WorldWideScience
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Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus leaf contains chemicals that might help control blood sugar. It also contains chemicals that might have activity against bacteria and fungi. Eucalyptus oil contains chemicals that might help pain and inflammation. It might also ...

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

OpenAIRE

The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

2010-01-01

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of dist [...] illated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

Marcio Rogério da, Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira, Machado; Jay, Deiner; Carlito, Calil Junior.

2010-09-01

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

Marcio Rogério da Silva

2010-09-01

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Enhancing Eucalyptus Community Cloud  

OpenAIRE

In the last few years, the cloud computing model has moved from hype to reality, as witnessed by the increasing number of commercial providers offering their cloud computing solutions. At the same time, various open-source projects are developing cloud computing frameworks open to experimental instrumentation and study. In this work we analyze Eucalyptus Community Cloud, an open-source cloud-computing framework delivering the IaaS model and running under the Linux operating system. Our aim is...

Gian Mario Mereu; Matteo Dessalvi; Andrea Bosin; Giovanni Serra

2012-01-01

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae) Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)  

OpenAIRE

Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. glo...

Freddy Mora; Claudio Palma-Rojas; Pedro Jara-Seguel

2005-01-01

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m (P Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, with 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m and E. globulus (1.02 m m (P < 0.01. The greater chromosomal size of E. globulus suggests a greater amount of DNA, probably originated by structural alterations. This evolutionary pattern of karyotype morphology might be associated, as well, with a high level of conservation in chromosome morphology.

Freddy Mora

2005-03-01

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae) / Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cario [...] tipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m) y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m) (P Abstract in english Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, w [...] ith 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m) and E. globulus (1.02 m m) (P

Freddy, Mora; Claudio, Palma-Rojas; Pedro, Jara-Seguel.

2005-03-01

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Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro  

OpenAIRE

Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh leaves (FL) or residue leaves (RL), after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h in...

Abdalla, Adibe L.; Nasser, Mohamed E. A.; Sallam, Sobhy M. A.; Bueno, Ives C. S.

2010-01-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair Bison

2007-03-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid [...] potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH) and the wood density (WD) were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956), adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair, Bison; Magno Antonio Patto, Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha, Rezende; Aurélio Mendes, Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende.

2007-03-01

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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology. PMID:24919147

Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

2014-06-19

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Eucalyptus nitens Laminated Veneer Lumber  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus nitens es una especie de rápido crecimiento pero debido a una defoliación severa causada por el insecto Paropsis charybdis el area de plantación en Nueva Zelandia era muy limitada. En 1987 ensis (anteriormente Forest Research) liberó una avispa parasítica que controló exitosamente ésta peste. Desde entonces, E.nitens ha sido plantado para la producción local de pulpa kraft y para el mercado exterior de astillas en las regiones de Bay of Plenty/Tau...

Mckenzie, Heather; Gea, Luis; Gaunt, Doug

2006-01-01

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Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

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Puccinia psidii infecting cultivated Eucalyptus and native myrtaceae in Uruguay  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus or guava rust caused by Puccinia psidii is a serious disease of Eucalyptus and other Myrtaceae. In Uruguay, it has been previously found on Eucalyptus globulus and Psidium brasiliensis. Almost nothing is known regarding the occurrence of this pathogen on other Eucalyptus species or native Myrtaceae in that country. In this study, we determined the presence of P. psidii on Eucalyptus species and native Myrtaceae trees in Uruguay and evaluated the pathogenicity of specimens from nati...

Perez, Carlos A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Altier, Nora A.; Simeto, Sofia; Blanchette, Robert A.

2011-01-01

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Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

Adibe L. Abdalla

2010-09-01

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Photosynthetic temperature responses of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations of four year old Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Temperatures varied between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and were measured at approximately monthly intervals from early spring until midwinter. The photosynthetic temperature optimum was found to be linearly related to the average temperature of the preceding week during the entire nine month period. For E. globulus the optimum temperature for net photosynthesis increased from 17 degrees C to 23 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 degrees C to 16 degrees. The corresponding values for E. nitens were 14 to 20 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 to 19 degrees C. The photosynthetic performance of E. nitens was less sensitive to temperatures above and below the optimum than E. globulus. In a second experiment E. globulus clones were acclimated in temperature-controlled greenhouses, and in a shadehouse in four climatically different regions of Tasmania. A comparison of light response curves of the plants showed that the maximum rate of net photosynthesis was affected by the growth temperature, whereas apparent quantum efficiency remained unchanged. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; Loughead, S. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

1996-01-01

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Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

2010-01-01

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Micropropagation of Eucalyptus nitens maiden (Shining gum)  

OpenAIRE

Summary Eucalyptus nitens Maiden (shining gum) is a frost-tolerant species of Eucalyptus that can be used as an alternative species to Eucalyptus globulus in some regions of Portugal where winter temperatures are too low. Seedlings and 1-yr-old shoot tips and nodes were used for micropropagation of E. nitens. The best multiplication rate (2.25) was obtained when seedling shoots (<15 mm) were cultured on a medium containing the major nutrients (at half-strength) and minor elements of Mura...

Gomes, Filomena; Canhoto, Jorge

2003-01-01

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Cryopreservation of eucalyptus genetic resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term preservation of forest genetic resources is a vital part of preserving our forest crops for future generations. Unfortunately, there are few genebanks dedicated to forest trees and very few methods for long-term preservation of forest genetic resources collections aside from field plantings of a limited number of seed-derived or elite clonal individuals. The use of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of elite germplasm is increasingly being used for the long-term preservation of clonal agronomic crops but for forest trees, such as Eucalyptus, the methodology for cryopreservation of diverse genetic resources collections has not been established. We report the successful cryopreservation of a germplasm collection of in vitro shoot cultures of thirteen Eucalyptus spp. lines consisting of two E. grandis x E. camaldulensis lines, seven E. urophylla x E. grandis lines, one E. grandis line, two E. grandis x E. urophylla lines, and one E. camaldulensis line. In a comparison of two cryopreservation methods, sucrose sensitivity limited the application of encapsulation-dehydration. However, with droplet-vitrification, all thirteen lines had good survival after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. A 30 min exposure to Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) yielded post-liquid nitrogen survival between 38% and 85% depending on the line. One hundred shoot tips from all thirteen lines are currently in long-term storage as a germplasm collection. PMID:24441371

Kaya, E; Alves, A; Rodrigues, L; Jenderek, M; Hernandez-Ellis, M; Ozudogru, A; Ellis, D

2013-01-01

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Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

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The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Holocryphia eucalypti on Eucalyptus in New Zealand  

OpenAIRE

Holocryphia eucalypti is an opportunistic canker pathogen of Eucalyptus and Corymbia spp. (Myrtaceae, Myrtales) in Australia and South Africa. It is also known in Australia on Tibouchina trees (Melastomataceae, Myrtales). Using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological characterisation, we show for the first time that H. eucalypti is present in New Zealand on Eucalyptus spp.

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Vermeulen, Marcele; Dick, M.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

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Floral induction in Eucalyptus nitens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden takes at least five years to initiate flower buds from seed and is an infrequent and light flowerer. Because this behavior constitutes a major impediment to breeding programs, we examined the mechanisms controlling floral induction in E. nitens, with the long-term aim of reducing generation time and increasing seed yield. Application of paclobutrazol reduced the concentration of endogenous gibberellic acid (GA) in apical tissue and enhanced the reproductive activity of grafted trees maintained outside over winter in Canberra, Australia. Grafts maintained in a warm greenhouse over winter did not produce flower buds, despite the paclobutrazol-induced reduction in GA concentration of the apical tissue. Exposing untreated grafts, which had been maintained over winter in a warm greenhouse, to low temperature the following spring reduced growth but did not induce flower bud production. Addition of GA(3) to paclobutrazol-treated grafts reduced the effect of paclobutrazol on reproductive activity. PMID:14967619

Moncur, M W; Hasan, O

1994-11-01

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The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis discovered in eastern Australia  

OpenAIRE

Chrysoporthe cubensis is an important pathogen of commercially planted Eucalyptus species (Myrtaceae) in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where these trees are planted as non-natives. Although the majority of Eucalyptus spp. are native to Australia, Chr. cubensis is not common there and has been reported only once from naturally growing Eucalyptus marginata in Western Australia. Chrysoporthe cubensisis able to infect hosts in the Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae other than Eucalyptus,...

Pegg, Geoffrey S.; Gryzenhout, Marieka; O Dwyer, Cecilia; Drenth, Andre; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

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QUALITY OF MEDIUM-DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD FROM SALINE EUCALYPTUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a salt-tolerant crop utilizing saline subsurface drainage water in arid land-irrigated agriculture. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in order to develop a value-added applicat...

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Physical Properties of Medium density Particleboard Made from Saline Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus tree, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land where irrigated agriculture is practiced. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in an attempt to develo...

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TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho

2003-07-01

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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

Myburg, Alexander A [ORNL; Grattapaglia, Dario [Universidade Católica de Brasília; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Li, Ting [ORNL

2014-01-01

29

Range extension, habitat and conservation status of three rare mallees, Eucalyptus castrensis, Eucalyptus fracta and Eucalyptus pumila from the Hunter Valley, NSW  

OpenAIRE

New populations of three threatened mallee species, Eucalyptus castrensis K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus fracta K.D.Hill and Eucalyptus pumila Cambage (all Myrtaceae), have recently been found in the Singleton Military Area in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales (32°45’S, 151°15’E). Each population is significant as they increase the known distribution and total numbers of three highly restricted species. Details of the habitat and size of each additional population are given and conservation no...

Copeland, Lachlan M.; Hunter, John T.

2013-01-01

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Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

2006-01-01

31

Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2 em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou-se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3. Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético.Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2 obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoculation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3. Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

Adelica Aparecida Xavier

2007-08-01

32

Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii) / Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2) em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou [...] -se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3). Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético. Abstract in english Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2) obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoc [...] ulation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3). Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Eugênio, Von. Sanfuentes; Davi Theodoro, Junghans; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

2007-08-01

33

Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii / Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específic [...] as básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) e ASTM-D 1037 (1991). Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) e CSA 0437-93 (1993). As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993). A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular) e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular), foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka) e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura). Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board). Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Po [...] nte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³) and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³). Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) and ASTM-D 1037 (1991) norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) and CSA 0437-93 (1993) norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993) norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular) and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular) of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalyptus grandis (Janka hardness) and Eucalyptus cloeziana mixed w

Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira, Carvalho.

2006-08-01

34

Disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus / Nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar, em um plantio de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foi utilizada a técnica de litter bags para a avaliação da decomposição. Ao todo, foram utili [...] zados 648 litter bags, com coletas mensais de 18 amostras, durante o período de 36 meses. A perda de massa foliar apresentou correlação positiva com a concentração de nutrientes, indicando que, quanto maior a perda de massa, maior a concentração dos elementos no folhedo remanescente. A decomposição da serapilheira foliar apresentou inicialmente imobilização de P, Fe, Mn e Zn, e disponibilização dos demais nutrientes. O P tornou-se disponível a partir do segundo ano, enquanto o Mn e o Zn, somente a partir do terceiro ano. Abstract in english This study had the objective to evaluate the nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation, Eldorado do Sul-RS. We used the litterbags techniques to assess the decomposition. We used 648 litterbags, with 18 samples collected month [...] ly during 36 months. Mass loss leaf showed positive correlation with nutrients concentration, indicating that the higher mass loss, higher the nutrients concentration in litter remaining. Litter leaf decay initially showed P, Fe, Mn and Zn immobilization and release of the others, in the second year occurred P release and in the third year occurred Mn and Zn release, with Fe exception.

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Elias Frank, Araújo.

2014-09-01

35

Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America  

OpenAIRE

The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argen...

Gandolfo, Mari?a A.; Hermsen, Elizabeth J.; Zamaloa, Mari?a C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; Gonza?lez, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cu?neo, N. Rube?n; Johnson, Kirk R.

2011-01-01

36

Mycosphaerella species causing leaf disease in South African Eucalyptus plantations  

OpenAIRE

Commercial Eucalyptus plantations provide an important source of hardwood for forestry industries, worldwide. Several species of Mycosphaerella are associated with a destructive Eucalyptus leaf disease known as Mycosphaerella Leaf Blotch (MLB). During 2000, a survey was undertaken in several commercial Eucalyptus growing areas of South Africa to determine the identity of the Mycosphaerella spp. contributing to outbreaks of MLB. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected from three major Eucalypt...

Hunter, G. C.; Roux, J.; Wingfield, B. D.; Crous, P. W.; Wingfield, M. J.

2004-01-01

37

Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 µg/disk) and rifampin (5 µg/disk) were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and n...

Safaei-ghomi, Javad; Ahd, Atefeh Abbasi

2010-01-01

38

Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

M. N. Garcia

2013-03-01

39

A case study of Eucalyptus globulus fingerprinting  

OpenAIRE

• Introduction Tree genetic improvement programs usually lack, in general, pedigree information. Since molecular markers can be used to estimate the level of genetic similarity between individuals, we genotyped a sample of a Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus breeding population—a reference population of 125 individuals—with 16 microsatellites (SSR). • Materials and methods Using genotypes from the reference population, we developed a simulation approach to recurrently gener...

Ribeiro, M. M. A.

2011-01-01

40

Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps  

OpenAIRE

This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J. A. F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

2012-01-01

41

New Phenylpropanoid Glucosides from Eucalyptus maculata  

OpenAIRE

Three compounds were isolated from the butanol soluble fraction of the resinous exudate from the stem of Eucalyptus maculata. In addition to p-coumaric acid two new compounds were identified. They were identified as 1-O-cinnamoyl 6-O-pcoumaroylglucose and 7-methyl-aromadendrin-4′-O-(6′′-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical means.

Rashwan, Omar A.

2002-01-01

42

Eucalyptus-wheat interaction on Ethiopian Nitosols  

OpenAIRE

Over the past few years a single row of Eucalyptus globulus trees planted along the borders of cropland has come to dominate central highland agroforestry practices. Although evidence is scanty, there is a perception that this practice adversely affects crop productivity. An on-farm trial was therefore conducted at Ginchi to determine the biomass production potential of eucalypt boundaries and their effect on the productivity of the adjacent wheat crop (Triticum aestivum) on highland Nitosols...

Kidanu, S.; Mamo, T.; Stroosnijder, L.

2004-01-01

43

Ethanol production from fractionated eucalyptus wood  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus globulus wood (EGW) is a lignocellulosic material with high cellulose and hemicellulose content, suitable for the simultaneous production of hemicellulosic and cellulosic ethanol. Processing of EGW by autohydrolysis yields a liquid phase rich in hemicellulosic-derived compounds (13.73 kg of xylooligosaccharides/ 100 kg of raw material). The liquid phase was processed by membranes, achieving a concentrated-liquor of 52.9 g of xylooligosaccharides/L. The liquor from membrane processi...

Romani?, Aloia; Rodri?guez-lo?pez, Julio; Gonza?lez-mun?oz, Mari?a Jesu?s; Garrote, Gil; Parajo?, Juan Carlos

2012-01-01

44

Anti-trypanosomal Potential of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis  

OpenAIRE

Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis in both the human and animal forms has been confronted with multidimensional problems that include paucity of drugs, resistance, high cost, prolonged treatment protocol and adverse side effects. The main objective of this study was to explore alternative sources of antitrypanosomal agents from the leaves, stem and root barks of Eucalyptus camaldulensis The plant parts were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water; and the ex...

Kabiru, Y. A.; Ogbadoyi, E. O.; Okogun, J. I.; Gbodi, T. A.; Makun, H. A.

2013-01-01

45

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

46

USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2004-06-01

47

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

2012-06-01

48

Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

Juliana Jerásio Bianche

2012-12-01

49

Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A lagarta-parda, Thyrinteina arnobia, causa grandes prejuízos à cultura do eucalipto, destacando-se como o principal lepidóptero desfolhador; portanto, medidas alternativas de controle são necessárias. Neste trabalho foi avaliada, pela técnica de eletroantenografia (EAG), a interação dos voláteis do [...] s óleos essenciais de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, frente às antenas de fêmeas e de machos de T. arnobia. Foram também identificados 28 compostos voláteis bioativos contidos no óleo essencial de E. grandis, utilizando a detecção eletroantenográfica acoplada à cromatografia a gás (CG-EAD). Estes resultados indicam que CG-EAD é uma ferramenta muito útil na triagem de compostos bioativos presentes em extratos de plantas e sugerem que T. arnobia utiliza vários destes terpenos como sinais para encontrar seu hospedeiro. Abstract in english Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG) ha [...] ve never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

Luciane G., Batista-Pereira; João B., Fernandes; Arlene G., Corrêa; M. Fátima G. F. da, Silva; Paulo C., Vieira.

2006-06-01

50

Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc  

OpenAIRE

Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

2002-01-01

51

Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla / Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrize [...] s em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais) e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17 dias, apresentou superioridade organogênica. Explantes foliares devem ser transferidos para novo meio de indução de brotações a cada cinco dias. Este estudo também teve como objetivo avaliar fatores que afetam a transformação genética de explantes foliares com o gene uidA, via co-cultivo com Agrobacterium tumefaciens, tais como a pré-cultura, a duração da co-cultura e a adição da acetoseringona no meio de cultura. As melhores condições para a expressão do gene uidA foram a cada dois dias de pré-cultura de explantes foliares, três dias de co-cultura com a bactéria e a adição de acetoseringona nos meios de pré e co-cultura. Abstract in english The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: [...] subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.

Giovana Bomfim de, Alcantara; João Carlos, Bespalhok Filho; Marguerite, Quoirin.

2011-04-01

52

Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A new foliar disease caused by Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. urophylla x E. globulus and E. nitens x E. globulus) in Brazil is described . The disease is characterized by leaf spots of variable sizes and shapes, resulting in leaf blight and premature defoliation. Base [...] d on the morphological characteristics and multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the EF-1?, ?-T and ITS-2 gene regions of five isolates, the fungus was identified as T. pseudoeucalypti. This is the first report of this pathogen outside Australia and a method for sporulation in culture is described.

Tonimara de Souza, Cândido; André Costa da, Silva; Lúcio Mauro da Silva, Guimarães; Hélvio Gledson Maciel, Ferraz; Norton, Borges Júnior; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

2014-10-01

53

Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Evaluation of some properties of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos.This work aimed to determine sawn wood yield, as well as density, volumetric shrinkage, static bending and compression parallel to grain strength, glue line quality and machining for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii wood. Three trees of each species, with approximate ages of 50, 40 and 40 years, respectively, were cut into logs on the base, middle and top. Property variations were analyzed in the pith-bark and longitudinal directions. The results showed that all the physical and mechanical properties varied inside the tree in the radial and longitudinal directions. Basic density, bending and compression strength increased in the pith-bark direction, while volumetric shrinkage decreased. Therefore, for obtaining denser, more stable wood with larger bending and compression strength it is necessary to harvest older trees. Considering the variations in the longitudinal direction, it was observed that logs from the medium portion of the tree presented smaller values than those from the base and from the top, in all the analyzed properties. Glue line strength and wood failure presented little differences in relation to adherence among juvenile wood and mature wood in all the positions. In the and mortise-and-tenon test, all the species showed satisfactory results, without occurrence of defects.

Pedro Nicolau Serpa

2003-10-01

54

Response of Eucalyptus largiflorens to floodplain salinisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the stable isotopes from the tree rings of Eucalyptus largiflorens on the Chowilla Floodplain was undertaken. This chronology of tree water use responses was compared to the known hydrological changes that have occurred due to the effects of river regulation. The isotope chronology indicates that E. largiflorens has always oscillated between groundwater and rain-derived soil water and river regulation has apparently had little effect on tree water sources over time. This result is surprising, but no doubt reflects the complexity of floodplain processes and interactions between trees, water and the landscape. PMID:14653641

Akeroyd, M D; Walker, G R; Kendall, M B

2003-01-01

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Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood  

OpenAIRE

Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class and wood tissue type on its occurrence. Wood was hydrolysed using the Saeman procedure and the neutral and acidic monosaccharides quantified with high-performance liquid chroma...

Coetzee, B.; Schols, H. A.; Wolfaardt, F.

2011-01-01

56

Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii=Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of three clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento total de raízes e a taxa de enraizamento por miniestaca foram avaliados a cada sete dias (0 - instante da estaquia, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias. Foram utilizadas as regressões logística e exponencial para a modelagem matemática da velocidade dos processos rizogênicos. O modelo logístico teve o melhor ajuste para o percentual de enraizamento, e o modelo exponencial para o comprimento total do sistema radicular. Os clones apresentaram diferentes velocidades de enraizamento. O tempo ideal de permanência das miniestacas dentro da casa de vegetação para o enraizamento está entre 35 a 42 dias, podendo variar em função do material genético.

Antônio Natal Gonçalves

2012-04-01

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Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae) biology in Eucalyptus spp.  

OpenAIRE

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD), sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utiliza...

Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler; Carlos Frederico Wilcken; Nádia Cristina de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos

2009-01-01

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Hydrological impact of Eucalyptus plantation in India  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief review is given of the results of hydrological studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species on water resources, erosion and soil nutrients at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. New results on the impacts of the plantations on raindrop-induced erosion and preliminary results from studies that are aimed at improving the water use efficiency of the plantations are also presented. The erosion studies indicate that soil detachment resulting from net rainfall beneath Eucalyptus camaldulensis will be greater than beneath Pinus caribaea but less than that beneath the indigenous species, Tectona grandis. The water use efficiency studies, which make use of a controlled environment facility, have confirmed that in the dry zone of southern India water availability is the principal limiting factor on growth although, when water is available, nutrient limitations become important. Removal of both water and nutrient stress results typically in a fivefold increase in volume growth for the first year of growth.

Calder, Ian R.; Hall, Robin L.; Prasanna, K. T.

1993-10-01

59

BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

Flaviana Reis Milagres

2011-03-01

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Phylogenetic reassessment and population biology of the Eucalyptus pathogen teratosphaeria suttonii isolated from diseased Eucalyptus leaves  

OpenAIRE

The ability of eucalypt trees to grow in different soil aspects, under variable climatic and environmental conditions and to grow fast consistently producing straight stems has made them preferred plantation trees in many parts of the world. The world‘s increased demand for pulp wood has been the major contributor to the aggressive extensive development of eucalyptus plantations around the world. The productivity of these trees is however hindered in both native and introduce...

Taole, Matsepo Modelisi

2013-01-01

61

EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

OpenAIRE

El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas...

Hernán Poblete W; Rodrigo Burgos O

2010-01-01

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Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis  

OpenAIRE

As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o...

Pereira, M. R. R.; Martins, D.; Rodrigues, A. C. P.; Souza, G. S. F.; Cardoso, L. A.

2011-01-01

63

Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay  

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Full Text Available Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

MARTÍNEZ SEBASTIÁN

2002-01-01

64

Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43o28'N, and longitude 3o48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

65

MECANIC PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF PLYWOOD PANELS OF Eucalyptus dunnii AND Eucalyptus dunnii/Pinus taeda  

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Full Text Available The use of eucalyptus has been spreading out in Brazil and in several wood processing sectors. Apprehension relatedto lack of raw material in the south of Brazil makes eucalyptus an alternative for the substitution or use together with pine for makingplywood panels. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two types of plywood panels: one that isproduced with alternate plates of Eucalyptus dunnii and Pinus taeda (T1 and the other entirely with E. dunnii (T2. The results showedthat the elasticity module (MOE in T1 was inferior to T2, but with variance presenting higher value, indicating smaller stability of thetested material. This behavior was noticed in cutting directions, perpendicular and parallel. The module of rupture (MOR showedsimilar values in both directions of cutting, but T1 showed higher variances only in the transversal direction. The resistance to cuttingin the glue line in the treatment with cool water was similar in both treatments, with T2 presenting higher variance. On the same test16% of the pieces of T1 came off during pre-treatment. When put to boil, T2 obtained better results, even though it presented a higherpercentage of pieces coming off during pre-treatment.

Peterson Jaeger

2007-09-01

66

High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. PMID:25385325

Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

2014-11-10

67

Leaf water relations of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus argophloia in response to water deficit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf water relations responses to limited water supply were determined in 7-month-old plants of a dry inland provenance of Eucalyptus argophloia Blakely and in a humid coastal provenance (Gympie) and a dry inland provenance (Hungry Hills) of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. Each provenance of E. cloeziana exhibited a lower relative water content at the turgor loss point, a lower apoplastic water content, a smaller ratio of dry mass to turgid mass and a lower bulk modulus of elasticity than the single provenance of E. argophloia. Osmotic potential at full turgor and water potential at the turgor loss point were significantly lower in E. argophloia and the inland provenance of E. cloeziana than in the coastal provenance of E. cloeziana. There was limited osmotic adjustment in response to soil drying in E. cloeziana, but not in E. argophloia. Between-species differences in water relations parameters were larger than those between the E. cloeziana provenances. Both E. cloeziana provenances maintained turgor under moderate water stress through a combination of osmotic and elastic adjustments. Eucalyptus argophloia had more rigid cell walls and reached lower water potentials with less reduction in relative water content than either of the E. cloeziana provenances, thereby enabling it to extract water from dryer soils. PMID:12615548

Ngugi, Michael R; Doley, David; Hunt, Mark A; Dart, Peter; Ryan, Paul

2003-04-01

68

Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

2006-12-01

69

Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands  

OpenAIRE

 This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication as scientific manuscripts.The thesis first addresses the decision of when to cut a rotation of eucalyptus production forest. The aim is to optimise the long term volume production, corrected for replant costs. On the long ter...

Paulo, M. J.

2002-01-01

70

Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds (total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry. PMID:25394796

Salla, Tamiris Daros; Ramos da Silva, Thanise; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

2014-10-13

71

Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Monoterpene and isoprene emission rates of 15 Eucalyptus species were measured using an air exchange chamber technique and GC-FID analysis. The normalised monoterpene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C) of these Eucalyptus species ranged from zero for E. forrestiana to 5.4±2.2 ?g g -1 h -1 (or 871±33 ?g m -2 h -1) for E. globulus. The dominant monoterpene compounds emitted from these Eucalyptus species were ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene and limonene. The normalised isoprene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C, PAR flux 1000 ?mol m -2 s -1) ranged from 5.3±1.6 ( E. botryoides) to 69±34 ?g g -1 h -1 ( E. globulus) or from 0.74 ( E. cladocalyx) to 9.5 mg m -2 h -1 ( E. rudis). Based on monoterpene emission rate data from four Eucalyptus species ( E. globulus, E. robusta, E. rudis, and E. sargentii), there were clear exponential relationships between leaf temperature and monoterpene emission rate for these Eucalyptus species. The mean exponential value ( ? value) of the four Eucalyptus species was 0.103±0.012 K -1.

He, Congrong; Murray, Frank; Lyons, Tom

72

ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD  

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Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

Adriano Wagner Ballarin

2003-01-01

73

Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foundation tree species define the structure of forest habitat and influence their ecosystem dynamics. However, there is limited understanding of both the patterns and timing of population fluctuations in foundation trees and how they vary among geographical regions. We have reconstructed the demographic history of five genetically distinct populations of the Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus) at the species and regional levels, using three nuclear loci sequenced from 104 individuals. Analysis using a Bayesian skyline plot indicated that the species experienced two periods of expansion, commencing in the Pliocene. Regional analyses showed that island populations expanded earlier, but that the rate of expansion was relatively slow when compared to that of the mainland group. This highlights the need for local demographic history to be taken into account when inferring local adaptation for candidate genes. Population growth throughout the Quaternary signals the ability of the species to persist and thrive under the predominantly harsh conditions of this period. PMID:23643971

Yeoh, Suat Hui; Ho, Simon Y W; Thornhill, Andrew H; Foley, William J

2013-09-01

74

Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii / Evaluation of some properties of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus [...] elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos. Abstract in english This work aimed to determine sawn wood yield, as well as density, volumetric shrinkage, static bending and compression parallel to grain strength, glue line quality and machining for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii wood. Three trees of each species, with approximate ages o [...] f 50, 40 and 40 years, respectively, were cut into logs on the base, middle and top. Property variations were analyzed in the pith-bark and longitudinal directions. The results showed that all the physical and mechanical properties varied inside the tree in the radial and longitudinal directions. Basic density, bending and compression strength increased in the pith-bark direction, while volumetric shrinkage decreased. Therefore, for obtaining denser, more stable wood with larger bending and compression strength it is necessary to harvest older trees. Considering the variations in the longitudinal direction, it was observed that logs from the medium portion of the tree presented smaller values than those from the base and from the top, in all the analyzed properties. Glue line strength and wood failure presented little differences in relation to adherence among juvenile wood and mature wood in all the positions. In the and mortise-and-tenon test, all the species showed satisfactory results, without occurrence of defects.

Pedro Nicolau, Serpa; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta.

2003-10-01

75

Biological Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Camendulensis on Some Fungi and Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. These Eucalyptus camendulensis: has been selected for screening antibacterial. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial...

Mehani Mouna; Ladjel Segni

2014-01-01

76

40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey, honeycomb,...

2010-07-01

77

Physical Properties of Medium-Density Particleboard Made From Saline Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus tree, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land where irrigated agriculture is practiced. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in an attempt to develo...

78

40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on honey and honeycomb in...

2010-07-01

79

Response of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis) Plants at Different Doses of Glyphosate  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of eucalyptus plants submitted to the application of glyphosate increasing rates. The doses 0.0, 3.6, 7.2, 18, 36, 72 and 180 g ha-1 of acid equivalent (ae) of glyphosate were applied on plants. At 7, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 42 days after application (DAA) was determined leaves relative chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. At 22 and 42 DAA plant height and stem diameter were measured. At 42 DAA were determined the leaves ...

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira; Mariluce Pascoalina Nepomuceno; Rodrigo Neto Pires; Mariana Casari Pareira; Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

2012-01-01

80

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

OpenAIRE

Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was e...

Marinalva Oliveira Freitas; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

2007-01-01

81

Inibidor de tripsina em raízes de Eucalyptus urophylla Trypsin inhibitor from roots of Eucalyptus urophylla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As raízes de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla podem estar associadas a fungos como Pisolithus tinctorius, formando uma simbiose conhecida como ectomicorriza, mas também podem estar colonizadas por fungos patogênicos, como Rhizoctonia solani, agente causal do tombamento de plantas em viveiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de atividade inibitória de tripsina, uma serino-protease, em raízes de E. urophylla e a atividade de tripsina em filtrados desses fungos. Alíquotas de extrato protéico bruto de raízes de E. urophylla e frações protéicas parcialmente purificadas por cromatografia de exclusão molecular, do tipo Sephacryl S-100-HR, foram testadas para atividade inibitória de tripsina. Proteínas do extrato ou das frações, quando incubadas com o substrato BAPNA (a-benzoil-arginina-p-nitroanilida e tripsina comercial na presença de tampão Tris-HCl 0,1 M (pH 8,0, resultou em atividade de inibidor de tripsina ao redor de 80%. Filtrados de meios de cultura de P. tinctorius e R. solani foram parcialmente purificados em cromatografia de exclusão molecular, porém atividade de tripsina sobre o substrato BAPNA não foi verificada em nenhuma das frações. Portanto, não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação direta entre o inibidor da planta e proteases dos fungos. Os resultados apresentados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo dessas proteínas nas interações entre patógenos e simbiontes para espécies de eucalipto.Roots of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla can be associated with fungi such as Pisolithus tinctorius, thus forming an ectomycorrhiza, or be colonized by pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, agent of damping-off in nursery plants. The objective of this work was to verify the presence and activity of trypsin inhibitor, a serino-protease, in roots of E. urophylla and the activity of trypsin in filtrate of these fungi. The crude protein extract from roots and fractions partially purified by molecular sieving chromatography, using Sephacryl S-100-HR, was tested for trypsin inhibitory activity. The protein extracts or fractions, when incubated with BAPNA (a-benzoyl-arginyl-p-nitroanilide as substrate, in presence of 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8,0, showed activity of trypsin inhibitor around 80%. Culture filtrates from P. tinctorius and R. solani isolates were also semi-purified by chromatography; however, no trypsin activity on BAPNA substrate was observed. Due to this, it was impossible to establish a direct correlation between the plant inhibitor and potential fungal proteases. The results presented here open new perspectives for the study of proteins in the interactions between pathogens and symbionts with eucalyptus species.

