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Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus is a tree. The dried leaves and oil are used to make medicine. Though eucalyptus is used medicinally for many purposes, there isn’ ... rate it as effective for any of them. Eucalyptus leaf is used for infections, fever, upset stomach, ...

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Eucalyptus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using Eucalyptus camaldulensis as a model system, we describe here a basic Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol through organogenesis for the production of transgenic plants. Hypocotyl segments or cotyledon pieces from in vitro seedlings are used as starting materials. The explants are inoculated and cocultivated with a disarmed, binary strain of A. tumefaciens CIB542 harboring a mini Ti plasmid, pBI121. A modified Gamborg's B5 medium is used as the basal culture medium throughout stages of co-cultivation, callus induction and shoot regeneration. The incorporation of neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (gus) genes into the plant nuclear genome are primarily verified by histochemical analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Modifications of this protocol to use in mature tissues derived from elite trees and other Eucalyptus species are also described. PMID:17033057

Chen, Zenn-Zong; Ho, Cheng-Kuen; Ahn, In-Suk; Chiang, Vincent L

2006-01-01

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Eucalyptus oil poisoning.  

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Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

Foggie, W. E.

1980-01-01

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

2010-01-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones...

Odair Bison; Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha Rezende; Aurélio Mendes Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende3

2007-01-01

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Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp  

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Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

Lidya Morita Sondang

2009-01-01

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of dist [...] illated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

Marcio Rogério da, Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira, Machado; Jay, Deiner; Carlito, Calil Junior.

2010-09-01

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

Marcio Rogério da Silva

2010-09-01

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Leaf blight of eucalyptus in nurseries. [Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large number of seedlings of Eucalyptus are raised in forest nurseries for afforestation, road side and avenue plantations. Usually the sowing is done during February and the seedlings are maintained in polythene bags for the plantation during July. During the course of study of nursery diseases a severe leaf blight of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis E. tereticornis and E. hybrid) caused by Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded. Even the big trees of 10 to 15 years were found to be infected by this fungus. Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded on E. globulus from Mysore. Researchers also noticed this disease in Eucalyptus from Kerala. The present report indicated that the disease is being reported for the first time from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Rajastan. 2 references, 1 table.

Jamaluddin; Soni, K.K.; Dadwal, V.S.

1985-12-01

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae) Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. glo...

Freddy Mora; Claudio Palma-Rojas; Pedro Jara-Seguel

2005-01-01

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m (P Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, with 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m and E. globulus (1.02 m m (P < 0.01. The greater chromosomal size of E. globulus suggests a greater amount of DNA, probably originated by structural alterations. This evolutionary pattern of karyotype morphology might be associated, as well, with a high level of conservation in chromosome morphology.

Freddy Mora

2005-03-01

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Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh leaves (FL) or residue leaves (RL), after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h in...

Abdalla, Adibe L.; Nasser, Mohamed E. A.; Sallam, Sobhy M. A.; Bueno, Ives C. S.

2010-01-01

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SOIL FAUNA CHARACTERIZATION IN Eucalyptus spp. PLANTATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810545Forest soils provide good conditions for the development and the establishment of soil fauna, manly by the deposition of litter. However, monoculture systems conducted in a single substrate by providing food, can promote the development of certain animal groups over others, causing outbreaks of pest species. The aim of this study was to characterize the soil fauna and its relationship with meteorological variables, in plantations of Eucalyptus spp. This study was conducted in six stands of Eucalyptus from three species: Eucalyptus dunni Maiden, Eucalyptus grandis Maiden and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake (clone hybrid and two ages (planted in 2006 and 2007.

Juliana Garlet

2013-08-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid [...] potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH) and the wood density (WD) were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956), adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair, Bison; Magno Antonio Patto, Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha, Rezende; Aurélio Mendes, Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende.

2007-03-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair Bison

2007-03-01

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CARACTERIZAÇÃO MICROCLIMÁTICA NO INTERIOR DOS TALHÕES DE Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, localizado em Anhambi, SP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neste estudo avaliou-se algumas características microclimáticas em talhões de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus torelliana, resultantes dos diferentes tipos de cobertura florestal que estas espécies propiciam. Das três espécies estudadas, Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi a que deixou passar as maiores quantidades de radiação solar global e intensidade luminosa. Já Eucalyptus torelliana foi a espécie que mais interceptou a radiação solar e deixou o sub-bosque co...

Fabio Poggiani; Mauro Valdir Schumacher

1993-01-01

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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology. PMID:24919147

Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

2014-06-19

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Eucalyptus nitens Laminated Veneer Lumber  

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Eucalyptus nitens es una especie de rápido crecimiento pero debido a una defoliación severa causada por el insecto Paropsis charybdis el area de plantación en Nueva Zelandia era muy limitada. En 1987 ensis (anteriormente Forest Research) liberó una avispa parasítica que controló exitosamente ésta peste. Desde entonces, E.nitens ha sido plantado para la producción local de pulpa kraft y para el mercado exterior de astillas en las regiones de Bay of Plenty/Tau...

Mckenzie, Heather; Gea, Luis; Gaunt, Doug

2006-01-01

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CARACTERIZAÇÃO MICROCLIMÁTICA NO INTERIOR DOS TALHÕES DE Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, localizado em Anhambi, SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste estudo avaliou-se algumas características microclimáticas em talhões de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus torelliana, resultantes dos diferentes tipos de cobertura florestal que estas espécies propiciam. Das três espécies estudadas, Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi a que deixou passar as maiores quantidades de radiação solar global e intensidade luminosa. Já Eucalyptus torelliana foi a espécie que mais interceptou a radiação solar e deixou o sub-bosque com menos luminosidade. As maiores temperaturas diárias e nos primeiros 10 cm do solo, foram observadas em Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Para as três espécies, aos 20 cm de profundidade a variação da temperatura foi praticamente constante. Através dos resultados encontrados foi possível confirmar que as árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus torelliana, previamente estudadas na Austrália, pertencem, respectivamente, a formação de floresta aberta baixa, floresta aberta alta e floresta fechada.

Fabio Poggiani

1993-12-01

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Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

 
 
 
 
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[Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

2009-07-01

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Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

Adibe L. Abdalla

2010-09-01

23

Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necess?...

Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira Carvalho

2006-01-01

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Photosynthetic temperature responses of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations of four year old Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Temperatures varied between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and were measured at approximately monthly intervals from early spring until midwinter. The photosynthetic temperature optimum was found to be linearly related to the average temperature of the preceding week during the entire nine month period. For E. globulus the optimum temperature for net photosynthesis increased from 17 degrees C to 23 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 degrees C to 16 degrees. The corresponding values for E. nitens were 14 to 20 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 to 19 degrees C. The photosynthetic performance of E. nitens was less sensitive to temperatures above and below the optimum than E. globulus. In a second experiment E. globulus clones were acclimated in temperature-controlled greenhouses, and in a shadehouse in four climatically different regions of Tasmania. A comparison of light response curves of the plants showed that the maximum rate of net photosynthesis was affected by the growth temperature, whereas apparent quantum efficiency remained unchanged. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; Loughead, S. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

1996-01-01

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Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

2010-01-01

26

Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eucalyptus + C. albicans, diabetic control, diabetic + C. albicans, diabetic + eucalyptus + C. albicans. Diabetes was induced after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) of treated animals for 4 weeks. The concerned groups were inoculated with C. albicans 15 days after diabetes induction. At the end of one month experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (P<0.05). Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats that in some ways validates the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:21079663

Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

2010-01-01

27

Eucalyptus gunnii: A possible source of bioenergy?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus are widely grown throughout the world for timber, essential oil, fuel, biomass and cut foliage. In experiments in University College Dublin (UCD), Eucalyptus gunnii yielded an average dry weight of 4.74 kg per plant per annum, equivalent to 12.59 t dm ha{sup -1}. The average calorific values of 17.60 MJ kg{sup -1} (leafy material) and 17.09 MJ kg{sup -1} (woody material) are less than the values reported for other species of Eucalyptus. (author)

Forrest, Mary; Moore, Tom [UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2008-10-15

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Micropropagation of Eucalyptus nitens maiden (Shining gum)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary Eucalyptus nitens Maiden (shining gum) is a frost-tolerant species of Eucalyptus that can be used as an alternative species to Eucalyptus globulus in some regions of Portugal where winter temperatures are too low. Seedlings and 1-yr-old shoot tips and nodes were used for micropropagation of E. nitens. The best multiplication rate (2.25) was obtained when seedling shoots (<15 mm) were cultured on a medium containing the major nutrients (at half-strength) and minor elements of Mura...

