohio (6 male, 7 female) answered open-ended questions about spiritual or religious activities they engaged in, motivations for engaging in them, what constitutes sacredness, why humanity and…


    Ven Nyarnavara


    Full Text Available The Buddha countered all Soul-theory and soul-speculation with his Anatta doctrine. Anatta is translated under various labels: No-Soul, No-Self, egoless less, and soullessness. To understand the Anatta doctrine, one must understand that the eternal soul theory- 'I have a soul'- and the material theory- 'I have no soul'- are both obstacles to self-realization or salvation. They arise from the misconception 'I am'. Hence, to understand the Anatta doctrine, one must no cling to any opinion or view on soul-theory; rather, one must try to see things objectively as they are and without any mental projection.

  3. Buddhist Philosophy: A Study of Buddha Images for Perpetuating Buddhism in Isan Society

    Thidarat Duangsin; Songkoon Chantachon; Khosit Paengsoi


    Problem statement: Buddha image is a symbol which built for representing the Buddha. At present, the majority of people always misinterpret and misevaluate the real value of Buddha image. As a matter of fact, Buddha image enhances social solidarity and social networks of Northeast-Thai people. Appreciating value of Buddha image is necessary for next generation so a study of Buddhist Philosophy towards Buddha images and current problems concerning interpretation and evaluation is a serious stu...

  4. 佛教在印度衰落的原因%Why Buddhism Declined in India




  5. Broadening the Scope of Ethical Consumer Behaviour: A Study on Five Precepts of Buddhism

    J. W. Dushan Chaminda; Nilanthi Ratnayake


    Consumption is an essential everyday process. By very nature, it is a means of expressing our moral identities and an outlet for ethical obligations. In more recent years, ethical aspects of consumption have come under greater scrutiny with the emergence of ethical consumption discourses, and are currently associated with a range of consumer behaviours and responsible business practices. To this end, religion is an undeniably powerful and concurrently the most successful marketing force that ...

  6. The Enactment and Perception of Mathematics Pedagogical Values in an Elementary Classroom: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Curriculum Reform

    Leu, Yuh-Chyn


    The purpose of this case study was to investigate the values demonstrated by an elementary school teacher in her mathematics teaching and what values her students perceived. This research adopted the valuing theory (Raths, Harmin & Simon, 1987) and used classroom observations and interviews to document the teacher's mathematics pedagogical values…

  7. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    Bajrektarevic, Anis


    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  8. Theory on Dependent Origination and Life View of Buddhism%缘起论与佛教的生命观



    @@ 缘起论是佛教理论的基础和核心,它阐述了佛教对于生命的构成和本质的看法,由此,佛教建立了消除我、法二执而回归生命本原的解脱之道.在佛教历史上,缘起论经历了业感缘起、性空缘起、阿赖耶识缘起、佛性缘起、世法缘起等阶段,表现了佛教的生命解脱观在不同维度的展开.

  9. A Discussion on the Spread and Influence of Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism on Each Other in Tibetan and Han Areas

    LIU Junzhe


    1 .The Basis , Path and Form of the spread of Confucianism into Tibetan Areas There is a specific historical background and intrinsic necessity regarding the spread of Confu-cianism into Tibetan areas .1 ) During the Tubo period (7th century to 877), the military and po-litical power of the Tubo were very strong .Howev-er , the development of their ideology and scientific culture was relatively weak;2 ) The extensive and profound ideological and cultural system contained in Confucianism was very attractive to the Tibet-ans;3 ) The similarities found in both Confucian-ism and Tibetan ideology was the basis for the a-doption of Confucianism by Tibetans .

  10. "I" in Buddhism and in Jean-Paul Sartre's Thought%佛教之"我"与萨特之"我"




  11. Sixty Years of Tibetan Buddhist Studies in China%中国藏传佛教研究60年



    @@ Tibetan Buddhism is not only one of the two branches of Mahayana Buddhism, but also one of the two most important and evolving traditions of the contemporary Buddhism world.It has inherited and further developed all the traditions of Indian Buddhism.

  12. Aloha Buddha

    Borup, Jørn


    , Buddhism is an obvious case for investigating such issues, just as Hawaii with its long migration history and religious pluralism is an obvious living laboratory for studying such configurations. This article investigates Japanese American Buddhism in Hawaii, focusing on the relationship between religion...... Buddhism is counterbalanced by a different group’s spiritualization of Buddhism....