Célia R. Tremacoldi

2004-04-01

82

Inibidor de tripsina em raízes de Eucalyptus urophylla / Trypsin inhibitor from roots of Eucalyptus urophylla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As raízes de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla) podem estar associadas a fungos como Pisolithus tinctorius, formando uma simbiose conhecida como ectomicorriza, mas também podem estar colonizadas por fungos patogênicos, como Rhizoctonia solani, agente causal do tombamento de plantas em viveiros. O obje [...] tivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de atividade inibitória de tripsina, uma serino-protease, em raízes de E. urophylla e a atividade de tripsina em filtrados desses fungos. Alíquotas de extrato protéico bruto de raízes de E. urophylla e frações protéicas parcialmente purificadas por cromatografia de exclusão molecular, do tipo Sephacryl S-100-HR, foram testadas para atividade inibitória de tripsina. Proteínas do extrato ou das frações, quando incubadas com o substrato BAPNA (a-benzoil-arginina-p-nitroanilida) e tripsina comercial na presença de tampão Tris-HCl 0,1 M (pH 8,0), resultou em atividade de inibidor de tripsina ao redor de 80%. Filtrados de meios de cultura de P. tinctorius e R. solani foram parcialmente purificados em cromatografia de exclusão molecular, porém atividade de tripsina sobre o substrato BAPNA não foi verificada em nenhuma das frações. Portanto, não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação direta entre o inibidor da planta e proteases dos fungos. Os resultados apresentados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo dessas proteínas nas interações entre patógenos e simbiontes para espécies de eucalipto. Abstract in english Roots of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) can be associated with fungi such as Pisolithus tinctorius, thus forming an ectomycorrhiza, or be colonized by pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, agent of damping-off in nursery plants. The objective of this work was to verify the presence and ac [...] tivity of trypsin inhibitor, a serino-protease, in roots of E. urophylla and the activity of trypsin in filtrate of these fungi. The crude protein extract from roots and fractions partially purified by molecular sieving chromatography, using Sephacryl S-100-HR, was tested for trypsin inhibitory activity. The protein extracts or fractions, when incubated with BAPNA (a-benzoyl-arginyl-p-nitroanilide) as substrate, in presence of 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8,0), showed activity of trypsin inhibitor around 80%. Culture filtrates from P. tinctorius and R. solani isolates were also semi-purified by chromatography; however, no trypsin activity on BAPNA substrate was observed. Due to this, it was impossible to establish a direct correlation between the plant inhibitor and potential fungal proteases. The results presented here open new perspectives for the study of proteins in the interactions between pathogens and symbionts with eucalyptus species.

Célia R., Tremacoldi; Sérgio F., Pascholati.

2004-04-01

83

EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS / EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron [...] tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se calculó el grado de correlación de las distintas propiedades del tablero con la densidad de los mismos. Las características de la madera, de las partículas y las propiedades de los tableros demuestran que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens es apta para ser utilizada en la fabricación de estos aglomerados. A medida que aumenta la densidad del tablero se provoca un aumento en las propiedades mecánicas. El hinchamiento y la absorción de agua mejoran con aumentos de la densidad. El análisis de correlación entre las propiedades dependientes (hinchamiento, absorción, flexión y tracción) y la densidad del tablero arrojó coeficientes de correlación mayores a 0,7. La propiedad crítica es el hinchamiento, por lo que se recomienda agregar una emulsión de cera y un catalizador en el adhesivo de la capa central. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate Eucalyptus nitens as raw material for the production of particleboards. Wood density and particle size, slenderness and pH-value were controlled. Bending strength, internal bond, density, thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of particleboa [...] rds with densities between 450 and 750 kg/m³, were determined. Correlations between board density and properties were calculated. The wood and particle characteristics as well as the obtained board properties proved that Eucalyptus nitens could be used for the particleboard production. As board density increases, higher mechanical properties were founded. Thickness swelling and water absorption decreased as density of particleboard increased. High correlation factors (> 0,7) between dependent variables (thickness swelling, absorption, bending strength and IB) and board density were obtained. Due to swelling is a critical property, we recommend the addition of a wax emulsion and a catalyst in the middle layer of the particleboard.

Hernán, Poblete W; Rodrigo, Burgos O.

84

EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se calculó el grado de correlación de las distintas propiedades del tablero con la densidad de los mismos. Las características de la madera, de las partículas y las propiedades de los tableros demuestran que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens es apta para ser utilizada en la fabricación de estos aglomerados. A medida que aumenta la densidad del tablero se provoca un aumento en las propiedades mecánicas. El hinchamiento y la absorción de agua mejoran con aumentos de la densidad. El análisis de correlación entre las propiedades dependientes (hinchamiento, absorción, flexión y tracción y la densidad del tablero arrojó coeficientes de correlación mayores a 0,7. La propiedad crítica es el hinchamiento, por lo que se recomienda agregar una emulsión de cera y un catalizador en el adhesivo de la capa central.The aim of the study was to evaluate Eucalyptus nitens as raw material for the production of particleboards. Wood density and particle size, slenderness and pH-value were controlled. Bending strength, internal bond, density, thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of particleboards with densities between 450 and 750 kg/m³, were determined. Correlations between board density and properties were calculated. The wood and particle characteristics as well as the obtained board properties proved that Eucalyptus nitens could be used for the particleboard production. As board density increases, higher mechanical properties were founded. Thickness swelling and water absorption decreased as density of particleboard increased. High correlation factors (> 0,7 between dependent variables (thickness swelling, absorption, bending strength and IB and board density were obtained. Due to swelling is a critical property, we recommend the addition of a wax emulsion and a catalyst in the middle layer of the particleboard.

Hernán Poblete W

2010-01-01

85

Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese eucalyptus forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emission to the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Eucalyptus globulus was studied in the laboratory with young specimen, and in the field with adult trees. Eucalyptus emits both monoterpenes and isoprene. The leaves of young trees emit at higher rates than the leaves of adult trees. The emission of isoprene is highly predominant during the day. The emission of isoprene is dependent on temperature and solar radiation. The emission rate follows the Guenther algorithm if a based emission factor of 32 {mu}gg{sub dw} {sup -1}h{sup -1} is used, increasing with temperature, to a maximum at 40{sup o}C. At higher temperatures there is a decrease in the emission rate. The main C{sub 10} emitted is 1,8-cineol. Cineol emissions increase exponentially with temperature, and are also seasonally dependent. Application of the emission algorithm to the Portuguese eucalyptus forests shows that during summer isoprene and monoterpene emissions by eucalyptus are of the same order of anthropogenic VOC production. Furthermore, in certain regions, in the center-north of Portugal, where eucalyptus forests are predominant, isoprene emissions can reach an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic production of VOCs during daytime periods in July and August. (Author)

Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

2001-07-01

86

Painéis de madeira aglomerada de resíduos da laminação de diferentes procedências de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus cloeziana / Wood paticleboards made from residues obtained in the veneer production of eucalypt species and provenances  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se fazer a avaliação de 15 procedências de espécies de Eucalyptus cloeziana,Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna, com idade de 31 anos, sendo que esse teste foi instalado no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram fabricados 6 painéis aglomerados para cada pro [...] cedência, a partir dos resíduos gerados pela laminação desse material. Foi utilizado o adesivo uréia-formaldeído com 8%, e parafina a 1%, ambos com base nos seus respectivos teores de sólidos. Os painéis foram prensados à temperatura de 160ºC, pressão específica de 3,92MPa por tempo de 8 minutos. A partir dos resultados concluiu-se que: em absorção de água, destacou-se a espécie Eucalyptus saligna; em inchamento em espessura, a procedência 43 mostrou melhor desempenho dentro da espécie de Eucalyptus grandis; foram obtidos resultados superiores para Eucalyptus cloeziana no que se refere à compressão e MOE; para Eucalyptus grandis, a procedência de número 10695 apresentou melhores propriedades de MOE e MOR. De forma geral, a procedência 10.695 e as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis foram as que apresentaram maiores potenciais para a produção de painéis aglomerados. Abstract in english This work aimed the evaluation of 15 (fifteen) provenances of three eucalypt species: Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The trees were 31 years old and the test was developed in the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Six particleboards for each provenance we [...] re made by using the residues generated in the veneer production of this material. It was used urea-formaldehyde at 8% resin level and paraffin at 1%, both according to their respective solid content. The boards were produced by using a pressing cycle with temperature of 160 ºC, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm² and pressing time of 8 minutes. From the results, it was concluded that the specie Eucalyptus saligna was the best one in terms of water absorption. The 43 provenance of Eucalyptus grandis showed the best development of thickness swelling. Superior results of compression and elastic modulus were found to Eucalyptus cloeziana. The provenance of number 10695 of the specie Eucalyptus grandis presented the best results for elastic and rupture modulus. In general, the provenance 10695 and species of Eucalyptus grandis showed the greatest potential for production of particleboard.

José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Fábio Akira, Mori.

2011-12-01

87

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

OpenAIRE

A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that...

Tamilvendhan, D.; Ilangovan, V.

2011-01-01

88

Caracterización fitosanitaria de astillas de Eucalyptus spp. y de especies nativas / Phytosanitary characterization of Eucalyptus spp. and native species chips  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se entregan los primeros antecedentes sobre el estado sanitario de astillas de Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens y de especies nativas. Se estudiaron ocho embarques de astillas, en los cuales el principal problema debido principalmente al tiempo de acanchado del producto fue la presencia de hongos manc [...] hadores pertenecientes al género Ceratocystis. No existen problemas ocasionados por insectos, sólo se detectó la presencia de galerías, en un porcentaje muy bajo de astillas de especies nativas (0,05-0,43%), no detectándose problemas en astillas de Eucalyptus spp. Abstract in english This study lists and discusses the occurrence of insects and fungi in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens) chips, as well as on chips from native forest species, for export from Chilean ports. Eight shipments were inspected and analyzed. The main problem was the establishment of Ceratocyst [...] is spp. fungi during chip storage. Although no insect species were found, empty galleries were present in the native hardwoods, albeit at very low frequencies (0.05-0.43%). There were no detectable problems with Eucalyptus chips.

DOLLY, LANFRANCO; SANDRA, IDE; CECILIA, RUIZ; ISABEL, VIVES; HERNAN, PEREDO.

2003-01-01

89

Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ? 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

90

WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

2010-08-01

91

Identification and frequency of transposable elements in Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Transposable elements (TE) are major components of eukaryotic genomes and involved in cell regulation and organism evolution. We have analyzed 123,889 expressed sequence tags of the Eucalyptus Genome Project database and found 124 sequences representing 76 TE in 9 groups, of which copia, MuDR and FA [...] R1 groups were the most abundant. The low amount of sequences of TE may reflect the high efficiency of repression of these elements, a process that is called TE silencing. Frequency of groups of TE in Eucalyptus libraries which were prepared with different tissues or physiologic conditions from seedlings or adult plants indicated that developing plants experience the expression of a much wider spectrum of TE groups than that seen in adult plants. These are preliminary results that identify the most relevant TE groups involved with Eucalyptus development, which is important for industrial wood production.

Maurício, Bacci Jr.; Rafael B.S., Soares; Eloíza, Tajara; Guilherme, Ambar; Carlos N., Fischer; Ivan R., Guilherme; Eduardo P., Costa; Vitor F.O., Miranda.

92

Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

2010-08-01

93

Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

Rudi Setiadji

2012-11-01

94

Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (?g/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 ?m by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

Worthington Tony

2010-09-01

95

Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

2009-09-01

96

Variación genética en plántulas de Eucalyptus spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa en plántulas de 7 meses de edad pertenecientes a 42 familias de polinización libre de tres especies de Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. resinifera, y E. rudis. El ensayo se estableció en condiciones de vivero con germoplasma colectado en plantaciones establecidas en la cuenca del Valle de México. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de variación significativa (P?0.05 entre especies y entre familias dentro de especies para las variables altura, diámetro, número de hojas y número de ramas, aunque no en el área foliar. A nivel de especies se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las variables relacionadas con la acumulación y distribución de biomasa, excepto en el peso seco de las hojas. También se encontró una variación significativa (P?0.01 a nivel de familias dentro de especies en el peso seco del tallo, el peso seco de hojas y la biomasa aérea mientras que el peso seco de las ramas y la biomasa de raíz no presentaron una variación significativa entre las familias. El componente de variación de familias dentro de especies aportó del 2 al 12 % de la variación fenotípica total, mientras que las especies contribuyeron sólo del 0.5 a 7.5 de esta variación. El mayor porcentaje de variación se presentó dentro de parcelas, con valores de 80 a 90 % del total en todas las variables de crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa de las plántulas.

H. C. Mart\\u00EDnez Hern\\u00E1ndez

2001-01-01

97

Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

2014-07-01

98

Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-06-01

99

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

100

RAPD and freezing resistance in Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus globulus is the second most important forest species in Chile, after Pinus radiata. The main advantages of E. globulus are its fast growth (25 m³/ha/year) and its excellent wood quality for kraft pulp production. On the negative side, its low freezing tolerance has been an obstacle for th [...] e expansion of plantations, specifically on the foothills of the Andes. The difference in the freezing resistance between clones of E. globulus has a genetic base and, therefore, it could be detected through DNA molecular markers. Fifteen clones of E. globulus, eight classified as freezing resistant and seven as freezing sensitive were analyzed using the technique of RAPD, in order to obtain molecular markers that could differentiate between freezing sensitive and resistant clones. Eighteen primers amplified reproducible bands. Three bands were only present in freezing resistant clones, two bands of 768 bp, 602 bp obtained with UBC 218 primer and one band of 248 bp obtained with UBC 237 primer. The preliminary results indicate that polymorphism can be observed with the primers employed, but it is not possible to associate the bands with the cold resistance or susceptibility in E. globulus.

Marta, Fernández R.; Sofía, Valenzuela A.; Claudio, Balocchi L..

2006-06-01

101

Selección de funciones de distribución de frecuencias diamétricas, para Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus dunnii en Uruguay / Selecting diametric frequency distribution functions for Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la precisión de las distribuciones de Weibull, Weibull reversa, S B de Johnson, Gamma y Beta, ajustadas por método de los momentos y máxima verosimilitud, para describir distribuciones diamétricas de Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus dunnii en Uru [...] guay. Se utilizaron datos de un total de 429 parcelas permanentes de P. taeda, 185 parcelas de E. globulus y 271 parcelas de E. dunnii. Para compararla calidad del ajuste de las funciones de densidad de probabilidad (fdp) se utilizaron la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y el índice de error de Reynolds. La función S B de Johnson presentó un mejor ajuste en las parcelas de P. taeda, mientras la función Weibull reversa fue más precisa para las especies de Eucalyptus. El método de los momentos resultó con mayor precisión que el método de máxima verosimilitud. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Weibull, reverse Weibull, S B Johnson, Gamma and Beta distributions, fitted with the method of moments and maximum likelihood, for describing diameter distributions in stands of Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus, and Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay. D [...] ata from 429 permanent plots of P. taeda, 185 plots of E. globulus and 271 plots of E. dunnii were used. To compare the quality of fit for the probability distribution function (pdf), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Reynolds error indices were used. The function S B Johnson presented a better fit on the plots of P. taeda, while the inverted Weibull function was more accurate for Eucalyptus species. The method of moments was more accurate than maximum likelihood.

Andrés, Hirigoyen; Cecilia, Rachid.

102

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS  

OpenAIRE

A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2) are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chry...

Ananda Et Al, K.

2012-01-01

103

Evolução da silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos tem-se assistido, no Brasil, a um aumento no interesse pela silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus, principalmente decorrente das vantagens do processo quanto à possibilidade de contornar problemas de doenças, heterogeneidade e produtividade dos plantios florestais. Diante do crescente u [...] so de clones, tanto pelas grandes empresas como por pequenos investidores, inclusive produtores rurais, têm-se observado consideráveis avanços tecnológicos, nas últimas décadas, quanto aos processos de seleção de árvores, resgate de árvores superiores, avaliação de clones, produção comercial de mudas (estaquia, miniestaquia e microestaquia) e em práticas silviculturais adotadas na implantação e condução dos plantios de florestas clonais. Buscou-se enfocar os principais temas relacionados ao processo de clonagem do Eucalyptus. Abstract in spanish Evolución de la silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus en Brasil. En los últimos años, en Brasil, hubo un aumento en el interés por la silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus, debido principalmente a las ventajas del proceso en cuanto a la posibilidad de resolver problemas de enfermedades, heterogeneidad y pro [...] ductividad de las plantaciones forestales. El creciente uso de clones, tanto por las grandes empresas como por pequeños inversionistas, inclusive productores rurales, generó considerables avances tecnológicos en las últimas décadas, con relación a procesos de selección de árboles, rescate de individuos superiores, evaluación de clones, producción comercial de plantas (estaquilla, miniestaquilla y microestaquilla) y en las prácticas silviculturales adoptadas en la siembra y conducción de plantaciones forestales clonales. En este sentido, se busca enfocar los principales temas relacionados al proceso de clonación de Eucalyptus, involucarados en un programa clonal de esta especie. Abstract in english Evolution in Brazil of Eucalyptus clonal silviculture. In the last years in Brazil there has been an increased interest in Eucalyptus clonal silviculture, mainly due to advantages in diseases control, reduced heterogeneity and increase in commercial plantations productivity. Clone usage has increase [...] d among large forestry companies, as well as small investors, including rural producers, due to a better perception of technology advances in last decades, such as processes of plus-tree selection and rescue, clonal evaluation, commercial cuttings production (cutting, minicutting and microcutting), as well as diverse new silvicultural treatments related to clonal forestry. This article focuses on main issues related to Eucalyptus clonal processes, as part of this tree species clonal silviculture.

Aloisio, Xavier; Rogério Luiz, da Silva.

2010-06-01

104

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

105

Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 ?g/disk and rifampin (5 ?g/disk were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and nystatin (100 ?g/disk for antifungal studies. The results of MIC study revealed that the essential oil has a stronger activity and broader spectrum than those of methanol extracts. It is interesting to point out that the oils had even greater potential of antimicrobial activities than those of 1,8-cineole as their main component.

Safaei-Ghomi Javad

2010-01-01

106

SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring  

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Full Text Available Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con temperaturas no superiores a los 50°C, con un bajo potencial de secado e incluyeron tratamientos de vaporizado para recuperar colapso y reducir tensiones de secado. Se evaluaron contenidos de humedad inicial y final, densidad básica, gradientes de humedades, grietas, contracciones, tensiones y alabeos, determinando finalmente su aprovechamiento en pisos, blocks y muebles. Los resultados indican que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens presenta una fuerte evaporación superficial, generando altos gradientes de humedad, contracciones prematuras a nivel de superficie y tensiones de secado bajo el P.S.F, originando grietas superficiales e internas. Cuando el colapso es severo, debido a la baja resistencia mecánica de la pared celular de la madera, se generan grietas superficiales e internas en la madera. El mejor aprovechamiento se obtuvo para madera radial, donde el Eucalyptus globulus registró entre 52 y 81% para blocks, entre 48 y 91% para piso y entre 38 y 89% para muebles. El Eucalyptus nitens registró entre 60 y 71% en blocks, entre 59 y 61% para piso y entre 52 y 63% para muebles. La pérdida por nudos en Eucalyptus globulus fluctuó entre 3 y 22% en madera radial y entre 5 y 24% para madera tangencial. Para Eucalyptus nitens, en tanto, fluctuó entre 12 y 19% y entre 15 y 34% para los cortes antes señalados. La pérdida por grietas en Eucalyptus globulus varió entre 3 y 10% para madera radial y entre 15 y 21% para tangencial. En el Eucalyptus nitens ésta fluctuó entre 3 y 13% y entre 5 y 38%. Lo anterior, permite concluir que la madera de corte radial es la mejor opción para ser utilizada en estas aplicacionesDrying tests on both Eucalyptus nitens and globulus radial and tangential timber were carried out at Universidad del Bío-Bío Laboratories, under the approach of the D98I1018 FONDEF Project to be later validated at an industrial scale. A 30 mm-thick, 1.8 meter-long and random with scantling was used at a laboratory level, while the one applied at industrial level showed 32 mm of thickness, the lengths of which ranging from 2.1 to 2.8 meters, and variable widths. As general rule, mild drying programs were used, at temperatures not higher than 50°C, and having low drying potential. In turn, such programs included steaming based treatment with the purpose of overcoming collapse and reduce drying tensile. The following was assessed: initial and final moisture content, basic density, moisture gradients, checks, shrinkage, tensile and warpage, to finally specify their utilization in flooring, blocks and furniture. Outcomes have shown that Eucalyptus nitens timber features a high surface evaporation, thus generating high moisture gradients, early shrinkage at surface level, along with below P.S.F. drying related tensile, which, in turn, brings about surface and internal checks. When collapse turns to be severe, and because of timber cell wall mechanical strength, both surface and internal checks show up. A better utilization was achieved for radial timber, where Eucalyptus globulus values ranged from 52 to 81% in the case of blocks, form 58 to 91% with respect to flooring, and between 38 and 89% in the case of furniture. Eucalyptus globulus figures ranged from 60 to 71% for blocks, from 59 to 61% for flooring, and between 52 and 63% in the case of furniture. Losses caused by knots in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 22% in the case of radial timber, while the tangential one featured a 5 to 24% variation. On the other hand, Eucalyptus nitens timber showed variations from 12 to 19%, and from 15 to 34% f

Carlos Rozas

2005-01-01

107

Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones.The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS culture media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid. It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges

2011-04-01

108

Produção e decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii / Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção continuada de madeira em plantios comerciais exige conhecimento do processo de ciclagem de nutrientes, que envolve, entre outros aspectos, a produção e a decomposição de serapilheira. Assim, neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar a influência das variáveis climáticas na produção de serapilh [...] eira e de seus componentes, além de avaliar a taxa de decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. Para a execução do estudo, foram instaladas 4 parcelas de 20 m x 20 m, em cada uma foram instalados 4 coletores para as frações folhas, galhos finos e miscelânea da serapilheira e 3 subparcelas para a coleta da fração galhos grossos. O tecido vegetal coletado foi utilizado para o cálculo da deposição e da correlação existente entre variáveis climáticas e deposição. As variáveis climáticas utilizadas, com base mensal, foram temperatura média, temperatura máxima média, temperatura mínima média, precipitação pluviométrica, umidade relativa média, velocidade média do vento, evapotranspiração e radiação solar média, ambas fornecidas por uma estação experimental. Já, para a avaliação da decomposição da serapilheira foram coletadas aleatoriamente 4 amostras quadradas de 0,25 m de lado em cada parcela, utilizadas para a determinação do coeficiente de decomposição (K), meia vida (t0,5) e tempo de decomposição de 95% da serapilheira (t0,95). A produção mensal de serapilheira foi fracamente correlacionada com variáveis climáticas e apresentou média anual de 7,4 Mg ha-1, sendo composta predominantemente pela fração folhas (60%). A decomposição de serapilheira foi considerada lenta. Abstract in english The sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposi [...] tion in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K), half life (t0,5 ) and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 ). The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%). The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Robson Schaff, Corrêa; Márcio, Viera; Elias Frank de, Araújo.

2013-09-01

109

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora / Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p- [...] cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC).

Marinalva Oliveira, Freitas; Mary Anne S., Lima; Edilberto R., Silveira.

1926-19-01

110

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

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Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC.

Marinalva Oliveira Freitas

2007-01-01

111

Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

2007-07-01

112

Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Full Text Available As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v, 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA. Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto.Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or without the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v, 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA. Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

M.R.R Pereira

2011-09-01

113

Biological Activity of Eucalyptus Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Marseille : International Society for Advancement of Supercritical Fluids, 2014, s. 60. ISBN 978-2-37111-002-1. [European Meeting on Supercritical Fluids /14./. Marseille (FR), 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SFE * eucalyptus * fractionation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

Topia?, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Machalová, Zde?ka; Karban, Jind?ich; Pavela, R.

114

Optimizing the choice of microsatellite markers for fingerprinting eucalyptus  

OpenAIRE

In this study we have analyzed the information provided by 17 publicly available Eucalyptus microsatellite (SSR) markers (Brondani et al. 1998, 2002; Jones et al. 2002; Steane et al. 2001) in the context of genetic identification within a sample of 140 individuals from an elite collection (denoted hereafter base) of RAIZ genetic improvement population.

Sa?nchez, L.; Ribeiro, M. M. A.; Ribeiro, C.; Arau?jo, J. A.; Borralho, N.; Marques, C. M.

2004-01-01

115

Antimicrobial and Gastroprotective Activities of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae Crude Extracts  

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Full Text Available The crude extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial and gastro-protective activities in albino rats. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by screening the crude plant extract for activity against Candida albicans and clinically isolated gentamycin resistant wound bacteria viz: Staphylococcus aureus UCH 2600, Escherichia coli UCH 2554, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 2780 and Proteus mirabilis UCH 2773. These microorganisms were susceptible to the crude extracts at a 10 mg mL-1 concentration. The gastroprotective activity of the methanol extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (MEEC was investigated in rats. Gastro protection was evaluated against gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol/HCl mixture. The Hcl/Ethanol mixture (1.5 mL of 0.15 N HCl in 70% ethanol caused severe gastric damage with ulcer index 2.7?0.33. Pre-treatment of animals with crude extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf 200 and 1000 mg kg-1 orally for 1 h significantly reduced the formation of ulcer by the HCl/ethanol mixture with preventive ratios of 56 and 89%, respectively. Ranitidine afforded 92.5% protection. The results suggest that crude extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis has both antimicrobial and anti-ulcer properties.

B.A. Adeniyi

2006-01-01

116

Termorretificação e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / Heat treatment and color of Eucalyptus grandis wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A termorretificação pode ser utilizada na alteração da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante às madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações colorimétricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 °C, por três, cinco e sete ho [...] ras. Corpos de prova de 2 × 2 × 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliação de claridade (L), matriz vermelho (a*), matriz amarelo (b*), saturação (C) e ângulo de tinta (H). A claridade (L*) reduziu-se a partir de 140 °C; a matriz vermelho (a*), a partir de 140 °C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*), a saturação e o ângulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 °C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alteração da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificação escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliação do uso do material. Abstract in english Heat treatment can be used to change the color of timber, adding value to it. In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in color of Eucalyptus grandis wood subjected to 140, 170, 200, and 230 °C for three, five, and seven hours. Samples of 2 × 2 × 2 cm were dried and heat treated to evaluate light [...] ness (L), a* coordinate (green-red coordinate), b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H). Lightness (L *) decreased as from 140 °C. a* coordinate (green-red coordinate) decreased as from 140 °C for five hours. b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H), saturation, and ink angle reduced as from 170 °C. Temperature was more effective than time to change the color of timber. Heat treatment darkened the wood and can be an alternative to add value to this material.

Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; Elias de Sá, Farias; Teodorico Alves da, Silveira.

2014-03-01

117

Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

Mauro Valdir Schumacher

2009-09-01

118

Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis / Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da [...] madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m) com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR) e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses) e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial. Abstract in english The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Euc [...] alyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m), as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR). The oldest trees (166 months - E2) which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA).

Fabrício Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Robert Cardoso, Sartório.

2009-06-01

119

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980, para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm were collected from 14 trees of Eucalyptus grandis derived from the `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980 model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

Fred Willians Calonego

2006-06-01

120

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01

121

Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae  

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Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Lagartas de T. arnobia alimentadas na geração anterior com folhas de E. grandis preferiram folhas jovens de E. grandis e E.cloeziana, enquanto as alimentadas com E. saligna, na geração anterior, preferiram folhas velhas de E. grandis. A espécie preferida por lagartas de T. arnobia foi E. grandis, observando-se, também maior preferência por folhas jovens que por folhas velhas nas espécies utilizadas nos testes.Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is considered one of the most serious Eucalyptus pests in Brazil. This work was carried out aiming to study feeding preference of T. arnobia and the influence of leaf age on the host selection, using young and old leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Caterpillars fed with E. grandis leaves in previous generation, preferred young leaves of E. grandis and E. cloeziana, while caterpillars fed with E. saligna in previous generation preferred old leaves of E. grandis. The most consumed species was E. grandis, and the caterpillars preferred young leaves than old ones, for all species studied.

Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

1999-01-01

122

Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. PMID:25303462

Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

2014-12-01

123

Anti-trypanosomal Potential of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis in both the human and animal forms has been confronted with multidimensional problems that include paucity of drugs, resistance, high cost, prolonged treatment protocol and adverse side effects. The main objective of this study was to explore alternative sources of antitrypanosomal agents from the leaves, stem and root barks of Eucalyptus camaldulensis The plant parts were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water; and the extracts screened for antitrypanosomal activity. Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei were administered intraperitoneally doses ranging from 200-600 mg/kg body weight/day of the extracts for 21 consecutive days. One control group was treated with 3.5mg/kg bodyweight of berenil while the other control group was left untreated. The methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf produced complete cure for the animals in the different dose groups and survived as long as those treated with the standard drug, berenil, although the clearance time was faster for the standard drug. Sub inoculation of healthy mice with the blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF of the cured mice did not result in infection, thus indicating a complete and permanent cure. Acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf confirmed the safety of the extract because no mortality was recorded even at 5000 mg/kg bodyweight. However, the extract had no prophylactic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of E. camaldulensis leaf gave 10 fractions, with only fractions 8 and 9 exhibiting minimal antitrypanosomal activities that were not comparable to those of the crude extract and the standard drug (p?0.05. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenes, steroids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and fatty acids in both the crude extract and fraction 9; while fraction 8 contained only terpenes, steroids and fatty acids. Data from GC-MS analysis of the two fractions indicated likely components to be methyl esters, amides, long chain alkenes and alcohols. The result of this study shows that the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf has immense potential for the development of drugs against African trypanosomiasis.

Y.A. Kabiru

2013-04-01

124

RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during t...

Villar Emilie; Klopp Christophe; Noirot Céline; Novaes Evandro; Kirst Matias; Plomion Christophe; Gion Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

125

Afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus and leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain  

OpenAIRE

To test the hypothesis that decomposition of leaf species in streams is influenced by afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus, we compared decay rates, nutrient levels, fungal biomass and macroinvertebrate assemblages on alder and eucalyptus leaf litter in three streams (two headwaters under different forests, and a mid reach) of the Agüera catchment (northern Spain). Whatever the reach, alder always decomposed significantly faster than eucalyptus. Litter contents in nitrogen and phosphorus r...

Pozo, Jesu?s; Basaguren, Ana; Elosegi, Arturo; Molinero, Jon; Fabre, Eric; Chauvet, Eric

1998-01-01

126

Plantations clonales d'eucalyptus hybrides en République Populaire du Congo  

OpenAIRE

Clonal plantations of hybrid eucalyptus trees in the Popular Republic of Congo. The eucalyptus tree can grow in many different climates. The artificial pollinisation allows the production of hydrides with high performances (quick growth and early start in production). Indefinite multiplication is then possible through cuttings as described by Martin in 1976. In that context, it is possible to use the eucalyptus to afforest semi-arid areas.

Mennig, X.

1989-01-01

127

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

OpenAIRE

The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm)...

Rdova, C. C.; Barrandeguy, M.; Navarrete, E.

2012-01-01

128

Allelopathic Effect of Eucalyptus on Soil Characteristics and Growth of Maize  

OpenAIRE

The allelopathic effect of eucalyptus extract on maize grown in different soil series of D.I.Khan was evaluated at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, during 1996. The results showed that aqueous extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis reduced germination seedlings height, fresh shoot weight and fresh root weight of maize seed. More dry matter was produced in extract applied seedlings. Application of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis reduced pH and increased in all soil series phosphoru...

Ayyaz Khan, M.; Tahir Afzal Khitran; Safdar Baloch, M.; Zubair Sulemani, M.

1999-01-01

129

Molecular Variability in North Indian Isolates of Cylindrocladium quinquieseptatum Causing Eucalyptus Leaf and Seedling Blight  

OpenAIRE

Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum has been considered as the most destructive pathogen of Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations in north India. Genetic resistance has not been determined against this disease in Eucalyptus and genetic diversity among the fungal population in northern India is not known. Seventy three isolates from infected leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus were collected from different northern Indian state and analyzed through RAPD-PCR for screening genetic diversity. The UPGMA clu...

Mohanty, Partha Sarathi; Pandey, Amit; Arya, Pooja; Harsh, N. S. K.

2011-01-01

130

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil  

OpenAIRE

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

Callisto, M.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Moreno, P.

2002-01-01

131

Allelopathic Effect of Eucalyptus on Soil Characteristics and Growth of Maize  

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Full Text Available The allelopathic effect of eucalyptus extract on maize grown in different soil series of D.I.Khan was evaluated at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, during 1996. The results showed that aqueous extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis reduced germination seedlings height, fresh shoot weight and fresh root weight of maize seed. More dry matter was produced in extract applied seedlings. Application of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis reduced pH and increased in all soil series phosphorus level.

M. Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

132

Colorimetry of woods from Eucalyptus and Corymbia genus and its correlation with density  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize the wood color of Corymbia citriodora (Hook. K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson, Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, Eucalyptus paniculata Sm. and Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden; and to determine its correlationship with wood density in order to evaluate the potential of colorimetry as a tool for identification and qualification of wood. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using the CM 2600d spectrophotometer from Konica Minolta. Theresults indicated significant differences between wood densities of all species. Eucalyptus paniculata wood presented the highest density while Eucalyptus grandis wood presented the lowest density. Correlation analysis between color and density showed that the denser woods, considering the species from the Eucalyptus genus studied, are darker (lower L* and present redder (a* and more yellow (b* hues. However, the behavior was different for Corymbia citriodora, whose wood had high density, light color and little red hue, indicating that color variables and density combination has potential to segregate the Corymbia citriodora species from other Eucalyptus species studied. The denser woods of Eucalyptus pellita are darker in the radial section, while woods of Eucalyptus paniculata presented more yellow hue (b* in the tangential section. Each species presented a specific color, given by colorimetric variables, showing the potential of colorimetry for wood identification.

Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

2014-12-01

133

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in southeast Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus. PMID:12185924

Callisto, M; Barbosa, F A R; Moreno, P

2002-02-01

134

Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2 apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66. Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3.Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated from coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2 presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66. Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

2009-04-01

135

Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method / Transformação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenário silvicultural mundial devido à sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rápido e produção de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gênero é dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformação genética impor [...] tante ferramenta para esse propósito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagação in vitro para indução, regeneração e seleção que permita a obtenção de plantas transgênicas a partir de grupos de células transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formação de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformação genética de folhas e calos através da infecção por A. tumefaciens. Para a formação de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentração de nitrogênio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e água de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformação genética de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas à técnica de agrobiobalística, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartículas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferência do gene, enquanto para a transformação genética dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influência de diferentes períodos de infecção. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformação genética de folhas através da técnica de agrobiobalística foi efetiva, sendo possível observar a expressão transiente do gene gus, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os períodos de infecção (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens também apresentaram expressão transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regeneração e seleção e apresentaram formação de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for th [...] is purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

Evânia Galvão, Mendonça; Vanessa Cristina, Stein; Flávia Pereira, Balieiro; Carolina Delfin Fernandes, Lima; Breno Régis, Santos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva.

2013-06-01

136

Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis / Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entr [...] e 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 a [...] nd 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.

Jussara Bertho, Fantinatti; Roberto, Usberti.

2007-01-01

137

Colorimetria de madeiras dos gêneros Eucalyptus e Corymbia e sua correlação com a densidade / Colorimetry of woods from Eucalyptus and Corymbia genus and its correlation with density  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Conduziu-se, este estudo, com os objetivos de caracterizar a cor da madeira de Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson, Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, Eucalyptus paniculata Sm. e Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden; e determinar sua correlação com a densidade da madeira, visando a avaliar [...] o potencial da colorimetria como uma ferramenta para a identificação e qualificação da madeira. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas segundo o sistema CIE L*a*b* com o auxílio do espectrofotômetro portátil CM 2600d da Konica Minolta. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas entre as densidades das espécies estudadas, sendo a madeira de Eucalyptus paniculata a mais densa e a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis a menos densa. As análises de correlação entre acor e a densidade monstraram que as madeiras mais densas, para as espécies do gênero Eucalyptus estudadas, são mais escuras (menor L*) e apresentam mais pigmento vermelho (a*) e amarelo (b*). Entretanto, o comportamento foi diferente para o Corymbia citriodora, cuja madeira apresentou alta densidade, cor clara e pouco pigmento vermelho, indicando que a combinação das variáveis colorimétricas e da densidade apresenta potencial para segregar a espécie Corymbia citriodora das demais espécies de Eucalyptus estudadas. As madeiras mais densas de Eucalyptus pellita são mais escuras na seção radial, enquanto que as madeiras de Eucalyptus paniculata apresentaram mais pigmento amarelo na seção tangencial. Cada espécie apresentou uma coloração específica, dada pelas variáveis colorimétricas, mostrando o potencial da colorimetria na identificação de madeiras Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to characterize the wood color of Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson, Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, Eucalyptus paniculata Sm. and Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden; and to determine its correlationship with wood density in order to evaluate the po [...] tential of colorimetry as a tool for identification and qualification of wood. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using the CM 2600d spectrophotometer from Konica Minolta. Theresults indicated significant differences between wood densities of all species. Eucalyptus paniculata wood presented the highest density while Eucalyptus grandis wood presented the lowest density. Correlation analysis between color and density showed that the denser woods, considering the species from the Eucalyptus genus studied, are darker (lower L*) and present redder (a*) and more yellow (b*) hues. However, the behavior was different for Corymbia citriodora, whose wood had high density, light color and little red hue, indicating that color variables and density combination has potential to segregate the Corymbia citriodora species from other Eucalyptus species studied. The denser woods of Eucalyptus pellita are darker in the radial section, while woods of Eucalyptus paniculata presented more yellow hue (b*) in the tangential section. Each species presented a specific color, given by colorimetric variables, showing the potential of colorimetry for wood identification.

Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Nathalia Silveira de, Oliveira; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; Natália Dias de, Souza.

2014-12-01

138

Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China  

OpenAIRE

Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus...

WenJun Zhang

2012-01-01

139

Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus / In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 [...] clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina) e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético). Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three [...] in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS culture media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

Silvano Rodrigues, Borges; Aloisio, Xavier; Leandro Silva de, Oliveira; Aline Pontes, Lopes; Wagner Campos, Otoni.

2011-04-01

140

Performance Evaluation of Private Clouds Eucalyptus versus CloudStack  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available the number of open source cloud management platforms is increasing day-by-day. The features of these software vary significantly and this creates a difficulty for the cloud consumers to choose the software based on their business and scientific requirements. This paper evaluates Eucalyptus and CloudStack, the two most popular open source platforms used to build private Infrastructure as a service (IaaS clouds. The performance of virtual machines (VMs initiated and managed by Eucalyptus and CloudStack are evaluated in terms of CPU utilization, memory bandwidth, disk I/O access speed, and network performance using suitable benchmarks. Different VM management operations such as add, delete and live migration are also assessed to determine which cloud solution is more suitable than other to be adopted as a private cloud solution. As a further performance testing, a simple web application has been implemented on the both clouds to evaluate their suitability in web application hosting.

Mumtaz M.Ali AL-Mukhtar

2014-06-01

141

Selection of clones of Eucalyptus urophylla for plywood production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed at the evaluation of six (6 Eucalyptus urophylla clones of Companhia Mineira Metais – Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO for making particleboard panels. Six (6 panels to each clone studies were produced. About 320g/m² of Phenol phormol aldehyde adhesives Were utilized. The pressing cycle parameters were: pressure of 1.47MPa, temperature of 150ºC and 10 minutes of pressing time. It was concluded that clones of Eucalyptus urophylla show a great potential for production of particleboard panels, since they presented values of physical and mechanical properties above the ones referenced in literature and highly superior to those required by the ABNT Standards 31:000.05-00/2 (static bending and EN 314-2 (shearing resistance, the tested clones can be used for producing concrete mold (FOR. The clone which stood out the most in all the properties tested was the clone 36.

José Benedito Guimarães Júnior

2012-12-01

142

The post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway in Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a conserved surveillance mechanism that identifies and cleaves double-stranded RNA molecules and their cellular cognate transcripts. The RNA silencing response is actually used as a powerful technique (named RNA interference) for potent and specific inhi [...] bition of gene expression in several organisms. To identify gene products in Eucalyptus sharing similarities with enzymes involved in the PTGS pathway, we queried the expressed sequence tag database of the Brazilian Eucalyptus Genome Sequence Project Consortium (FORESTs) with the amino acid sequences of known PTGS-related proteins. Among twenty-six prospected genes, our search detected fifteen assembled sequences encoding products presenting high level of similarity (E value

Flávio Tetsuo, Sassaki; Tiago, Campos-Pereira; Ivan de Godoy, Maia.

143

Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

2015-02-14

144

Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus globulus por embriogénese somática  

OpenAIRE

A embriogénese somática (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padrão de micropropagação, desde a indução à aclimatização. A propagação clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefícios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um método efectivo de conseguir ganhos genéticos ...

Pinto, Glo?ria Catarina Cintra Da Costa

2007-01-01

145

Dinâmica de decomposição e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus no sul do Brasil / Litter decomposition and nutrients in Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus Hybrid Stand in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada, sua decomposição e a taxa de disponibilização de nutrientes em um plantio híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram demarcadas quatro parcelas (20 m Ã- 20 m) e, em cada uma delas, [...] foram coletadas estacionalmente (entre março de 2007 e dezembro de 2010) quatro amostras de forma aleatória. A quantidade de serapilheira estocada sobre o solo foi, em média, de 14,0 Mg ha-1.O coeficiente de decomposição foi de 0,54, com tempo médio para a renovação (1/K) de 1,86 anos e tempo médio para decomposição de 50 e 95% da serapilheira em 1,29 e 5,59 anos, respectivamente. O potássio apresentou o maior coeficiente de devolução (0,52), seguido por B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu; consequentemente, o potássio apresentou menor tempo médio de residência na serapilheira (0,91 anos). Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to determine the litter accumulation stock, its decomposition and nutrient release in an Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state. Four plots were demarcated (20 m Ã- 20 m) and four samples w [...] ere seasonally sampled (from March 2007 to December 2010) at random. Average litter accumulation on soil was 14.0 Mg ha-1. Litter accumulated showed 0.54 decomposition coefficient with average renewal time (1/K) of 1.86 years and average time to litter decomposition of 50, and 95% of litter in 1.29 and 5.59 years, respectively. Potassium presented the highest turnover (0.52), followed by B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu and consequently the lowest average residence time in the litter (0.91 years).

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Marcos Vinicius Winckler, Caldeira.

2013-09-01

146

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations  

OpenAIRE

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to eval...

Da Silva, Marliane Ca?ssia Soares; Paula, Thiago Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

147

Stress hídrico e recuperação em Eucalyptus: perfis fisiológicos  

OpenAIRE

Em Portugal, cerca de 700,000 ha foram já plantados com clones de Eucalyptus globulus, selecionados pelas suas elevadas taxas de crescimento, alta produção de polpa e adaptabilidade ambiental. Contudo, a produtividade das plantações de E. globulus tem enfrentado sérias limitações, principalmente devido à fraca disponibilidade de água. A seca é um importante stress abiótico que afeta negativamente o crescimento e o desenvolvimento das plantas, causando um conjunto de respostas fisi...

Correia, Barbara Dos Santos

2012-01-01

148

Radiation-Vegetation Relationships in a Eucalyptus Forest  

OpenAIRE

Radiation-vegetation relationships for 12 species of Eucalyptus from the south coast of New South Wales showed that the mean radiation values differed significantly between species. Confidence intervals around the mean radiation values, based on pooled standard deviation, were used as an index of species generality. There were differences in the size of the confidence intervals between species. While E. bosistoana and E. maidenii had large confidence intervals over all seasons, E. sieberi, E....

Kumar, L.; Skidmore, A. K.

2000-01-01

149

Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in eucalyptus pulps  

OpenAIRE

In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these di...

Israel González,; Sami Boufi; Maria Angels Pèlach; Manel Alcalà; Fabiola Vilaseca,; Pere Mutjé,

2012-01-01

150

Chemical composition of lipophilic extractives from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood  

OpenAIRE

The composition of lipophilic extractives in the chloroform soluble fraction of the acetone extract from Eucalyptus globulus wood has been examined. The lipid extract was fractionated by solid-phase extraction on aminopropyl-phase cartridges into four different fractions of increasing polarity. The total lipid extract and the resulting fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using high temperature capillary columns. The main compounds identif...

Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Gonza?lez-vila, Francisco Javier; Marti?n Marti?nez, Francisco

1999-01-01

151

Discovery of Ophiostoma tsotsi on Eucalyptus wood chips in China  

OpenAIRE

Ophiostoma species such as O. quercus are the most frequent causal agents of sapstain of freshly felled hardwood timber and pulpwood. Many species are regarded as economically important agents of wood degradation. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Ophiostoma isolates, resembling O. quercus, found on stained Eucalyptus pulpwood chips in China. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S region, of the ribosomal DNA, and parts of the ?-tubul...

Grobbelaar, Joha W.; Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Zhou, Xu Dong; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

152

Effectiveness of ascorbic acid and PVP in the rooting of clonal mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Eficiência do ácido ascórbico e PVP no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a eficiência dos antioxidantes ácido ascórbico e polivinilpirrolidona (PVP) no enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal, conduzido em canaletas de alvenaria pree [...] nchidas com areia lavada. Experimentalmente, foram testadas cinco concentrações de cada antioxidante nos três clones estudados (C1, C2 e C3). Foram realizadas avaliações de sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas na saída das casas de vegetação e de sombra e da sobrevivência e crescimento das mudas aos 50 dias de idade. A utilização do ácido ascórbico foi favorável para as miniestacas do clone com menor porcentual de enraizamento (C3), porém, a utilização do PVP mostrou-se desfavorável para os clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the rooting of mini-cuttings for three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Mini-cuttings were gathered from a mini-clonal hedge which had been cultivated [...] in concrete ducts containing washed sand. Five concentrations of each antioxidant were experimentally tested on each of the three clones (C1, C2 and C3). Assessments were done of mini-cutting survival and rooting rates when leaving the greenhouse and the shade house, as well as seedling survival and growth at age 50 days. Ascorbic acid was found to be beneficial to the mini-cuttings of the clone with a lower rooting percentage (C3), whereas PVP was found to be unbeneficial to the clones being studied.

Lucas Amaral de, Melo; Aloisio, Xavier; Elizabete Keiko, Takahashi; Antônio Marcos, Rosado; Haroldo Nogueira de, Paiva.

2011-12-01

153

Calonectria species associated with cutting rot of Eucalyptus  

OpenAIRE

Decline in the productivity of Eucalyptus hybrid cutting production in the Guangdong Province of China is linked to cutting rot associated with several Calonectria spp. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calonectria spp., Ca. pseudoreteaudii sp. nov. and Ca. cerciana sp. nov. were identified together with Ca. pauciramosa. Calonectria pseudoreteaudii resides in the Ca. reteaudii complex and Ca. cerciana...

Lombard, L.; Zhou, X. D.; Crous, P. W.; Wingfield, B. D.; Wingfield, M. J.

2010-01-01

154

Resistance of Eucalyptus pellita to rust (Puccinia psidii)  

OpenAIRE

Eucalypts rust (Puccinia psidii) is currently one of the major diseases in commercial eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The primary method of disease control is the use of resistant genotypes, and, among the different species of Eucalyptus, E. pellita is indicated as a promising source of resistance. In this work, the genetic control of rust resistance in E. pellita through inoculations under controlled conditions of 441 plants from four full-sibling families was studied. Inoculations ...

Marisângela Rodrigues Santos; Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende3; Leonardo Novaes Rosse; Karina Carnielli Zamprogno; Acelino Couto Alfenas

2014-01-01

155

VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.  

OpenAIRE

The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae) of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 %) and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %). The major monoterpenes characterized included ?- pinene (38.6 %), ? -.pinene (25.7%), sabinene (19.6%) and ?-thujene (11.9%). Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydroca...

Mittal Abhilasha; Ali Mohammed

2011-01-01

156

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

2012-07-01

157

DRYING BEHAVIOR AND PERMEABILITY OF Eucalyptus grandis LUMBER  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Although the increasing economic importance of Eucalyptus lumber to furniture and other value added products manufacturing, its industrial use is still small. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to dry the lumber and related loses of raw material. There is a general recommendation in literatur [...] e to use a low drying rate in initial stages of the process, and changing to a more aggressive drying after removal of liquid water from the lumber. According classical theory about drying of porous material, this point should coincide with the predominance of diffusion phenomena in the moisture movement; which could be determined through the characteristic drying curve of the material. With the objective to get better knowledge about the drying of Eucalyptus grandis lumber, its characteristic drying curve was determined, and the results proved that Eucalyptus grandis lumber is not permeable to liquid flow. Based on its characteristic drying curve, it is possible to suggest the change of drying conditions when lumber moisture content, dry basis, is between 35% and 40%, then starting a more aggressive drying

Ivaldo P, Jankowsky; Gilson Roberto V. dos, Santos.

158

Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Araújo.

2014-09-01

159

Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes. PMID:19937585

Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

2009-01-01

160

Deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. wood by xylophagous fungi  

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Full Text Available This research aimed to test the deteriorating ability of fungi isolated from Eucalyptus spp. wood and perform chemical analysis of wood deteriorated, to verify which components of wood suffered major changes in the light of the attack. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratório de Biodeterioração da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil. A total of 12 fungi were used, and nine of these came from pure cultures isolated from fragments of stumps of eucalypt woods deteriorated, collected in three distinct locations, and three with recognized capacity of deterioration that were used as the standard of comparison. The Basidiomycetous fungi 1 and 2 showed high capacity of deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. The heartwood of eucalypt showed a greater natural resistance than the sapwood, but the fungi were able to degrade both them. In general, there were, an increase in the content of extractives in wood damaged (heartwood and sapwood, for Basidiomycetous 1 and Basidiomycetous 2. The heartwood of Eucalyptus grandis there was a decrease in extractives content for both Basidiomycetes. To the holocelulose (cellulose and hemicelluloses, there were small differences between the healthy and damaged wood (mean variations around 1 %. The Fungi, Basidiomycetous 2 caused a greater degradation of lignin as compared to the Basidiomycetous 1.

Luciana Ferreira da Silva

2014-09-01

161

Individual tree growth models for eucalyptus in northern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The diameter and height growth model is one of three submodels used for simulating individual tree growth. In Brazil, there are few studies on the dimensional growth of individual trees be they native or exotic species, despite their potential. This study aimed to evaluate diameter and height growth [...] models for individual trees for eucalyptus stands and to validate the best fitting model. Tree diameter and height data were obtained from 48 permanent plots of unthinned stands of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid located in northern Brazil. The evaluation of the diameter and height growth models was based on adjusted coefficient of determination, standard error of estimate as a percentage, trend, root mean square error and Akaike Information Criterion. Analysis also included distribution of residual percentage, statistical significance and signs of the coefficients. The Lundqvist-Korf model provided the most accurate estimates for diameter and height growth, in comparison with the other models, providing better statistical values, greater proximity to observed values and better distribution of residual percentages. The use of this type of model is feasible and can result in significant improvements in the accuracy of yield estimates.

Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva.

2014-06-01

162

Antibacterial and Gastroprotective Properties of Eucalyptus torelliana [Myrtaceae] Crude Extracts  

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Full Text Available The antibacterial and gastroprotective properties of crude extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana were investigated. Antibacterial activity was investigated by screening the crude extracts for activity against clinically isolated strains of wound bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus UCH 2010, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 2125, Escherichia coli UCH 2007, Klebsiella species UCH 2694 and Proteus mirabilis CHO 2014. The dichloromethane crude extracts demonstrated highest antibacterial activity against all tested microorganisms at 10 mg mL-1 concentration. The gastroprotective effect of the crude extract of the leaf was investigated in albino rats. This was evaluated against gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol/HCl mixture. Ethanol/HCl mixture (1.5 mL of 0.15 N HCl in 70% ethanol caused severe gastric mucosal damage with ulcer index of 2.7±0.33. Pre-treatment of animals with crude extract of Eucalyptus torelliana leaf 200 and 1000 mg kg-1 orally for 1h significantly reduced the Pre-treatment of animals with 50 mg kg -1. Ranitidine for 1 h reduced the reduced the formation of ulcer by the ethanol HCl mixture with preventive ratios 56 and 92.5%, respectively. Ranitidine (50 mg kg-1 afforded 92.5% protection. The results therefore suggest that crude extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana possess both antibacterial and gastroprotective properties.

B.A. Adeniyi

2006-01-01

163

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.

Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

2009-01-01

164

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp. / Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae) biology in Eucalyptus spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo [...] biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD), sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'). Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas) tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus). As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada. Abstract in english Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD), with temperature of 26 °C and photopha [...] se of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'). Initially 100 replications (nymphs) per treatment (Eucalyptus species) were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.

Daniela Cristina, Firmino-Winckler; Carlos Frederico, Wilcken; Nádia Cristina de, Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de, Matos.

165

SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring  

OpenAIRE

Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con...

Carlos Rozas; Reinaldo Sánchez; Paula Pinedo

2005-01-01

166

Effectiveness of ascorbic acid and PVP in the rooting of clonal minicuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in the rooting of mini-cuttings for three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Mini-cuttings were gathered from a mini-clonal hedge which had been cultivated in concrete ducts containing washed sand. Five concentrations of each antioxidant were experimentally tested on each of the three clones (C1, C2 and C3. Assessments were done of mini-cutting survival and rooting rates when leaving the greenhouse and the shade house, as well as seedling survival and growth at age 50 days. Ascorbic acid was found to be beneficial to the mini-cuttings of the clone with a lower rooting percentage (C3, whereas PVP was found to be unbeneficial to the clones being studied.

Lucas Amaral de Melo

2011-12-01

167

Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus / Rooting of mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB) no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 di [...] as em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias), três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1) e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator indol butiric acid (IBA) on the rooting of apical and intermediate mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones. The mini-cutting rooting was carried out for 30 days in a [...] cclimatized greenhouse and after the cuttings were transferred to shade house, where they remained for 10 days. The experimental design was in random blocks with a triple factorial arrangement constituted by two types of mini-cuttings (apical and intermediate), three IBA concentrations (0, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1) and eleven clones, in three repetitions, composed of 12 mini-cuttings per repetition. The IBA did not affect the characteristics evaluated. The survival and rooting of apical mini-cuttings were significantly higher. There was significant difference among clones regarding the evaluated variables, except for survival after 30 days in greenhouse.

Silvano Rodrigues, Borges; Aloisio, Xavier; Leandro Silva de, Oliveira; Lucas Amaral de, Melo; Antônio Marcos, Rosado.

2011-06-01

168

Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus Rooting of mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clones  

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Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 dias em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias, três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator indol butiric acid (IBA on the rooting of apical and intermediate mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones. The mini-cutting rooting was carried out for 30 days in acclimatized greenhouse and after the cuttings were transferred to shade house, where they remained for 10 days. The experimental design was in random blocks with a triple factorial arrangement constituted by two types of mini-cuttings (apical and intermediate, three IBA concentrations (0, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1 and eleven clones, in three repetitions, composed of 12 mini-cuttings per repetition. The IBA did not affect the characteristics evaluated. The survival and rooting of apical mini-cuttings were significantly higher. There was significant difference among clones regarding the evaluated variables, except for survival after 30 days in greenhouse.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges

2011-06-01

169

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis / Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a [...] ientes do Horto Florestal de Mandurí, SP, pertencente ao Instituto Florestal de São Paulo. Em cada uma das toras foi inserido um termopar próximo ao seu centro. Posteriormente, as toras foram vaporizadas a 90 ºC e 100% de umidade relativa, durante 20 horas. Um coletor de dados registrou as temperaturas, no interior do material, durante o tratamento térmico. Conclui-se que o modelo de Steinhagen et al. (1980) não pode ser diretamente aplicado à espécie em estudo, e propõem-se fatores de correções para a utilização do modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, desenvolvido por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to [...] e `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980) model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo.

2006-06-01

170

Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

171

Ceratocystis species, including two new taxa, from Eucalyptus trees in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The ascomycete genus Ceratocystis (Microascales, Ceratocystidaceae) includes important fungal pathogens of trees, including Eucalyptus species. Ceratocystis species and their Thielaviopsis asexual states are typically associated with insects, such as nitidulid beetles, that spread them over long distances. Eucalyptus trees comprise a substantial component of the forestry industry in South Africa, however, limited information is available regarding Ceratocystis species that infect ...

Nkuekam, Gilbert Kamgan; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

2013-01-01

172

Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptu [...] s grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2) apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66). Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3. Abstract in english Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated fro [...] m coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2) presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66). Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

Fabrício Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Robert Cardoso, Sartório.

2009-04-01

173

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Four Cultivated Eucalyptus Species in Iran as Medicinal Plants (E. microtheca, E. spathulata, E. largiflorens and E. torquata)  

OpenAIRE

The leaves of four cultivated Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus microtheca var. Microtheca F.Muell., Eucalyptus spathulata, Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus torquata were collected in spring from Kashan and Isfahan provinces (central region of Iran). After drying the plant materials in shade, their essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography, using flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Twenty-two components were id...

Fatemeh Sefidkon; Mohammad Hassan Assareh,; Zahra Abravesh; Mohammad Mehdi Barazandeh

2007-01-01

174

ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

Thais Cunha Ferreira

2004-07-01

175

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels / Avaliação do potencial de uso de nove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus para produção de lâminas e compensados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espécies de Eucalyptus na produção de lâminas e painéis compensados multilaminados. As lâminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em t [...] rês classes de qualidade para as nove espécies estudadas. Os painéis compensados foram produzidos em laboratório, com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído, com gramatura de 360 g/m² (linha dupla). Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 140ºC e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminação indicaram que, com exceção de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espécies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento médio em laminação acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexão estática paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parâmetros estudados neste trabalho para produção de lâminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield a [...] ccording to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m² (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm², a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski; Leandro Soares da, Silva.

2013-06-01

176

Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances  

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Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed better. In themechanical tests, MOE presented itself above the demands of the norm with the exception of provenance 7785 of Eucalyptus saligna,in which stress was performed parallel to the cover fibers. For parallel MOR, only the provenances 9789 and 10695 of Eucalyptusgrandis and 97852 of Eucalyptus cloeziana managed to reach the demands of the norm ABNT 31:000.05-001/2. For shearing stressand failure in wood, all the provenances and species showed themselves above the demands, with the exception of 10634; 48 and 9753of Eucalyptus grandis.

Fábio Akira Mori

2009-03-01

177

Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract  

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Full Text Available Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca starch films were prepared by castingmethod with addition of eucalyptus extract and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 asplasticizers. Eucalyptus extract incorporated to the tapioca starch films were dried at different concentrations(0, 15, 25, and 35 of total solid under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as waterabsorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films wereevaluated. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of eucalyptus extract, tensile strength wasincreased from 20.60 to 15.68 (MPa, also elongation was increased from 19.31 to 23.57 (% at break andYoung’s modulus was decreased from 800.31 to 500.32 (MPa. Also incorporation of eucalyptus extract in thestructure of biopolymer increased permeability of water vapor of starch films. Tapioca starch filmsincorporated with eucalyptus extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. Coli. In summary,eucalyptus extract improves functional properties of tapioca starch films and this types of films can be used infood packaging.

M. Rojhan

2013-11-01

178

Marker constituents of the natural antioxidant Eucalyptus leaf extract for the evaluation of food additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish the marker constituents of the natural antioxidant food-additive Eucalyptus leaf extract, the UV-absorbing constituents of two eucalyptus leaf extracts registered as food additives (eucalyptus A and B) were investigated. Several major peaks on the reversed-phase HPLC chromatogram of eucalyptus A were characterized as gallic acid, ellagic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucuronides of quercetin and kaempferol, and a hydrolyzable tannin dimer, oenothein B, by direct comparison with authentic specimens isolated from Eucalyptus globulus leaves. A new gallotannin was found in the E. globulus leaf extract, and its structure was found to be 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-galactose. Two major peaks on the HPLC chromatogram of eucalyptus B were identified as gallic acid and ellagic acid, indicative of degradation products from hydrolyzable tannins in the leaves. Considering the evaluation of antioxidant activity by radical scavenging ability, a standardization of eucalyptus leaf extract, including the antioxidative polyphenol, oenothein B, is proposed. PMID:19420705

Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takashi

2009-05-01

179

Removal of chromium (vi) by using eucalyptus bark (biosorption)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorption of Chromium (VI) on the Eucalyptus bark has been studied with variation in parameters. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, amount of adsorbent, stirring speed, time, temperature and pH were studied. The adsorption has been carried out in batch process. The adsorption capacity increases with decreasing the particle size of adsorbent. The optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption are attained with 2.0 g of adsorbent, 40 ppm metal ion concentration, at room temperature (10 degree C), with 90 min contact time, with 300 rpm agitation speed and at pH 2. (author)

180

Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gez.garcia@gmail.com [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-01

181

Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ? The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ? Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. ? Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. ? Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

182

Influência do sistema de corte basal de miniestacas na propagação clonal de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii / Influence of basal cutting system of minicutings in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii hybrid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A técnica de miniestaquia permitiu o estabelecimento de florestas clonais em larga escala. Porém, pouco se avançou no seu manejo em viveiro para genótipos recalcitrantes. Assim, esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sistema de cortes na base de miniestacas na produção de mudas de um [...] clone híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii. Desta forma, foram realizadas três avaliações: 1) sobrevivência aos 30 dias em casa de vegetação; 2) enraizamento aos 45 dias em casa de sombra; e 3) aproveitamento final aos 60 dias na área de rustificação. O índice de enraizamento foi determinado com base no percentual de sobrevivência. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados constituído de três tratamentos: 1) miniestacas com corte na base perpendicular (testemunha); 2) miniestacas com corte na base em bisel (corte diagonal) e 3) miniestacas cortadas perpendicularmente, com três incisões longitudinais na base. Foram avaliadas quatro blocos de 228 plantas por bloco. Os resultados de enraizamento foram superiores a 80% nos melhores tratamentos e indicam que a propagação do clone via miniestaquia é viável, não apresentando comportamento recalcitrante. Os sistemas de corte basal das miniestaca em bisel e as incisões não favoreceram a formação de raízes. Abstract in english Mini-cutting technique has allowed establishing large scale clonal forests. However small progress has been observed in nursery management practices for recalcitrant genotypes. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of different base cut systems in mini-cuttings for seedlings production of [...] a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii. Three evaluations were performed: 1) survival in the greenhouse at the 30th day; 2) number of rooted seedlings in the shade house at the 45th day; and 3) viable seedlings in the hardening area at the 60th day. Rooting evaluation was based on survival rate. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replications and three treatments: 1) perpendicular cut at the base of mini-cuttings (control); 2) bevel cut at the base of mini-cuttings (diagonal cut); 3) perpendicular cut at the base of mini-cuttings with three longitudinal incisions in the base. Four blocks were assessed, each block was composed by 228 plants. The results of rooting were over 80% in the best treatments, indicating that the clone propagation is feasible using mini-cutting technique, and it does not show a recalcitrant behavior. The basal cut system in bevel and in longitudinal incisions did not favor rooting.

Alan Ferreira, Batista; Glêison Augusto dos, Santos; Luciana Duque, Silva; Franco Freitas, Quevedo; Teotônio Francisco de, Assis.

1115-11-01

183

A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

Couloux Arnaud

2009-03-01

184

VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included ?- pinene (38.6 %, ? -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and ?-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

Mittal Abhilasha

2011-02-01

185

APLICAÇÕES DA MICROPROPAGAÇÃO NA CLONAGEM DE EUCALYPTUS NO BRASIL  

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Full Text Available Actualmente, en Brasil, dentro de las diversas técnicas de propagación in vitro, la micropropagación ha sido la que mayor interés científico y económico ha despertado en el campo forestal. De hecho, es la técnica más difundida por sus aplicaciones prácticas. Los primeros estudios fueron realizados en la década de los 50's. Entre 1970 y 1980 fueron establecidos algunos laboratorios de cultivo de tejidos. El presente trabajo es una revisión y una síntesis de la información de las aplicaciones de la micropropagación en la clonación de Eucalyptus en los programas de silvicultura clonal de Brasil.

Aloisio Xavier

2009-01-01

186

Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (?-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus.

Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

2012-11-01

187

An assessment of volume-ratio functions for Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens in Chile / Funciones de razón de volumen para Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se calibraron modelos de razón de volumen y de volumen total para Eucalyptus nitens y Eucalyptus globulus en el sur de Chile. Los modelos fueron ajustados en forma independiente y fueron sometidos a una validación tradicional. Esta validación consideró el sesgo y error total en estimaciones de volum [...] en de productos considerando distintos índices de utilización o diámetros límite. Asimismo, las estimaciones de volumen de productos del sistema de razón de volumen fueron comparadas con las estimaciones de un modelo de ahusamiento (modelo de Bruce). Los resultados indican que funciones generales (comparadas con funciones locales) del logaritmo del volumen entregan mejores estimaciones del volumen total para ambas especies, mientras que un único modelo polinomial estima en mejor forma la razón de volumen en ambas especies. El sistema de funciones (modelos de volumen total + razón) estima insesgadamente volúmenes a diámetros límite de 5 y 10 cm para E. nitens y con un ligero sesgo para E. globulus. Para volúmenes a un diámetro límite de 18 cm las magnitudes de sesgo y error total son muy altas para ambas especies. Se encontró que estos errores totales están más relacionados con los errores en las estimaciones de volumen total que con los errores en las estimaciones de la razón de volumen. Cuando se comparan las estimaciones de volumen con la del modelo de ahusamiento se encontró que el sistema de razón de volumen tiene mejores estimaciones para E. nitens, pero para E. globulus las estimaciones del modelo de ahusamiento son mejores. Abstract in english Volume-ratio and total volume models for Eucalyptus nitens and E. globulus grown in southern Chile were ftted independently. The validation process considered the bias and the total error in the volume estimates, as well as the age classes close to thinning and harvesting operations. Volume estimate [...] s from the system of functions (volume and ratio) were compared to the volume estimates from a taper function (Bruce model) to estimate the volume at different top stem diameters. The results indicated that general (as opposed to local) logarithmic functions performed better in their estimation of the total volume for both species, while a unique polynomial model was the best model for the ratio estimates for both Eucalyptus species. The system of functions (total volume + ratio models) was an unbiased estimator for a top stem diameter of 5 and 10 cm for E. nitens, and was a slightly biased estimator for E. globulus. Estimates of the volume of top stems with 18 cm diameters had a large bias and a large total error for both species. These total errors were generally related to errors in the total volume function rather than to errors in the ratio estimates. When the volume estimates were compared with estimates from a taper function, the volumne-ratio system performed better for E. nitens while the taper function performed better for E. globulus.