Gomes, Filomena; Canhoto, Jorge

2003-01-01

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Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

Sen-Sarma, P.K.; Thakur, M.L.

1983-12-01

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Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

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Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Evaluation of some properties of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo um...

Pedro Nicolau Serpa; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos Pimenta

2003-01-01

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The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Holocryphia eucalypti on Eucalyptus in New Zealand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Holocryphia eucalypti is an opportunistic canker pathogen of Eucalyptus and Corymbia spp. (Myrtaceae, Myrtales) in Australia and South Africa. It is also known in Australia on Tibouchina trees (Melastomataceae, Myrtales). Using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological characterisation, we show for the first time that H. eucalypti is present in New Zealand on Eucalyptus spp.

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Vermeulen, Marcele; Dick, M.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

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Antimicrobial Activity of Oils and Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass, Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available The antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and extracts from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass, Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus camadulensis were tested on Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureous and Escherichia coli. Both the water extract and freeze dried extract of these leaves were used. Zone of inhibition measurement showed that Eucalyptus citriodora oil was very effective against Salmonella typhi and found to suppress growth of the organism after 24 h of incubation. Similar observation was made with a combined extract of Eucalyptus citriodora oil and lemon grass oil. Lemon grass oil was observed to possess high antimicrobial activity on all the three organisms tested while Eucalyptus camadulensis is very active against Staphylococcus aureus. Both the freeze dried extracts and the viscous extracts possess slight antimicrobial activity while in all cases, the aqueous extracts have no effects on the organisms.

B.C. Akin-Osanaiye

2007-01-01

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Efektivitas Penggunaan Eucalyptus Sp Sebagai Tanaman Konservasi Di Sumatera Utara  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tujuan daripada penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas penggunaan Eucalyptus sp sebagai tanaman konservasi dan untuk mengetahui perubahan sifat-sifat tanah yang ditimbulkan akibat konversi Pinus merkussi ke Eucalyptus sp. Penelitian dilakukan di daerah dengan ketinggian 1200 m dpl. Contoh tanah diambil di empat lokasi, yaitu lokasi I pada areal pertanaman, Pinus merkussi (belum ditanami Eucalyptus sp), lokasi II pada areal pertanaman Eucalyptus sp umur 3 tahun, lokasi III pa...

Henry Panjaitan

2008-01-01

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USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards ma...

Setsuo Iwakiri; Lourival Marin Mendes; Leopoldo Karman Saldanha; Juliano Cláudio dos Santos

2004-01-01

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The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis discovered in eastern Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chrysoporthe cubensis is an important pathogen of commercially planted Eucalyptus species (Myrtaceae) in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where these trees are planted as non-natives. Although the majority of Eucalyptus spp. are native to Australia, Chr. cubensis is not common there and has been reported only once from naturally growing Eucalyptus marginata in Western Australia. Chrysoporthe cubensisis able to infect hosts in the Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae other than Eucalyptus,...

Pegg, Geoffrey S.; Gryzenhout, Marieka; O Dwyer, Cecilia; Drenth, Andre; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

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Weed control and selectivity of flumioxazin in eucalyptus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flumioxazin is a registered herbicide for agricultural crops what is an important fact concerning integrated management for weeds in eucalyptus plantations. This study evaluated the efficiency of weed control and the phytotoxicity in eucalyptus plants caused by the herbicide flumioxazin applied alone or in tank mixture with sulfentrazone and isoxaflutole. The aim was to extend the use of thisherbicide in eucalyptus. The herbicide was applied to eucalyptus plants using precision backpack spray...

Rafael Augusto Soares Tiburcio; Francisco Affonso Ferreira; Lino Roberto Ferreira; Miler Soares Machado; Aroldo Ferreira Lopes Machado

2012-01-01

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Physical Properties of Medium density Particleboard Made from Saline Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus tree, Eucalyptus cinerea, has the potential to be used as a biomass crop to help manage saline subsurface drainage water in arid land where irrigated agriculture is practiced. In this research, saline eucalyptus was used to manufacture medium-density particleboard in an attempt to develo...

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EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus CLONES FOR CHARCOAL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Charcoal is economically representative in the Brazilian economy, specially in Minas Gerais, the main producer, and consumer of this product. A problem related to the charcoal utilization is its heterogeneous quality, which is influenced both for the wood and the production process. This variability causes waste of material and make it difficult to handle the blast furnaces. The objective of this work was to evaluate the wood of ten clones: seven of Eucalyptus grandis and three of Eucalyptus saligna: both directed to charcoal production. Also, it was looked for to select clones with highercapacity for the establishment of a forestry improvement program. During the assessment it was considered the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the charcoal. According to the results it was verified that there exists a large variation among the assessed clones, which is higher in Eucalyptus grandis. The production of dry mass, associated to the estimation of mass of both lignin and charcoal proportionate a classification of the clones considered as the superior (clones number five, six and two, median (clones number ten, three, one and eight and inferior (clones number nine, four and seven. Clone seven was the worsen for the charcoal production due to its low growth rate. The classification of the clones based on both the wood chemical characteristics and charcoal yield was not satisfactory. The growth rate was fundamental for the clones classification, being recommendable to incorporate it in future assessment of wood quality. Eucalyptus grandis clones were superior to Eucalyptus saligna clones.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho

2001-01-01

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TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

Myburg, Alexander A [ORNL; Grattapaglia, Dario [Universidade Católica de Brasília; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Li, Ting [ORNL

2014-01-01

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Range extension, habitat and conservation status of three rare mallees, Eucalyptus castrensis, Eucalyptus fracta and Eucalyptus pumila from the Hunter Valley, NSW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New populations of three threatened mallee species, Eucalyptus castrensis K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus fracta K.D.Hill and Eucalyptus pumila Cambage (all Myrtaceae), have recently been found in the Singleton Military Area in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales (32°45’S, 151°15’E). Each population is significant as they increase the known distribution and total numbers of three highly restricted species. Details of the habitat and size of each additional population are given and conservation no...

Copeland, Lachlan M.; Hunter, John T.

2013-01-01

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Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

2006-01-01

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EFFECT OF THE SAWING MODEL IN THE SAWNWOOD QUALITY OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research carried out to evaluate the defects caused by growth stresses on boards produced from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii, using twodifferent sawing models. Logs tested came from fast growing plantations belonging to two diametricclasses. The first sawing model used aimed to produce mainly flat sawn boards and the second aimedto maximize the production of quarter-sawn boards. The results obtained pointed out that quartersawnboards were more prone to twist and bow. Splits were more evident in flat sawn boards. Bowwas only observed in flat sawn boards. As a result of the drying schedule used, collapse was not aproblem. Under the conditions of the study, regardless the species or log diameter, the best result isobtained when flat sawn boards are produced. Eucalyptus grandis was found to be a better species for producing sawnwood than Eucalyptus dunnii.

Márcio Pereira da Rocha

2002-01-01

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Dendroenergetical characterization of Eucalyptus benthamii trees Caracterização dendroenergética de árvores de Eucalyptus benthamii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eucalyptus benthamii has shown to be the most proeminent specie for regions with frost incidence. The objective of this work was to classify selected Eucalyptus benthamii trees for breeding by importance ordening dendrometric and energetic characteristics, useful for this work 91 disks of DBH were collected, from three plantations at Guarapuava municipality, Parana state, with geographical coordinates 25º 23’ 26’’ S e 51º 27’ 15” ...

Edson Alves de Lima; Helton Damin da Silva; Osmir José Lavoranti

2011-01-01

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Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo um...

Serpa Pedro Nicolau; Vital Benedito Rocha; Della Lucia Ricardo Marius; Pimenta Alexandre Santos

2003-01-01

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Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla), parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) and vassoura (Sida spp.) particles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla), paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) and vassoura (Sida spp.) on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard cont...