  13. Podstawy abhidharmicznej koncepcji umysłu. Pojęcie świadomości ( The Concepts of Mind and Consciousness in Abhidharma Buddhism

    Marek Szymański


    Full Text Available According to Abhidharma thinkers mind is a set of many mental elements (dharmas. All these elements were regarded as impermanent. The basic dimension of the diachronically considered mind was believed to be a continuous succession of consciousness (citta elements. They were believed to lie at the foundation of any psychical activity. They were to be accompanied by other mental elements (called caitasika to determine the nature of cognitive, emotional and volitional activity of the mind at any given moment. Among them they recognised dharmas unavoidably accompanying citta elements (feelings, elements of attention, conceptual identifications, volitions etc.. The mind was apparently treated as an integral whole which is signified by the conviction that every mental dharma is adjusted to the character of the other simultaneous mental elements. Such a combination of mental dharmas was believed to determine the content of the mind in the succeeding moment (i.e. to bring about the new set of mental elements before it ceases, which is effected with such participating factors as karmic compensation and the influence of the environment.

  14. 藏传佛教寺院里的"运动员"--陀陀巴%Tuotuoba--Sportsman in Temples of Buddhism Passed on by Tibetan




  15. Pure Land or Pure Mind?: Locus of Awakening and American Popular Religious Culture

    Richard K. Payne


    This essay has two sections, each with its own distinct goal, forming an interrelated whole. The first introduces “locus of awakening,” and applies it to the relative success in America of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, compared to Pure Land Buddhism. The explanatory power of the concept is demonstrated by also considering Soka Gakkai. The difference between popular culture treatments of Zen and Tibetan Buddhisms, and Pure Land Buddhism was the problematic leading to identifying locus of awakenin...



    Study of Nuns of Tibetan Buddhism Nuns constitute a part of members of Tibetan Buddhism. Recent years have seen more girls and women apply to be nuns. Studying the why and the female body of the members of Tibetan Buddhism is therefore of practical significance. Authored by Degyi Zholma, the book provides a panoramic description of nuns, including history and status quo. To write

  17. Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu


    The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

  18. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Schipper, Janine


    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  19. 佛教中国化对马克思主义中国化的现实启示%The Localization of Buddhism as a Source of Inspiration for the Localization of Marxism in China




  20. On Communication of Buddhism Culture from Perspective of New Media——Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou as an Example%佛教文化的新媒体传播——以杭州灵隐寺为例

    李琦; 罗京



  1. 秦始皇时代佛教已传入中国考%A new discussion on the introduction of Buddhism into China which should be traced back to the Qin Dynasty



    佛教传入中国的时间,学术界多数认为是在汉明帝时,但是这种说法是不对的.有"禁不得祠"的记载, "不得"当为佛陀之音译,佛祠者即佛寺.始皇下令禁止,足见佛教在当时社会的普及.因此,我们应把佛教传入的时间修正为秦始皇时代.考古资料也证明,秦成阳、汉长安地区与印、欧存在"先丝路"的交往,使佛教在秦始皇时代传入中国成为可能.

  2. 早期禅宗史上的变革:从《楞伽经》到《金刚经》%The reformation of Zen Buddhism in early history:from Lankavatara Sutra to Vajracchedika Sutra



    达摩以《楞伽经》传授心要,而弘忍改易以《金刚经》相授。这种变革,主观上说明了弘忍的独立思考能力,客观上则与修禅主体、禅学内容、禅修方法、持经效果等有关,从中亦可看出南北两宗分化的历史根源。%Bodhidharma used Lankavatara Sutra to spread the essentials of the mind,but Hong Ren replaced it with Vajracchedika Sutra.The information indicates the personal ability of independence of Hong Ren subjectively.And it relates to the meditating body、the theory of Zen、the method of meditation、the effect of sutra holding objectively.It also provides the historical reason why Zen divided into the south Zen and the north Zen.