Horacio, Gilabert; Carlos, Paci.

2010-04-01

188

Deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. por fungos xilófagos / Deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. wood by xylophagous fungi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade de deterioração de fungos isolados de madeiras de Eucalyptus spp. e realizar a análise química da madeira deteriorada, para verificar quais dos seus componentes sofreram maiores alterações em consequência do ataque. O experimento foi [...] conduzido no Laboratório de Biodeterioração da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, no município de Jerônimo Monteiro, ES. Doze fungos foram utilizados, destes, nove foram provenientes de culturas puras isoladas a partir de fragmentos de cepas de madeiras de eucalipto deterioradas, coletadas em três localidades distintas, e três culturas puras com reconhecida capacidade de deterioração que foram utilizadas como padrão de comparação. Dos fungos testados, os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2 exibiram boa capacidade de deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. O cerne de eucalipto teve maior resistência natural que o alburno, mas os fungos foram capazes de degradar ambas as madeiras. De modo geral, houve um incremento no teor de extrativos totais na madeira deteriorada (cerne e alburno), para os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2. Nas madeiras de cerne de Eucalyptus grandis houve decréscimo no teor de extrativos para ambos Basidiomicetos. Com relação à holocelulose (celulose + hemiceluloses), ocorreram pequenas diferenças entre as madeiras sadias e deterioradas (variações médias em torno de 1%). Dos fungos testados, o Basidiomiceto 2 causou maior degradação da lignina quando comparado ao Basidiomiceto 1. Abstract in english This research aimed to test the deteriorating ability of fungi isolated from Eucalyptus spp. wood and perform chemical analysis of wood deteriorated, to verify which components of wood suffered major changes in the light of the attack. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratório de Biodeterioraç [...] ão da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil. A total of 12 fungi were used, and nine of these came from pure cultures isolated from fragments of stumps of eucalypt woods deteriorated, collected in three distinct locations, and three with recognized capacity of deterioration that were used as the standard of comparison. The Basidiomycetous fungi 1 and 2 showed high capacity of deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. The heartwood of eucalypt showed a greater natural resistance than the sapwood, but the fungi were able to degrade both them. In general, there were, an increase in the content of extractives in wood damaged (heartwood and sapwood), for Basidiomycetous 1 and Basidiomycetous 2. The heartwood of Eucalyptus grandis there was a decrease in extractives content for both Basidiomycetes. To the holocelulose (cellulose and hemicelluloses), there were small differences between the healthy and damaged wood (mean variations around 1 %). The Fungi, Basidiomycetous 2 caused a greater degradation of lignin as compared to the Basidiomycetous 1.

Luciana Ferreira da, Silva; Juarez Benigno, Paes; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Edson Luiz, Furtado; Fábio Ramos, Alves.

2014-09-01

189

Alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / In vitro elongation of minicutings of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Brotações com pequeno alongamento poderão apresentar reduzida formação de raízes se forem diretamente cultivadas em meios de enraizamento ou, ainda, resultar em mudas de baixa qualidade para aclimatização. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dun [...] nii sob diferentes concentrações de Ácido Giberélico (GA3). Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio nutritivo MS reduzido à metade da concentração de sais (¹/2 MS) suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de Ácido alfa-Naftaleno Acético (ANA), 0,1 mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP), e variando-se o GA3, conforme tratamentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo bifatorial 6 x 4, resultante da combinação de seis genótipos e quatro concentrações de GA3 (0,0; 0,2; 0,4 e 0,8 mg L-1). Após 30 dias de cultivo in vitro, foram efetuadas as avaliações. Para a maioria dos genótipos, a ausência de GA3 resultou no maior número de brotações alongadas por explante e maior comprimento de gemas alongadas. Em geral, os genótipos que apresentaram maior número de brotações também tiveram brotações maiores. Com o emprego da maior concentração testada de GA3, observou-se mais de 50% de calogênese em um dos genótipos e intensidade diferenciada nos demais. GA3 não apresenta efeito no alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii e, inclusive, em sua presença os genótipos reduzem o número de brotações alongadas e o comprimento das brotações, aumentando a formação de calos. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii avaliados apresentam desempenho in vitro diferenciado em relação ao alongamento, o qual é passível de seleção. Abstract in english Shoots that have short lengths may present low percentage of survival if they are directly grown on rooting media, or give rise to low quality seedlings for the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii minicuttings under differen [...] t concentrations of giberellic acid. Minicuttings were prepared and inoculated under aseptic conditions on MS nutritive medium with half of the salt concentration (¹/2 MS). We used fixed concentrations of NAA (0.5 mg L-1) and BAP (0.1 mg L-1) varying GA3 according to the treatment. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design, using a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, where the levels of factor "A" refer to different genotypes and the levels of factor B, the concentrations of GA3 (0.0; 0.2; 0.4, and 0.8 mg L-1), each replicate was composed of a flask containing three explants. Thirty days after in vitro culture, evaluations were performed. For most genotypes, the absence of GA3 produced the highest number of elongated shoots for explant and a longer length of elongated shoots. In general, genotypes with the highest number of shoots also had larger shoots. The non-addition of GA3 to the nutritive medium did not promote calli formation, reaching over 50% in the use of higher concentration of GA3 tested (0.80 mg L-1). The calli formation was different in different genotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has no effect on in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii. In the presence of GA3 genotypes reduce the number of elongated shoots and shoot length, increasing the formation of calli. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii evaluated present differently in relation to in vitro elongation, which is able to be selected.

Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira; Aline Ritter, Curti; Aline Ferreira, Paim.

2013-12-01

190

Seleção de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de compensados / Selection of clones of Eucalyptus urophylla for plywood production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a avaliação de 6 clones oriundos da Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) para a confecção de painéis compensados multilaminados. Foram produzidos 6 painéis para cada clone estudado. Utilizou-se adesivo fenol-formaldeído com gramatura de 320g/m². O c [...] iclo de prensagem seguiu os seguintes parâmetros: pressão de 1,47MPa, temperatura de 150ºC e tempo de 10 minutos. A partir dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla se apresentam com grande potencial para a produção de painéis compensados multilaminados, uma vez que apresentaram valores de suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima dos referenciados em literatura e, significativamente, superiores aos exigidos pelas normas ABNT 31:000.05-00/2 (flexão estática) e EN 314-2 (resistência ao cisalhamento), sendo considerados para uso como forma de concreto (FOR). O clone que se destacou em todas as propriedades físico-mecânicas, com melhores resultados, foi o 36. Abstract in english This work aimed at the evaluation of six (6) Eucalyptus urophylla clones of Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) for making particleboard panels. Six (6) panels to each clone studies were produced. About 320g/m² of Phenol phormol aldehyde adhesives Were utilized. The pressing c [...] ycle parameters were: pressure of 1.47MPa, temperature of 150ºC and 10 minutes of pressing time. It was concluded that clones of Eucalyptus urophylla show a great potential for production of particleboard panels, since they presented values of physical and mechanical properties above the ones referenced in literature and highly superior to those required by the ABNT Standards 31:000.05-00/2 (static bending) and EN 314-2 (shearing resistance), the tested clones can be used for producing concrete mold (FOR). The clone which stood out the most in all the properties tested was the clone 36.

José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Bárbara Maria Ribeiro, Guimarães; Stefânia Lima, Oliveira.

2012-12-01

191

Eucalyptus pellita as a source of resistance to rust, ceratocystis wilt and leaf blight  

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Full Text Available Rust (Puccinia psidii, ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata and cylindrocladium leaf blight (Cylindrocladium pteridis are important diseases of eucalyptus. Planting of resistant genotypes is the most suitable control strategy of forest diseases under field condition. Resistance level of 23 Eucalyptus pellita clones was evaluated by artificial inoculations. Among the inoculated clones, 12 were resistant to rust, 16 to ceratocystis wilt and 12 to cylindrocladium leaf blight, and three of them were resistant to all three diseases. The high intra-specific variability found in this study demonstrates the importance of E. pellita as a disease resistance source to be employed for introgression of novel resistance genes in eucalyptus genetic breeding programs.

Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães

2010-01-01

192

Effect of Albino ophiostoma strains on Eucalyptus nitens extractives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wood extractives promote pitch formation during pulp and paper manufacturing. To date, this problem has been controlled by extended storage of the chips and/or chemical additives. Biotreatment of the wood prior to pulping provides an alternative that not only decreases the negative impact of the ext [...] ractives but may also improve the kraft pulping efficiency. This initiative seeks to verify the quantity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus nitens wood extractives following biotreatment with three albino fungi species (Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum). Eucalyptus nitens wood chips were sprayed with spore suspensions of Ophiostoma piliferum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma floccosum albino strains (1 × 10(8) spore concentration). After 7 and 21 days of fungal treatment, the extractive content was determined via Soxhlet extraction with an 80:20% n-hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture. The Ophiostoma floccosum F1A94, Ophiostoma piliferum F2D8 and Ophiostoma piceae F2A68 strains proved to be most capable of bioreduction with reductions of 35,1%, 33,2% and 29,3%, respectively. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which demonstrated that most of the tested strains could reduce the ?- sitosterol content.

Juana, Coloma; Laura, Reyes; José, Navarrete; Julio, Alarcón; Lilian, Delgado; Renato, Vera; Priscilla, Ubilla; Karen, Vásquez; José, Becerra.

193

Effect of Albino ophiostoma strains on Eucalyptus nitens extractives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wood extractives promote pitch formation during pulp and paper manufacturing. To date, this problem has been controlled by extended storage of the chips and/or chemical additives. Biotreatment of the wood prior to pulping provides an alternative that not only decreases the negative impact of the ext [...] ractives but may also improve the kraft pulping efficiency. This initiative seeks to verify the quantity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus nitens wood extractives following biotreatment with three albino fungi species (Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum). Eucalyptus nitens wood chips were sprayed with spore suspensions of Ophiostoma piliferum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma floccosum albino strains (1 × 10(8) spore concentration). After 7 and 21 days of fungal treatment, the extractive content was determined via Soxhlet extraction with an 80:20% n-hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture. The Ophiostoma floccosum F1A94, Ophiostoma piliferum F2D8 and Ophiostoma piceae F2A68 strains proved to be most capable of bioreduction with reductions of 35,1%, 33,2% and 29,3%, respectively. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which demonstrated that most of the tested strains could reduce the ?- sitosterol content.

Juana, Coloma; Laura, Reyes; José, Navarrete; Julio, Alarcón; Lilian, Delgado; Renato, Vera; Priscilla, Ubilla; Karen, Vásquez; José, Becerra.

2015-01-01

194

Favorable conditions for Xanthomonas axonopodis infection in Eucalyptus spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Currently, Xanthomonas axonopodis is one of the main foliar pathogens for Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil. It induces leaf blight and defoliation of seedlings in the nursery and young plants in the field. However, little is known about thefavorable conditions for infection. The establishment and developme [...] nt of bacterial leaf blight caused by X. axonopodis in eucalyptus was studied for different leaf ages, temperatures and leaf wetness durations. Disease severity increased with leaf age, and the highest severity was observed on the fourth pair of completely expanded leaves (from the apex to the base). A higher level of bacterial colonization was also observed on the fourth pair of leaves quantified as bacterial cells/cm2 of leaf area. Twelve hours of free water on the leaf surface, prior to inoculation, was essential to promote a severe infection. However, with the increase in the leaf wetness duration, a decrease in disease severity was observed. The optimal temperature for disease development was 26-30ºC.

Daniela A., Neves; Lúcio M. S., Guimarães; Hélvio G. M., Ferraz; Acelino C., Alfenas.

2014-12-01

195

WOOD VAPORIZATION EFFECT ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaporization effects on the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression, crushing strength and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction on logs and sawn wood of two sources of Eucalyptus dunnii. The mechanical attempts were performed under the Copant standards in the  climatized conditions (12%. To do so, about two thirds of the logs, with a diameter between 20-30 cm, were vaporized at 100o C and 100% of relative humidity for 20 hours, while  the  remaining  logs  were  kept  as  control.  From  each  log,  a  central plank radially directed with eight centimeter of thickness was taken, from which small beams of 8 cm x 8 cm were taken. Half of the small beams from the vaporized logs were once again submitted to vaporization under the same previously described conditions for a period of 3 hours, thus obtaining three different levels of comparison (control, vaporized on logs and presteaming wood. The results showed a remarkable reduction on the crushing strength in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction with the vaporization on the two conditions and sources of Eucalyptus dunnii used. On the other hand, the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression did not show any change with the vaporization.

Clóvis Roberto Haselein

2009-10-01

196

Efecto del laboreo sobre la eficacia de herbicidas y el crecimiento de Eucalyptus spp. / Effect of Tillage Intensity on Herbicide Efficacy and Eucalyptus spp. Productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Uruguay | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La eliminación de la competencia de malezas en el cultivo de Eucalyptus es fundamental en las etapas iniciales de crecimiento hasta el cierre de copa. En el Uruguay, el control de malezas en el surco de plantación se realiza básicamente con herbicidas premergentes, los cuales se asocian a una prepar [...] ación de suelo muy estricta en relación al afinado para mejorar así la efectividad de los herbicidas, con el consecuente incremento de los costos de producción y de los riesgos de erosión. Se estudió el efecto del tipo de laboreo en la fila (una pasada de excéntrica; dos pasadas de excéntrica, la última con una rastra de dientes; igual al anterior, seguido de acamellonado) sobre la efectividad de los herbicidas premergentes y sobre el crecimiento del clon Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus. Los tratamientos herbicidas fueron oxifluorfen 240 g/ha, oxifluorfen 480 g/ha, isoxaflutole 150 g/ha, sulfentrazona 300 g/ha, sulfentrazona 400 g/ha, diclosulam 42 g/ha + acetoclor 1800 g/ha, acetoclor 1800 g/ha, oxifluorfen 240 g/ha+ acetoclor 1800 g/ha. La mayor intensidad en el laboreo disminuyó la infestación inicial de malezas. La eficiencia de los herbicida premergentes sobre la cobertura total de malezas no interaccionó con el tipo de laboreo. Los tratamientos selectivos de mayor control de malezas fueron isoxaflutole y oxifluorfen + acetoclor. Abstract in english Weed interference in Eucalyptus must be eliminated early before treetop closure. In Uruguay, weed control in the planting rows is done with preemergent herbicides. This practice, that is performed in conjunction with rigorous soil preparation to ensure herbicide effectiveness, entails high productio [...] n costs and erosion risks. We studied the effect of the type of within-row tillage (1) one pass of a heavy offset disk harrow, 2) two offset disk passes including a tooth harrow in the second pass, and 3) the same treatment followed by mounding of the rows) on preemergent herbicide efficacy and growth of Eucalyptus (a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globules). The herbicides evaluated were: oxifluorfen 240 g/ha; oxifluorfen 480 g/ha; isoxaflutole 150 g/ha; sulfentrazone 300 g/ha; sulfentrazone 400 g/ha; diclosulam 42 g/ha + 1800 acetochlor g/ha; acetochlor 1800 g/ha; oxifluorfen 240 g/ha + acetochlor 1800 g/ha. There was no interaction between preemergent herbicide effectiveness and tillage on total weed cover. The best treatments for selective weed control on the Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clone were isoxaflutole (150g/ha) and oxifluorfen (240g/ha) + acetochlor (1800g/ha).

Juana, Villalba; Cristian, Montouto; Julio, Cazaban; Pablo, Caraballo; Oscar, Bentancur.

2010-12-01

197

Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota  

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Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation of C. neoformans var. gattii in our country. A total of 100 Eucalyptus trees, distributed among 13 zones, located in the center, northeast, east and west of Santafé de Bogotá, were studied. Flowers, fruits, leaves, barks and Eucalyptus debris were collected. The samples were processed by extraction with saline solution containing antibiotics, cultured in selective media and the isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Twenty-seven isolates of 9 Cryptococcus sp. were recovered from 21 Eucalyptus trees, from 5 zones. One C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A was recovered. The Cryptococcus associated with Eucalyptus is important because this is the first study done in our country.

A. Duarte

1994-04-01

198

Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota / Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exporta [...] r, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país. Abstract in english Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australi [...] a to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation of C. neoformans var. gattii in our country. A total of 100 Eucalyptus trees, distributed among 13 zones, located in the center, northeast, east and west of Santafé de Bogotá, were studied. Flowers, fruits, leaves, barks and Eucalyptus debris were collected. The samples were processed by extraction with saline solution containing antibiotics, cultured in selective media and the isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Twenty-seven isolates of 9 Cryptococcus sp. were recovered from 21 Eucalyptus trees, from 5 zones. One C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A was recovered. The Cryptococcus associated with Eucalyptus is important because this is the first study done in our country.

A., Duarte; N., Ordoñez; E., Castañeda.

1994-04-01

199

Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii: (II sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas em função das coletas e estações do ano  

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Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a técnica de miniestaquia na clonagem de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii ao longo das estações do ano quanto à sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas. As minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas durante 352 dias em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico em leito de areia com solução nutritiva fornecida por gotejamento, efetuando-se 27 coletas sucessivas de brotações durante as quatro estações do ano (primavera, verão, outono e inverno. Mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca durante 10 segundos em solução hidroalcoólica (1:1 v/v de concentração de 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco repetições e vinte miniestacas por repetição. O enraizamento das miniestacas variou conforme o clone e mostrou-se muito sensível às estações do ano e às oscilações da temperatura. Os melhores índices de enraizamento foram registrados nas estações mais frias onde variou de 19,59% a 56,20% e os menores nas estações mais quentes, com 4,62% a 8,50%. Os clones H19 e H20 apresentaram os maiores índices de enraizamento nas quatro estações do ano.

Gilvano Ebling Brondani

2010-09-01

200

Lack of association between allozyme heterozygosity and juvenile traits in Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variability for juvenile waits, which included basal diameter, height, biomass accumulation, and growth increment, was studied in eight provenances involving four species, Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. camaldulensis and E. urophylla, under uniform greenhouse conditions. The species diff...

201

Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T. From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

Eder Marques

2012-12-01

202

Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utiliz [...] ation assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T). From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

Eder, Marques; Carlos H., Uesugi; Marisa A.S.V., Ferreira; Denise V. de, Rezende.

2012-12-01

203

Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, the main product of Eucalyptus oils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The forest industry in Uruguay has grown considerably during the last decade. Eucalyptus plantations account for 74% of the forested land, with Eucalyptus globulus being the most widely distributed species. This industry is dedicated exclusively to the production of wood without exploiting the by-pr [...] oducts (leaves and small branches). Eucalyptus leaves are known to contain important amounts of essential oils composed primarily of 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trymethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). In this work, the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, is achieved using a native bacterium (Rhodococcus sp.) which was isolated from the soil of Eucalyptus forest. A 98% of bioconversion was achieved. Three different optically pure compounds were obtained, and they were identified as 2-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole, 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole and 2-oxo-1,8-cineole.

Paula, Rodríguez; Wilson, Sierra; Sonia, Rodríguez; Pilar, Menéndez.

2006-06-01

204

Species adaptability, seed availability and prospects for improvement of eucalyptus in Minas Gerais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a continuing study into possible improvement of Eucalyptus spp. in plantations, data are presented from all existing trials and experimental plantings in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Growth, uniformity, form and fruiting are indicated.

Ferrevia, M.; Balloni, E.A.; Pinto, J.E. Jr.; Jacob, W.S.

1978-01-01

205

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil  

OpenAIRE

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

Callisto, M.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Moreno, P.

2002-01-01

206

PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

2007-06-01

207

Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, whi...

Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Araújo Pedro; Brito Michael dos; Souza Uiara; Viana Julianade Oliveira Fernandes; Mazzafera Paulo

2012-01-01

208

Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II.  

OpenAIRE

Species of Eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. These plantations represent an important source of fuel-wood, structural timber and pulp. Eucalyptus plantations are, however, vulnerable to infection by pathogens, including Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs, which have caused substantial damage, in many parts of the world. More than 30 species of Mycosphaerella, and close to 30 anamorph species for which the Mycosph...

Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Pedro Mansilla, J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Crous, Pedro W.

2006-01-01

209

A new shoot and stem disease of Eucalyptus species caused by Erwinia psidii  

OpenAIRE

A serious disease of green, actively expanding stems of young Eucalyptus grandis, E. dunnii, E. globulus and E. globulus subsp. maidenii has been observed in plantations in Uruguay and Argentina during the course of the past 10 years. The symptoms of the disease are unlike those previously observed on any species of Eucalyptus. In this study, we describe the symptoms of this new disease and determine its cause. A diagnostic feature of the disease is a red discolouration of the young host tiss...

Coutinho, Teresa A.; Brady, Carrie Louise; Venter, S. N.; Telechea, Nora; Rolfo, M.; Perez, Carlos A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Vaart, Melanie

2011-01-01

210

Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation  

OpenAIRE

The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food o...

Martins, Carla; Natal-da-luz, Tiago; Sousa, Jose? Paulo; Gonc?alves, Maria Jose?; Salgueiro, Li?gia; Canhoto, Cristina

2013-01-01

211

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichlorome...

Domingues, Rui M. A.; Oliveira, Eduardo L. G.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Simo?es, Pedro C.; Neto, Carlos P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Silva, Carlos M.

2012-01-01

212

Supercritical fluid extraction of Eucalyptus globulus bark: a promising approach for triterpenoid production  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichlorome...

Domingues, Rui M. A.; Oliveira, Eduardo L. G.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Simo?es, Pedro C.; Neto, Carlos P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Silva, Carlos M.

2012-01-01

213

Decomposition of Fire Exposed Eucalyptus Leaves in a Portuguese Lowland Stream  

OpenAIRE

We compared fire exposed with normal abscised eucalyptus leaves incubated in a stream running through eucalyptus plantations in central Portugal, in terms of breakdown rates, microbial activity, diversity and macroinvertebrate abundance. Although leaves exposed to fire had lower nutritional value, mass loss was similar for both leaf types (k = 0.0089-0.0095 d-1 for fire and k = 0.0084-0.00103 d-1 for normal leaves). Fungal biomass was similar among treatments, whereas sporulation and microbia...

Gama, Mafalda; Gonc?alves, Ana Lu?cia; Ferreira, Vero?nica; Grac?a, Manuel A. S.; Canhoto, Cristina

2007-01-01

214

Eucalyptus pellita as a source of resistance to rust, ceratocystis wilt and leaf blight  

OpenAIRE

Rust (Puccinia psidii), ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) and cylindrocladium leaf blight (Cylindrocladium pteridis) are important diseases of eucalyptus. Planting of resistant genotypes is the most suitable control strategy of forest diseases under field condition. Resistance level of 23 Eucalyptus pellita clones was evaluated by artificial inoculations. Among the inoculated clones, 12 were resistant to rust, 16 to ceratocystis wilt and 12 to cylindrocladium leaf blight, and three o...

Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; Miranda Titon; Douglas Lau; Leonardo Novaes Rosse; Leonardo Sarno Soares Oliveira; Carla Cristina Gonçalves Rosado; Guilherme Gegenheiner Ornelas Christo; Acelino Couto Alfenas

2010-01-01

215

Leaf, tree and soil properties in a Eucalyptus saligna forest exhibiting canopy decline  

OpenAIRE

The extent of eucalypt decline in moist coastal forests of south-eastern Australia is increasing with resultant losses in biodiversity and productivity. This survey aimed to identify factors associated with the decline of Eucalyptus saligna (Sydney Blue Gum) in Cumberland State Forest, a moist sclerophyll forest within urban Sydney. Eucalyptus saligna was the dominant overstorey species in six 20 m radius plots, which differed in floristic composition, structure and crown condition. One plot ...

Stone, Christine; Simpson, Jack A.

2013-01-01

216

Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria diseases of Eucalyptus ; easily confused and with serious consequences  

OpenAIRE

The Mycosphaerella complex accommodated thousands of taxa. Many of these species are economically important plant pathogens, notably on native and commercially propagated Eucalyptus species where they cause a wide range of disease symptoms including leaf spot, leaf blotch, shoot blight and stem cankers. Some of these diseases represent major impediments to sustainable Eucalyptus forestry in several countries where infection by Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species can result in reduction ...

Hunter, Gavin Craig; Crous, Pedro W.; Carnegie, Angus J.; Burgess, Treena I.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2011-01-01

217

Eucalyptus plantations for energy production in Hawaii. Technical status report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress made on accomplishing research objectives is reported. The objectives of this project are: (1) to increase the biomass production of Eucalyptus; (2) to determine the optimum requirements to maximize yield; (3) to assess planting, cultivation, harvesting, and transportation equipment requirements; (4) to determine the optimum mixture of biomass (eucalyptus and bagasse) at the generator for the production of electricity; and (5) to evaluate a complete production/conversion system which utilized optimum management conditions in relationship to costs. (DMC)

1980-07-14

218

Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood  

OpenAIRE

The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm) were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed...

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori; Eduardo Schneid; Darci Alberto Gatto; Rafael Beltrame; Diego Martins Stangerlin

2012-01-01

219

MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL  

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Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

André Fredo

2009-09-01

220

Efecto de los sistemas de riego en la rentabilidad de plantaciones de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus) / Effect of irrigation system type on profitability of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El riego es utilizado con mayor frecuencia para establecer plantaciones, con el fin de aumentar el crecimiento y la productividad por superficie. Se estudió el efecto de tres sistemas de riego: microaspersión (T1), goteo (T2) y surco (T3), en la rentabilidad de una plantación de eucalipto (Eucalyptu [...] s globulus), en el Valle Central de la Región del Bío Bío, Chile. La variable proyectada a la edad de cosecha fue el incremento volumétrico de los árboles. Para calcular costos de T1 y T2 se usó una base de datos de 200 predios agrícolas de diferentes superficies con instalación e implementación de estos sistemas. Para T3 se aplicaron costos actualizados de construcción y mantención de las estructuras requeridas para la evaluación financiera. La rentabilidad se determinó mediante el valor actual neto (VAN), valor económico del suelo (VES), y tasa interna de retorno modificada (TIRm). La rentabilidad para T1 y T2 tuvo valores negativos, es decir, estas técnicas de riego no generaron beneficios económicos. El riego por surco (T3) fue rentable para el volumen proyectado a los ocho y diez años de edad de cosecha, obteniéndose con los tres indicadores los mayores retornos al usar una tasa de descuento de 8 % y a un precio de la madera pulpable de 32 US$ m-3 ssc. El VAN fue 989 US$ ha-1 y 1106 US$ ha-1, el VES fue 2152 y 2406 US$ ha-1, y la TIRm 10.4 % y 10.1 %. Estos resultados justifican la utilización del riego por surco (T3) como una técnica eficiente del manejo integrado para una plantación de eucalipto de alta productividad. Abstract in english Irrigation is used increasingly in establishment of forest plantations in order to increase growth and productivity. The effect on profitability of a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation in the Central Valley of the Bío Bío Region, Chile, of three irrigation systems was studied: microsprinkle [...] rs (T1), drip irrigation (T2) and surface irrigation (T3). The variable projected to harvest age was the volumetric increase of the trees. To calculate costs of T1 and T2, a database was used of 200 agricultural operations of varying size where these systems were installed and implemented. For T3, current costs of construction and maintenance of the structures required were used for financial evaluation. Profitability was determined using net present value (NPV), potential land value (PLV) and modified internal return rate (MIRR). Profitability with Tl and T2 had negative values; that is, these irrigation techniques did not generate economic benefits. Surface irrigation (T3) was profitable for the volume projected to eight and ten years harvest age. The greatest returns were obtained with the three indicators using a discount rate of 8 % and a price of pulp wood of US$ 32 m-3 ssc. NPV was US$ 989 ha-¹ and US$ 1106 ha-1; PLV was US$ 2152 and 2406 ha-1, and MIRR was 10.4 % and 10.1 %. These results justify the use of surface irrigation (T3) as an efficient technique in the integrated management of a high-producing eucalyptus plantation.

Emilio, Guerra; Miguel Á., Herrera; Fernando, Drake.

2010-02-15

221

Eucalyptus Biomass and Volume Estimation Using Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data  

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Full Text Available This work aims to establish a relationship between volume and biomass with interferometric and radiometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar response from planted Eucalyptus saligna forest stands, using multi-variable regression techniques. X and P band SAR images from the airborne OrbiSAR-1 sensor, were acquired at the study area in the southeast region of Brazil. The interferometric height (Hint = difference between interferometric digital elevation model in X and P bands, contributed to the models developed due to fact that Eucalyptus forest is composed of individuals whose structure is predominantly cylindrical and vertically oriented, and whose tree heights have great correlation with volume and biomass. The volume model showed that the stand volume was highly correlated with the interferometric height logarithm (Log10Hint, since Eucalyptus tree volume has a linear relationship with the vegetation height. The biomass model showed that the combination of both Hint2 and Canopy Scattering Index—CSI (relation of s°VV by the sum of s°VV and s°HH, which represents to the canopy interaction were used in this model, due to the fact that the Eucalyptus biomass and the trees height relationship is not linear. Both models showed a prediction error of around 10% to estimate the Eucalyptus biomass and volume, which represents a great potential to use this kind of technology to help establish Eucalyptus forest inventory for large areas.

Fábio Furlan Gama

2010-03-01

222

Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils  

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Full Text Available Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aiming to increase the availability of commercial species and the relationship between oil production and climatic conditions. Eucalyptus leaves were seasonally sampled (three months interval for distillation and determination of productivity and chemical composition of oil - contents of oils main components. Eucalyptus viminalis showed the highest potential for cineol, and standed out among the species not yet used commercially. Influenced by soil moisture contents and air temperature, the lowest and the highest oil production happened respectively in Spring and Summer. Water deficiency in Spring caused the lowest oil production. In the Summer, on the other hand, the highest oil production was observed when temperatures were higher and no water deficiency registered. There was no climatic influence on the main oil chemical component.

Silva Paulo Henrique Müller da

2006-01-01

223

Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), ?-pinene (5%), and ?-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), ?-pinene (8.87%), and ?-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50?mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9?mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

2014-01-01

224

Effect of eucalyptus wood vinegar on rubberwood infestation by Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Wood degradation caused by fungi, termites, and insects, is a major problem for the rubberwood industry. The potential of wood vinegar as rubberwood preservative was studied. The infestation rates of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on rubberwood samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar for 24 hours were observed in laboratory conditions. Both non-choice and choice experiments were included. The effects of eucalyptus wood vinegar treatment depended on its concentration. In the non-choice experiments, rubberwood samples treated with 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar had the highest resistance to C. gestroi infestation, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 50% and 25% treatments. However, in the choice experiments the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the treatments with varied wood vinegar concentration. Untreated control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi in both non-choice and choice experiments, but their relative loss of mass in the non-choice experiments was not significantly different from samples treated with 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar. Hence, 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar was not effective as rubberwood preservative against C. gestroi attack. The results suggest that eucalyptus wood vinegar acts as a rubberwood preservative against termites, provided the treatment is done without dilution. About 50% dilution still has some efficacy, while lower concentrations are not effective. PMID:25145252

Tarasin, M

2013-01-01

225

USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

Samir Lotfi

2009-10-01

226

Implicações nutricionais com base em diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus / Nutritional implications based in different intensities of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus biomass harvesting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A disponibilidade de nutrientes para futuros plantios em um sítio florestal está relacionada principalmente à, intensidade de colheita aplicada. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar as implicações nutricionais causadas pelas diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de um povoamento de Eucal [...] yptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus com dez anos de idade, em Eldorado do Sul - RS. A avaliação das implicações nutricionais conforme a intensidade de colheita florestal foi analisada levando em consideração: o estoque de nutrientes entre o sistema solo - planta; os efeitos da colheita dos diferentes componentes da biomassa acima do solo na remoção dos nutrientes; o número de rotações e a taxa de remoção de nutrientes conforme o sistema de colheita utilizado e o coeficiente de utilização biológica dos nutrientes. Com a colheita da madeira com casca, todos os nutrientes teriam uma remoção superior a 45% de sua quantidade acumulada na biomassa total acima do solo. Entretanto, removendo apenas a madeira comercial, que apresenta o maior coeficiente de utilização de nutrientes, a porcentagem de remoção para os nutrientes, com exceção do Cu e Zn, seria inferior a 50%, chegando até 10% no caso do Ca, em relação ao total contido na biomassa. O fósforo e o cálcio poderão ser os principais nutrientes a tornarem-se limitantes na produtividade nas próximas rotações, pois as estimativas de rotações potenciais estão próximas a um, quando realizada a colheita da madeira com casca Abstract in english Nutrients available for future plantation is mainly related to the harvest system applied. Based on this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional implications caused by difference biomass harvest intensities in the Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus 10 years-old in Eldorado do Sul - RS. N [...] utritional implications assessment was analyzed and taken into account: nutrients balance between soil-plant system; harvest effects of the different aboveground components in the nutrients removal; rotation numbers and nutrients removal rate in relation to harvest system used and nutrients biological utilization rate. With the harvest of wood with the bark all the nutrients removal would suffer more than 45% of the total amount accumulated in aboveground biomass. However, removing just the wood, which has the highest nutrients utilization rate, the nutrients removed percentage, except by Cu and Zn, will be less than 50% and up to 10% in the case of Ca in relation to the total biomass contained. Phosphorus and calcium can be the main nutrients which become limited in the next rotation productivity, because the potential rotation estimates are close to one, when wood with bark are harvested. Key words: forestry production; nutrients stock; nutrients available

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Peter, Trüby; Elias Frank, Araújo.