Juliana Jerásio Bianche; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Benedito Rocha Vital; Flávia Alves Pereira; Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos; Déborah Nava Soratto

2012-01-01

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Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii) / Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2) em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou [...] -se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3). Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético. Abstract in english Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2) obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoc [...] ulation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3). Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Eugênio, Von. Sanfuentes; Davi Theodoro, Junghans; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

2007-08-01

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Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2 em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou-se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3. Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético.Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2 obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoculation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3. Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

Adelica Aparecida Xavier

2007-08-01

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Modeling of basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using nondestructive methods  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of nondestructive variables in inferring basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. A total of 27 clones of Eucalyptus urophylla and 22 clones of Eucalyptus grandis were used, sourced from a clonal trial set up in Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. After evaluation using nondestructive techniques of resistography and pin penetration at a constant pressure (Pilodyn®, individuals were felled and disks were removed from the 2%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% portions of the merchantable height section, and also from the portion 1.30 m above ground level. Basic density was determined by the water immersion method. Values of basic density ranged from 0.412 to 0.609 g.cm-3 for clones at age 42 months and from 0.408 to 0.664 g.cm-3 for clones at age 54 months. The clones of Eucalyptus urophylla provided higher values of average basic density in relation to Eucalyptus grandis. The variable 'amplitude' had better correlation with basic density in comparison with pin penetration at a constant pressure. Nondestructive evaluation can be used in mass preselection of genetic materials, prior to subjecting them to a more accurate, reliable evaluation.

Allan Motta Couto

2013-03-01

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Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB, fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³ e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³. Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 e ASTM-D 1037 (1991. Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 e CSA 0437-93 (1993. As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993. A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular, foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura. Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board. Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Ponte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³ and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³. Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 and ASTM-D 1037 (1991 norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 and CSA 0437-93 (1993 norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993 norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalyptus grandis (Janka hardness and Eucalyptus cloeziana mixed with Pinus sp

Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

2006-08-01

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Disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus / Nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar, em um plantio de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foi utilizada a técnica de litter bags para a avaliação da decomposição. Ao todo, foram utili [...] zados 648 litter bags, com coletas mensais de 18 amostras, durante o período de 36 meses. A perda de massa foliar apresentou correlação positiva com a concentração de nutrientes, indicando que, quanto maior a perda de massa, maior a concentração dos elementos no folhedo remanescente. A decomposição da serapilheira foliar apresentou inicialmente imobilização de P, Fe, Mn e Zn, e disponibilização dos demais nutrientes. O P tornou-se disponível a partir do segundo ano, enquanto o Mn e o Zn, somente a partir do terceiro ano. Abstract in english This study had the objective to evaluate the nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation, Eldorado do Sul-RS. We used the litterbags techniques to assess the decomposition. We used 648 litterbags, with 18 samples collected month [...] ly during 36 months. Mass loss leaf showed positive correlation with nutrients concentration, indicating that the higher mass loss, higher the nutrients concentration in litter remaining. Litter leaf decay initially showed P, Fe, Mn and Zn immobilization and release of the others, in the second year occurred P release and in the third year occurred Mn and Zn release, with Fe exception.

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Elias Frank, Araújo.

2014-09-01

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Kajian Beberapa Sifat Dasar Kayu Ekaliptus (Eucalyptus grandis) Umur 5 Tahun  

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This study aimed to evaluate the nature of anatomical, physical, and mechanical eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus grandis), age 5 years vertically and horizontally. The nature of eucalyptus wood anatomy shows that shaped pores solitary and multiple 2-3, eucalyptus stems reddish brown wood, eucalyptus wood looks dull and the direction of the fiber straight to wavy. Eucalyptus wood fiber length average 1103.53 ?, fiber diameter 282.4 ?, lumen diameter 188 ?, and fiber wall thickness 47.2 ?. The p...

Hutagalung, Frans Januari

2011-01-01

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Weed control and selectivity of flumioxazin in eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Flumioxazin is a registered herbicide for agricultural crops what is an important fact concerning integrated management for weeds in eucalyptus plantations. This study evaluated the efficiency of weed control and the phytotoxicity in eucalyptus plants caused by the herbicide flumioxazin applied alone or in tank mixture with sulfentrazone and isoxaflutole. The aim was to extend the use of thisherbicide in eucalyptus. The herbicide was applied to eucalyptus plants using precision backpack sprayer. It was evaluated, visually,the intoxication percentage and measured height and diameter of eucalyptus trees, the control plants and dry mass of weeds. It wasconcluded that flumioxazin is selective to the eucalyptus at the 125 g.ha-1 dosage, and its efficiency in controlling weeds pre-emergencewas better when mixed in the tank with isoxaflutole and sulfentrazone.

Rafael Augusto Soares Tiburcio

2012-12-01

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Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America  

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The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argen...

Gandolfo, Mari?a A.; Hermsen, Elizabeth J.; Zamaloa, Mari?a C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; Gonza?lez, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cu?neo, N. Rube?n; Johnson, Kirk R.

2011-01-01

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Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis  

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A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbr...

Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia; Robert Cardoso Sartório

2009-01-01

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Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii / Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específic [...] as básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) e ASTM-D 1037 (1991). Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) e CSA 0437-93 (1993). As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993). A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular) e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular), foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka) e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura). Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board). Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Po [...] nte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³) and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³). Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) and ASTM-D 1037 (1991) norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) and CSA 0437-93 (1993) norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993) norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular) and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular) of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalypt

Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira, Carvalho.

2006-08-01

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Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera)  

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Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera...

José Cola Zanuncio; Marcos Franklin Sossai; Carlos Alberto Hector Flechtmann; Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio; Edylene Marota Guimarães; Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

2005-01-01

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Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 µg/disk) and rifampin (5 µg/disk) were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and n...

Safaei-ghomi, Javad; Ahd, Atefeh Abbasi

2010-01-01

60

Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

M. N. Garcia

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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A case study of Eucalyptus globulus fingerprinting  

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• Introduction Tree genetic improvement programs usually lack, in general, pedigree information. Since molecular markers can be used to estimate the level of genetic similarity between individuals, we genotyped a sample of a Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus breeding population—a reference population of 125 individuals—with 16 microsatellites (SSR). • Materials and methods Using genotypes from the reference population, we developed a simulation approach to recurrently gener...

Ribeiro, M. M. A.

2011-01-01

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In vitro regeneration of Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol enables mass multiplication, genetic modification and germplasm conservation of desired plants. In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from nodal segments of 18-months-old superior genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees through direct organogenesis (DO) and direct somatic embryogenesis (DSE) pathways. Initial bud break (BB) stage occurred via DO while shoot multiplication phase followed both DO and DSE pathways. Interestingly, both BB and sho...

Girijashankar, V.

2011-01-01

63

Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps  

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This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J. A. F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

2012-01-01

64

Ethanol production from fractionated eucalyptus wood  

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Eucalyptus globulus wood (EGW) is a lignocellulosic material with high cellulose and hemicellulose content, suitable for the simultaneous production of hemicellulosic and cellulosic ethanol. Processing of EGW by autohydrolysis yields a liquid phase rich in hemicellulosic-derived compounds (13.73 kg of xylooligosaccharides/ 100 kg of raw material). The liquid phase was processed by membranes, achieving a concentrated-liquor of 52.9 g of xylooligosaccharides/L. The liquor from membrane processi...

Romani?, Aloia; Rodri?guez-lo?pez, Julio; Gonza?lez-mun?oz, Mari?a Jesu?s; Garrote, Gil; Parajo?, Juan Carlos

2012-01-01

65

New Phenylpropanoid Glucosides from Eucalyptus maculata  

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Three compounds were isolated from the butanol soluble fraction of the resinous exudate from the stem of Eucalyptus maculata. In addition to p-coumaric acid two new compounds were identified. They were identified as 1-O-cinnamoyl 6-O-pcoumaroylglucose and 7-methyl-aromadendrin-4′-O-(6′′-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical means.

Rashwan, Omar A.

2002-01-01

66

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

67

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN. WOOD  

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Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn., which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

O Unsal

2003-01-01

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Qualidade e rendimento do carvão vegetal de um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla  

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This research aimed to analyze the quality and yields of the charcoal of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clone commercially named GG100 for use in iron industry at different ages, plantation sites and spacing. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial electric furnace (muffle furnace) at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 until the final temperature of 450 ºC, remaining stabilized for 30 min. The gravimetric yield in charcoal, pyroligneous extract, non condensable gases and...