  3. 禅宗文化的性别倾向及其对男性文学创作的影响%A Study of Influence of Gender Bias in Zen Buddhism Culture on Contemporary Male Literature

    李满; 陈韩兴



  4. 禅宗文化的性别倾向对当代女性文学创作的影响%A Study of Influence of Gender Bias in Zen Buddhism Culture on Contemporary Female Literature




  5. Secularity, Philistinism and the Issues in the Development of Contemporary Chinese Buddhism%世俗化、庸俗化与当代中国佛教发展中的问题




  6. 藏传佛教《时轮经》中的伊斯兰教表述%The Islamic Factors of the Abridged Kalachakra Tantra of Tibetan Buddhism

    周传斌; 胡美娟



  7. "谪仙"意象与佛道精神——李商隐女冠诗探解%Image of "Relegated Immortal" and Chinese Buddhism and Taoism in Li Shangyin's Poems

    何小芬; 李锐



  8. 佛教视野下丰子恺的酒肉观与护生观%Feng Zikai’s Views on the Consumption of Alcohol and Meat and the Protection of Beings from the Perspective of Buddhism



    除了归依三宝之后的几年时间以及生病以外,丰子恺终生都嗜酒与食肉,嗜酒的内在动机是对艺术家兴味与嗜好的坚持,食肉则出于对三净肉的认同。过于宽松的护生观、闲情逸致的文化取向和特殊时期的特殊情绪,是丰子恺的护生言行出现偏差的三种原因,三种原因可以归结为一种原因,即丰子恺在修持方面的不足——不能精严持戒。酒肉及护生方面的观念与行为,展现了丰子恺精神世界的复杂性。%Except a few years after Feng zikai became a Buddhist and when he was ill, he was fond of drinking and eating meat throughout his entire life. His intrinsic motivation of drinking is his adherence to an artist’s interest and hobby, and eating meat is out of his approval of Sanjingrou (the meat of an animal that the follower did not see, hear or doubt it is killed for him). Feng zikai’s excessively lenient view of protection of beings, his leisurely and carefree living style and his special sentiment in a special period have his statements and actions deviated, and those three reasons above can actually come down to one:Feng Zikai has weakness in his practice--he can’t follow the precepts rigorously. Feng Zikai’s views and conducts on the consumption of alcohol and meat and the protection of beings reveal the complexity of his spiritual world.

  9. De Lubac, Christ and the Buddha

    Grumett, David


    Cardinal Henri de Lubac (1896–1991) considered Buddhism to be, after Christianity, the greatest spiritual fact of history. His groundbreaking studies of it have nevertheless received little previous scholarly attention. De Lubac focuses on Amidism, also known as Pure Land Buddhism, because he regards it as the form of Buddhism possessing greatest affinity with Christian faith, particularly in its conceptions of charity and divine personality. Religion cannot be considered in isolation from cu...

  10. Ugress er også blomster Akseptering sett fra et Zen buddhistisk perspektiv

    Grotle, Erling Andreas


    The goal of this theoretical paper is to present some principles based on Zen Buddhism and to ask whether these principles can be of relevance to psychotherapy. The presentation of Zen Buddhism is mainly based on Barry Magids books. This thesis discusses whether Zen Buddhism and its emphasis on acceptance, especially of impermanence, no-self, and suffering, can be of value within a psychotherapy practice. Furthermore, it is discussed if meditation can be of therapeutic value within a psychoth...


    Petrenko, Victor; Kucherenko, Vladimir


    Authors discuss notable philosophical and psychological aspects of Buddhism and Hinduism, as well as different features of meditation techniques in their relations to psychological study of consciousness.

  12. Training vs. Education in Forming Won Buddhist "Kyomus" in the USA

    Kim, Bokin


    An historically familiar tension in East Asian Buddhism between meditation and cultivation in broad learning has appeared in discussions and planning for preparing ministerial students in Won Buddhism. This paper reviews the history of preparation in this order, which was founded in 1916. While the alternatives of training based on practice and…

  13. Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person: Visions from the East and West.

    Chang, Raylene; Page, Richard C.


    Compares and contrasts the ways that Chinese Taoism and Zen Buddhism view the development of human potential with the ways that the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow describe the human potential movement. Notes many similarities between the ways that Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow…

  14. Elder Gongga 貢噶老人 (1903-1997) between China, Tibet and Taiwan : Assessing Life, Mission and Mummification of a Buddhist Woman

    Travagnin, Stefania


    Elder Gongga (1903-1997), a Chinese Buddhist woman native of Beiping, played a crucial role in the transmission of Tibetan Buddhism in China and Taiwan, bridged Dharma traditions, and merged Buddhist and cultural identities; she also became an eminent nun in the history of female Buddhism for life a

  15. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Ryback, David


    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  16. Jigten Gönpo on meat and alcohol

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich


    A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism.......A review of the principle arguments for the prohibition or permission of meat and alcohol in the three vehicles of Buddhism....