2015-03-01

227

MICROPROPAGACIÓN DE EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN EL SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden micropropagation in a temporary immersion system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo procedimiento para la multiplicación in vitro mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal de plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden procedentes de árboles elite. La mayor eficiencia de multiplicación se estableció a una frecuencia óptima de inmersión cada 12 h con una duración de 3 min. La aplicación adicional de un flujo de aire fresco cada 6 h durante 3 min disminuyó la hiperhidratación de las plantas durante el proceso. Este procedimiento comprendió dos pasos: la brotación o multiplicación múltiple y la elongación de brotes. El mejor tratamiento para la inducción de brotes axilares o multiplicación se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS con los nitratos reducidos a la mitad + 0,5 mg L-1 de benciladenina (BA, con volúmenes de 55,5 mL por grupo de brotes durante tres semanas. La elongación tuvo lugar en el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS más ácido indolbutírico (AIB 1,0 g L-1, durante tres semanas. La utilización de este protocolo permitió obtener un promedio de 260 plantas competentes de E. grandis. Las plantas con tamaño mayor a 2 cm se relacionaron positivamente con una mayor supervivencia durante la fase de aclimatización.A new procedure is described for in vitro multiplication using the temporary immersion system for plants (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden coming from elite trees. The optimum multiplication frequency was established at every 12 h with a duration of 3 min. The additional application of a stream of fresh air every 6 h for 3 min diminished the hyper-hydration of the plants during the process. The procedure involved two steps: shooting and elongation of buds. The best treatment for induction of axillary buds was obtained in the culture medium MS (Murashige and Skoog with the nitrates reduced to half strength plus 0.5 benciladenin (BA mg L-1, with volumes of 55.5 mL per group of buds for three weeks. The elongation took place in the MS culture medium plus indol butiric acid (IBA 1.0 g L-1 for three weeks. The use of this protocol allows producing an average of 260 competent plants of E. grandis. Shoots taller than 2 cm were positively related with higher survival during the acclimatization phase.

Dagoberto Castro R.

2002-01-01

228

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2013-06-01

229

A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA  

Science.gov (United States)

The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

230

Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production / Análise multivariada aplicada à avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se selecionar clones de Eucalyptus com finalidades energéticas, utilizando as técnicas multivariadas de componentes principais e de agrupamento. Foram avaliados 25 clones de Eucalyptus aos 54 meses de idade. Foram determinados os teores dos componentes elementares (C, H e O [...] ), de lignina, extrativos totais e cinzas, a densidade básica, o poder calorífico superior e a densidade energética. As duas técnicas multivariadas empregadas para a avaliação e seleção dos clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia foram eficientes, sendo observadas similaridades entre os grupos de biomassa formados por elas. Pela análise de agrupamento, foram obtidos cinco grupos distintos, sendo que o grupo um, formado pelo clone U060, possui maior potencial como fonte de energia. Os clones G084, G122, G023 e U108 possuem menor desempenho energético. Abstract in english This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, [...] H and O), lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

Allan Motta, Couto; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

2013-12-01

231

Virulência de estirpes (biovar 1 e 2T) de Ralstonia solanaceraum a Eucalyptus spp. / Virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum strains (biovar 1 and 2T) to Eucalyptus spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A murcha bacteriana do eucalipto (Raça 3 biovar 2T de Ralstonia solanacearum) foi descrita em 2009 em campo com o híbrido de eucalipto urograndis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a virulência de duas estirpes de R. solanacearum a dezessete espécies de Eucalyptus, através do teste de microbioli [...] zação de sementes. A análise estatística dentre espécies mostrou que a virulência variou entre as estirpes estudadas. A virulência da R3bv2T foi significativamente maior em: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei e E. phaeotricha; e maior para R1bv1 somente na espécie E. pellita. Entre espécies de eucalipto, observou-se maior suscetibilidade em "urograndis", E. grandis e E. paniculata para R3bv2T; e em E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua e E. resinifera devido a R1bv1. Abstract in english The bacterial wilt of Eucalyptus (Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 biovar 2T) was reported in field of Eucalyptus hybrid urograndis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the virulence of two R. solanacearum strains to 17 Eucalyptus species, using the seed microbiolization method for pathogen [...] inoculation. The results of the statistical analyses showed that virulence varied between the two R. solanacearum strains. The R3bv2T virulence was higher than the one in R1bv1 in the following Eucalyptus species: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei, and E. phaeotricha. The virulence of the R1bv1 strain was higher only in E. pellita. Among species of Eucalyptus the following ones were more susceptibles: to R3bv2T strain - urograndis, E. grandis and E. paniculata, and to R1bv1 strain - E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua and E. resinifera.

Eder, Marques; Carlos Hidemi, Uesugi; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum.

1952-19-01

232

A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species. PMID:25632486

Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

2014-12-01

233

Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea Production of plywood with different composition from Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1 painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4; e (2 painéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10. Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of structural plywood manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis, var. bahamensis, using different board compositions. It was manufactured experimental panels measuring 50 x 50 cm composed by 5 veneers with 2.2 mm thickness, according to following compositions: (1 panels with all veneers of Eucalytpus saligna and Pinuscaribaea (T1 to T4; (2 panels with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna mixed with Pinus caribaea (T5 to T10. The panels completely manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna showed higher values of glue line shear strength, parallel and perpendicular MOE and MOR. The panel compositions using the veneers of both species with alternate position in the layer did not effectively influence the properties of glue line shear strength, perpendicular MOE and MOR. The placing of Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of plywood resulted in higher values of parallel MOE and MOR. The results of mechanical properties of plywood evaluated in this study were satisfactory in comparison to the control values of the literature and with those the minimum values required by technical standards, indicating the feasibility of production of "combi" type plywood using different veneer combination of hardwood and softwood species.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2012-06-01

234

Qualidade de painéis aglomerados homogêneos produzidos com a madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla / Quality of homogeneous particleboard produced with Eucalyptus urophylla clone wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de painéis aglomerados homogêneos de baixa densidade. Foram avaliados seis clones de Eucalyptus urophylla com 94 meses de idade, plantados no municipio de Paracatu-MG, sendo utilizada como parâmetro de [...] comparação a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Para cada clone de Eucalyptus urophylla e também para o Pinus oocarpa foram produzidos seis painéis com o adesivo uréia-formaldeido no teor de 6%, densidade nominal de 0,60 g/cm³, pressão especifica de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de 8 minutos. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram potencial para produção de painéis aglomerados convencionais de baixa densidade. Os clones 62 e 28 obtiveram os melhores resultados em todas as propriedades fisico-mecânicas avaliadas, apresentando propriedades iguais ou superiores as obtidas para os painéis produzidos com a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Com relação à norma de comercialização CS 236/1966 apenas o clone 28 atendeu a todos os requisitos. Nenhum dos clones avaliados atendeu a norma EN 312/2003. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla clones to produce homogeneous particleboard of low-density. Six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla were evaluated, at 94 months of age and planted in Paracatu-MG. Pinus oocarpa wood was used as a reference. For each Eucalyptus urophylla c [...] lone and also for Pinus oocarpa, six panels were produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive in the concentration of 6%, nominal density of 0.60 g/cm³, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm², temperature of 160ºC and a time of 8 minutes. Eucalyptus urophylla clones presented potential for production of conventional particleboard of low density. Clones 62 and 28 showed the best results for all physical and mechanical properties evaluated, presenting properties equal or superior to those obtained for the panels produced with Pinus oocarpa wood. In relation to CS 236/1966 standard, only the clone 28 met all the requirements. None of the clones meets EN 312/2003 standard.

Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Lilian Lima, Mendonça; José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Fábio Akira, Mori.

2014-06-01

235

Conductimetric analysis of the ion binding properties of three leaf extracts of chestnut (Castanea sativa), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and oak (Quercus robur).  

Science.gov (United States)

Humic materials extracted from tree leaves of chestnut (Castanea sativa), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and oak (Quercus robur) were analyzed by performing conductimetric titrations. Values between about 84 and 236 muS cm(-1) for the molar conductivity and between 0.42 and 0.74 for the charge distribution parameter were obtained when the concentrations of the extract are increased from 40 to 100 mg 1(-1). These variations were explained by using the counterion condensation theory, and the distance between the charged groups of the polyions, the volume of the counterion condensation and the Debye-Hückel potential were also calculated. PMID:18966432

Rey, F; Pérez-Asenjo, M; Machado, A A; Facal, P; Ferreira, M A; Toja, A

1995-12-01

236

Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea / Production of plywood with different composition from Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x [...] 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1) painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4); e (2) painéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10). Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of structural plywood manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis, var. bahamensis, using different board compositions. It was manufactured experimental panels measuring 50 x 50 cm composed [...] by 5 veneers with 2.2 mm thickness, according to following compositions: (1) panels with all veneers of Eucalytpus saligna and Pinuscaribaea (T1 to T4); (2) panels with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna mixed with Pinus caribaea (T5 to T10). The panels completely manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna showed higher values of glue line shear strength, parallel and perpendicular MOE and MOR. The panel compositions using the veneers of both species with alternate position in the layer did not effectively influence the properties of glue line shear strength, perpendicular MOE and MOR. The placing of Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of plywood resulted in higher values of parallel MOE and MOR. The results of mechanical properties of plywood evaluated in this study were satisfactory in comparison to the control values of the literature and with those the minimum values required by technical standards, indicating the feasibility of production of "combi" type plywood using different veneer combination of hardwood and softwood species.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; Erika da Silva, Ferreira; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski.

2012-06-01

237

Myrtus comunis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells  

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Full Text Available In vitro cytotoxicity of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-buthanol, and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. was examined against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 using MTT and SRB assays. The results showed significant cytotoxic potential of examined extracts, with IC50 values ranging from 7 to 138 ?g/ml for M. communis and 3-250 ?g/ml for E. camaldulensis. The two plants generally expressed similar activity, and no significant difference in cell line’s sensitivity towards extracts was observed. The results indicate to M. communis and E. camaldulensis as candidates for thorough chemical analyses for identification of active compounds, and eventually for attention in the process of discovery of new natural products in the control of cancer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173037 i br. 172058

Hrubik Jelena D.

2012-01-01

238

Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

239

QUALITY OF SAWN TIMBER DRYING OF Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

2009-09-01

240

Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps  

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Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

Israel González

2012-11-01

241

Surface roughness of heat treated Eucalyptus grandis wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate surface roughness of heat treated Eucalyptus grandis wood after peripheral planning and sanding performed in directions to the grain and against the grain. For machining tests, workpieces were collected from two different regions in the radial direction, as follows: inte [...] rnal, nearby the pit; external, nearby the bark. Heat treatment was carried out by heating samples at a maximum temperature of 190ºC, with total treatment duration of 390 minutes. Heat treated and control samples underwent peripheral planning and sanding tests. The quality of machined surfaces was assessed by means of roughness average (Ra) measurements across and along the grain orientation. Results indicated significant differences in surface roughness as a function of machining feed direction, sandpaper grit size, and heat treatment. Surface roughness has not shown any difference in the radial direction.

Gilmara Pires, de Moura Palermo; João Vicente, de Figueiredo Latorraca; Luiz Fernando, de Moura; Adriana Maria, Nolasco; Alexandre, Monteiro de Carvalho; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia.

2014-02-24

242

Estresse hídrico em plantio de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla, em função do solo, substrato e manejo hídrico de viveiro / Water stress in the planting of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, due to soil, substrate and water management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar em campo os níveis de estresse hídrico das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla selecionado para tolerância ao déficit hídrico, em função dos substratos, do manejo hídrico e dos solos. As mudas foram produzidas em dois viveiros distintos do Estad [...] o de São Paulo: com o substrato Plantmax estacas® (PLX) em Bofete (SP) e com a mistura em partes iguais de casca de arroz carbonizada e vermiculita (CAC), em Ibaté (SP). A partir dos 60 dias após a estaquia (DAE), durante a rustificação as mudas foram manejadas com cinco frequências de irrigação por subsuperfície: F1 - irrigado uma vez ao dia, F2 - irrigado duas vezes ao dia, F3 - irrigado três vezes ao dia, F4 - irrigado quatro vezes ao dia e FD - mantido em irrigação, restabelecendo a capacidade de campo até o plantio aos 90 DAE, em um solo argiloso e outro arenoso. Foram realizadas avaliações dos níveis de estresse (brando, moderado e severo), que afetaram a sobrevivência nos dois solos, por meio de censo aos 15 e aos 30 dias após o plantio. Com relação aos níveis de estresse avaliados, verificou-se pouca influência do substrato, porém onde ocorreu o PLX proporcionou menores percentuais de plantas afetadas. Independentemente do tipo de solo onde as mudas foram plantadas, os sintomas de estresse nas plantas, de modo geral, foram semelhantes. O manejo de viveiro não influenciou na sobrevivência das mudas, embora tenham ocorrido algumas diferenças estatísticas quando se usaram CAC e plantio no solo arenoso, porém sem tendência clara de comportamento. Os critérios relativos à implantação foram mais determinantes na sobrevivência das mudas no campo até os 30 dias após o plantio, indicando a necessidade de replantio. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of water stress in Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings selected for water deficiency, considering substrate water management and types of soil. The seedlings were produced in two distinct nurseries: the Plantmax estacas® substrate [...] (PLX) in Bofete(SP) and in a mix with equal proportions of rice carbonized husks and vermiculite (CAC) in Ibaté (SP). Sixty days after cutting (DAE) and farther, during hardening, the seedlings were managed with five underwater irrigations, restoring the field conditions: F1: irrigated once a day, F2: irrigated twice a day, F3: irrigated three times a day, F4: irrigated four times a day and FD: maintained under irrigation, until water saturation until planting at 90 DAE, in a clayie soil and in a sandy soil. Evaluations on the low, moderate and high water stress levels that affect survival in the two types of soil at 15 and 30 days after planting. Little influence of substrates to the water stress levels was observed. However, a lesser percentual of affected seedlings was observed in PLX. Independent of the type of similar symptoms of water stress was observed, independently of type of soil. Nursery management does not affect seedling survival, even though statistical differences were detected when CAC and sandy soil were tested, however, without clear seedlings performance. Factors related to the planting process were more important on the field seedlings survival, until 30 days after planting, exhibiting the necessity of planting again.

Jane Luísa Wadas, Lopes; Iraê Amaral, Guerrini; Magali Ribeiro da, Silva; João Carlos Cury, Saad; Cristiano Freitas, Lopes.

2011-02-01

243

Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work provides an assessment on the fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus wood by sequential stages of autohydrolysis (to cause the solubilization of hemicelluloses) and organosolv pulping (to dissolve lignin, leaving solids enriched in cellulose). With this approach, valuable products (hemicellulose-derived saccharides, sulphur-free lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates with low contents of residual hemicelluloses) are obtained in separate streams, according to the biomass refinery approach. Autohydrolysis was carried out under optimized operational conditions, and organosolv pulping was performed using uncatalyzed ethanol-water solutions. The effects of the most influential operational variables (autohydrolysis severity, delignification temperature and ethanol concentration in the organosolv stage) on solid yield, solid composition, cellulose susceptibility and recovery of the various fractions was assessed using statistical methods, which enabled the identification of the most favourable operational conditions. PMID:21392966

Romaní, Aloia; Garrote, Gil; López, Francisco; Parajó, Juan Carlos

2011-05-01

244

Role of extractives in soda pulping of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of extractives on the rate of delignification of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood during soda pulping and on the pulp yield has been investigated. The kinetics of delignification of extracted and unextracted wood was studied in model pulping experiments in which woodmeal samples and chips were heated with soda liquors containing large excesses of alkali. The results showed that the extractives do not accelerate the rate of delignification or increase the selectivity of lignin removal. Soda pulping of unextracted wood gave pulps in higher yields than from extracted wood (compared at the same lignin content) but required longer times to produce pulps with particular lignin contents. The rate of delignification of Pinus radiata wood increased when it was pulped together with Tectona grandis (teak) wood which contained extractives known to increase the rate of lignin removal during soda pulping. A similar effect was not observed when the pine wood was pulped together with E. diversicolor wood. (Refs. 16).

Olm, L.; Wearne, R.; Nelson, P.J.

1981-09-01

245

Estabelecimento, multiplicação e alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Establishment, multiplication and elongation in vitro of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cloro ativo (NaOCl na assepsia de explantes para o estabelecimento in vitro, bem como benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA para a multiplicação e alongamento de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. As minicepas fornecedoras de propágulos para introdução in vitro foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram desinfestados com 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0% (v/v de cloro ativo durante 10 min e inoculados em meio de cultura MS. Na obtenção de brotações múltiplas, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS suplementado com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Na fase de alongamento, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de ANA. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados, obtendo-se 45%, 46% e 66% de estabelecimento do clone H12, H19 e H20, respectivamente. A concentração de BAP que resultou na maior proliferação de gemas axilares para o clone H12 aos 60 dias foi estimada na faixa de 0,25 e 0,30 mg L-1. Aos 60 dias, a faixa entre 0,25 e 0,75 mg L-1 de ANA promoveu o maior número de brotações alongadas do clone H12.This work aimed to evaluate different concentrations of active chlorine (NaOCl in explant asepsis for the establishment in vitro as well as of benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA in the multiplication and elongation of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Ministumps, which supply shoots for introduction in vitro, were cultivated in a clonal mini garden under semi-hydroponic system. Nodal segments of clones H12, H19 and H20 were disinfested with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v of active chlorine during 10 minutes and inoculated in MS medium. In the multiplication phase, culture ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of BAP was used. In the elongation phase, ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of NAA was used. No interaction occurred between the studied levels, with 45%, 46% and 66% of establishment of clones H12, H19 and H20, respectively. The BAP concentration that resulted in the highest axillary's bud proliferation for clone H12 at 60 days was estimated in the range of 0.25 to 0.30 mg L-1. At 60 days, the range between 0.25 to 0.75 mg L-1 of NAA, promoted the highest number of elongated shoots for H12 clone.

Gilvano Ebling Brondani

2009-02-01

246

Calonectria species associated with cutting rot of Eucalyptus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decline in the productivity of Eucalyptus hybrid cutting production in the Guangdong Province of China is linked to cutting rot associated with several Calonectria spp. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calonectria spp., Ca. pseudoreteaudii sp. nov. and Ca. cerciana sp. nov. were identified together with Ca. pauciramosa. Calonectria pseudoreteaudii resides in the Ca. reteaudii complex and Ca. cerciana is closely related to Ca. morganii. Connected to the discovery of Ca. pseudoreteaudii, species in the Ca. reteaudii complex were re-considered and the group is shown to accommodate two cryptic species. These originate from Australia and are described as Ca. queenslandica sp. nov. and Ca. terrae-reginae sp. nov. PMID:20664755

Lombard, L; Zhou, X D; Crous, P W; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

2010-06-01

247

Características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake / Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a variabilidade existente nas características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla aos 6 anos, plantado no município de Martinho Campos, MG. As árvores foram distribuídas em três classes de diâmetro e a amostragem consistiu na ret [...] irada de discos, de 2,5 cm de espessura, a 2%, 10%, 30% e 70% da altura comercial, além de um a 1,30 m do solo (DAP) e, a partir deste ponto, de metro em metro até a altura comercial. Foram tomadas amostras ao longo do raio nos discos, considerando os dois lados em relação à medula. As amostras foram carbonizadas em forno elétrico de laboratório, sendo determinados os rendimentos e a qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que para a primeira carbonização, a classe diamétrica influenciou significativamente o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão vegetal, em líquido pirolenhoso e o teor de cinza do carvão vegetal produzido, e que o rendimento em gás não condensável, o teor de materiais voláteis e o de carbono fixo não foram influenciados pela classe diamétrica; para a segunda carbonização o rendimento gravimétrico aumentou da casca para a medula, para todas as classes diamétricas e ocorreu redução dessa característica com a diminuição das classes diamétricas e que os valores de densidade relativa aparente tenderam a aumentar no sentido medula-casca, em todas as classes diamétricas. Abstract in english This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted [...] of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH) and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade.

2013-09-01

248

Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da mad [...] eira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste), com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas. Abstract in english Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla [...] x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning), with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

Fabricio Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Mario, Tomazelo Filho.

2010-10-01

249

THERMAL MODIFICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD: VARIATION OF COLORIMETRIC PARAMETERS  

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Full Text Available The color modifications in Eucalyptus grandis thermally modified wood were investigated. One hundred eighty specimens (10 x 10 x 200 mm were prepared and thermally modified in an electric kiln for 4 and 8 h at 180-240ºC. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h* and ?E were determined by the CIE-L*a*b* method on radial and tangential sections of untreated and treated wood. The results indicated the darkening of specimens in the radial and tangential sections. Both sections showed variation of L* between 73 and 30, a* between 9 and 5 and b* between 20 and 8. The thermally modified wood at 180 and 200ºC showed similar patterns, equally at 220 and 240ºC. The time of exposure indicated significance just in treatment at 200ºC.

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

2013-01-01

250

Bioethanol production from hydrothermally pretreated Eucalyptus globulus wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were pretreated in aqueous media under non-isothermal conditions to reach maximal temperatures (T(MAX)) in the range 195-250 degrees C, in order to assess the effects of the pre-treatment severity on the fractionation of wood and on the susceptibility of processed samples toward enzymatic hydrolysis. Both the fraction of cellulose susceptible to hydrolysis and the hydrolysis rate increased with the severity of the pre-treatments, but the overall glucose yield decreased for substrates pretreated at T(MAX) above 220 degrees C owing to cellulose losses. Using substrates pretreated at T(MAX)=220 degrees C, up to 94% of polysaccharides were recovered in the hydrolysis media as mono- or oligo-saccharides. High glucose to ethanol conversions were obtained operating at low enzyme charges in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation mode. PMID:20634063

Romaní, Aloia; Garrote, Gil; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, Juan Carlos

2010-11-01

251

Resistance of Eucalyptus pellita to rust (Puccinia psidii  

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Full Text Available Eucalypts rust (Puccinia psidii is currently one of the major diseases in commercial eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The primary method of disease control is the use of resistant genotypes, and, among the different species of Eucalyptus, E. pellita is indicated as a promising source of resistance. In this work, the genetic control of rust resistance in E. pellita through inoculations under controlled conditions of 441 plants from four full-sibling families was studied. Inoculations were performed using the monopostular isolate UFV-2, race 1. All families tested segregated for rust resistance, and the number of resistant plants was higher than susceptible in all crosses. Inheritance models based on few genes did not fully explain the observed segregation patterns, and the narrow-sense heritability of rust resistance was estimated between 32.7% and 37.3%. The results suggested that rust resistance in E. pellita is complex and is controlled by major- and minor-effect genes.

Marisângela Rodrigues Santos

2014-11-01

252

Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill  

Science.gov (United States)

Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

2008-08-01

253

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS  

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Full Text Available A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2 are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungal isolate OP4MT2 showed highest zone of inhibition (20 mm against Penicillium chrysogenum among two test fungi. The crude ethyl acetate extract of P3MT1 isolate showed highest zone of inhibition against Candida albicans (19 mm by both well and disc diffusion method when compared to other fungal isolates. Another four fungal isolates (P3ML1, P6MT1, P5MT1 and P2MT1 from the same set of thirty isolates showed positive for the secretion of amylase, protease and laccase enzymes in agar plate method. Two endophytic fungal isolates (P6MT1 & P2MT1 among thirty are able to oxidize guaiacol indicating the presence of Lignin degrading enzymes. Four fungal isolates indicated presence of laccase enzymes by qualitative test were able to decolorize both methylene blue and aniline blue (synthetic dyes in solid and liquid media. The quantitative estimation of percent decolorization of synthetic dyes by spectrophotometric method confirmed more than 90 % reduction in color is made possible by the endophytic fungi. All these fungal strains with good bioactivity are of worth studying in detail for the purification and characterization of the active compounds and enzymes.

K. Ananda et al

2012-08-01

254

Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.  

Science.gov (United States)

A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. PMID:22960456

González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

2012-11-01

255

Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

2011-07-01

256

Avaliação biomecânica de atividades de produção de mudas de Eucalyptus ssp. / Biomechanical evaluation of activities of Eucalyptus ssp. seedling production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida a partir de dados coletados em viveiro florestal, no Vale do Rio Doce, MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a biomecânica de atividades de produção de mudas de Eucalyptus spp. Essa avaliação foi realizada através da análise bidimensional utilizando-se a técnica de gravação em vi [...] deoteipe, sendo os movimentos "congelados" para medição dos ângulos dos diversos segmentos corpóreos. As forças envolvidas foram medidas para aplicação do modelo biomecânico bidimensional de predição de posturas e forças estáticas, por meio de programa computacional desenvolvido pela Universidade de Michigan, dos Estados Unidos. O transporte manual de mudas utilizando carrinho foi a única atividade que apresentou força de compressão do disco da coluna acima da carga-limite superior; e todas as atividades avaliadas ultrapassaram essa carga, recomendada em pelo menos uma fase do ciclo e em pelo menos uma articulação. Abstract in english This study was based on data collected in a nursery located in the municipality of Rio Doce, MG, to evaluate the biomechanics of activities of Eucalyptus spp seedling production. The evaluation was carried out by the bidimensional analysis with the use of the videotape recording technique, with the [...] images of movements frozen to measure the angles of the several body segments. The involved forces were measured in order to apply the biomechanical bidimensional model for the prediction of postures and static forces, using a software developed by the University of Michigan, US. The seedling transport with a pushcart was the only activity presenting compression force on the spinal disc above the superior load limit; and all the studied activities surpassed the load limit recommended in at least one phase of the cycle and in at least one articulation.

José Urbano, Alves; Amaury Paulo de, Souza; Luciano José, Minette; José Mauro, Gomes; Kátia Regina da, Silva; Marcio Alves, Marçal; Emília Pio da, Silva.

2006-06-01

257

Presence of the Eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli and its parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon in Portugal: first record, geographic distribution and host preference  

OpenAIRE

The Eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and its parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were observed for the first time in Portugal, in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Data on the distribution of O. maskelli in Portugal, differences in the susceptibility of two host species, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and parasitism by C. chamaeleon are given.

Branco, Manuela; Boavida, Conceic?a?o; Durand, Nicolas; Franco, Jose? Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

2009-01-01

258

Australian Insects Affecting Eucalyptus Species in Turkey / Insetos Australianos que Afetam Eucaliptos na Turquia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A maioria das espécies de eucalipto são originárias da Austrália, embora algumas tenham sido introduzidas na Turquia e países vizinhos no final do século XVIII. De acordo com o último inventário nacional, existem mais de 20.000 ha de plantações de eucalipto na Turquia. Prospeções efetuadas entre 200 [...] 0 e 2008 detetaram sete espécies de insetos originários da Austrália em sementes e árvores de eucalipto, em várias regiões da Turquia. Seis destas espécies são fitófagas, nomeadamente: Leptocybe invasa (Fisher and La Salle, 2004), Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead, 1900), Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae),Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae), Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera Psyllidae) e Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). De entre estas, as pragas mais importantes são L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata e B. occidentalis. A sétima espécie detetada é o parasitóide Closterocerus chamaeleonis, encontrado a atacar larvas e pupas de O. maskelli. Abstract in english Most Eucalyptus species are endemic to Australia, although a few were introduced into Turkey and neighbouring regions of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th century. According to the most recent national inventories, there are over 20.000 ha of eucalyptus plantations in Turkey. Seven Australia [...] n insects have recently been found on eucalyptus seedlings and trees in several parts of Turkey, in recently conducted surveys between 2000 and 2008. Of these, six are phytophagous and one is a parasitoid.The phytophagous species are: the eucalyptus gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa, Fisher and La Salle, 2004), the leaf blade gall wasp (Prelim. maskelli, Ashmead, 1900), the eucalyptus seed capsule wasp (Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae), the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae), the eucalyptus shoot psyllid (Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and the gum-tree flower thrip (Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Among these phytophagous species, economically important pests are L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata, and B. occidentalis. The parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleonis attacks the larva and pupae of O. maskelli.

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The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.Foi estudada a influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a composição e a estrutura de comunidades de macroinvertebrados associados à macrófita aquática Salvinia auriculata Aublet, em um lago de altitude, margeado por Mata Atlântica secundária e plantações de Eucalyptus. Comparando a diversidade de larvas de Chironomidae (Díptera, Insecta entre as duas margens, foi evidenciada maior diversidade na margem com Eucalyptus. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a predominância de taxa carnívoros entre a macrofauna pode ser o principal fator controlador da diversidade de organismos nas áreas circundadas por plantações de Eucalyptus.

M. CALLISTO

2002-02-01

260

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil / Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Foi estudada a influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a composição e a estrutura de comunidades de macroinvertebrados associados à macrófita aquática Salvinia auriculata Aublet, em um lago de altitude, margeado por Mata Atlântica secundária e plantações de Eucalyptus. Comparando a diversidade [...] de larvas de Chironomidae (Díptera, Insecta) entre as duas margens, foi evidenciada maior diversidade na margem com Eucalyptus. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a predominância de taxa carnívoros entre a macrofauna pode ser o principal fator controlador da diversidade de organismos nas áreas circundadas por plantações de Eucalyptus. Abstract in english The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the d [...] iversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

M., CALLISTO; F. A. R., BARBOSA; P., MORENO.

2002-02-01

261

CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

2006-07-01

262

Estimation of strength and stiffness of Eucalyptus grandis wood by ultrasound waves Estimativa da resistência e rigidez da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por meio de onda ultrassonora  

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Full Text Available

This study aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic elastic constant obtained in non-destructive testing, as a parameter to estimate the mechanical properties of stiffness and resistance of Eucalyptus grandis. For this we used an emitter of ultrasonic waves, which had its sensitivity evaluated by comparison with the values obtained in the destructive test of static bending. The results show that the dynamic elastic constant can be used as non-destructive inference of the stiffness and resistance of Eucalyptus grandis, though with reservations, because the adjustments observed were relatively low, with R²adj. 0.25 and 0.39, respectively.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.109

O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o uso da constante elástica dinâmica obtida no ensaio não destrutivo, como parâmetro para estimativa das propriedades mecânicas de rigidez e resistência da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isto, utilizou-se um emissor de ondas ultrassônicas, o qual teve sua sensibilidade avaliada através da comparação com os valores obtidos no ensaio destrutivo de flexão estática. Os resultados evidenciam que a constante elástica dinâmica pode ser utilizada para inferência não destrutiva da rigidez e resistência da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, entretanto com ressalvas, pois os ajustes observados foram relativamente baixos, com R²aj. de 0,25 e 0,39, respectivamente.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.109

Magnos Alan Vivian

2012-03-01

263

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

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Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B. Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico.Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B. Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Walter Murillo-Arango

2013-03-01

264

Weed control strip influences the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis=Faixa de controle de plantas daninhas influencia o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available Reforestation in Brazil is conventionally carried out with a 50-cm weed control strip, using mechanical or manual hoeing or herbicides. The aim of this study was to determine effects of varying the width of the herbicide-treated strip on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis. Eucalyptus plants were transplanted in Araraquara and Altinópolis counties, São Paulo State, Brazil. In Araraquara, the following treatments were evaluated: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150-cm wide strips, treated with herbicide, on either side of the eucalyptus row; in Altinópolis, the width of the strip on either side of the eucalyptus row was 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 cm. Were evaluated dry matter of leaves, branches and stem and leaf area at 270 days after planting (270 DAP, chlorophyll content (400 DAP, stem diameter and eucalyptus plants height (410 DAP. In Araraquara, the main weed was Panicum maximum, and in Altinópolis, it was Rhynchelytrum repens. For both areas, a minimum of 75 cm of treated strip was required to minimise weed interference with eucalyptus plants’ development.O reflorestamento no Brasil é normalmente realizado com uma faixa de controle de plantas daninhas de 50 cm, utilizando capina mecânica ou manual ou herbicidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da variação da largura da faixa tratadas com herbicidas sobre o estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis. Plantas de eucalipto foram transplantadas nos municípios Araraquara e Altinópolis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em Araraquara, os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 150 cm de larguras de faixas, tratadas com herbicidas, em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto; em Altinópolis, a largura da faixa em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto foi de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 ou 150 cm. Foram avaliados a matéria seca de folhas, ramos e caule e área foliar aos 270 dias após o plantios (DAP, teor de clorofila (400 DAP e altura e diâmentro do caule (410 DAP. Em Araraquara, a principal espécie foi Panicum maximum, em Altinópolis, foi Rhynchelytrum repens. Para ambas as áreas, foi necessário o mínimo de 75 cm de largura de faixa tratada para minimizar a interferência das plantas daninhas no desenvolvimento das plantas de eucalipto.