Maíra Reis de Assis; Thiago de Paula Protásio; Claudinéia Olímpia de Assis; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Wilma Michele Santos Santana

2012-01-01

69

Estabelecimento in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986626O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o comportamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus globulus Labill e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blake x Eucalyptus globulus Labill e o efeito de diferentes introduções in vitro (aos 30, 90 e 150 dias após a poda do ápice das minicepas na fase de estabelecimento in vitro. As minicepas, fornecedoras dos explantes para a introdução in vitro, foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus e 8 clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus foram coletados, desinfestados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,1 mg L-1 de ANA. Após 30 dias em cultura, foram feitas as avaliações e concluiu-se que houve variação entre clones, bem como entre introduções in vitro, para as variáveis estudadas, sendo possível o estabelecimento in vitro da maioria dos clones.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges

2012-09-01

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Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

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A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. ...

Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Gilson Fernandes da Silva; Mauro Eloi Nappo; Mario Tomazelo Filho

2010-01-01

71

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

2012-06-01

72

TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii WOOD FOR KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

2011-03-01

73

USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING  

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Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2004-06-01

74

Utilização de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii para produção de painéis de partículas orientadas – OSB.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade de utilização de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii para produção de painéis OSB. Foram produzidos em laboratório painéis com densidade nominal de 0,70 e 1,0 g/cm³, com 100% de partículas de Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii, além de painéis com mistura de 50% de Pinus taeda na camada interna do painel, com 50% de Eucalyptus grandis e 50% de Eucalyptus dunnii.. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis com densidade de 0,70 g/cm³, considerada padrão comercial, apresentaram valores de propriedades compatíveis com os requisitos da norma canadense (CSA e européia EN, e também em relação aos painéis de Pinus taeda usados como testemunhas. Os resultados dos ensaios mecânicos demonstraram incremento expressivo nos valores de MOE e MOR em flexão estática com aumento na densidade do painel, abrindo a probabilidade de uso de painéis com maior densificação para aplicações que requeiram maior resistência do painel OSB. Os resultados desta pesquisa indicam a viabilidade de utilização de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis como espécie alternativa para produção de painéis OSB no Brasil.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2009-10-01

75

LEVANTAMENTO DE SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA) EM PLANTAÇÕES DE Eucalyptus spp. EM CUIABÁ, ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO  

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Realizou-se um levantamento populacional de espécies da família Scolytidae em plantios de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Dehnh. Dehnh., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com auxílio de armadilhas etanólicas, modelo escolitídeo-Curitiba, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso, de março de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas, sendo seis por talhão/espécie de Eucalyptus. As coletas f...

Eli Nunes Marques; Otávio Peres Filho; Alberto Dorval

2004-01-01

76

Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles  

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Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

Juliana Jerásio Bianche

2012-12-01

77

Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A lagarta-parda, Thyrinteina arnobia, causa grandes prejuízos à cultura do eucalipto, destacando-se como o principal lepidóptero desfolhador; portanto, medidas alternativas de controle são necessárias. Neste trabalho foi avaliada, pela técnica de eletroantenografia (EAG), a interação dos voláteis do [...] s óleos essenciais de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, frente às antenas de fêmeas e de machos de T. arnobia. Foram também identificados 28 compostos voláteis bioativos contidos no óleo essencial de E. grandis, utilizando a detecção eletroantenográfica acoplada à cromatografia a gás (CG-EAD). Estes resultados indicam que CG-EAD é uma ferramenta muito útil na triagem de compostos bioativos presentes em extratos de plantas e sugerem que T. arnobia utiliza vários destes terpenos como sinais para encontrar seu hospedeiro. Abstract in english Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG) ha [...] ve never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

Luciane G., Batista-Pereira; João B., Fernandes; Arlene G., Corrêa; M. Fátima G. F. da, Silva; Paulo C., Vieira.

2006-06-01

78

Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc  

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Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

2002-01-01

79

Interference of Grasses on the Growth of Eucalyptus Clones  

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Full Text Available This experiment aimed to study the interference of Urochloa decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Panicum maximum (100 plants m-2 density, on the initial growth of clones of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis clones 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Each pot had one plant of eucalyptus and five weed plants. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications, constituting a 5x5 factorial design. The height and the diameter of eucalyptus plants were evaluated at 0, 15, 28, 41 and 50 days after weeds transplanting (DAT. At 50 DAT was measured the foliar area of eucalyptus plants, as well as the dry mass of eucalyptus plants (leaves and stem and the dry mass of weeds. The five clones suffered negative interference during the coexistence with weeds. The clones showed different behaviors through the interaction with weeds. For the more susceptible characteristics to interference – leaves and stem dry mass – eucalyptus clones 3, 4 and 5 were more sensitive to the presence of weeds.

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira

2013-10-01

80

Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A new foliar disease caused by Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. urophylla x E. globulus and E. nitens x E. globulus) in Brazil is described . The disease is characterized by leaf spots of variable sizes and shapes, resulting in leaf blight and premature defoliation. Base [...] d on the morphological characteristics and multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the EF-1?, ?-T and ITS-2 gene regions of five isolates, the fungus was identified as T. pseudoeucalypti. This is the first report of this pathogen outside Australia and a method for sporulation in culture is described.

Tonimara de Souza, Cândido; André Costa da, Silva; Lúcio Mauro da Silva, Guimarães; Hélvio Gledson Maciel, Ferraz; Norton, Borges Júnior; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae) biology in Eucalyptus spp.  

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Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD), sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utiliza...

Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler; Carlos Frederico Wilcken; Nádia Cristina de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos

2009-01-01

82

SILVICULTURAL BEHAVIOR OF CLONES AND SPECIES/PROVENANCES OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus sp. IN NORTHWEST OF MINAS GERAIS STATE  

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This research evaluated the behavior of clone seedlings of natural hybrid of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh-Eucalyptusurophila S. T. Blake, identified as clones 8, 9, 11, and 12. Eucalyptus species/provenance were: APS-V (Eucalyptus camaldulensis,Zimbabue Africa provenance), USA (Eucalyptus urophylla, Avaré, Brazil provenance), EpK (Eucalyptus pellita Kuranda, Australiaprovenance) and EcP (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Petford, Autrália provenance). The Experiment was established in four planti...

Wagner Massote Magalhães; Renato Luiz Grisi Macedo; Nelson Venturin; Emílio Manabu Higashikawa; Mauro Yoshitani Júnior

2007-01-01

83

Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

2014-09-01

84

BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

Flaviana Reis Milagres

2011-03-01

85

Multiplicación in vitro de Eucalyptus Dunnii  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus dunnii es una de las especies consideradas promisorias para su desarrollo en suelos pesados de la Provincia de Entre Ríos; su multiplicación se realiza principalmente por semillas, especialmente de importación. En este artículo se exponen los resultados de un estudio sobre la aplicación de técnicas de micropropagación por cultivo in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii. Se trabajó a partir de dos tipos de explantos: segmentos uninodales y brotes epicórmicos, sembrados en medios nutritivos Murashige & Skoog y Mc Cown con el agregado o no de diferentes combinaciones hormonales (citocininas y auxinas. Los resultados para la multiplicación de segmentos uninodales mostraron que la alternancia de citocininas indujo al aumento del número de brotes. La combinación de 0,05 mg/l de ácido indol butírico con 0,5 mg/l de kinetina manifestó diferencia significativa para cantidad y longitud de brotes, respecto a las otras combinaciones. Se logró la inducción de brotes epicórmicos, pero no su evolución en medios de cultivo. Con la aplicación de estas técnicas no se logró el enraizamiento de explantos de E. dunnii, hipótesis planteada en el estudio.