  17. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Hung-yok Ip


    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  18. Diversification in the Buddhist Churches of America: Demographic Trends and Their Implications for the Future Study of U.S. Buddhist Groups

    Anne C. Spencer


    Full Text Available Scholars of U.S Buddhism often divide Buddhist groups into categories using a system called "Two Buddhisms." These groups are "Heritage," founded by immigrants, and "Convert," founded by Americans of European descent. As cultural pressures force U.S. Buddhist groups to adapt, the resulting changes challenge our existing categorization systems. This paper uses 2011 survey data to show that the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA is becoming demographically more diverse and its practices more Americanized. With these adaptations, the BCA no longer fits easily into either Heritage or Convert categories, suggesting that the Two Buddhisms system in its current form is inadequate for evaluating U.S. Buddhist groups. To aid the future study of U.S. Buddhism, I use the data from the BCA to provide an alternative, more nuanced, rubric for assessing the adaptation of Buddhist groups which will enhance the existing Two Buddhisms system.

  19. Countercurrents from the West: “blue-eyed” Zen masters, Vipassanā meditation, and Buddhist psychotherapy in contemporary Korea.

    Bongseok Joo, Ryan


    One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassanā meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa Sŏn practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy. This new wave of transnational influence from the West has changed not only the way Koreans practice Buddhism but also how they perceive Buddhist history and their own identities. In addition, the perceived “prestige” of Buddhism in the West has provided a new rhetorical strategy to defend Buddhism against other religions, particularly Korean evangelical Christianity. PMID:22145173

  20. “太虚”与“涅槃”:《列子注》融庄佛之人生境界%"Void" and "Nirvana":"the Liezi Note" integrated Zhuangzi and Buddhism into the Realm of Life



    Zhang Zhan noted the "Lie Zi" and established the "void" theory that took "empty" as the noumenon,in order to establish one kind of ontology for the famous litterateur in Eastern Jin Dynasty who can pursuit an ideal personality and the spirit of freedom.T%张湛注《列子》,建立了以"虚"为本体的"至虚"理论,其目的在于为东晋名士建立一种本体的体系,以便于追求一种理想的人格和自由的精神境界。这个精神境界被张湛规定为"太虚"之境,既有着庄子"逍遥游"的心灵维度,又与佛教的"涅槃"之境界有着异曲同工之妙。张湛赋予"太虚"宗主的地位,以此参悟死亡的真切含义,从终极关怀的意义上摆脱生与死的困惑,最终实现既符合本能的欲望,又不背离自然之道,达到形与神的和谐,成就人生的最高境界。

  1. Origins of Religiousness

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding

    of religiousness, and to inclusion of country fixed effects, income, education, demographics, religious denominations, and other climatic and geographic features. The results hold within Christianity, Islam and Buddhism, and across continents. To eliminate bias from omitted variables and selection (perhaps...

  2. Religion in Human Culture: An Elective Social Studies Course about World Religions

    Smith, Lee H.; Bodin, Wesley J.


    Outlines a course which utilizes rational processes to teach high school students about religious diversity. Topics covered are Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and religious issues in contemporary society. (Author/DB)

  3. Contemporary Tibetan's View of Tulkus(sprul-sku)%当代藏族人的活佛观



    @@ Introduction This article relies on a combination of questionnaires and interviews in an attempt to understand contemporary Tibetans' basic opinions of and attitudes towards incarnate lamas.The incarnate lama is the highest religious practitioner in Tibetan Buddhism.

  4. Legendární životopisy Gautamy Buddhy

    Holba, Jiří

    Praha : DharmaGaia, 2007 - (Holba, J.), s. 345-387 ISBN 978-80-86685-75-5. - (Prameny buddhismu) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. ChinaEthical Challenges for Church and Society in a Globalised World



    China with its very long history and profound culture has a highly developed moral basis in its society. This culture is influenced by different,impressive value systems,especially Confucianism,but also Buddhism,

  6. Lin-ťi a čchan

    Holba, Jiří

    Brno : Nakladatelství Masarykovy univerzity, 2009 - (Lomová, O.), s. 71-84 ISBN 978-80-210-4942-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Cchan Buddhism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. 06 現代韓国における儒教の「死」の意識と葬送儀礼― 朴孝秀巨儒に見る事例を中心として ―

    曺, 起虎; Cho, KiHo


    Korea is a multireligious country where funerals and ancestral rites are not connected with one particulartraditional religion. But in Japan such ceremonies involve Buddhist rituals that have not changed during thecountry’s history. This is a significant difference between the two countries.The most drastic change in ancestral rites on the Korean Peninsula is associated with the concept of deathand funerals based on the syncretism of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. To be precise, Buddhism ...