Roberto Estevão Bragion de Toledo

2012-01-01

265

Weed control strip influences the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis / Faixa de controle de plantas daninhas influencia o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O reflorestamento no Brasil é normalmente realizado com uma faixa de controle de plantas daninhas de 50 cm, utilizando capina mecânica ou manual ou herbicidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da variação da largura da faixa tratadas com herbicidas sobre o estabelecimento de Eucalyptus [...] grandis. Plantas de eucalipto foram transplantadas nos municípios Araraquara e Altinópolis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em Araraquara, os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 150 cm de larguras de faixas, tratadas com herbicidas, em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto; em Altinópolis, a largura da faixa em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto foi de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 ou 150 cm. Foram avaliados a matéria seca de folhas, ramos e caule e área foliar aos 270 dias após o plantios (DAP), teor de clorofila (400 DAP) e altura e diâmentro do caule (410 DAP). Em Araraquara, a principal espécie foi Panicum maximum, em Altinópolis, foi Rhynchelytrum repens. Para ambas as áreas, foi necessário o mínimo de 75 cm de largura de faixa tratada para minimizar a interferência das plantas daninhas no desenvolvimento das plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Reforestation in Brazil is conventionally carried out with a 50-cm weed control strip, using mechanical or manual hoeing or herbicides. The aim of this study was to determine effects of varying the width of the herbicide-treated strip on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis. Eucalyptus plants wer [...] e transplanted in Araraquara and Altinópolis counties, São Paulo State, Brazil. In Araraquara, the following treatments were evaluated: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150-cm wide strips, treated with herbicide, on either side of the eucalyptus row; in Altinópolis, the width of the strip on either side of the eucalyptus row was 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 cm. Were evaluated dry matter of leaves, branches and stem and leaf area at 270 days after planting (270 DAP), chlorophyll content (400 DAP), stem diameter and eucalyptus plants height (410 DAP). In Araraquara, the main weed was Panicum maximum, and in Altinópolis, it was Rhynchelytrum repens. For both areas, a minimum of 75 cm of treated strip was required to minimise weed interference with eucalyptus plants’ development.

João Renato Vaz da, Silva; Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar, Alves; Roberto Estevão Bragion de, Toledo.

2012-03-01

266

Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

Márcio Viera

2011-06-01

267

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF) / Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF) cujas densidades foram iguai [...] s a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF we [...] re equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Benedito Rocha, Vital; Antônio da Silva, Maciel; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

2005-10-01

268

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Benedito Rocha Vital

2005-10-01

269

NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

Márcio Viera

2013-08-01

270

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

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Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4 within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05 the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05. However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05. The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met was not affected (p ? 0.05 by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C C6rdova

2012-09-01

271

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

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Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4 within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05 the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05. However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05. The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (qmet was not affected (p ? 0.05 by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C C6rdova

2012-01-01

272

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, cont [...] rol) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm) were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom) by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin) from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met) was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05) the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05). However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05). The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met) was not affected (p ? 0.05) by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C, C6rdova; M, Barrandeguy; E, Navarrete.

2012-09-01

273

Substituição parcial de fosfato solúvel por natural na implantação de Eucalyptus benthamii e Eucalyptus dunnii no Planalto Sul catarinense / Partial substitution of soluble phosphate by rock phosphate in the planting of Eucalyptus benthamii and Eucalyptus dunnii in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adubação fosfatada é importante para o crescimento inicial do eucalipto, porque suplementa o solo na fase de maior demanda da cultura. O fosfato solúvel (FS) é a fonte comumente utilizada para esse fim, pois apresenta dissolução rápida no solo; contudo, tem custo mais elevado que os fosfatos natur [...] ais (FNs), que por sua vez têm dissolução mais lenta. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de FN como substituinte parcial do FS para o fornecimento de P para Eucalyptus benthamii e E. dunnii. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no campo, um com cada espécie, no município de Otacílio Costa, SC, no período de novembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela principal, testou-se a presença ou ausência do FN (0 ou 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte FN de Bayovar) e nas subparcelas testaram-se as doses de FS (0, 75; 150; e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte superfosfato triplo). Foram realizadas medidas de diâmetro à altura do colo e altura das árvores aos 340 dias, após a aplicação das fontes de P. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adubação fosfatada aumentou o crescimento em diâmetro e altura e incrementou o volume das plantas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, durante o primeiro ano de cultivo. O E. benthamii foi mais exigente à adubação fosfatada, mas permitiu a substituição parcial da dose de fosfato solúvel por fonte de menor solubilidade. Não houve resposta do E. dunnii à aplicação de fosfato natural, devendo a adubação ser realizada com fosfato solúvel. Abstract in english Phosphorus fertilization is important for the initial growth of eucalyptus. Soluble phosphate (SP) sources are commonly used for this purpose because they offer fast dissolution in the soil, but these sources have higher costs than rock phosphate (RP), which has lower solubility. The aim of this stu [...] dy was to evaluate the use of RP as a partial substitute for SP for the initial supply of P to Eucalyptus benthamii and E. dunnii. Two field experiments were carried out (one with each species) in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, SC, Brazil, from November 2010 to December 2011. A randomized block experimental design in a split plot arrangement with three replications was used. In the main plot, the presence or absence of RP (0 or 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 using Bayovar as a P source) was tested, and in the subplots, application rates of SP (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 P2O5, using triple superphosphate) were tested. The diameter was measured at the root collar as well as tree height at 340 days after applying the P sources. The results showed that P fertilization promoted plant growth in diameter and height, increasing the volume of E. benthamii and E. dunnii during the first year of cultivation. E. benthamii was more demanding in P, but allowed partial replacement of soluble phosphate by a source with lower solubility. There was no response from E. dunnii to the application of rock phosphate, and fertilization should be performed only with soluble phosphates.

Luciana Patrícia Rosa, Dias; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Paulo Roberto, Ernani; David José, Miquelluti; Djalma Miler, Chaves; Gustavo, Brunetto.

2014-04-01

274

Aplicação de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden = IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings  

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Full Text Available O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importância no setor florestal e muitos avanços na área do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns genótipos promissores ainda não possuem protocolos de multiplicação com técnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se avaliar concentrações de IBA na sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinação da dose de máxima eficiência técnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropônico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca em soluções hidroalcoólicas, cujas concentrações foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por três clones e cinco concentrações de IBA, com cinco repetições, contendo dez miniestacas por repetição. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizogênicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram até a maiorconcentração de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. Ministumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the minicutting basal portion was plunged in hydro-alcoholic solutions, whose concentrations were: 0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1 of IBA. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with the factors consisting of three clones and five IBA concentrations, with five replications, containing 10 minicuttings per replication. IBA positively influenced the minicutting rooting processes, with differentiated behavior between the clones, with 30.32 to 55.45% rooting variation. The positives increments occurred until the highest IBA concentration for H12 and H19 clones. However, the range between 4,000 and 6,000 mg L-1 ofIBA treatments promoted the best rooting results for the H20 clone.

Gilvano Ebling Brondani

2010-10-01

275

Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares  

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Full Text Available Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tissues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plantas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes quanto o meio completo (47%. O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas.

Roberson Dibax

2005-08-01

276

Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

277

POLIAMINAS COMO MARCADORES BIOQUÍMICOS DE SALINIDADE EM CALOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Full Text Available Marcadores bioquímicos têm sido usados na análise de plantas submetidas a vários tipos de estresse, entre eles a salinidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o estresse salino em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis em relação ao conteúdo de poliaminas. Explantes (hipocótilos obtidos de sementes foram inoculados em meio indutivo de calos e foram submetidos a diferentes níveis de NaCl e analisados aos 10, 20 e 30 dias de inoculação. As poliaminas livres foram extraídas, isoladas e quantificadas usando TLC (Cromatografia de Camada Delgada. O conteúdo de putrescina foi maior, enquanto que o conteúdo de espermidina apresentou decréscimo, em calos submetidos a condições salinas. Os resultados mostram que o acúmulo de putrescina está relacionado com a exposição a NaCl em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis. A diminuição do conteúdo de espermina pode ser usada como marcador bioquímico de calos de Eucalyptus sujeitos à salinidade.

Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

2002-11-01

278

A Tool for Automatic Dependability Test in Eucalyptus Cloud Computing Infrastructures  

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Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a paradigm that dynamically provides resources as services through the Internet. The constant concern about the trust placed in cloud computing systems inspires dependability studies. A possible way of performing dependability studies, especially regarding reliability and availability, is through fault injection tools, which enable to observe the system’s behavior during the occurrence of fault events. This paper presents a fault injection tool, called EucaBomber, for reliability and availability studies in the Eucalyptus cloud computing platform. The tool supports fault injections in Eucalyptus hardware and software components at runtime, and also upholds reparation of both types of injected faults. The efficiency of EucaBomber is tested through a case study involving two different scenarios where faults and repairs of hardware and software are injected in the Eucalyptus platform simulating the system's events. Such a tool assists the system administrator and planners to evaluate the system’s availability and maintenance policies.

Debora Souza

2013-05-01

279

Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management  

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Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

João Batista Rezende

2013-03-01

280

Nutritional content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stump leaves / Teor nutricional foliar em minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar os teores foliares nutricionais de minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii em relação a diferentes concentrações de Zn e B ao longo de sucessivas coletas de brotações. As brotações foram oriundas de minicepas fertirrigadas com soluções nutritivas variando nas concentrações de Zn e B ( [...] S1 - isento de Zn e B, S2 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn, S3 - 0,5 mg L-1 de B, S4 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S5 - 1,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S6 - 2,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B), sendo realizadas oito coletas de brotações do minijardim clonal. Ao longo do experimento foram determinados o teor nutricional foliar de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Considerou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes variaram significativamente em relação aos tratamentos avaliados, sendo que as soluções S5 e S6 apresentaram as melhores respostas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the foliar nutrient content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stumps treated with different Zn and B concentrations during successive shoot collections. Shoots were collected from mini-stumps fertigated with nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of Z [...] n and B (S1 - free of Zn and B; S2 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn; S3 - 0.5 mg L-1 B; S4 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn and B; S5 - 1.0 mg L-1 Zn and B; S6 - 2.0 mg L-1 Zn and B). Eight shoot collections from the clonal mini-garden were performed. For each shoot collection, the nutritional content of the leaf was determined (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The experiment was conducted using a randomized design with a split plot and included three replications. The foliar macro and micronutrient contents varied significantly in relation to the treatments, and the S5 and S6 nutritive solutions presented the best responses.

Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Francisco José Benedini, Baccarin; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves; Marcílio de, Almeida.

2014-12-01

281

Genetic evaluation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Mato Grosso State, Brazil Avaliação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis no Estado de Mato Grosso  

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The study aimed to estimate parameters, values and genetic gain for growth traits in progenies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, in the State of Mato Grosso. The progenies test was conducted under a randomized block design with 132 progenies, five replications and three plants in single rows, spaced 3 m x 2 m in Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. At 24 months of age, progenies were evaluated for the characters: a diameter at base height (DBH, in centimeters, b total height, in meters, c survival. The individual in the narrow sense heritability for the traits studied can be considered medium to high magnitude (0.13 and 0.21 for height and diameter, respectively. The heritability for survival were practically nil, due to low genetic variability among the progenies, as evidenced by high survival rate of the plants (96.8%. The phenotypic and genetic correlations were of high magnitude for DBH and height prediction. There is genetic variation among progenies for growth traits which will provide significant genetic gains with selection.

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

O estudo objetivou estimar parâmetros, valores e ganhos genéticos para caracteres de crescimento em progênies de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, no estado de Mato Grosso. O teste de progênies foi instalado sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 132 progênies, cinco repetições e três plantas por parcela em linhas simples, no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m no município de Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. Aos 24 meses de idade, as progênies foram avaliadas quanto aos caracteres: a diâmetro à altura da base (DAB, em centímetros; b altura total, em metros; c sobrevivência. As herdabilidades individuais no sentido restrito para os caracteres estudados podem ser consideradas de média a alta magnitude (0,13 e 0,21 para altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Para a sobrevivência, as herdabilidades foram praticamente nulas, devido à baixa variabilidade genética existente entre as progênies, evidenciada pela alta taxa de sobrevivência das plantas (96,8%. As correlações fenotípicas e genéticas preditas foram de elevada magnitude para DAB e altura. Existe variação genética entre as progênies para os caracteres de crescimento o que proporciona ganhos genéticos significativos com seleção.

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

Reginaldo Brito da Costa

2012-06-01

282

Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature and localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinação da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies.

Leonardo David Tuffi Santos

2008-08-01

283

Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in response to 200 mg L-1 of BAP treatment, during 1 and 2 hours. The use of the pulse on in vitro multiplication of E. grandis is feasible.

Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

2006-12-01

284

Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus / Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinaçã [...] o da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies. Abstract in english This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature an [...] d localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.

Leonardo David Tuffi, Santos; Marcela, Thadeo; Lourdes, Iarema; Renata Maria Strozi Alves, Meira; Francisco Affonso, Ferreira.

2008-08-01

285

Diversidade genética em populações-núcleo de Eucalyptus grandis = Genetic diversity of two Eucalyptus grandis nucleus populations  

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Full Text Available No melhoramento genético de espécies florestais, uma população base ouindivíduos superiores pré-selecionados tem importância fundamental para a manutenção do programa. Indivíduos de melhores procedências e de ampla base genética propiciam a obtenção de ganhos de forma contínua. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética em duas populações-núcleo de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliados 39 indivíduos, sendo 19 pertencentes à população 1 e 20, à população 2, utilizando-se 14 primers microssatélite. Os fragmentos foram identificados e analisados a partir dos programas GeneScan e Genotyper, utilizando-se um sequenciador automático ABI Prism 3100. Onúmero de alelos encontrados para cada primer variou de cinco a 15 para a população 1 e, de 8 a 18 para a população 2. A heterozigosidade estimada foi maior na população 2, 0,869, contra 0,843 na população 1. A média da distância genética entre os indivíduos da população 1 foi 0,6220 e na população 2 foi 0,6112. Com a caracterização molecular dos indivíduos destas populações foi construído um banco de dados que permitirá, a partir dos parâmetrosde genética de populações, monitorar esses programas de melhoramento em diferentes ciclos de seleção.In genetic breeding of forest species, a base population or pre-selected higher individuals have a fundamental importance to program maintenance due to their better origins and large genetic basis, which continuously propitiates gains. The aim of this study was to verify the variability level in two Eucalyptus grandis nucleus populations. Thus, 39 individuals were evaluated – 19 in population 1, and 20 in population 2. Fourteen microsatellite primers were measured, identified and analyzed using GeneScan and Genotyper software through an ABI Prism 3100 automatic sequencer. The number of alleles in each primer varied between 5 and 15 in population 1, and from 8 to 18 in population 2. Heterozygosity was higher in population 2 – 0.869, versus 0.843 in population 1. Mean genetic distance amongindividuals was 0.6220 in population 1 and 0.6112 in population 2. After individual molecular characterization, a database was compiled to allow the control of these improvement programs in different selection cycles based on population genetic parameters.

Helenize Gabriela de Souza

2010-10-01

286

Optimization of agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation in eucalyptus camaldulensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to optimize Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Transformation was done by using LBA4404 containing binary plasmid pGA482 with uidA (Gus) gene under CamV35S promoter and nptII gene under nos promoter. For optimization, different explants (Cotyledonary leaves, plantlet leaves and hypocotyls of young In vitro plants and calli) with and without preculture were infected with a range of optical densities (O.D.600nm=0.3-0.6). Effect of different concentrations of Acetosyringone, infection time and co-cultivation time on transformation efficiency was evaluated. Confirmation of transformation was done through GUS histochemical staining and through PCR. Callogenesis and regeneration was found fast on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP. Highest transformation efficiency was obtained with bacterial suspension of O.D.600nm = 0.5 for non-precultured explants and O.D.600nm=0.3 for precultured explants. (author)

287

Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

2010-01-01

288

CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill PLANTS  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and mass detection (MS. The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin. In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide, borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

CHRISTIAN TRONCOSO

2011-01-01

289

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

290

/ CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) PLANTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid) and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass det [...] ection (MS). The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol) and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin). In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide), borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

CHRISTIAN, TRONCOSO; JOSÉ, BECERRA; MAGALIS, BITTNER; CLAUDIA, PEREZ; KATIA, SÁEZ; MANUEL, SÁNCHEZ-OLATE; DARCY, RÍOS.

291

Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and ?-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), ?-eudesmol (23), and ?-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition. PMID:24641242

Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Wan, Baojie; Inui, Taichi; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F; Jaki, Birgit U

2014-03-28

292

Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

2015-01-01

293

SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

José Marcio de Mello

2005-06-01

294

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

295

INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION  

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Full Text Available Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC(PODD, O(DC(PODP, OD(PODD, OD(PODP, ODHT(PODD, ODHT(PODP, OA/D(PODD, OA/D(PODP, OAD(PODD and O(ZeD(PO. Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to 90±0.5% ISO. Brightness stability was measured after each bleaching stage of the various sequences andexpressed as brightness loss in % ISO. The results indicate that pulps bleached with sequences ending with a peroxide stage havehigher brightness stability compared to those ending with a chlorine dioxide stage. Pulps bleached with a standard sequence, initiatingwith a (DC stage, show brightness stability similar to that of pulp bleached by an ECF (Elementary chlorine free sequence initiatingwith a regular D0 stage. ECF sequences, initiated with hot stages produce pulps with higher brightness stability than sequencesinitiating with a regular D0 stage. The profile across the bleaching sequences shows a tendency of increased brightness stability inalkaline stages containing peroxide and decreased stability in those stages containing chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide, parallelingpulp carbonyl group content.

Kátia M. M. Eiras

2005-12-01

296

Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps  

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Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

Marcela Freitas Andrade

2013-09-01

297

MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP  

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Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

Marcos S. Rabelo

2008-08-01

298

Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1997-10-01

299

SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

2008-03-01

300

Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte [...] (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms includingStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). RESULTS: The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain ?-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata(arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSION: The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and ?-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostatashowed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

Khaled, Sebei; Fawzi, Sakouhi; Wahid, Herchi; Mohamed Larbi, Khouja; Sadok, Boukhchina.

301

Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter-specific competition.

Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

2014-05-01

302

Hydrological implications of soil water-repellency in Eucalyptus globulus forests, north-central Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil water-repellency (hydrophobicity) is a widespread property of Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster forest soils in central and north littoral Portugal and is particularly severe during the summer dry conditions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of water repellency on overland flow and runoff generation at plot and catchment scales for two types of terrain with differing land management and degree of soil hydrophobicity: (i) highly hydrophobic land with regenerating eucalyptus forest following fire; and (ii) largely hydrophilic land on which deep-ploughing prior to planting eucalyptus seedlings had eliminated hydrophobicity. Overland flow responses were monitored over a 40-month period for two 8 m×2 m plots and streamflow was recorded continuously at gauging stations for two small catchments of predominantly regrowth eucalyptus and ploughed/planted eucalyptus, respectively. Soil hydrophobicity was assessed using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test. Seasonal variations in the factors influencing plot overland flow response were assessed for each land management type using multivariate analysis. For the regrowth eucalyptus plot, overland flow generation was found to be negatively correlated with antecedent soil moisture in summer (suggesting that hydrophobicity-linked Hortonian overland flow is then dominant), but positively related to throughflow in winter (suggesting that saturation overland flow generation in a hydrophilic-phase soil was at that time the dominant mechanism). In the ploughed/planted areas, negative correlations with soil moisture were found neither in summer nor winter. Rainfall amount (and in winter also antecedent precipitation) were found to be the variables most strongly and positively related to overland flow volume. The plot results are compared with streamflow responses for the small catchments.

Ferreira, A. J. D.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.; Ceballos, A.; Doerr, S. H.

2000-05-01

303

Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood / Perda de volume como ferramenta para avaliação da secagem da madeira de eucalipto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus dunnii, em termos de perda de volume. A madeira das três espécies foi seca conjuntamente, com o mesmo programa de secagem e condições ambientais, em uma câmara-piloto de sec [...] agem convencional. Foram avaliados três tipos de perda de volume: total - da condição saturada (inicial) até a aplainada (final); contração - da condição saturada até 10% de umidade; usinagem - da condição saturada até a aplainada. A madeira de Eucalyptus grandis foi a mais estável dimensionalmente e apresentou a menor perda de volume na contração. Embora tenham comportamentos diferentes de estabilidade dimensional, as madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram a mesma qualidade de secagem, levando-se em consideração as perdas de volume no aplainamento e total. Estas espécies podem ser consideradas a mesma para a secagem convencional. A madeira de Eucalyptus dunnii apresentou a pior qualidade de secagem e não deve ser seca na mesma carga que as demais. Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Thr [...] ee kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial) to machined (final) condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

Djeison Cesar, Batista; Ricardo Jorge, Klitzke; Márcio Pereira da, Rocha; Graciela Inez Bolzon de, Muñiz; Tharcia Ribeiro, Batista.

2013-06-01

304

Características palinológicas de mieles de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.) y tréboles (Trifolium sp.) provenientes de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina / Palynological characteristics of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) and clover (Trifolium sp.) honeys from Argentinean Pampean Phytogeographic Province  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el perfil polínico de mieles de tréboles y de eucalipto de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina, con el fin de contribuir a su caracterización palinológica. Se realizó un análisis polínico cualitativo y se aplicaron técnicas estadísticas descriptiva [...] s y multivariadas, para conocer la distribución de frecuencia de los pólenes y caracterizar cada origen floral, según los pólenes acompañantes y los años de cosecha. Se analizaron 81 muestras de miel, de cuatro cosechas diferentes. Se encontraron 41 tipos morfológicos de polen, cuya variación por muestra osciló entre dos y ocho. El taxón presente en más del 80% de las mieles fue Eucalyptus sp. Los principales pólenes acompañantes encontrados pertenecieron a los tipos Helianthus annuus y Carduus sp., para ambos orígenes florales estudiados, y a la familia de las Brassicaceae, para las mieles de tréboles. Los años de cosecha estudiados mostraron diferentes espectros polínicos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the pollen profile of clover and eucalyptus honeys from the Phytogeographic Pampean Province of Argentina, in order to contribute to its palynological characterization. Qualitative pollen analysis was performed. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques we [...] re applied to determine the frequency distribution of pollen and characterize each floral origin by pollen and year of harvest. 81 samples of honey from four different harvests were analyzed. 41 morphological types of pollen were found, which variation per sample ranged from two to eight. Eucalyptus sp. was the taxon present in over 80% of the honeys. There were pollen of Helianthus annuus and Carduus sp. in clover and eucalyptus honeys but pollen of Brassicaceae was only present in clover honeys. Pollen spectra showed differences between the studied years.

María Cristina, Ciappini; María Susana, Vitelleschi.

2013-06-01

305

HEXENURONIC ACID REMOVAL FROM UNBLEACHED KRAFT EUCALYPTUS PULP BY PEROXYMONOSULFURIC ACID  

OpenAIRE

The use of peroxymonosulphuric (Ps) acid to remove hexenuronic acid (HexA) present in unbleached eucalyptus kraft pulps was evaluated here. HexA is formed during pulping and is held responsible for reagent consumption during bleaching. Laboratory experiments, using oxygen predelignified eucalyptus kraft pulps (kappa number around 9), treated at 20-110C and 0.2-1.0%Ps, were conducted here, Experimental results show that Ps effectively removed both HexA and lignin, even under mild conditions. S...

XIMENA PETIT-BREUILH; CLAUDIO ZAROR; ROBERTO MELO

2004-01-01

306

Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft  

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Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption and basic papermaking properties were evaluated. Upon these results, they were considered as potential mixed base material for Kraft cooking. In previous research, significant differences were found between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus maidenii Kraft pulping behavior and no mixture was recommended. New results indicate a similar performance for each studied Eucalyptus species. However, the comparable demand in active alkali charges among them, suggests that mixtures could be successfully employed.

Javier Doldán

2011-05-01

307

Compaction and soil fertility after eucalyptus harvesting using Feller Buncher and Skidder  

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Full Text Available This study analyzed, the impact of Feller Buncher and Skidder traffic in harvesting areas of eucalyptus in Mogi Guaçu, considering the compaction and fertilization effects in the range of soil next to the carrier during the cycle of forest growth. An increase in soil compaction, caused by machinery traffic in topsoil (0-10 cm, was observed in the area recently harvested. The soils of the study areas, with eucalyptus 1.4 and 6.0 years old, showed good fertility conditions, especially the older area, where decomposition of forest residues possibly contributed to such fertility.

Ana Lúcia Piedade Sodero Martins Pincelli

2014-06-01

308

Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by Eucalyptus grandis glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate. Veneer combinations with higher shear strength were pith/outer, intermediary/outer and outer/outer wood.

Benedito Rocha Vital

2006-08-01

309

Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii / Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta [...] viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² [...] in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by Eucalyptus grandis glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate. Veneer combinations with higher shear strength were pith/outer, intermediary/outer and outer/outer wood.

Benedito Rocha, Vital; Antônio da Silva, Maciel; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

2006-08-01

310

Productive Performance and Immunocompetence of Commercial Laying Hens Given Diets Supplemented with Eucalyptus  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted to determine the effect of Eucalyptus leaf powder supplementation on productive performance and immune response of brown Hy-line laying hens. Sixty brown Hy-line layers were equally divided into four groups. They were fed diet containing 0, 1, 2 and 3g Eucalyptus leaf powder/kg diet form 46 to 54 weeks of age. Egg production (weight and number) was recorded daily. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded every 4 weeks. Cell mediated immunity was determined at 54 we...

Abd El-motaal, A. M.; Ahmed, A. M. H.; Bahakaim, A. S. A.; Fathi, M. M.

2008-01-01

311

Boron mobility in eucalyptus clones Mobilidade de Boro em clones de eucalipto  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the magnitude of B mobility in eucalyptus may help to select clones that are more efficient for B use and to design new practices of B fertilization. This study consisted of five experiments with three eucalyptus clones (129, 57 and 58) where the response to and mobility of B were evaluated. Results indicated that clone 129 was less sensitive to B deficiency than clones 68 and 57, apparently due to its ability to translocate B previously absorbed via root systems to younger tiss...

Jackson Freitas Brilhante de São José; Ivo Ribeiro da Silva; Nairam Felix de Barros; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Eulene Francisco Silva; Thomas Jot Smyth; Fernando Palha Leite; Flancer Novais Nunes; Fabrício de Oliveira Gebrim

2009-01-01

312

Mixed plantations of eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two Eucalyptus species--E. Saligna and E. grandis--are especially favored in Hawaii for wood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-fixing plants, such as legumes. A test was conducted to determine whether planting two leguminous species--Acacia melanoxylon and Albizia falcataria Fosberg--could increase biomass production. Total biomass production was much greater in the mixed-species plantations than in the pure Eucalyptus plantation.

DeBell, D.S.; Whitesell, C.D.; Schubert, T.H.

1985-07-01

313

Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), ?-pinene (5%), and ?-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13...

Amit Kumar Tyagi; Danka Bukvicki; Davide Gottardi; Giulia Tabanelli; Chiara Montanari; Anushree Malik; Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni

2014-01-01

314

Efeito acaricida de óleos essenciais e concentrados emulsionáveis de Eucalyptus spp em Boophilus microplus / Acaricide effect of Eucalyptus spp essential oils and concentrated emulsion on Boophilus microplus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se um estudo sobre a ação biocida de Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus staigeriana no carrapato Boophilus microplus, buscando-se a produção de acaricidas menos agressivos ao meio ambiente. Os óleos essenciais das três espécies e os concentrados emulsionáveis de E. glob [...] ulus e E. staigeriana foram testados em cinco concentrações diferentes contra larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus. Os óleos foram submetidos à análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM), a fim de se investigar sua composição. O citronelal é o principal componente do óleo de E. citriodora, sendo responsável por sua ação acaricida. O mesmo ocorre com o 1,8-cineol em E. globulus. Em E. staigeriana existem várias substâncias que agem sinergicamente contra B. microplus. O óleo essencial de E. citriodora matou 100% dos carrapatos a uma concentração média de 17,5%, o de E. globulus a 15% e o de E. staigeriana a 12,5%. Os concentrados emulsionáveis de E. globulus mataram 100% dos carrapatos a uma concentração média de 9,9% e o de E. staigeriana a uma concentração de 3,9%. O desenvolvimento de produtos que possam ser testados a campo e comercializados a preços competitivos serão passos a serem seguidos. Os biocarrapaticidas têm um apelo comercial grande, permitindo controlar B. microplus de um modo menos agressivo ao meio ambiente. Abstract in english Biocide action of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus staigeriana were studied against Boophilus microplus tick, aiming the production of an environmentally and ecologically conect and len harmpol acaricide. Essential oil emulsion of three Eucaliptus species were tested in five [...] different concentrations against larvae and engorged female of B. microplus. Oils were submitted to gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis looking for its composition. Citronelal is the major component of E. citriodora essential oil, being responsible for its acaricide action. The same happens with 1.8-cineole in E. globulus. In E. staigeriana, there are many substances involved in a synergic action against B. microplus. E. citriodora essential oil killed all ticks in an average concentration of 17.5% as compared to E. globulus with 15% and E. staigeriana with 12.5%. E. globulus concentrated emulsion killed all ticks in an average concentration of 9.9% and E. staigeriana in a concentration of 3.9%. Further steps will be pursued to make those essential oils to be tested under field conditions and available to the farmers, since bioacaricides has commercial appeal, allowing B. microplus control in a less aggressive way to the environment.

Ana Carolina de Souza, Chagas; Wanderley Mascarenhas, Passos; Hélio Teixeira, Prates; Romário Cerqueira, Leite; John, Furlong; Isabel Cristina Pereira, Fortes.

315

Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis / Bioprospectionof Bacillus spp. as potential growth promoters in Eucalyptus urograndis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bact [...] érias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical characteristics of agronomic interest and correlation with the promotion of plant grow thin isolates of Bacillus sp. originating from the eucalyptus rhizosp here. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse. From the bacteria isol [...] ation from the rhizo sp here of plants from different cities of the western region of São Paulo, were obtained 127 isolates of Bacillus sp.. Biochemical testswere performed to characterize thebacterial isolateson the antagonism of pathogenic fungi, the production of auxin, ammonia and enzymatic activity. In the final ste pwe evaluated thepotentialof the isolates, previous lycharacterizedin laboratory conditions, to promote plant growth, using bacteria inoculation in eucalyptus seedling sand growing plants in a green house for 90 days. Eucalyptus growth were evaluated aiming to select the best strain sand to correlate the different variables asses sed. The bio prospecting protocol for Bacillus sp. Rhizosp here was valid to find promising rhizobacteria in increasing eucalyptus growth. Five isolates were selected as promising foracti on on growing eucalyptus. The antagonistic to pathogenic fungi and ammonia production found in isolate so frhizobacteria help fulin the initial selection of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria eucalyptus as significantly correlated with plant growth.

Ana Ligia de Lima, Moreira; Fabio Fernando de, Araújo.