Cristina E. Billard

2005-01-01

86

The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages, and compared these with transcriptomes of diverse vegetative tissues, including leaves, roots, and stems. A subset of 4807 genes (13% of protein-coding genes) were differentially expressed between floral buds of either stage and vegetative tissues. A similar proportion of genes were differentially expressed among all tissues. A total of 479 genes were differentially expressed between early and late stages of floral development. Gene function enrichment identified 158 gene ontology classes that were overrepresented in floral tissues, including 'pollen development' and 'aromatic compound biosynthetic process'. At least 40 floral-dominant genes lacked functional annotations and thus may be novel floral transcripts. We analyzed several genes and gene families in depth, including 49 putative biomarkers of floral development, the MADS-box transcription factors, 'S-domain'-receptor-like kinases, and selected gene family members with phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains. Expanded MADS-box gene subfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis included SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), SEPALLATA (SEP) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. These data provide a rich resource for functional and evolutionary analysis of genes controlling eucalypt floral development, and new tools for breeding and biotechnology. PMID:25353719

Vining, Kelly J; Romanel, Elisson; Jones, Rebecca C; Klocko, Amy; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Hefer, Charles A; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Naithani, Sushma; Ranik, Martin; Wesley-Smith, James; Solomon, Luke; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Myburg, Alexander A; Strauss, Steven H

2014-10-29

87

In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins  

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Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs, an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis, has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX. Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y and cytosolic (TRXh, have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

Aulus Estevão Barbosa

2005-01-01

88

Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING  

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Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2008-03-01

89

Allelopathic Influence of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camadulensis L. on Germination and Seedling Growth of Crops  

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Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate allelopathic influence of eucalyptus on the germination and seedling growth of cotton, sunflower, sorghum, mungbean and mothbean under the laboratory conditions. One kg of fresh leaves of eucalyptus was soaked in ten liter of water for 72 hours. This extract was used in seeds soaking prior to sowing in the pure sand culture. The same extract was applied to the germinated seeds in comparison with simple water application to the control treatments. The results revealed that application of aqueous extract of fresh leaves to seeds of all crops reduced the germination and suppressed the growth of roots and shoots of seedlings of crops belonging to different families.

Muhammad Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

90

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large pl [...] antations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

O, Unsal; S, Korkut; C, Atik.

91

IDEAL PERIOD FOR ROOTING A CLONE OF EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA X EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS  

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The objective of this study was determinate the time of permanence of an Eucalyptus clone, in acclimatized greenhouse for rhizogenesis of minicuttings. The experiment was realized in acclimatized greenhouse during 24 days, and for 6 days in full sun condition. The adventitial roothing was evaluated in 6 repetition constituted of 11 minicuttings in regular time intervals of three-days. The criteria used to determine the optimum time for rooting of propagules was the intercept of the daily curr...

Mangabeira, F. D. C.; Santos, V. A. H. F.; Garcia, M. N.; Demartini, W. F. B.; Franciskievicz, D.; Santos, J. P.

2014-01-01

92

Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay  

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Full Text Available Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

MARTÍNEZ SEBASTIÁN

2002-01-01

93

Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43o28'N, and longitude 3o48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

94

Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

2006-12-01

95

High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. PMID:25385325

Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

2014-11-10

96

MECANIC PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF PLYWOOD PANELS OF Eucalyptus dunnii AND Eucalyptus dunnii/Pinus taeda  

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Full Text Available The use of eucalyptus has been spreading out in Brazil and in several wood processing sectors. Apprehension relatedto lack of raw material in the south of Brazil makes eucalyptus an alternative for the substitution or use together with pine for makingplywood panels. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two types of plywood panels: one that isproduced with alternate plates of Eucalyptus dunnii and Pinus taeda (T1 and the other entirely with E. dunnii (T2. The results showedthat the elasticity module (MOE in T1 was inferior to T2, but with variance presenting higher value, indicating smaller stability of thetested material. This behavior was noticed in cutting directions, perpendicular and parallel. The module of rupture (MOR showedsimilar values in both directions of cutting, but T1 showed higher variances only in the transversal direction. The resistance to cuttingin the glue line in the treatment with cool water was similar in both treatments, with T2 presenting higher variance. On the same test16% of the pieces of T1 came off during pre-treatment. When put to boil, T2 obtained better results, even though it presented a higherpercentage of pieces coming off during pre-treatment.

Peterson Jaeger

2007-09-01

97

CLONAL MICROPROPAGATION in vitro OF Eucalyptus grandis AND E. urophylla  

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The eucalyptus tree (E. urophylla and E. grandis) is an important resource which provides cellulose and hemicellulose used in paper manufacturing in various parts of the world, and particularly in southeastern Mexico. Several biotechnological advances have been developed to solve the difficulties resulting from genetic variability in seed propagation presented by the eucalyptus species. This requires the study of diverse strategies of micropropagation which permit the obtainment and multiplic...

Rosa Martínez Ruiz; Azpi?roz Rivero, Hilda S.; José Luis Rodríguez De la O; Cetina Alcala?, Vi?ctor M.; Gutie?rrez Espinosa, M. A.; Jaime Sahagún Castellanos

2005-01-01

98

Isolation and functional genetic analysis of Eucalyptus wood formation genes  

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Eucalyptus trees are an important source of wood and fibre. The wood (secondary xylem) of this genus is widely used for pulp and papermaking. However, our understanding of the mechanisms which control the wood formation process (xylogenesis) in Eucalyptus and other woody species is far from complete. One reason is that xylogenesis is a very complex developmental process. The major components of wood are lignin and cellulose. Many genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis have been c...

Zhou, Honghai

2006-01-01

99

Expression profiling and characterization of wood formation genes in Eucalyptus  

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Eucalyptus trees are capable of generating vast amounts of wood which is a product of the highly structured differentiation of cell layers centred around the vascular cambium. In order to understand xylogenesis (wood formation), it is necessary that the genes which underlie this complex process be isolated and characterised. Previously, very little was known about the types of genes that are expressed in the main woody tissue layers during xylogenesis in the Eucalyptus stem. The...

Ranik, Martin

2008-01-01

100

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

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The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, a...

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva; Estevão Machado Cidade de Rezende; Márcio Rocha Francelino

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

102

Fungal diseases in Eucalyptus and Acacia nurseries in South Africa  

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Studies presented in this dissertation highlight the importance of fungal pathogens in forestry nurseries in South Africa. Both Acacia meamsii seedlings and Eucalyptus hybrid cuttings are shown to be affected by important nursery pathogens. Chapter one presents an evaluation of the potential importance of pathogens to Eucalyptus hedge plants maintained in hydroponics. Hydroponics is a new technology being used in South African forest nurseries, which allows for the rapid establishment of Euca...

Lombard, Lorenzo

2004-01-01

103

Pantoea spp. associated with leaf and stem diseases of Eucalyptus  

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Plantations of Eucalyptus spp. are expanding world-wide to serve growing global requirements for timber and pulp products. Together with this expansion, there has been a concomitant increase in diseases affecting these trees. Most of these are caused by fungi but there are a growing number of diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. Very little is known about them and the focus of this study was to consider species in the genus Pantoea and their association with diseases on Eucalyptus. Pantoea...

Greyling, Izette

2008-01-01

104

ADSORPTION OF TOLUENE ONTO BLEACHED EUCALYPTUS PULP TREATED WITH ULTRASOUND  

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Bleached kraft semichemical eucalyptus pulp was used as raw material to adsorb an organic compound, toluene, from aqueous solution. The pulp was sonicated with different powers and different times to obtain smaller cellulose fibers. The adsorption capacity for toluene of sonicated fibers and bleached eucalyptus pulp was measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The absorption capacity for toluene was increased considerably when cellulose nanofibres were obtained. The adsorption capacity of bleach...

Iñaki Urruzola,; Maria Ángeles Andrés,; Luis Serrano; Jalel Labidi

2012-01-01

105

PRODUÇÃO DE BIOMASSA E REMOÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM POVOAMENTOS DE Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, PLANTADOS EM ANHEMBÍ, SP  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi, SP. A espécie Eucalyptus grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie Eucalyptus grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

Fabio Poggiani

1993-12-01

106

Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Monoterpene and isoprene emission rates of 15 Eucalyptus species were measured using an air exchange chamber technique and GC-FID analysis. The normalised monoterpene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C) of these Eucalyptus species ranged from zero for E. forrestiana to 5.4±2.2 ?g g -1 h -1 (or 871±33 ?g m -2 h -1) for E. globulus. The dominant monoterpene compounds emitted from these Eucalyptus species were ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene and limonene. The normalised isoprene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C, PAR flux 1000 ?mol m -2 s -1) ranged from 5.3±1.6 ( E. botryoides) to 69±34 ?g g -1 h -1 ( E. globulus) or from 0.74 ( E. cladocalyx) to 9.5 mg m -2 h -1 ( E. rudis). Based on monoterpene emission rate data from four Eucalyptus species ( E. globulus, E. robusta, E. rudis, and E. sargentii), there were clear exponential relationships between leaf temperature and monoterpene emission rate for these Eucalyptus species. The mean exponential value ( ? value) of the four Eucalyptus species was 0.103±0.012 K -1.