    Багаева, О.


    As every religion is based on perinatal or transpersonal kind of religious experience, problem of Shinto-buddhistic syncretism should be examined from psychological point of view. When Buddhism was introduced, public consciousness started its transformation: individualization of Japanese society demanded appropriate changes from Sinto, but traditional religion established on collective stratum of unconsciousness couldn't modify itself so fast. So Buddhism with its individual unconsciousness b...

  9. 面接場面における気づきの研究 : 心理的気づきから宗教的気づきへ

    友久, 久雄


    This paper compared the treatment of suffering as found in religion and counseling through the case of a mother of a "school refusal". Although both Buddhism and counseling attempt to address a mind-based view of human suffering, it must not be forgotten that Buddhism does so within an explicitly religious framework. Buddhist suffering is framed within the total existential situation of life-death. The goal of Buddhists is to attain enlightenment and become a buddha, as expressed in the phras...

  10. Mindfulness i vesten

    Olsen, Maria; Sekamane, Ida; Olsen, Lizette; Jensen, Pernille


    This study project investigates Buddhist meditation in comparison to isolated mindfulness. The first part of the paper will explain Buddhism and Buddhist values, along with the subject terms. This part is mainly based on Buddhist Sutras and interpretations of same. The project will furthermore introduce the theory “Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction”, addressing the development of Buddhism into modern Western culture. This argument is discussed based on selected articles and theoretical books...

  11. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

    Marcus Bingenheimer


    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  12. The Problem of the Inefficacy of Knowledge in Early Buddhist Soteriology

    Ryan Showler


    Full Text Available Early Buddhism has been described as a “gnostic soteriology” in that itsees the chief cause of life’s unsatisfactoriness to be ignorance of certain metaphysical truths, and that once this ignorance is eliminated through awareness of the true nature of reality, the suffering that is rooted in ignorance goes away with it. In what follows, I will describe a significant problem that early Buddhism faces, as does any gnostic soteriology, and propose a solution to the problem. This is a quasi-analytic study of early Buddhist epistemology in that it applies some of the standard ideas about knowledge that have guided analytic epistemology for some time to a specific problem that confronts the early Buddhist attempt to claim that knowing some truths about reality will transform us in some significant way. When speaking of “early Buddhism” in what follows, I intend those teachings contained in thePali canon, which the Theravada tradition has sought to preserve. Historically Buddhism quickly moves away from the Theravada focus on nirvana and into the various schools of the “Great Vehicle” of the Mahayana Tradition. My characterization of Buddhism as a gnostic soteriology refers only to a form of Buddhism that may be limited to the earliest part of the movement and the conservative wing (Theravada that has sought to preserve its earliest form ever since.

  13. From Buddhist Hippies to Buddhist Geeks: The Emergence of Buddhist Postmodernism?

    Ann Gleig


    Full Text Available Drawing on discourse analysis and ethnography, this paper will critically examine the effects of generational differences emerging in North American Buddhism through an analysis of the Buddhist Geeks network. Buddhist Geeks is an online Buddhist media company and community that launched in 2007. It consists of a weekly audio podcast and a digital magazine component and since 2011, has hosted an annual conference. I will discuss the main characteristics and concerns of the Buddhist Geeks community and explore how it can be situated both in relationship to traditional Buddhism and Buddhist modernism. In conclusion, I reflect on whether Buddhist Geeks signals the emergence of a new, distinctly postmodern stage in the wider assimilation of Buddhism in America.

  14. Buddhist Revival under State Watch

    André Laliberté


    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party has shown tolerance, if not direct support, for the growth of Buddhism over the last few decades. Three explanations for this lenient attitude are explored in this article. The flourishing of Buddhism is encouraged by the state less for its propaganda value in foreign affairs than for its potential to lure tourists who will, in turn, represent a source of revenue for local governments. Buddhist institutions are also establishing their track record in the management of philanthropic activities in impoverished area where local governments lack the resources to offer specific social services. Finally, the development of such activities has contributed to enhance cooperation between China and Taiwan, whose governments have a vested interest in the improvement of relations across the Strait. The article concludes that the growth of Buddhism in China results from the initiatives of Buddhists themselves, and the government supports this growth because it serves local politics well.