2013-10-01

316

Densidad de la madera en clones de eucalyptus por densitometría de rayos X / Wood Density in eucalyptus clones by X-Rays Densitometry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el Brasil y en diversos países se han verificado avances significativos en la silvicultura clonal intensiva con diferencias marcadas entre clones de especies e híbridos de eucalyptus en lo referente a los parámetros de crecimiento y desarrollo. Al mismo tiempo, en los últimos años, se introdujo e [...] l concepto de uso múltiplo del leño de los árboles con la utilización de la madera como fuente de celulosa y papel, madera sólida y otras aplicaciones como estrategia de aumento de la rentabilidad del emprendimiento forestal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el índice de uniformidad de la madera y la variación de la densidad en el sentido radial por densitometría de rayos X de árboles de 8 años de edad de clones de eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, buscando posibilitar la optimización de su uso. Por sus características silviculturales se seleccionaron los 5 mejores clones de la especie e híbrido de las plantaciones clonales localizadas en el municipio de San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP de la Cia Suzano de Celulosa y Papel. Se caracterizaron 3 modelos de variación radial de la densidad y la formación de 3 tipos de madera (juvenil, de transición y adulta); el valor medio de densidad aparente de la madera en los clones fue de 0,46 y 0,54 g/cm³, para el eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, respectivamente. Abstract in english In Brazil, as in many other countries significant advances have been verified in intensive clonal silviculture with remarkable differences on parameters of growth and development between species clones and hybrids of eucalyptus. At the same time, during recent years the concept of multiple uses of t [...] ree logs to increase the yield of the forest enterprise as cellulose and paper and solid wood has been introduced. The present paper studies the wood uniformity index and radial variability of density using x-rays densitometry of 8 year clones eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla in order to optimize their use. This experiment was performent at Suzano Cellulose and Paper Company Clone Plantation in San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP-Brazil. The best five clones of the species and hybrid by their silviculture characteristics were selected. Three models of radial density variation were found and the formation of three different types of wood were characterized (youthful, of transition and adult); the average value of wood apparent density in clones was 0.46 and 0.54 g/cm³ for eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla, respectively.

Bibiana, Arango; Lida, Tamayo.

2008-09-01

317

EFFECT OF FREQUENCY OF IMMERSION AND AIR INJECTION ON IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTOR  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813321The objectives of this study were to evaluate different immersion frequencies (2, 4, 8 and 16 h andexplants supports (filter paper and foam of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clone insideRITA® bioreactors; and a ventilation system with additional air input coupled to the bioreactor containers.It was evaluated the explants fresh weight, number of shoots and hyperhydricity and in vitro axillary budmultiplication. The immersions every two and four hours and the filter paper showed higher growth andnumber of shoots, but caused a greater percentage of hyperhydric shoots. Under the conditions and systemtested, the additional air injection in the RITA® bioreactor did not influence the culture growth.

Mila Liparize de Oliveira

2014-03-01

318

Recovering of carbon fixation in a eucalyptus site after felling  

Science.gov (United States)

Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an ultrasonic Gill anemometer R2, an open path analyzer IRGA LI-7500 and a microclimate unit at its top. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. For the 2002-2006 period, mean annual values of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross production(GPP) and ecosystem respiration(Reco) were -533.3 gCm-2, 1628.6 gCm-2 and 1095.2 gCm-2. Seasonal patterns of carbon fixation for the five years showed a decrease in July-August periods due to highest air temperatures, atmospheric water vapour deficits and stomata partial closure to prevent water transpiration losses. For the period 2002-2006, the dry year of 2005 with a precipitation of about 390 mm, corresponded to the smaller carbon fixation of 390 gCm-2. Similarly, values of Reco, GPP and estimated leaf area index (less than three) were also minimal in 2005. Water use efficiency, WUE (ratio GPP/precipitation) was maximum in summer periods and in driest years, reaching values of about 12g/L-1. Recovery of carbon sink capacity, after the felling, begun after August 2007. The 2007 and 2008 annual NEE values were respectively 105.8 gCm-2 and -35.78 gCm-2. This negative value of NEE for 2008 is indicative of a carbon sink recovery. Annual Reco values for 2007 and 2008 were respectively 1059.03 gCm-2 and 1148.21 gCm-2. For GPP the annual values of 2007 and 2008 were respectively 953.24 gCm-2 and 1148.10 gCm-2. After the felling, stems rapidly grew and monthly GPP increased from 32 gCm-2 to 114 gCm-2 from January to October 2007. In November and December 2007, GPP decreased as a consequence of less solar radiation and frost in the young plants. In 2008 monthly GPP increased again till September. In the last three months of 2008, GPP diminished as a consequence of lack of water loss by evapotranspiration and the thinning. The results showed a chronological tendency for carbon fixation of the eucalyptus site according to physiological status of plants, concerning age and physical environmental factors.

Rodrigues, A. M.; Pita, G. P. A.; Mateus, A.; Santos Pereira, J.

2009-04-01

319

Caracterização química do "pitch" em indústria de celulose e papel de Eucalyptus Chemical characterization of pitch in Eucalyptus pulp and paper industry  

OpenAIRE

The chemical analysis of the acetone, chloroform, toluene and methanol extracts of a pitch sample was carried out by IR and GC-MS, leading to the identification of sixty nine compounds, including fatty acids, alcohols and hydrocarbons. Analysis of the acetone extractive of a eucalyptus wood used in Brazil for pulp production was also carried out, resulting in identification of fifty nine compounds, including mainly fatty acids, phenolic compounds, beta-sitosterol and other steroids. This anal...

Cruz, Mariluze P.; Barbosa, Luiz C. A.; Maltha, Ce?lia R. A.; Gomide, Jose? L.; Milanez, Augusto F.

2006-01-01

320

VARIABILIDAD DE LAS PROPIEDADES FISICAS, MORFOLOGICAS Y TERMICAS DE LA FIBRA DE CORTEZA DE Eucalyptus nitens VARIABILITY OF PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus nitens BARK FIBER  

OpenAIRE

Se estudió la variabilidad en las propiedades morfológicas, físicas y térmicas de la fibra de corteza de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) en veinticuatro árboles procedentes de dos sitios y seis familias; mediante técnicas de microscopía óptica convencional, microscopía electrónica (SEM) y análisis termo-gravimétrico (TGA). Dichas propiedades son determinantes para que una fibra lignocelulósica alcance una posible aplicación industrial como material de refuerzo en una matriz t...

Freddy Muñoz; Aldo Ballerini; William Gacitúa

2013-01-01

321

Multiplicación in vitro de Eucalyptus globulus mediante sistema de inmersión temporal In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus globulus by temporary immersion system  

OpenAIRE

Con el objeto de establecer metodologías de masificación de Eucalyptus globulus se analizaron factores que afectan la multiplicación in vitro de esta especie mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal. Para ello se dispusieron cinco microtallos por frasco, conteniendo 250 mL de medio Murashige y Skoog. Se estudiaron la frecuencia de inmersión (6, 12, 24, 48 h), tiempo de inmersión (1, 2 y 3 min) y concentración de macronutrientes (25, 50, 100 %). También se estudió el efecto de la adi...

Ricardo González; Darcy Ríos; Fabiola Avilés; Manuel Sánchez-Olate

2011-01-01

322

Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on amaryllis and associated grassy weed Efeitos alelopáticos do Eucalyptus citriodora sobre amarílis e em gramíneas daninhas associadas  

OpenAIRE

A Petri dish assay was carried out for screening different concentrations of aqueous extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora on germination and seedling growth of wild oat weed (Avena fatua). Seed germination, root and shoot length of wild oat exhibited different degrees of inhibition according to the concentration of the aqueous extract. Maximum inhibitions of germination percentage, root and shoot length were recorded when using 25% fresh leaf extract. Based on this prelim...

El-rokiek, K. G.; Eid, R. A.

2009-01-01

323

Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota  

OpenAIRE

El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con e...

Duarte, A.; Ordon?ez, N.; Castan?eda, E.

1994-01-01

324

Site Productivity of Clone and Seed Raised Plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis in Southeast Mexico  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between soil variables and forest productivity of Eucalyptus urophylla (Eu) and E. grandis (Eg) was studied in commercial forest plantations (CFP) in Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. The group of Eu included seed and clone raised plantations and the Eg group included only seed raised plantations. Tree measurements and soil sampling were carried out at 56 500-m2 plots. Two soil depths (0 - 20 and 20 - 40 cm) were sampled and analyzed for phy...

Reyna Pérez-Sandoval; Armando Gómez-Guerrero; Aurelio Fierros-González; Horwath, William R.

2012-01-01

325

NANOINDENTACIONES Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA EN MADERA DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS CON MICRO Y MESO GRIETAS NANOINDENTATIONS AND ULTRASTRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS NITENS WITH MICRO AND MESOCRACKS  

OpenAIRE

Se desarrolló una metodología basada en nanoindentaciones y análisis de la ultraestructura de células de madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) para explorar los factores que generan la aparición de fallas en la madera debido a tensiones de crecimiento. Se estudió madera normal y madera con mesogrietas. Existieron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de vasos y módulo de elasticidad de la pared S2 entre los dos tipos de madera estudiadas. Se identificó como causa de la f...

William Gacitua E; Aldo Ballerini A; Jean Pierre Lasserre; David Bahr

2007-01-01

326

Paneles unidos de canto y contrachapados fabricados con madera juvenil de Eucalyptus nitens Edge-glued panels and plywoods manufactured with juvenile Eucalyptus nitens wood  

OpenAIRE

El presente trabajo evalúa la calidad de la unión adhesiva en madera sólida de Eucalyptus nitens de 11 años. Con esta finalidad se fabricaron paneles unidos de canto utilizando PVA (acetato de polivinilo) como adhesivo. Se midieron las propiedades físico-mecánicas de estos paneles y se compararon con las propiedades de paneles unidos de canto fabricados con madera de Pinus radiata de 25 años. Como resultado de estos ensayos se encontró que los paneles a base de E. nitens presentan val...

Justo Lisperguer, M.; Carlos Rozas, M.

2005-01-01

327

Tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: pelo método de substituição de seiva / Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: juvenile wood by sap displacement method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, analisar a qualidade do tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e verificar a influência da inversão das peças na solução preservativa, na distribuição, na penetração e na retenção do CCB, ao longo das peças tratadas pelo método [...] de substituição de seiva. Árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram coletadas na Zona Rural do Município de Rio Tinto - PB, de um povoamento com quatro anos. No povoamento foram escolhidas, aleatoriamente, cinco árvores, sendo três de maior diâmetro. Para o tratamento da madeira, empregou-se o método de substituição de seiva por transpiração radial utilizando-se uma solução de 2% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado (CCB) e comparou-se o efeito da inversão das peças na solução preservativa. A distribuição, a penetração e a retenção foram melhores nas peças invertidas, quando comparadas àquelas não-invertidas na solução preservativa. Abstract in english The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulen [...] sis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB) and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

Pablo Marcel de Arruda, Torres; Juarez Benigno, Paes; José Augusto de, Lira Filho; José Wallace Barbosa do, Nascimento.

2011-06-01

328

Plantio misto de Eucalyptus spp. com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio / Mixed plantation of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A revisão relata os principais benefícios do plantio misto de eucalipto com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico. Buscou-se analisar as interações ecológicas das espécies envolvidas no sistema, a arquitetura espacial utilizada e o possível aumento de produtividade do sistema cons [...] orciado. Com base nisso, observa-se que o cultivo misto de eucaliptos com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico só deve ser realizado em locais onde os processos e as interações entre espécies aumentarão o crescimento, a produção de biomassa ou a qualidade do produto final desejado. De forma geral, os estudos indicam que o interplantio de leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio proporciona incremento na produtividade das plantas de eucalipto. Contudo, devem-se analisar as interações dos plantios mistos até a sua idade de rotação, para que, com isso, possam ser verificados os possíveis efeitos da fixação biológica de nitrogênio atmosférico pela leguminosa na produtividade do eucalipto. Abstract in english In this paper, we aimed to review the main benefits of the mixed plantation of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees. To this end, the ecological interactions of the species involved in the system was analyzed, as well as the space architecture used and the possible increase in productivity c [...] aused by the intercropping. On this basis, it was possible to observe that the mixed cropping of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees should be implemented only in locations where the processes and interactions between species will increase the growth, biomass production or quality of desired product. In general, studies indicate that mixed plantation provides an increase in productivity in eucalyptus stand. However, it is important to analyze the interactions of mixed stand until the age of rotation, so that the possible effects of atmospheric nitrogen fixation by legume trees on the productivity of eucalyptus can be verified.

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Edenilson, Liberalesso; Marcos Vinícius Winckler, Caldeira; Luciano Farinha, Watzlawick.

2013-03-01

329

Alterações morfológicas em Eucalyptus grandis sob aplicação de biorreguladores no período juvenil (Nota Científica. Morphological modifications in Eucalyptus grandis with application of bioregulators at juvenile stage (Scientific Note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a aplicação dos biorreguladores vegetais paclobutrazol, ácido giberélico e ethefon em mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, com o intuito de acompanhar as modificações promovidas pelos hormônios sintéticos durante a fase juvenil. Foram efetuadas avaliações morfológicas como altura (cm e diâmetro do colo (mm e medições indiretas do índice de clorofila. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. A aplicação de paclobutrazol (PBZ promoveu alterações morfológicas nas folhas dos indivíduos como: redução no tamanho, modificação da cor e limbo coriáceo. Foram também verificadas redução no comprimento dos internódios, quebra de dormência de gema e desenvolvimento de ramos laterais, redução do porte das plantas (68% e aumento da quantidade de clorofila (29%.Já o ácido giberélico (GA3 demonstrou ser substância importante relacionada ao desenvolvimento vegetativo, estimulando o crescimento em altura das plantas (41%, mostrando-se inadequado em promover alterações que indicassem o amadurecimento dos tecidos vegetais. O ethefon não promoveu nenhuma alteração significativa na espécie Eucalyptus grandis. This aim of this study was the application of plant bioregulators: paclobutrazol, giberelic acid, and ethefon in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Morphologic evaluations were done, as plant height (cm and stem diameter (mm and indirect measurement of chlorophyll index. The statistical design was in randomized blocks, through split-plot schedule, with three replications. The paclobutrazol (PBZ have promoted leaf morphological variations as: accentuation of central nervures, reduction in size, modification in color and coriaceous leaves. We also verified reduction in internode lengths; overcoming seed dormancy, and development of lateral branches, reduction of plant height (68%, increasing of chlorophyll amount (29%. Giberelic acid (GA3 have shown to be important chemical related to vegetative development, stimulating plant height growth (41%, showing an inapropriate chemical to promote the maturation in plant tissue. Ethephon did not cause any sgnificant change in Eucalyptus grandis.

Cristiano Bueno de MORAES

2012-12-01

330

Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

Soares, P.; Tome, M.

2012-11-01

331

Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were ?-pinene, sabinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, ?-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 ?mol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 ?g Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 ?g C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

1997-07-01

332

Physiological Responses of Eucalyptus Under Saline Environment I: Ionic Composition in Selected Salt Tolerant and Salt Sensitive Provenances of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the two provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (tolerant = SL2 and sensitive = SL4 selected from the previous studies to scruntinize the ionic content and growth under saline environments using gravel technique. It was observed the plant height, shoot and root fresh and dry weight and stem diameter decreased with the increase in salinity level in both the provenances upto 2% NaCl. However reduction was more clear in salt sensitive provenance of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The chemical analysis for different ion showed that Na+ increased in shoot and root in both the provenances of Eucalyptus. However root contain more Na+ in both provenances under all treatments. The other ions such as K+, Ca+ decreased with the application of salinity. The reduction was more pronounced in sensitive provenance. In case of P reduction was observed with the salinity but it was not up to the deficient mark. The N contents severely decreased with salinity in shoot and root of both the provenances, however N contents are less in salt sensitive provenance under all treatment in shoot as well as root.

Tariq Mahmood Qureshi

2000-01-01

333

Classificação de clones de Eucalyptus sp visando à produção de polpa celulósica / Classification of Eucalyptus sp clones for kraft pulp production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou classificar e selecionar clones de Eucalyptus sp, tendo em vista a qualidade das polpas kraft obtidas a partir de cada material. Os clones foram classificados quanto a rendimento depurado, viscosidade da polpa e álcali ativo usado no processo de polpação. A classificação dos [...] clones foi realizada por meio da análise de agrupamento, utilizando-se o método de otimização de Tocher. A análise de agrupamento permitiu a separação dos clones em cinco grupos distintos, sendo encontrados grupos de clones com alto, médio e baixo potenciais para produção de polpa celulósica. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência foram o rendimento depurado (58,1%) e a viscosidade da polpa celulósica (35,0%). Em geral, nos clones avaliados foram verificadas grandes variações com relação aos parâmetros estudados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to classify and select clones of Eucalyptus sp, aiming at pulp quality improvement. The clones were classified according to the screened yield, pulp viscosity and active alkali used for pulping. Classification of the clones was achieved by cluster analysis using the [...] Tocher method. The clones were classified in groups having high, medium and low potential for pulp production. The results showed that the parameter that most contributed to group the different Eucalyptus sp clones was the screened yield (58,1%), followed by pulp viscosity (35,0%). In general, large variation was observed for the parameters evaluated.

Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Maria Lucia, Bianchi; José Lívio, Gomide; Ulf, Schuchardt.

2004-12-01

334

Superkritická extrakce a frakcionace t?kavých látek z listu eukalyptu (Eucalyptus grandis L.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Praha : Ústav chemických proces? AV ?R, v. v. i, 2013 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 36-37 ISBN 978-80-86186-46-7. [Bažantova konference doktorand? 2013. Praha (CZ), 14.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SFE * fractionation * Eucalyptus grandis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

Topia?, Martin

335

Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

336

Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

337

Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

338

A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS: A MULTIPURPOSE TREE  

OpenAIRE

The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus globulus. The results of the above studies support the use of these plants for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethnobotanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

Hardel Danendra kumar; Sahoo Laxmidhar

2011-01-01

339

Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210. ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2013

Topia?, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zde?ka

2015-01-01

340

A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS: A MULTIPURPOSE TREE  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus globulus. The results of the above studies support the use of these plants for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethnobotanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

Hardel Danendra kumar

2011-05-01

341

Mass spore production and inoculation of Calonectria pteridis on Eucalyptus spp. under different environmental conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Calonectria pteridis is one of the most important causal agents of Calonectria leaf blight (CLB) of Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil, which is a limiting factor for growth of Eucalyptus plantations. In this study we developed standard procedures for in vitro mass spore production and inoculation of C. pter [...] idis for screening plant species and clones for resistance to CLB. The isolates used in this study were identified using similarity in DNA sequence to reference strains. Among six media tested, glucose asparagine agar induced the highest sporulation production and a significantly enhanced sporulation was found by scraping the aerial mycelium and temporarily submersing the cultures in tap water, followed by drying and additional incubation of the culture. We also demonstrated that the severity of CLB on excised leaves of two Eucalyptus spp. clones increased significantly when the inoculated leaves were incubated in the dark. The optimal temperature for infection was 26ºC when plants were incubated for 48 hours post-inoculation in a mist chamber and then maintained in a greenhouse (25ºC±5ºC) for 50 days. This study identifies environmental conditions to improve spore production and inoculation procedures of C. pteridis for selection of resistant Eucalyptus spp.

Rafael F., Alfenas; Olinto L., Pereira; Rodrigo G., Freitas; Camila S., Freitas; Miguel A.D., Dita; Acelino C., Alfenas.

2013-10-01

342

Effects of Eucalyptus globulus Wood Autohydrolysis Conditions on the Reaction Products  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were reacted in aqueous media (hydrothermal treatments) at 160 °C for 30¿66 min. Liquors from the several experiments were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry for monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide substituents (arabinose moieties, uronic acids, and acetyl groups), acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and dichloromethane-soluble compounds. Individual componen...

Garrote, G.; Kabel, M. A.; Schols, H. A.; Falque, E.; Domingues, H.; Parajo, J. C.

2007-01-01

343

Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Thyrinteina arnobia, é umas das mais importantes lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução desse lepidóptero em folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava) e Eucalyptus grandis, na 15º geração, após criar essa espécie por 14 geraç [...] ões em folhas de goiabeira. T. arnobia apresentou menor período larval, maior viabilidade de lagartas e de pupas, maior peso pupal, maior número de ovos totais por fêmea e viabilidade de ovos e menor longevidade de fêmeas com folhas de goiabeira. Além disso, teve melhor desempenho e reprodução com P. guajava, do que com folhas de E. grandis, mostrando que esse inseto pode ser criado com folhas de goiabeira em laboratório. Abstract in english Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava) or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species [...] for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and shorter longevity of females in guava leaves than in Eucalyptus leaves. The better development and reproduction with P. guajava showed that this insect could be reared in laboratory with guava leaves.

Harley Nonato de, Oliveira; José Cola, Zanuncio; Eder Pin, Pedruzzi; Marcelo Curitiba, Espindula.

2005-09-01

344

THE EFFECT OF Eucalyptus APMP FIBERS REINFORCEMENT ON Pinus radiata KRAFT PULP PROPERTIES  

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Full Text Available Kraft pulps derived from pine species are largely used for high strength paper products. The quality of such pulps hasbeen improved significantly in the last decades through advances in wood quality and adequate choice of pine species. The quality ofpine fibers can be further improved by incorporating other fibers to them. In fact, the mixture of pine fibers with hardwood fibers iscommon practice around the world. An alternative to further improve the quality of pine fibers is by mixing them with wood fibersproduced by modern techniques. This study evaluated the impact of mixing 10-40% of eucalyptus wood fibers produced by the P-RCAPMP process on the Pinus radiata fiber properties. The pulp mixes were beat in a PFI mill and evaluated for the main physicalproperties. It was observed that the eucalyptus wood fibers improve the bonding capacity of the Pinus radiata fibers. At a given tensilestrength, the properties of tear index and opacity of the pulp mix increase with increasing proportion of eucalyptus wood fibers. It isconcluded that addition of up to 30% eucalyptus wood fibers to Pinus radiata kraft pulp is viable alternative to improve some of itsproperties.

Mauro Manfredi

2008-06-01

345

Longitudinal and radial variation of extractives and total lignin contents in a clone of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake / Variação longitudinal e radial dos teores de extrativos e lignina total do clone de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, determinar os teores de extrativos e lignina total e suas variações radiais e longitudinais na madeira do clone de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aos seis anos de idade. Foram retiradas amostras no sentido longitudinal a 2, 10 [...] , 30 e 70% da altura comercial da árvore, e no sentido radial de cada posição longitudinal, sendo que o número de amostras dependeu do diâmetro do disco. Pelos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que: os teores de extrativos e lignina total na madeira apresentaram, em geral, variação decrescente com a distância da medula e tenderam a uma maior concentração nas regiões mais próximas à base das árvores. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine concentrations of extractives and total lignin along with their radial and longitudinal variations in wood from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake at age six years. Longitudinal samples were taken at 2%, 10%, [...] 30% and 70% of the commercial height of trees, and radial samples were taken from each longitudinal position, the number of samples depending on the diameter of each disk. Results led to the conclusion that, overall, concentrations of extractives and total lignin in the wood tended to decrease with increasing distance from the pith and tended to increase in portions closer to the tree base.

Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Tarcísio, Lima; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira, Carneiro; Eduardo, Alves; Mário César, Guerreiro.

2011-09-01

346

Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

1978-01-01

347

Leaf Barriers to Fungal Colonization and Shredders (Tipula lateralis) Consumption of Decomposing Eucalyptus globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

> Abstract Herein we assess the importance of leaf cuticle, polyphenolic, and essential oils contents of Eucalyptus globulus leaves to hyphomycete colonization and shredder consumption. Optical and electron microscopy revealed that, at least during the first 5 weeks of conditioning, the cuticle remains virtually intact. Stomata provide the main access for hyphae to internal leaf tissues and, eventually, for spore release. We suggest that in E. globulus leaves, fungal decomposition progresses predominantly in and from the eucalyptus leaf mesophyll to the outside. Malt extract agar media supplemented with either eucalyptus essential oils or tannic acid completely inhibited (Articulospora tetracladia, Lemonniera aquatica, and Tricladium gracile) or depressed (Heliscus lugdunensis, Lunulospora curvula, and Tricladium angulatum) aquatic hyphomycetes growth. The transference of both secondary compounds to alder leaves induced similar and significant reduction in Tipula lateralis larval consumption. Results consistently indicate that eucalyptus oils are stronger deterrents than polyphenols. The waxy cuticle of E. globulus appears to be a key physical factor delaying fungal colonization during decomposition. We hypothesize that the relative influence of leaf phenols and essential oils to aquatic hyphomycetes and shredders may be related to three main factors: (a) initial distribution of such compounds in the leaves; (b) possibility of their decrease through decomposition; and (c) consumption strategies of detritivores. PMID:10227874

Canhoto; Graça

1999-04-01

348

Productividad de la cosechadora forestal en plantaciones comerciales de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) / Productivity of a forest harvester in commercial eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la productividad de una cosechadora en plantaciones de eucalipto en Huimanguillo, Tabasco. En el trabajo de campo se realizó un estudio de tiempos y movimientos de jornadas completas durante nueve días, se registraron las actividades que involucraron a la cosechadora forestal y a su operad [...] or. En particular, se identificaron actividades improductivas causadas por fallas en la cosechadora y la falta de capacitación del operador. Al considerar las ocho horas efectivas laborales, la cosechadora trabaja 75.9% de su capacidad, mientras que 21% del tiempo total por turno corresponde a mantenimiento correctivo, de manera principal, por rompimiento de mangueras del aceite hidráulico; así mismo, el afilado de la sierra es el que más repercute en dicho mantenimiento. Se determinó que se carece de un programa de mantenimiento preventivo y en la cosecha se identificaron actividades improductivas. Para el análisis de productividad, se aceptó el modelo de la forma y = a + bx + cx². Los modelos de regresión usados son válidos cuando el volumen de producción mínimo es igual o mayor a 0.0126 m³, lo cual corresponde al volumen de una troza de 8 cm de diámetro por 2.5 m de largo. La información se evaluó con y sin tiempos improductivos (TI). La productividad máxima se obtiene cuando hay un volumen promedio del arbolado de 0.5534 m³ y se genera una productividad de 25.4147 m³h-1; para el segundo caso, ocurre con un volumen promedio del arbolado de 0.56627 m³ y una productividad de 27.7661 m³h-1. Abstract in english The evaluation of productivity of a forest harvester was conducted in Eucalyptus plantations in Huimanguillo, Tabasco state. Field work included a full-time study of time and movements for nine days, where all activities that involved forest harvesting and its operator were registered. Unproductive [...] activities were identified as caused by the harvester´s failures and the operator´s lack of training. Considering the eight effective working hours, the harvester works at 75.9% of its capacity, 21% of the total time per shift corresponds to corrective maintenance, mainly due to the breaking of the hydraulic oil hoses. It was concluded that no preventive maintenance program exists. At harvest, unproductive activities were detected, as well as a lack of a preventive maintenance program. For the productivity analysis, a model of the y = a + bx + cx² form was accepted. The regression models used are valid when the minimum volume of production is equal to or greater than 0.0126 m³, which corresponds to the volume of a log of 8 cm in diameter and 2.5 m long. The information was evaluated with and without unproductive activities (IT). The maximum productivity is obtained when there is an average volume of 0.5534 m³ generating a productivity of 25.4147 m³h-1. For the second case, the maximum profit occurs with an average volume of 0.56627 m³ and productivity per hour of 27.7661 m³h-1. A lower profit was generated when including unproductive activities compared with the ideal way that harvester should work.

Imelda, Vargas Abasolo; Leonardo, Sánchez Rojas; Rigoberto, Vargas Carballo; Enrique, Serrano Gálvez; Diego Ernesto, Lira González.

2012-08-01

349

Contenido de nutrientes en las raíces finas y el mantillo de rodales de Eucalyptus grandis de diferente edad en la Mesopotamia Argentina / Fine roots and litter nutrient content of Eucalyptus grandis stands presenting different ages in Mesopotamia Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La provincia de Entre Ríos es un núcleo importante de plantaciones de Eucalyptus spp. en Argentina. Se planteó como hipótesis que con el aumento en la edad de las plantaciones aumenta la biomasa de raíces finas y la masa del mantillo. Se muestrearon rodales de cinco, siete y diecisiete años de edad [...] de Eucalyptus grandis, de primera rotación. Se estimaron las masas del mantillo y de las raíces finas ( Abstract in english Entre Ríos province is an important center of Eucalyptus spp. plantations in Argentina. It was hypothesized that fine root biomass and litter mass increased with age increasing in plantations. Five, seven and seventeen year old stands of Eucalyptus grandis were sampled. All of them were first rotati [...] on stands. We estimated the mass of litter and fine roots (

Carolina, Pérez; Jorge, Frangi; Juan, Goya; Amalia, Luy; Marcelo, Arturi.

350

Caracterização tecnológica, para produção de celulose, da nova geração de clones de Eucalyptus do Brasil Technological characterization of the new generation of Eucalyptus clones in Brazil for kraft pulp production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram analisados clones de Eucalyptus de última geração, pertencentes às principais empresas brasileiras de celulose. Os estudos consistiram numa caracterização tecnológica detalhada da qualidade das madeiras utilizadas no processamento fabril das empresas. Foram realizadas análise químicas detalhadas das madeiras e cozimentos kraft, simulando-se uma das modernas técnica de digestor contínuo. Os resultados indicaram a alta qualidade dos clones de Eucalyptus atualmente plantados no Brasil para produção de celulose.Last generation of Eucalyptus clones pulped by the main Brazilian kraft pulp mills were used for this study. Detailed chemical analysis of the woods were carried out to establish the wood quality. Laboratory simulation of a modern continuous digester technique was used for pulp production. Results demonstrated the high quality of Eucalyptus clones wood that are being planted in Brazil for kraft pulp production.

José Lívio Gomide

2005-02-01

351

Caracterização tecnológica, para produção de celulose, da nova geração de clones de Eucalyptus do Brasil / Technological characterization of the new generation of Eucalyptus clones in Brazil for kraft pulp production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram analisados clones de Eucalyptus de última geração, pertencentes às principais empresas brasileiras de celulose. Os estudos consistiram numa caracterização tecnológica detalhada da qualidade das madeiras utilizadas no processamento fabril das empresas. Foram realizadas análise químicas detalhad [...] as das madeiras e cozimentos kraft, simulando-se uma das modernas técnica de digestor contínuo. Os resultados indicaram a alta qualidade dos clones de Eucalyptus atualmente plantados no Brasil para produção de celulose. Abstract in english Last generation of Eucalyptus clones pulped by the main Brazilian kraft pulp mills were used for this study. Detailed chemical analysis of the woods were carried out to establish the wood quality. Laboratory simulation of a modern continuous digester technique was used for pulp production. Results d [...] emonstrated the high quality of Eucalyptus clones wood that are being planted in Brazil for kraft pulp production.

José Lívio, Gomide; Jorge Luiz, Colodette; Rubens Chaves de, Oliveira; Cláudio Mudado, Silva.

2005-02-01

352

Estimating biophysical properties of eucalyptus plantations using optical remote sensing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of the inversion of optical remote sensing products to measure critical biophysical properties of Eucalyptus Forests at regional scales is investigated here. The biophysical variables used were leaf area Index, LAI, Diameter at Breast Height, DBH, Height and Age of Eucalyptus stands pertaining to a combination of different genetic materials (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrids) and propagating systems (seeds or cuttings) and management system (planting and coppicing). The field sampling was done daily during 3 months, from April to June 1997, and covered 130 stands of minimum sizes of 9 hectares, within an Eucalyptus farming area of about 800 km2, centered at 19 degrees South, 42 degrees West, Brazil. The stands ranged from 12 to 84 months old. The measurements of LAI were done using two pairs of LAI-2000 (LICOR) under conditions of diffuse light. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, SAVI, were derived from a LANDSAT-TM image acquired on June 5, 1997. Furthermore, a mixture model technique was applied to derive three new parameters: fraction of green vegetation, FGV, fraction of shadow, FSH, and fraction of soil, FS. Regression analysis were done between biophysical variables and remote sensing products. Linear correlation with coefficients of determination, R2, as high as 0.8 were found between LAI versus FGV and LAI versus SAVI, on all genetic materials. In general, SAVI was shown to give better estimates of LAI than NDVI, which is explained by the openings in the canopy as the Eucalyptus grow older. The correlation with the other biophysical variables (Height and DBH) were also shown to be significant, although the R2 ranged from 0.4 to 0.6. The correlation between FGV and SAVI was higher than 90% such that they can be used to estimate Eucalyptus biophysical parameters with the same statistical significance.