He, Congrong; Murray, Frank; Lyons, Tom

107

Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.  

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The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds (total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry. PMID:25394796

Salla, Tamiris Daros; Ramos da Silva, Thanise; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

2014-10-13

108

Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc  

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Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies according to species. It is 3.4% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni, 2.5% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus and 1.6% for Eucalyptus diversicolor. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx are characterized by an average yield less than 1%, i.e. 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average yields of the two hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus diversicolor are 2.9% and 1.4% respectively. The combinations Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus grandis are characterized by the lowest yields, i.e. 1%, 0.8% and 0.8% respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition shows that the hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni give 1,8-cineole rates superior to 70%, which is required by the users. Comparatively to Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the essential oils of the other crosses reveal a slight decrease in percentage of this product. However, increases of the alpha-pinene and p-cymene contents have been recorded. In general, all products detected in essential oils have average percentages intermediate between those of parental species. Hybridization of eucalyptus can improve the quality and the quantity of eucalyptus essential oils.

Farah A.

2002-01-01

109

Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus.  

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Foundation tree species define the structure of forest habitat and influence their ecosystem dynamics. However, there is limited understanding of both the patterns and timing of population fluctuations in foundation trees and how they vary among geographical regions. We have reconstructed the demographic history of five genetically distinct populations of the Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus) at the species and regional levels, using three nuclear loci sequenced from 104 individuals. Analysis using a Bayesian skyline plot indicated that the species experienced two periods of expansion, commencing in the Pliocene. Regional analyses showed that island populations expanded earlier, but that the rate of expansion was relatively slow when compared to that of the mainland group. This highlights the need for local demographic history to be taken into account when inferring local adaptation for candidate genes. Population growth throughout the Quaternary signals the ability of the species to persist and thrive under the predominantly harsh conditions of this period. PMID:23643971

Yeoh, Suat Hui; Ho, Simon Y W; Thornhill, Andrew H; Foley, William J

2013-09-01

110

Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii / Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas) no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de tr [...] ês clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento total de raízes e a taxa de enraizamento por miniestaca foram avaliados a cada sete dias (0 - instante da estaquia, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias). Foram utilizadas as regressões logística e exponencial para a modelagem matemática da velocidade dos processos rizogênicos. O modelo logístico teve o melhor ajuste para o percentual de enraizamento, e o modelo exponencial para o comprimento total do sistema radicular. Os clones apresentaram diferentes velocidades de enraizamento. O tempo ideal de permanência das miniestacas dentro da casa de vegetação para o enraizamento está entre 35 a 42 dias, podendo variar em função do material genético. Abstract in english It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings) inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of t [...] hree clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting), 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.

Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Ivar, Wendling; André Ebling, Brondani; Marla Alessandra, Araujo; André Luís Lopes da, Silva; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves.

2012-06-01

111

Perbaikkan Sifat Tanah Ultisol Untuk Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan Eucalyptus Urophylla Pada Ketinggian 0-400 Meter  

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Menurut Djapilus dan Suhaendi (1978) Eucalyptus termasuk dalam famili Myrtaceae, terdiri atas 500 jenis dan 138 varie¬tas. Pohon Eucalyptus pada umumnya mempunyai batang yang lurus, tinggi dan tidak banyak cabangnya.

Utomo, Budi

2008-01-01

112

Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils  

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Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aimi...

Silva Paulo Henrique Müller da; Brito José Otávio; Silva Junior Francides Gomes da

2006-01-01

113

Hubungan Umur Pohon Eucalyptus sp Dengan kandungan Pentosan bahan Baku Pulp Pada PT. Toba Pulp Lestari  

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Penggunaan kayu eucalyptus sp sebagai bahan baku pulp sudah lama dikenal, sebab kayu eucalyptus sp mengandung selulosa, hemiselulosa, lignin dan ekstraktif. Untuk memperoleh hasil yang lebih optimal maka perlu dilakukan penelitian komposisi kimia eucalyptus sp pada beberapa tingkat umur. Analisis yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini meliputi penetapan kandungan pentosan yang menggunakan prosedur Tappi Standard T 223 pada eucalyptus sp umur 4 tahun, 5 tahun, 6 tahun dan 7 tahun, hasil tanaman kl...

Osloria Sihite

2008-01-01

114

Biological Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Camendulensis on Some Fungi and Bacteria  

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Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. These Eucalyptus camendulensis: has been selected for screening antibacterial. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial...

Mehani Mouna; Ladjel Segni

2014-01-01

115

Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances  

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This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed bette...

Fábio Akira Mori; Rafael Farinassi Mendes; Lourival Marin Mendes; José Benedito Guimarães Júnior

2009-01-01

116

Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita  

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Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25,...

Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Benedito Rocha Vital; Alexandre Santos Pimenta; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia

2004-01-01

117

40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey, honeycomb,...

2010-07-01

118

40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on honey and honeycomb in...

2010-07-01

119

Eucalyptus essential oil action on mycorrhizal colonization and the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis in soil contaminated by copper Ação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na micorrização e no estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis em solo contaminado por cobre  

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The use of eucalyptus essential oil can optimize the growth of ectomycorrhizal isolates, which aid the establishment of forest species in soils contaminated by copper. The study aimed to determine the best application of eucalyptus essential oil in the formation of mycorrhizal seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis and its influence on the establishment of these seedlings in soil contaminated by copper. It was used the ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECM) Pisolithus m...

Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

2011-01-01

120

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

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Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the...

Marinalva Oliveira Freitas; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se calculó el grado de correlación de las distintas propiedades del tablero con la densidad de los mismos. Las características de la madera, de las partículas y las propiedades de los tableros demuestran que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens es apta para ser utilizada en la fabricación de estos aglomerados. A medida que aumenta la densidad del tablero se provoca un aumento en las propiedades mecánicas. El hinchamiento y la absorción de agua mejoran con aumentos de la densidad. El análisis de correlación entre las propiedades dependientes (hinchamiento, absorción, flexión y tracción y la densidad del tablero arrojó coeficientes de correlación mayores a 0,7. La propiedad crítica es el hinchamiento, por lo que se recomienda agregar una emulsión de cera y un catalizador en el adhesivo de la capa central.The aim of the study was to evaluate Eucalyptus nitens as raw material for the production of particleboards. Wood density and particle size, slenderness and pH-value were controlled. Bending strength, internal bond, density, thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of particleboards with densities between 450 and 750 kg/m³, were determined. Correlations between board density and properties were calculated. The wood and particle characteristics as well as the obtained board properties proved that Eucalyptus nitens could be used for the particleboard production. As board density increases, higher mechanical properties were founded. Thickness swelling and water absorption decreased as density of particleboard increased. High correlation factors (> 0,7 between dependent variables (thickness swelling, absorption, bending strength and IB and board density were obtained. Due to swelling is a critical property, we recommend the addition of a wax emulsion and a catalyst in the middle layer of the particleboard.

Hernán Poblete W

2010-01-01

122

EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS / EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron [...] tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se calculó el grado de correlación de las distintas propiedades del tablero con la densidad de los mismos. Las características de la madera, de las partículas y las propiedades de los tableros demuestran que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens es apta para ser utilizada en la fabricación de estos aglomerados. A medida que aumenta la densidad del tablero se provoca un aumento en las propiedades mecánicas. El hinchamiento y la absorción de agua mejoran con aumentos de la densidad. El análisis de correlación entre las propiedades dependientes (hinchamiento, absorción, flexión y tracción) y la densidad del tablero arrojó coeficientes de correlación mayores a 0,7. La propiedad crítica es el hinchamiento, por lo que se recomienda agregar una emulsión de cera y un catalizador en el adhesivo de la capa central. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate Eucalyptus nitens as raw material for the production of particleboards. Wood density and particle size, slenderness and pH-value were controlled. Bending strength, internal bond, density, thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of particleboa [...] rds with densities between 450 and 750 kg/m³, were determined. Correlations between board density and properties were calculated. The wood and particle characteristics as well as the obtained board properties proved that Eucalyptus nitens could be used for the particleboard production. As board density increases, higher mechanical properties were founded. Thickness swelling and water absorption decreased as density of particleboard increased. High correlation factors (> 0,7) between dependent variables (thickness swelling, absorption, bending strength and IB) and board density were obtained. Due to swelling is a critical property, we recommend the addition of a wax emulsion and a catalyst in the middle layer of the particleboard.