  15. Main Contents Abstracts and Key Words


    Metaphor and Symbol: Religious Connotations and its Spread of LaoZi's Illustrations of the Eighty-one Conversions HU Chuntao [Abstract] LaoZi's illustrations of the eighty-one conversions has some kinds of connection with LaoZiHuaHU Oing, thus it suffered disputes under the argument between Buddhism and Taoism. In twenty years after its first appearance, the set of illustration developed rapidly, but it once disappeared under the attack of Buddhism and governor in Yuan dynasty. Over a century later, it came back in the first half of the 15th century and spreaded widely in the 16th century. The set of illustration and its process of spreading filled with metaphorical atmosphere. [Key words]LaoZi's illustrations of the eighty-one conversions; relationship between Buddhism and Taoism; spread

  16. 『新仏教』にみる仏教界の教養化

    手戸, 聖伸


    This paper has two primary objectives. The first is to interpret the wider significance of the shin-bukkyo undo, or New Buddhism Movement, beyond the established definitions of "Buddhism" and "religion," in Meiji- and Taisho-era Japan. The second is to demonstrate that this movement influenced and was influenced by one of the trends of this period, Kyoyo (known commonly by the German term Bildung, or self-cultivation). I will begin with an introductory examination of studies that have been ma...

  17. Quranic Miracles in the Book of "Syafiah" written by Abdul Qaher Jurjaani

    Yuslina Mohamed


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight points of convergency and dissimilarities in the teachings of Buddhism and Sufism in the aspect of spirituality. It describes the path of a wayfarer in his spiritual journey to attain fana’, the highest achievement and the final state of spiritual experiences in the teachings of Islamic Mysticism, and also Buddhist paths to attain Nirwana, the ultimate goal of Buddhist life. The practices and the strict code of ethics in the process of self-purification or purification of the soul, in the spiritual path to attain the ultimate goal in the teachings of both Sufism and Buddhism are also discussed.

  18. One or many Buddhas?

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich


    According to Pali Buddhist sources, there can only be one Buddha per world system. Mahayana Buddhism maintains different view, which is argued here by 'Jig rten gsum mgön based, among other things, on a quotation from the Uttaratantrashastra (= Ratnagotravibhaga).......According to Pali Buddhist sources, there can only be one Buddha per world system. Mahayana Buddhism maintains different view, which is argued here by 'Jig rten gsum mgön based, among other things, on a quotation from the Uttaratantrashastra (= Ratnagotravibhaga)....

  19. Easternization of the East?

    Borup, Jørn


    Zen Buddhism has for decades fascinated the West, and the former elitist tradition has in contemporary times become part of a broader popular culture. Zen is for Buddhists, but it is also part of a general “Easternization” and alleged “spiritual revolution” narrative. In Japan both Zen and...... domains are separate and that such a division is based on general differences in culturally constrained narratives (Western/Japanese, Zen/spirituality). Besides focusing on a concrete Japanese context, the article thus also contributes to research on global and transnational (Zen) Buddhism as well as to...

  20. モンゴル時代の「道仏論争」の実像:クビライの中国支配への道



    The disputes between one sect of Taoism Quan-zhen-jiao (全真教) and the Zen sect (禅宗) of Buddhism arose three times in the reign of the Emperor Möngke. According to the Zhi-yuan-bian-wei-lu (至元辯偽録) compiled by a Buddhist monk which have been regarded as the only relevant literature, it is reported that these disputes ended in a victory for Buddhism. As the result of examining relevant parts of a report of mission composed by William of Rubruck and a Tibetan chronicle Hu-lan-deb-ther, we have fou...


    Kawthanla; K. Raveendran


    The highest ideal of the western traditional has been the concern to restructure our societies so that they are more socially just.The most important goal for Buddhism is to awaken and realize one’s true nature, which puts an end to dukkha- especially that associated with the delusion of a separate self. To the Buddhism and Western, Paticcasamuppada, which I will discuss in this article, are not only the foundation but also the highest state.Today it has been come more ...

  2. Ethnicité et bouddhisme au Cambodge

    Guillou, Anne Yvonne


    "Ethnicity and Buddhism in Cambodia"This paper examines the relationship between ethnicity and theravadin Buddhism in Cambodia. Three perspectives have been chosen. First, religion is seen as a perception of the world and as “being-in-the-world”. From this point of view, the paper analyzes the influence of the karma theory, the role of the offerings and the role of the transfer of merits from living persons to the dead (bangskol). The second chapter sees religion as a part of the individual's...