Soares, Joao V.; Xavier, Alexandre C.; de Almeida, Auro C.; da Costa Freitas, Corina

1998-12-01

353

Identification of molecular markers linked to early flowering in Eucalyptus grandis. Identificação de marcadores moleculares relacionados ao florescimento precoce em Eucalyptus grandis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait for tree breeding because it determines the speed of generation turnover and therefore the rapidity of genetic gains, and it is of particular interest in Eucalyptus species. In this work, we used simple sequence repeats (SSRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and specific markers for flowering to evaluate early flowering segregation in a full-sibling family of Eucalyptus grandis and to identify molecular markers associated with the control of flowering time. A cross between a normal flowering tree (wild-type and early flowering tree resulted in 118 progeny with a 1:1 Mendelian segregation ratio for flowering time (?2 = 0.5424, P > 0.05, which suggested the action of one main gene in a locus named Early flowering in Eucalyptus grandis (PFEg. The SSR marker EMBRA 02 was related to the QTL PFEg, and identified this region as a candidate for trait control. These maps may be used as the basis for a study in which can be inserted new markers in an attempt to find more loci related to early flowering characteristic on eucalyptus. O tempo de florescimento é uma importante característica para o melhoramento genético de árvores, pois este determina o prazo para o surgimento de uma nova geração e a rapidez para o ganho genético de uma determinada espécie, como por exemplo, Eucalyptusgrandis. Neste estudo foram utilizados marcadores moleculares do tipo microssatélites, Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA – RAPD, além de marcadores específicos para avaliar a segregação do florescimento precoce em uma família de irmãos-germanos de E. grandis. Foi também verificado se esses marcadores estão associados ao controle do tempo de florescimento na espécie. A progênie de 118 indivíduos avaliada foi originada do cruzamento entre uma árvore de florescimento normal e outra de florescimento precoce. A segregação da característica de florescimento precoce apresentou uma razão de 1:1 (?2 = 0,5424, P > 0,05, o que sugeriu a ação de um gene principal no loco denominado PFEg (Florescimento Precoce em Eucalyptus grandis. O marcador SSR EMBRA 02 foi relacionado ao QTL PFEg e esta região foi identificada como uma região candidata ao controle da característica. Estes mapas poderão ser utilizados como base para um novo estudo no qual podem ser inseridos novos marcadores na tentativa de localizar mais regiões relacionadas à característica de florescimento precoce em eucalipto.

Ana Paula Cazerta FARRO

2012-12-01

354

Short-rotation management of Eucalyptus: Guidelines for plantations in Hawaii. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 10-year research and development program was conducted on the island of Hawaii, where nearly 230,000 acres are suitable for growing biomass in short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations. Successful techniques are described for seedling production, plantation establishment (site preparation, weed control, planting), maintenance (weed control, fertilization), biomass yield estimation, and harvest. Basic biological relationships are described to aid decisions on site selection, initial spacing, fertilizer schedules, and rotation length. Environmental issues likely to be faced by growers of Eucalyptus plantations are discussed, including soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and monocultures. Continuing programs for tree improvement, monitoring, and silviculture research are recommeded. Production costs for biomass yields are estimated for three promising management regimes, representing pure Eucalyptus plantings at dense and wide spacings and a mixed species plantation where Albizia is used as a nurse crop to provide nitrogen needed for optimum Eucalyptus growth.

Whitesell, C.D.; DeBell, D.S.; Schubert, T.H.; Strand, R.F.; Crabb, T.B.

1992-11-01

355

Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi / Colonização e acumulação de compostos fenólicos em raízes de Eucalyptus dunnii maiden infectadas com fungus ectomicorrízicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a compatibilidade entre Eucalyptus dunnii e os fungos ectomicorrízicos Hysterangium gardneri e Pisolithus sp. - isolados de Eucalyptus spp.-, Rhizopogon nigrescens e Suillus cothurnatus - isolados de Pinus spp.-, in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus colonizaram as raízes [...] . As micorrizas de Pisolithus sp. apresentaram manto e rede de Hartig; as de H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus apresentaram apenas manto. S. cothurnatus provocou aumento de fenóis nas raízes; Pisolithus sp. e R. nigrescens provocaram diminuição dessas substâncias. Os fungos isolados de Eucalyptus parecem mais compatíveis em relação a E. dunnii do que os de Pinus. A concentração de fenóis nas raízes parece estar envolvida nesse fenômeno, particularmente em relação a Pisolithus sp. e S. cothurnatus. Abstract in english Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolit [...] hus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R. nigrescens decreased the level of these substances. The isolates from Eucalyptus seem to be more compatible towards E. dunnii than those from Pinus. The mechanisms involved could be related, at least in the cases of Pisolithus and Suillus, to the concentration of phenolics in roots.

EDUARDO LUIZ, VOIGT; VETÚRIA LOPES DE, OLIVEIRA; ÁUREA MARIA, RANDI.

1905-19-01

356

Effects of harrowing and fertilisation on understory vegetation and timber production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation in central Portugal  

OpenAIRE

Harrowing and fertilisation are common practices at middle rotation in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Central Portugal. In order to clarify the effects of such practices on understory vegetation and timber production, a field trial was installed in a 5-year-old first rotation eucalyptus plantation, in a region with mixed oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. Four treatments that involved harrowing (H), fertilisation (F), harrowing and fertilisation (HF), and cont...

Fabia?o, Anto?nio; Carneiro, M.; Martins, M. C.; Silva, M. A.; Hila?rio, L.; Lousa?, M.; Madeira, M.

2008-01-01

357

Effects of harrowing and fertilisation on understory vegetation and timber production of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation in Central Portugal  

OpenAIRE

Harrowing and fertilisation are common practices at middle rotation in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Central Portugal. In order to clarify the effects of such practices on understory vegetation and timber production, a field trial was installed in a 5-year-old first rotation eucalyptus plantation, in a region with mixed oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. Four treatments that involved harrowing (H), fertilisation (F), harrowing and fertilisation (HF), and cont...

Carneiro, M.; Fabia?o, Anto?nio; Martins, M. C.; Fabia?o, Andre?; Silva, M. Abrantes; Hila?rio, L.; Lousa?, M.; Madeira, M.

2008-01-01

358

Microthia, Holocryphia and Ursicollum, three new genera on Eucalyptus and Coccoloba for fungi previously known as Cryphonectria  

OpenAIRE

Cryphonectria havanensis is a fungus associated with Eucalyptus species in Cuba and Florida (U.S.A.). Until recently, there have been no living cultures of C. havanensis and it has thus not been possible to assess its taxonomic status. Isolates thought to represent this fungus have, however, emerged from surveys of Eucalyptus in Mexico and Hawaii (U.S.A.). Results of this study showed that these isolates represent C. havanensis but reside in a genus distinct from C...

Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Hodges, Charles S.; Henrietta Myburg; Marieka Gryzenhout

2006-01-01

359

Multi-gene phylogenies and phenotypic characters distinguish two species within the Colletogloeopsis zuluensis complex associated with Eucalyptus stem cankers.  

OpenAIRE

Colletogloeopsis zuluensis, previously known as Coniothyrium zuluense, causes a serious stem canker disease on Eucalyptus spp. grown as non-natives in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. This stem canker disease was first reported from South Africa and it has subsequently been found on various species and hybrids of Eucalyptus in other African countries as well as in countries of South America and South-East Asia. In previous studies, phylogenetic analyses based ...

Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Crous, Pedro W.; Maria-Noel Cortinas

2006-01-01

360

Endophytic and canker-associated Botryosphaeriaceae occurring on non-native Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae trees in Uruguay  

OpenAIRE

Species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are important pathogens causing cankers and die-back on many woody plants. In Uruguay, Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum, N. ribis and B. dothidea have previously been associated with stem cankers on plantation-grown Eucalyptus globulus. However, very little is known regarding the occurrence and species diversity of Botryosphaeriaceae in native Myrtaceae forests or what their relationship is to those species infecting Eucalyptus in plantations. The objectives of thi...

Perez, Carlos A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Altier, Nora A.; Blanchette, Robert A.

2010-01-01

361

Comparison of procedures to evaluate the pathogenicity of Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato isolates from Eucalyptus in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato (s.l.) is an important pathogen of Eucalyptus. Pathogenicity of isolates has typically been evaluated by inoculating seedlings under greenhouse conditions. It is, however, not clear how accurately this reflects pathogenicity under field conditions. In this study, five techniques to potentially screen C. fimbriata isolates for their relative pathogenicity to Eucalyptus were compared. These included: in vitro growth comparisons on artificial media; inoculations...

Wyk, Marelize; Heath, R. N.; Tarigan, Marthin; Vermeulen, Marcele; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

362

In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines  

OpenAIRE

Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related t...

Paulo Vitor Farago; Tomoe Nakashima; Josiane Padilha de Paula; Adilson Sartoratto; Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales Maia; Amp Xf Ll-boscardin, Patr Amp Xed Cia Mathias D.; Carla Cristine Kanunfre

2012-01-01

363

Repellent Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora Extracts on Rabbit Skin against Aedes aegypti  

OpenAIRE

Vector borne diseases are the major public health problems in developing countries particularly in tropics. Essential oils from plants can provide the safe and biodegradable alternatives to synthetic repellents, but plant-based repellent formulations available in the market are not effective. The purpose of the study was to investigate mosquito repellent activities of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) extracts. Different con...

Koech Peter Kiplang’at; Mwangi, Richard W.

2013-01-01

364

Effect of the plantation age on the use of Eucalyptus stands by medium to large-sized wild mammals in south-eastern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

In São Paulo State, in Southeastern Brazil, the Eucalyptus plantations have been replacing large areas which were formerly occupied by pastures used for livestock production. Such land use change may affect the habitat use by wildlife in these anthropic landscapes. In this region, the commercial Eucalyptus plantations of the paper and cellulose industry usually take from 6 to 7 years to be harvested. During its production cycle, the Eucalyptus stands vary from an open savanna-like environmen...

Tpc, Timo; Mc, Lyra-jorge; Gheler-Costa C; Lm, Verdade

2014-01-01

365

Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In 1957, Tunisia introduced 117 species of Eucalyptus; they have been used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight erosion. Actually, Eucalyptus essential oil is traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders such as pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. A few investigations were reported on the biological activities of Eucalyptus oils worldwide. In Tunisia, our previous works conducted in 2010 and 2011 had been the first reports to study the ...

Elaissi Ameur; Rouis Zyed; Salem Nabil Abid; Mabrouk Samia; ben Salem Youssef; Salah Karima Bel; Aouni Mahjoub; Farhat Farhat; Chemli Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri Fethia; Khouja Mohamed

2012-01-01

366

BENDING STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF POLES OF ARGENTINEAN Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación orientada a determinar la resistencia y la rigidez de postes de Eucalyptus grandis de Argentina. La importancia de conocer con precisión las propiedades mecánicas de este material cobró mayor relevancia con la creciente demanda [...] de postes de esta especie y con la adopción de modernos procedimientos de cálculo orientados a lograr un diseño estructural confiable y económico. Con este fin se llevó a cabo un proyecto empírico que abarcó dos muestras de postes en tamaño estructural, nuevos y sin tratamientos, los cuales se ensayaron en estado verde conforme a los procedimientos establecidos en la norma estadounidense ASTM D 1036 (2005) y en la argentina IRAM 9529 (2004) para pruebas en voladizo. La muestra 1 incluyó postes con 12 m de longitud nominal y una edad de 14 años, y la muestra 2 estuvo compuesta por postes con 8 m de longitud nominal y una edad de 11 años. Los valores promedio encontrados para la conicidad fueron similares a los adoptados por la norma ANSI 05.1 (2002) y tanto el tamaño de los nudos como la nudosidad compararon bien con los valores permitidos por esta norma. El valor medio de la tensión de rotura en la línea de empotramiento fue de 62,9 N/mm² para la Muestra 1 y de 56,3 N/mm² para la Muestra 2. Estos resultados son relativamente altos en comparación con los publicados para madera aserrada de la misma especie ensayada en estado seco y son comparables a los adoptados por la norma ANSI 05.1c (2004) para postes de diferentes especies. Ambas muestras exhibieron un coeficiente de variación de 13 % para la resistencia en la línea de empotramiento, valor que es relativamente bajo en comparación con los adoptados por la norma estadounidense y puede ser considerado una ventaja del material para uso estructural. El valor medio del módulo de elasticidad alcanzó 10935 N/mm² para la muestra 1 y 9546 N/mm² para la muestra 2, con un coeficiente de variación de 14 % en ambos casos. Los resultados también pusieron de manifiesto diferencias significativas entre los valores de las propiedades mecánicas de ambas muestras, integradas por postes de diferentes edades y dimensiones. El coeficiente de correlación entre la nudosidad y la resistencia alcanzó los insignificantes valores de 0,09 para la muestra 1 y de 0,02 para la muestra 2, mientras que los valores correspondientes entre el módulo de elasticidad y la resistencia fueron 0,52 y 0,37. Abstract in english The present paper reports the results of an investigation regarding the determination of bending strength and stiffness in full-size poles of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis. The importance of accurately knowing the mechanical properties of this material has increased with the increasing demand of ut [...] ility poles of this species and with the use of modern procedures aimed at achieving a reliable and economical structural design. For this purpose an empirical research project with two samples containing new, green, untreated poles was carried out according to the procedures adopted by both the American standard ASTM D 1036 (2005) and the Argentinean standard IRAM 9529 (2004) for cantilever bending tests. Sample 1 enclosed 14 year-old poles with nominal length of 12 m and Sample 2 enclosed 11 year-old poles with nominal length of 8 m. The results found for the average circumference taper were similar to the values adopted by the American standard ANSI 05.1 (2002) and knot dimensions as well as knot ratio compared well with those permitted by this standard. The mean value found for maximum fibre stress at ground line reached 62.9 N/mm² for Sample 1 and 56.3 N/mm² for Sample 2. These strength results are relatively high in comparison with values reported for seasoned sawn timber of the same species and they compare well with those published by the American standard ANSI 05.1c (2004) for poles of different species. Both samples showed a coefficient of variation of 13 % for strength a

E.A, Torrán; M.A, Sosa Zitto; A.D, Cotrina; J.C, Piter.

367

BENDING STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF POLES OF ARGENTINEAN Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of an investigation regarding the determination of bending strength and stiffness in full-size poles of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis. The importance of accurately knowing the mechanical properties of this material has increased with the increasing demand of utility poles of this species and with the use of modern procedures aimed at achieving a reliable and economical structural design. For this purpose an empirical research project with two samples containing new, green, untreated poles was carried out according to the procedures adopted by both the American standard ASTM D 1036 (2005 and the Argentinean standard IRAM 9529 (2004 for cantilever bending tests. Sample 1 enclosed 14 year-old poles with nominal length of 12 m and Sample 2 enclosed 11 year-old poles with nominal length of 8 m. The results found for the average circumference taper were similar to the values adopted by the American standard ANSI 05.1 (2002 and knot dimensions as well as knot ratio compared well with those permitted by this standard. The mean value found for maximum fibre stress at ground line reached 62.9 N/mm² for Sample 1 and 56.3 N/mm² for Sample 2. These strength results are relatively high in comparison with values reported for seasoned sawn timber of the same species and they compare well with those published by the American standard ANSI 05.1c (2004 for poles of different species. Both samples showed a coefficient of variation of 13 % for strength at ground line which is relatively low in comparison with those adopted by the American standard and may be considered an advantage of this material for structural purposes. The mean value found for modulus of elasticity reached 10935 N/mm² for Sample 1 and 9546 N/mm² for Sample 2, with a coefficient of variation of 14 % for both cases. Results also revealed significant differences between mechanical properties values corresponding to the two samples containing poles with different sizes and age. The correlation coefficient between knot ratio and strength showed the insignificant values of 0.09 and 0.02 for Sample 1 and 2 respectively, and the corresponding results between modulus of elasticity and strength were 0.52 and 0.37.En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación orientada a determinar la resistencia y la rigidez de postes de Eucalyptus grandis de Argentina. La importancia de conocer con precisión las propiedades mecánicas de este material cobró mayor relevancia con la creciente demanda de postes de esta especie y con la adopción de modernos procedimientos de cálculo orientados a lograr un diseño estructural confiable y económico. Con este fin se llevó a cabo un proyecto empírico que abarcó dos muestras de postes en tamaño estructural, nuevos y sin tratamientos, los cuales se ensayaron en estado verde conforme a los procedimientos establecidos en la norma estadounidense ASTM D 1036 (2005 y en la argentina IRAM 9529 (2004 para pruebas en voladizo. La muestra 1 incluyó postes con 12 m de longitud nominal y una edad de 14 años, y la muestra 2 estuvo compuesta por postes con 8 m de longitud nominal y una edad de 11 años. Los valores promedio encontrados para la conicidad fueron similares a los adoptados por la norma ANSI 05.1 (2002 y tanto el tamaño de los nudos como la nudosidad compararon bien con los valores permitidos por esta norma. El valor medio de la tensión de rotura en la línea de empotramiento fue de 62,9 N/mm² para la Muestra 1 y de 56,3 N/mm² para la Muestra 2. Estos resultados son relativamente altos en comparación con los publicados para madera aserrada de la misma especie ensayada en estado seco y son comparables a los adoptados por la norma ANSI 05.1c (2004 para postes de diferentes especies. Ambas muestras exhibieron un coeficiente de variación de 13 % para la resistencia en la línea de empotramiento, valor que es relativamente bajo en comparación con los adoptados por la norma estadounidense y puede ser considerado una ventaja del material para uso estructural

E.A Torrán

2009-01-01

368

Seleção de genitores de Eucalyptus grandis e de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de híbridos interespecíficos utilizando REML/BLUP e informação de divergência genética Selection of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla parents for the production of interespecific hybrids using REML/BLUP and genetic diversity data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 363 progênies de meios-irmãos de Eucalyptus urophylla e de 245 progênies de meios-irmãos de E. grandis, visando à seleção de genitores para a produção de híbridos interespecíficos em cruzamentos controlados em dialelo circulante, com base em seus valores genéticos preditos. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em Guanhães, MG, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, parcelas lineares de seis plantas para E. urophylla e oito plantas para E. grandis, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 2,0 m. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados adotando-se modelos mistos com uso do procedimento REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viesada para diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, altura total (ALT e volume individual (VOL. A predição dos valores genéticos foi feita somente para (DAP, característica que foi utilizada para seleção. Em E. urophylla, foram obtidas as estimativas de herdabilidade no sentido restrito de 0,2785 e de acurácia da ordem de 61%, e em E. grandis, herdabilidade de 0,2247 e acurácia de 53%. A seleção dos 100 genitores de cada espécie individualmente proporcionará ganhos genéticos na ordem de 20,6% em E. urophylla e de 16,4% em E. grandis. Ganho genético para DAP em torno de 35,0% poderá ser obtido com o cruzamento dos 10 indivíduos selecionados para cada espécie, portadores das maiores estimativas de divergência genética.Predicted parental genetic values of 363 half-sib Eucalyptus grandis and 245 half-sib E. urophylla progenies were evaluated for selection to produce interspecific hybrids in controlled crosses in a circulating diallel. The essays were conducted in Guanhães, Minas Gerais, in a complete randomized block design in five replications, row plots of six E. urophylla and eight E. grandis plants in 3.0 x 2.0 m spacing. The genetic parameters were estimated by mixed models using the REML / BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood / best linear unbiased prediction procedure for diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (TH and individual volume (VOL traits. The genetic values were only predicted for diameter at breast height (DBH, to which the selection was performed. The estimated heritability values in the restricted sense for Eucalyptus urophylla were 0.2785 and for accuracy 61%, and 0.2247 and 53% in Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Selection of 100 parents of each species individually will provide genetic gains of 20.6 % in Eucalyptus urophylla and of 16.4 % in Eucalyptus grandis. A genetic gain for diameter at breast height around 35.0% can be obtained by crosses among the first 10 selected individuals of each species and carriers of the greatest genetic divergences.

Maria das Graças de Barros Rocha

2007-12-01

369

In vitro establishment and multiplication of genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii no estabelecimento in vitro e a influência de genótipos cultivados em diferentes concentrações de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP) na multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram oriundos de 10 matrizes, seleciona [...] das a campo em função de características fenotípicas superiores. Para o estabelecimento in vitro foram avaliados 10 genótipos, e, para a multiplicação in vitro, 30 tratamentos, que corresponderam às combinações de seis genótipos que obtiveram sucesso no estabelecimento in vitro com cinco concentrações de BAP (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1). Constatou-se comportamento diferenciado dos genótipos em relação ao estabelecimento in vitro, sendo que os genótipos 3, 6 e 7 apresentaram estabelecimento superior a 70%, enquanto para os demais as médias variaram entre 40 e 6,6%. Os genótipos 1, 5, 8 e 9 foram, posteriormente, descartados em virtude do número reduzido de explantes estabelecidos. A contaminação microbiana e a oxidação fenólica constituíram fatores que comprometem o estabelecimento in vitro. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii interagem de maneira diferenciada com BAP na multiplicação in vitro, porém a concentração 0,50 mg L-1 influencia positivamente a formação de gemas por explante na maior parte dos genótipos estudados. A hiperhidricidade é relativamente baixa na presença de 0,50 mg L-1 de BAP, não comprometendo a multiplicação in vitro de segmentos nodais de Eucalyptus dunnii. Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the effect of genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii on in vitro establishment and also the influence of genotypes grown in different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on in vitro multiplication. Explants were obtained from 10 parent plants selected in the field as a [...] function of their superior phenotype characteristics. For in vitro establishment, 10 genotypes were evaluated, while in vitro multiplication consisted of 30 treatments which corresponded to combinations of six genotypes found to succeed in the in vitro establishment and five BAP concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 mg L-1). Different behaviors were observed regarding the genotypes as to in vitro establishment rates, in which genotypes 3, 6 and 7 had establishment rates of over 70%, against 40% to 6.6% for the other genotypes. Genotypes 1, 5, 8 and 9 were later discarded due to the reduced number of explants successfully established. Factors such as microbial contamination and phenol oxidation posed a threat to in vitro establishment. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii interacted differently with BAP in in vitro multiplication, noting that the concentration 0.50 mg L-1 positively influenced bud formation on the explants in most genotypes. Hyperhydricity was relatively low when 0.50 mg L-1 BAP was used and thus does not pose a threat to in vitro multiplication of nodal segments of Eucalyptus dunnii.

Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Maristela Machado, Araújo; Aline Ritter, Curti; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira.

2014-03-01

370

Prediction of the modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus grandis through two nondestructive techniques / Predição do módulo de elasticidade de Eucalyptus grandis por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou estimar o módulo de elasticidade à flexão estática da madeira de cerne e alburno de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas: ultrassom e ondas de tensão. Para tal, 60 amostras de cerne e alburno foram preparadas. Os testes não destrutivos foram reali [...] zados por meio de um equipamento de ultrassom e um de ondas de tensão, enquanto que os testes destrutivos de flexão estática foram realizados em uma máquina universal de ensaios. Os principais resultados mostraram que a madeira de cerne apresentou melhor comportamento nos ensaios não destrutivos, quando comparada à madeira de alburno. No entanto, o melhor modelo matemático foi obtido considerando-se cerne e alburno, quando estes foram analisados por meio da técnica ultrassônica. Dessa maneira, concluiu-se, no presente estudo, que as técnicas de ondas de tensão e ultrassom podem ser empregadas com o intuito de estimar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to estimate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) at static bending of Rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) heartwood and sapwood through two nondestructive techniques: ultrasound and stress wave. Sixty samples of heartwood and sapwood were prepared. Nondestructive tests were performed us [...] ing ultrasound and stress wave timer equipment, while destructive tests were carried out in a universal machine through static bending tests. The main results showed that the heartwood presented better behavior than the sapwood in the non-destructive tests. However, the best model was obtained considering both wood types through the ultrasonic technique. Therefore, stress wave and ultrasonic techniques could be employed to estimate the modulus of elasticity of Rose gum wood.

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de, Cademartori; André Luiz, Missio; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

2014-09-01

371

Determinação da densidade básica da madeiras de Eucalyptus por diferentes métodos não destrutivos / Determination of Eucalyptus basic density by different non-destructive methods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os métodos não destrutivos vêm se tornando importante alternativa para predições das características da madeira. A facilidade e precisão das predições têm feito com que muitas empresas adotem estes novos métodos. A avaliação da qualidade da madeira por técnicas mais simples e rápidas é uma necessida [...] de fundamental na qualificação de florestas de Eucalyptus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar diferentes métodos de avaliação não destrutiva da madeira, a saber: (1) Resistógrafo, (2) Pilodyn e (3) Espectroscopia de Infravermelho Próximo-NIRS para predição da densidade básica da madeira. Neste estudo foram utilizados seis clones de eucalipto, com 3 anos de idade, plantados comercialmente com espaçamentos de 3,0 x 3,3m. As amostras foram coletadas no Estado de Minas Gerais, em diferentes regiões (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce e Santa Bárbara). Foram utilizadas cinco árvores por clone. A técnica para estimativa da densidade básica que apresentou maior precisão foi a resistografia, seguida do NIR e, finalmente, do Pilodyn. Abstract in english Non-destructive methods are becoming an important alternative for predicting the wood characteristics. The predictions ease and accuracy have led many companies to adopt these new methods. Assessing the wood quality by simpler and faster techniques is a fundamental need in the Eucalyptus forests qua [...] lification. This study aimed to investigate some different methods of wood nondestructive evaluation, namely: "(1) Resistograph, (2) Pilodyn, and (3), and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)" to predict the wood basic density. Six different three-year-old eucalyptus clones, planted commercially in the spacing of 3.0 x 3.3, were used for this study. The samples were collected in Minas Gerais, from different regions (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce, and Santa Bárbara). We used five trees per clone. The technique to estimate the basic density with the highest accuracy was resistograph followed by the NIR and finally Pilodyn..

Adriana de Fátima Gomes, Gouvêa; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Lívio, Gomide; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade; Isabel Cristina Nogueira, Alves.

2011-04-01

372

Flutuação populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. em jardim clonal de Eucalyptus spp / Population fluctuation of Rhizoctonia spp. in clonal nurseries of Eucalyptus spp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A queima de folhas em brotações em jardim clonal e a mela de estacas na fase de enraizamento, causadas por espécies de Rhizoctonia, podem limitar a produção de mudas de eucalipto por estaquia. Apesar de sua importância, pouco se conhece sobre essas doenças. Assim, visando otimizar as estratégias de [...] controle dessas doenças, nesse trabalho objetivou-se elucidar aspectos da dinâmica populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. no solo e em brotações, a fim de estabelecer, correlações com a incidência da doença, bem como determinar a distribuição do patógeno em jardim clonal de eucalipto. Conclui-se que há flutuação populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. em jardim clonal de eucalipto, sendo observado um padrão de distribuição espacial agregado do inóculo no solo. A dinâmica populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. foi correlacionada à temperatura, mas não à precipitação pluviométrica. Abstract in english Leaf blight in shoots of clonal hedges and web blight of cuttings for rooting, caused by Rhizoctonia species, may be limiting to the production of eucalyptus seedlings by cuttings. Despite their importance, there have been few etiological and epidemiological studies of these diseases. To optimize di [...] sease management strategies, this research aimed to evaluate population dynamics of Rhizoctonia spp. in soil and eucalyptus cuttings to correlate with disease incidence, and to determine spatial distribution of Rhizoctonia spp. inoculum in a clonal nursery of eucalyptus cuttings. Population fluctuation of Rhizoctonia spp. was detected throughout the year. Pathogen distribution in soil was found to have an aggregated pattern. Temperature, but not rainfall, was correlated to population levels of Rhizoctonia spp in soil samples.

Eugenio, Sanfuentes; Acelino C., Alfenas; Luiz A., Maffia; Reginaldo G., Mafia.

2007-04-01

373

Efecto del subcultivo sucesivo sobre la caulogénesis adventicia de Eucalyptus globulus Effect of successive subculture on adventitious caulogenesis of Eucalyptus globulus  

OpenAIRE

Se estudió el efecto de subcultivos sucesivos sobre la producción de microtallos desde líneas organogénicas de material cigótico de Eucalyptus globulus. Cada 50 días fueron subcultivados segmentos nodales en medio de proliferación (MS + 4,4 µM BAP + 0,05 µM ANA) y se contabilizó el número de microtallos por explanto. Los resultados indicaron una disminución en la cantidadde microtallos desde el 3º al 6º subcultivo (de 1,58 a 0,18 microtallos por explanto), que ...

Cristian Gómez; Darcy Ríos; Manuel Sánchez-Olate

2007-01-01

374

Contenido de duramen y de albura en Eucalyptus globulus y Acacia melanoxylon implantadas en Argentina Heartwood and sapwood content in Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon growing in Argentina  

OpenAIRE

Los objetivos del trabajo fueron determinar la proporción de duramen y el ancho de la albura en Eucalyptus globulus y Acacia melanoxylon, estudiar su variación axial en el fuste y establecer relaciones entre duramen y el diámetro y volumen del fuste. Se muestrearon 10 árboles de E. globulus de 9 años y 10 árboles de A. melanoxylon de 19 a 32 años, en dos sitios de Buenos Aires, Argentina. En cuatro rodajas por árbol (base, 1.3 m, 30 % y 50 % de la altura total), se determinaron el ár...

Silvia Monteoliva; Verónica Ciganda; Igartu?a, Dora V.

2012-01-01

375

Influência da arquitetura foliar de miniestacas na propagação clonal de Eucalyptus / Influence of leaf architecture of minicuttings in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apesar do progresso da silvicultura clonal alcançado por meio da técnica de miniestaquia, pouco se avançou em relação às espécies recalcitrantes, sobretudo com relação ao manejo empregado em miniestacas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da arquitetura de miniestacas na produção de mudas de qua [...] tro clones de Eucalyptus, foram realizadas avaliações nas três fases de produção de mudas: 1) Sobrevivência aos 30 dias em casa de vegetação, 2) Enraizamento aos 45 dias em casa de sombra; e 3) Aproveitamento final aos 60 dias na área de rustificação. A taxa de enraizamento foi determinada com base na taxa de sobrevivência aos 30 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com arranjo de tratamento em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, sendo três tipos de arquitetura de miniestaca: 1) folha inteira (100%); 2) folha cortada (50%); e 3) miniestaca cortada em "árvore de natal" (folhas subapicais cortadas em ¾ e basais inteiras) e quatro clones de (Eucalyptus E. dunnii , E. saligna e dois de E. urophylla x E. globulus), com quatro repetições e 100 plantas por bloco. De acordo com os resultados, a produção de mudas foi afetada pelo tipo de arquitetura de miniestacas. A arquitetura que apresentou os melhores resultados nas avaliações foi "árvore de natal" e folha inteira. Abstract in english Despite the advances on minicutting techniques for clonal silviculture, little progress has been made considering recalcitrant species, especially for the handling in minicuttings practices. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the architecture of minicuttings in the production of four clo [...] nes of Eucalyptus seedlings. Evaluations in the three phases of seedlings production were performed: 1) Survival at 30 days in the greenhouse; 2) Rooting at 45 days in the shade house; and 3) Final exploitation at 60 days in the rustication area. The rooting rates was calculated based on the surviving rates at 30 days. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatment in a factorial scheme 3 x 4, with three types of minicutting architecture: 1) whole leaf (100%); 2) cut leaf (50%); and 3) minicutting in the form of a "christmas tree" (sub apical leaves cut in ¾ and basal leaves left uncut) and four clones of Eucalyptus (E. dunnii, E. saligna), and two clones of E. urophylla x E. globulus. We used 100 plants per block with four replications. The results have shown that the production of seedlings was affected by the type of architecture adopted in the minicuttings. The architecture that showed the best results in the evaluations were "christmas tree" and whole leaf.

Alan Ferreira, Batista; Glêison Augusto dos, Santos; Luciana Duque, Silva; Franco Freitas, Quevedo; Teotônio Francisco de, Assis.

2014-10-01

376

Deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × E. globulus / Deposition of nutrients and litter in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. globulus plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar a deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram alocadas sistematicamente quatro parcelas de 20 m × 20 m, cada uma com quatro coletores de serapilheira de 1 m². A serapilheira f [...] oi coletada quinzenalmente, entre janeiro/2007 e dezembro/2010. A produção de serapilheira foi crescente, com o aumento da idade do povoamento, sendo 6,9 Mg ha-1 aos seis e 8,5 Mg ha-1 aos nove anos. A fração folhas correspondeu, em média, a 66,9% da serapilheira total, seguida pelos galhos finos (14,7%), miscelânea (10,5%) e galhos grossos (7,9%). A deposição apresentou padrão sazonal, sendo maior no período de aumento da temperatura do ar. A fração folhas foi responsável por maior parte do retorno de nutrientes via serapilheira, variando de 58,2 a 81,8% da quantidade de Cu e N, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the deposition of nutrients and litter in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus stands, in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Four plots (20 m × 20 m) were systematically allocated and four 1 m² litter traps were inst [...] alled in each plot. Litterfall was collected from the traps fortnightly between January 2006 and December 2010. Litter deposition increased proportionally to stand age: 6.9 Mg ha-1 at six and 8.5 Mg ha-1 at nine years of age. Leaf fraction represented 66.9% of the total litter on average, followed by twigs (14.7%), miscellaneous (10.5%), and thick branches (7.9%). Litter deposition showed seasonal behavior, increasing as the air temperature increased. The leaf fraction produced the highest nutrient release through litter, with average values of 58.2 and 81.8% for Cu and N, respectively.

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Elias Frank, Araújo; Robson Schaff, Corrêa; Marcos Vinicius Winckler, Caldeira.

2014-09-01