Hernán, Poblete W; Rodrigo, Burgos O.

123

Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis  

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This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the ...

Jussara Bertho Fantinatti; Roberto Usberti

2007-01-01

124

Assessment of Cryptococcus albidus for biopulping of eucalyptus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptococcus albidus shows delignification activity in nature. It was used for the biopulping of eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus grandis) to access its potential for industrial application in the pulp and paper industry. Enzyme analysis on days 15, 30, and 60 showed the presence of laccase and xylanase as key enzymes. The production of endo-glucanase (CMCase) and exo-glucanase (FPase) was very low. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the surface colonization of wood and loosening of wood fibers in C. albidus-treated samples. Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated the chemical modification of eucalyptus wood. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis on days 15, 30, and 60 confirmed the presence of C. albidus throughout the experiments. Cryptococcu albidus was able to suppress the growth of a native population. Further, after 60 days both the control and treated eucalyptus wood chips were given kraft pulping treatment. The kappa number of pulp of control wood was 21 and for treated wood was 17. Kappa number is considered a measure of lignin content in wood; hence the treatment of eucalyptus by C. albidus (biopulping) was effective in reducing its lignin content and can be used for biopulping in the pulp and paper industry. PMID:23876135

Singhal, Anjali; Jaiswal, Prashant Kumar; Jha, Pawan Kumar; Thapliyal, Alka; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

2013-01-01

125

Painéis de madeira aglomerada de resíduos da laminação de diferentes procedências de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus cloeziana / Wood paticleboards made from residues obtained in the veneer production of eucalypt species and provenances  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com este trabalho, objetivou-se fazer a avaliação de 15 procedências de espécies de Eucalyptus cloeziana,Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna, com idade de 31 anos, sendo que esse teste foi instalado no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram fabricados 6 painéis aglomerados para cada pro [...] cedência, a partir dos resíduos gerados pela laminação desse material. Foi utilizado o adesivo uréia-formaldeído com 8%, e parafina a 1%, ambos com base nos seus respectivos teores de sólidos. Os painéis foram prensados à temperatura de 160ºC, pressão específica de 3,92MPa por tempo de 8 minutos. A partir dos resultados concluiu-se que: em absorção de água, destacou-se a espécie Eucalyptus saligna; em inchamento em espessura, a procedência 43 mostrou melhor desempenho dentro da espécie de Eucalyptus grandis; foram obtidos resultados superiores para Eucalyptus cloeziana no que se refere à compressão e MOE; para Eucalyptus grandis, a procedência de número 10695 apresentou melhores propriedades de MOE e MOR. De forma geral, a procedência 10.695 e as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis foram as que apresentaram maiores potenciais para a produção de painéis aglomerados. Abstract in english This work aimed the evaluation of 15 (fifteen) provenances of three eucalypt species: Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The trees were 31 years old and the test was developed in the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Six particleboards for each provenance we [...] re made by using the residues generated in the veneer production of this material. It was used urea-formaldehyde at 8% resin level and paraffin at 1%, both according to their respective solid content. The boards were produced by using a pressing cycle with temperature of 160 ºC, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm² and pressing time of 8 minutes. From the results, it was concluded that the specie Eucalyptus saligna was the best one in terms of water absorption. The 43 provenance of Eucalyptus grandis showed the best development of thickness swelling. Superior results of compression and elastic modulus were found to Eucalyptus cloeziana. The provenance of number 10695 of the specie Eucalyptus grandis presented the best results for elastic and rupture modulus. In general, the provenance 10695 and species of Eucalyptus grandis showed the greatest potential for production of particleboard.

José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Fábio Akira, Mori.

2011-12-01

126

Novos insetos sugadores (Hemiptera atacando Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae em Minas Gerais, Brasil  

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Abstract. The migration of pests of plants native to eucalyptus can cause significant losses in production. Been reported to occur of the leafhopper Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae and Membracis lunata Fabricius (Hemiptera: Membracidae in Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae in the municipality of Couto de Magalhães de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The species were observed in eucalyptus plants in the vegetative stage in the field. The occurrence of these insects attacking eucalyptus indicates their migration from fruit trees to the new host and is not recommended to install eucalyptus forests near areas with fruit trees.

Claubert Wagner de Menezes

2012-12-01

127

Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exigências do mercado consumidor.

Giovanni Willer Ferreira

2009-09-01

128

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved t...

Tamilvendhan, D.; Ilangovan, V.

2011-01-01

129

Caracterización fitosanitaria de astillas de Eucalyptus spp. y de especies nativas Phytosanitary characterization of Eucalyptus spp. and native species chips  

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Full Text Available Se entregan los primeros antecedentes sobre el estado sanitario de astillas de Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens y de especies nativas. Se estudiaron ocho embarques de astillas, en los cuales el principal problema debido principalmente al tiempo de acanchado del producto fue la presencia de hongos manchadores pertenecientes al género Ceratocystis. No existen problemas ocasionados por insectos, sólo se detectó la presencia de galerías, en un porcentaje muy bajo de astillas de especies nativas (0,05-0,43%, no detectándose problemas en astillas de Eucalyptus spp.This study lists and discusses the occurrence of insects and fungi in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens chips, as well as on chips from native forest species, for export from Chilean ports. Eight shipments were inspected and analyzed. The main problem was the establishment of Ceratocystis spp. fungi during chip storage. Although no insect species were found, empty galleries were present in the native hardwoods, albeit at very low frequencies (0.05-0.43%. There were no detectable problems with Eucalyptus chips.

DOLLY LANFRANCO

2003-01-01

130

Qualidade e rendimento do carvão vegetal de um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla  

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Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the quality and yields of the charcoal of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clone commercially named GG100 for use in iron industry at different ages, plantation sites and spacing. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial electric furnace (muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 until the final temperature of 450 ºC, remaining stabilized for 30 min. The gravimetric yield in charcoal, pyroligneous extract, non condensable gases and insoluble tar, proximate and elemental chemical composition, relative apparent density and higher heating value of the charcoal were determined. In general, the charcoal evaluated may be considered homogeneous based on chemical and physical aspects and can be used in the steel sector. The apparent relative density allowed the charcoal samples differentiation produced by the same pyrolysis condition. The results obtained suggest that the density of the charcoal is highly influenced by the wood origin. It was observed that higher values of higher heating values are positively related with carbon content and negatively related with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and with gravimetric yield in charcoal.

Maíra Reis de Assis

2012-09-01

131

Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ? 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

132

FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS  

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Full Text Available Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental composition, and net heating value of “light roasted” wood were assessed. The heating value of the eucalypts and pellets was enhanced by 19% (average, compared to the original material, while the moisture and volatiles content were drastically reduced. This reduction leads to an increase in the amount (w/w of carbon, enhancing the energy content in the material. Thus, torrefaction is useful for improving the heating value of woody biomass, consuming little external energy due to recirculation and burning of gases for the process. The pellets showed increased energy density, providing improved properties for transportation and handling.

Adrian Pirraglia,

2011-11-01

133

Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis.  

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Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

2010-08-01

134

Identification and frequency of transposable elements in Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Transposable elements (TE) are major components of eukaryotic genomes and involved in cell regulation and organism evolution. We have analyzed 123,889 expressed sequence tags of the Eucalyptus Genome Project database and found 124 sequences representing 76 TE in 9 groups, of which copia, MuDR and FA [...] R1 groups were the most abundant. The low amount of sequences of TE may reflect the high efficiency of repression of these elements, a process that is called TE silencing. Frequency of groups of TE in Eucalyptus libraries which were prepared with different tissues or physiologic conditions from seedlings or adult plants indicated that developing plants experience the expression of a much wider spectrum of TE groups than that seen in adult plants. These are preliminary results that identify the most relevant TE groups involved with Eucalyptus development, which is important for industrial wood production.