  3. 独树一帜的藏传佛教觉域派尼僧



    The Joyul tradition, which was founded in the 11th century; was one of the most important sects of Tibetan Buddhism. This tradition may trace its origins back to Pha Dampa Sangye, a well-known monk who was a native of South India, and was founded by Macik Labdron(ma-cig lab-sgron), a famous Tibetan Yogini (a female practitioner of the Yogachara schooD. It was the only sect founded by a female in the history of Tibetan Buddhism, and this is also rarely seen in the world history of world religions.

  4. Livsforståelsen i buddhismen - med særlig vekt på situasjonen i Japan

    Hansen, Arild


    Buddhismen ble grunnlagt av Siddhartha Gautama, den historiske Buddha (en tittel som betyr ”den som har våknet opp”). Han døde mellom år 400 og 486 f.Kr. og ble født i det nåværende Nepal, åtti år tidligere. Den eneste retning av den eldre buddhisme som eksisterer i dag er theravada buddhismen, og for enkelthets skyld vil jeg kalle all eldre buddhisme for theravada, i denne avhandlingen. Deres skrift samling kalles ”Tripitaka”, og de fire edle sannheter finnes her. Pali sk...

  5. Meeting of The Minds


    China’s first Buddhist gathering attracts worldwide participation China hosts its first major international forum on Buddhism this month as part of the ongoing drive toward the government’s call to build a "harmonious society." The theme of the forum, "a harmonious world begins in the mind," draws attention to the belief that people from all walks of life can

  6. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen


    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  7. What happens after realisation?

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich


    In this article the questions is raised whether spiritual accomplishment has consequences for ethicals. In particular it is investigated whether the realisation of the illusionary nature of all phenomena may lead in certain forms of Tibetan Buddhism to a neglect of ethical conduct....

  8. 怒江:多种宗教共存和谐相处



    One of the outstanding characteristics of Nujiang is the harmony among four major religious beliefs,all signifi cantly present.The historical freedom of religion in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture means that Christianity,Catholicism,Buddhism and Taoism are here.For historical and practical reasons as well as the policy on equality of nationality,the religions peacefully coexist.

  9. Religious Architecture


    The main religions of ancient China were Buddhism,Taoism and Islam, of which Buddhism was the most widespread. As a result, Buddhist temples and towers are found all over China, and have become important components of the country's ancient architecture.

  10. Thoughts on History



    The Yarlung River Valley inShannan was the birthplace ofthe Tibetan race. When the Tubo Kingdom was founded,Songtsam Gambo moved its capital topresent-day Lhasa. With Lang Darmamaking efforts to suppress Buddhism,the regime fell and in the ensuing 400years, the region suffered heavily from

  11. 日本仏教と平和主義の諸問題(藤村潤一郎教授退任記念号)

    宮田, 幸一


    To discuss some of the problems in the relationship between the teaching of nonviolence and Japanese Buddhism, we have to distinguish some levels of nonviolence. At an individual level, some people such as monks and nuns can live without using violence an

  12. The Role of Religion in Korean Higher Education

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu


    This study examines the role of religion in Korean elite and higher education during the premodern and modern periods with descriptive analysis. The study focuses on the contribution of Buddhism and Confucianism to premodern elite education in Korea, particularly the interaction between Confucianism and Christianity with modern higher education in…

  13. Mindfulness: Reconnecting the Body and Mind in Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology

    Rejeski, W. Jack


    Derived from Buddhism, mindfulness is a unique approach for understanding human suffering and happiness that has attracted rapidly growing interest among health care professionals. In this article I describe current thinking about the concept of mindfulness and elaborate on why and how mindfulness-based interventions have potential within the…

  14. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    Hong, Li


    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  15. Vocational Discernment among Tibetan Buddhist Monks in Dharamsala, India

    Thomas, Alvin; Kellom, Gar E.


    A major historical shift is taking place in Tibetan Buddhism with the relocation of large numbers of monks from Tibet and the establishment of monasteries in Dharamsala, India and other parts of South Asia. This has created a shift in the way that young men are joining these monasteries and leading this age old religious tradition. Fifteen college…

  16. Western Science and Local Thai Wisdom: Using Museum Toys to Develop Bi-Gnosis

    Kanhadilok, Peeranut; Watts, Mike


    This article focuses on some of the intersections of two worldviews: Western modern science and a Buddhism-based way of life in Thailand. It enters the debate on the place and practice of Indigenous forms of knowledge and the clashes with formal science education curricula. Our goal is "balanced bi-gnosis": the possession of, and proficiency in,…

  17. Moral Education or Political Education in the Vietnamese Educational System?

    Doan, Dung Hue


    Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…

  18. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey


    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several psychotherapy techniques derived…

  19. [A Buddhist view of health and care].

    Aguilar, Michel


    Buddhism has an original anthropology without dolorism or sacrifice, based on which a care ethic is deployed. The Buddhist way leads to freeing the spirit of the illusions that lead it astray and considers the body as a precious material support for the spirit. Pain and illness are treated while paying great attention to the person's suffering, whether conscious or not. PMID:26461219

  20. Mindful Teaching: Laying the Dharma Foundations for Buddhist Education in Australia

    Rhea, Zane Ma


    This paper reports on research conducted in the first mainstream school in Australia being guided by Buddhist philosophy. It focuses on a group of teachers, examining the impact of Buddhism on their teaching, exploring the challenge for them of bringing together their professional knowledge with Buddhist worldview. The major conclusion is that the…

  1. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  2. Counseling in Thailand: Development from a Buddhist Perspective

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.; Pokaeo, Soree


    The authors present historical and current accounts of the counseling profession in Thailand. In addition to the influences of Buddhism on counselor training and practices, professional issues such as licensure, professional organizations, and the relationship between counselors and other mental health professionals are summarized. The role of…

  3. Religion as a Site of Language Contact.

    Spolsky, Bernard


    Provides an overview of early work on the translation of sacred texts into various languages. Reviews the language use patterns and practices historically characteristic of different religious traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Quakerism. Describes linguistic effects of missionary activity in several…

  4. Visual Literacy with Picture Books: The Silk Road

    Bisland, Beverly Milner Lee


    The ancient Silk Routes connecting China to Europe across the rugged mountains and deserts of central Asia are one of the primary examples of transculturation in world history. Traders on these routes dealt not only in goods such as silk and horses but also made possible the spread of art forms as well as two major religions, Buddhism and Islam. …

  5. Meditation and Education: India, Tibet, and Modern America

    Thurman, Robert A. F.


    This article explores Asian traditions of meditation, with particular attention to Buddhism as it was developed in ancient India. It delineates a core curriculum, initially developed in monastic institutions of higher education, that has been most fully preserved in Tibet. It then explores how this curriculum might be adapted so that it can help…

  6. A Brief History of the Current Reemergence of Contemplative Education

    Morgan, Patricia Fay


    This article explores the history of the current reemergence of a contemplative orientation in education. While referencing an ancient history, it primarily examines the history of contemporary contemplative education through three significant stages, focusing on the third. The first was arguably initiated by the introduction of Buddhism to the…

  7. The Challenge of Access in Indian Higher Education.

    Chitnis, Suma


    With an ancient tradition of educational exclusion, modern India has set democratic goals for educational access and quality, though discrimination still challenges public policy goals. Highlights: Buddhism's ancient challenges to exclusion; early declines of education; missionary education; colonial higher education; distance from the lives of…

  8. The web of life a new synthesis of mind and matter

    Capra, Fritjof


    Capra argues that at the end of the 20th century we are shifting away from the mechanistic world of Descartes and Newton to a holistic, ecological view. He establishes patterns between ideas from such diverse fields as Buddhism and quantum physics.

  9. Mindfulness: Implications for Substance Abuse and Addiction

    Appel, Jonathan; Kim-Appel, Dohee


    Mindfulness is a concept that has taken quite a hold on the therapeutic world in recent years. Techniques that induce "mindfulness" are increasingly being employed in Western psychology and psychotherapy to help alleviate a variety of conditions. So while mindfulness has its conceptual roots in Buddhism it has been translated into a Western…

  10. Facing the Grand Challenges through Heuristics and Mindfulness

    Powietrzynska, Malgorzata; Tobin, Kenneth; Alexakos, Konstantinos


    We address the nature of mindfulness and its salience to education generally and to science education specifically. In a context of the historical embeddedness of mindfulness in Buddhism we discuss research in social neuroscience, presenting evidence for neuronal plasticity of the brain and six emotional styles, which are not biologically…