Maurício, Bacci Jr.; Rafael B.S., Soares; Eloíza, Tajara; Guilherme, Ambar; Carlos N., Fischer; Ivan R., Guilherme; Eduardo P., Costa; Vitor F.O., Miranda.

135

Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

Rudi Setiadji

2012-11-01

136

Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 ?g/disk) and rifampin (5 ?g/disk) were used as reference cont...

Safaei-Ghomi Javad; Ahd Atefeh

2010-01-01

137

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite e...

Walter Murillo-Arango; Pedronel Araque Marín; Beatriz Henao Murillo; Pela?ez Jaramillo, Carlos A.

2013-01-01

138

Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

2014-07-01

139

Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (?g/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 ?m by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

Worthington Tony

2010-09-01

140

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

2011-06-10

 
 
 
 
141

RAPD and freezing resistance in Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus globulus is the second most important forest species in Chile, after Pinus radiata. The main advantages of E. globulus are its fast growth (25 m³/ha/year) and its excellent wood quality for kraft pulp production. On the negative side, its low freezing tolerance has been an obstacle for th [...] e expansion of plantations, specifically on the foothills of the Andes. The difference in the freezing resistance between clones of E. globulus has a genetic base and, therefore, it could be detected through DNA molecular markers. Fifteen clones of E. globulus, eight classified as freezing resistant and seven as freezing sensitive were analyzed using the technique of RAPD, in order to obtain molecular markers that could differentiate between freezing sensitive and resistant clones. Eighteen primers amplified reproducible bands. Three bands were only present in freezing resistant clones, two bands of 768 bp, 602 bp obtained with UBC 218 primer and one band of 248 bp obtained with UBC 237 primer. The preliminary results indicate that polymorphism can be observed with the primers employed, but it is not possible to associate the bands with the cold resistance or susceptibility in E. globulus.

Marta, Fernández R.; Sofía, Valenzuela A.; Claudio, Balocchi L..

2006-06-01

142

Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

2009-09-01

143

Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-06-01

144

Selección de funciones de distribución de frecuencias diamétricas, para Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus dunnii en Uruguay / Selecting diametric frequency distribution functions for Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la precisión de las distribuciones de Weibull, Weibull reversa, S B de Johnson, Gamma y Beta, ajustadas por método de los momentos y máxima verosimilitud, para describir distribuciones diamétricas de Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus dunnii en Uru [...] guay. Se utilizaron datos de un total de 429 parcelas permanentes de P. taeda, 185 parcelas de E. globulus y 271 parcelas de E. dunnii. Para compararla calidad del ajuste de las funciones de densidad de probabilidad (fdp) se utilizaron la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y el índice de error de Reynolds. La función S B de Johnson presentó un mejor ajuste en las parcelas de P. taeda, mientras la función Weibull reversa fue más precisa para las especies de Eucalyptus. El método de los momentos resultó con mayor precisión que el método de máxima verosimilitud. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Weibull, reverse Weibull, S B Johnson, Gamma and Beta distributions, fitted with the method of moments and maximum likelihood, for describing diameter distributions in stands of Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus, and Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay. D [...] ata from 429 permanent plots of P. taeda, 185 plots of E. globulus and 271 plots of E. dunnii were used. To compare the quality of fit for the probability distribution function (pdf), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Reynolds error indices were used. The function S B Johnson presented a better fit on the plots of P. taeda, while the inverted Weibull function was more accurate for Eucalyptus species. The method of moments was more accurate than maximum likelihood.

Andrés, Hirigoyen; Cecilia, Rachid.

145

Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

2009-06-01

146

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2) are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chry...

Ananda Et Al, K.

2012-01-01

147

Evolução da silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos tem-se assistido, no Brasil, a um aumento no interesse pela silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus, principalmente decorrente das vantagens do processo quanto à possibilidade de contornar problemas de doenças, heterogeneidade e produtividade dos plantios florestais. Diante do crescente u [...] so de clones, tanto pelas grandes empresas como por pequenos investidores, inclusive produtores rurais, têm-se observado consideráveis avanços tecnológicos, nas últimas décadas, quanto aos processos de seleção de árvores, resgate de árvores superiores, avaliação de clones, produção comercial de mudas (estaquia, miniestaquia e microestaquia) e em práticas silviculturais adotadas na implantação e condução dos plantios de florestas clonais. Buscou-se enfocar os principais temas relacionados ao processo de clonagem do Eucalyptus. Abstract in spanish Evolución de la silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus en Brasil. En los últimos años, en Brasil, hubo un aumento en el interés por la silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus, debido principalmente a las ventajas del proceso en cuanto a la posibilidad de resolver problemas de enfermedades, heterogeneidad y pro [...] ductividad de las plantaciones forestales. El creciente uso de clones, tanto por las grandes empresas como por pequeños inversionistas, inclusive productores rurales, generó considerables avances tecnológicos en las últimas décadas, con relación a procesos de selección de árboles, rescate de individuos superiores, evaluación de clones, producción comercial de plantas (estaquilla, miniestaquilla y microestaquilla) y en las prácticas silviculturales adoptadas en la siembra y conducción de plantaciones forestales clonales. En este sentido, se busca enfocar los principales temas relacionados al proceso de clonación de Eucalyptus, involucarados en un programa clonal de esta especie. Abstract in english Evolution in Brazil of Eucalyptus clonal silviculture. In the last years in Brazil there has been an increased interest in Eucalyptus clonal silviculture, mainly due to advantages in diseases control, reduced heterogeneity and increase in commercial plantations productivity. Clone usage has increase [...] d among large forestry companies, as well as small investors, including rural producers, due to a better perception of technology advances in last decades, such as processes of plus-tree selection and rescue, clonal evaluation, commercial cuttings production (cutting, minicutting and microcutting), as well as diverse new silvicultural treatments related to clonal forestry. This article focuses on main issues related to Eucalyptus clonal processes, as part of this tree species clonal silviculture.

Aloisio, Xavier; Rogério Luiz, da Silva.

2010-06-01

148

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

149

Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 ?g/disk and rifampin (5 ?g/disk were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and nystatin (100 ?g/disk for antifungal studies. The results of MIC study revealed that the essential oil has a stronger activity and broader spectrum than those of methanol extracts. It is interesting to point out that the oils had even greater potential of antimicrobial activities than those of 1,8-cineole as their main component.

Safaei-Ghomi Javad

2010-01-01

150

SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring  

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Full Text Available Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con temperaturas no superiores a los 50°C, con un bajo potencial de secado e incluyeron tratamientos de vaporizado para recuperar colapso y reducir tensiones de secado. Se evaluaron contenidos de humedad inicial y final, densidad básica, gradientes de humedades, grietas, contracciones, tensiones y alabeos, determinando finalmente su aprovechamiento en pisos, blocks y muebles. Los resultados indican que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens presenta una fuerte evaporación superficial, generando altos gradientes de humedad, contracciones prematuras a nivel de superficie y tensiones de secado bajo el P.S.F, originando grietas superficiales e internas. Cuando el colapso es severo, debido a la baja resistencia mecánica de la pared celular de la madera, se generan grietas superficiales e internas en la madera. El mejor aprovechamiento se obtuvo para madera radial, donde el Eucalyptus globulus registró entre 52 y 81% para blocks, entre 48 y 91% para piso y entre 38 y 89% para muebles. El Eucalyptus nitens registró entre 60 y 71% en blocks, entre 59 y 61% para piso y entre 52 y 63% para muebles. La pérdida por nudos en Eucalyptus globulus fluctuó entre 3 y 22% en madera radial y entre 5 y 24% para madera tangencial. Para Eucalyptus nitens, en tanto, fluctuó entre 12 y 19% y entre 15 y 34% para los cortes antes señalados. La pérdida por grietas en Eucalyptus globulus varió entre 3 y 10% para madera radial y entre 15 y 21% para tangencial. En el Eucalyptus nitens ésta fluctuó entre 3 y 13% y entre 5 y 38%. Lo anterior, permite concluir que la madera de corte radial es la mejor opción para ser utilizada en estas aplicacionesDrying tests on both Eucalyptus nitens and globulus radial and tangential timber were carried out at Universidad del Bío-Bío Laboratories, under the approach of the D98I1018 FONDEF Project to be later validated at an industrial scale. A 30 mm-thick, 1.8 meter-long and random with scantling was used at a laboratory level, while the one applied at industrial level showed 32 mm of thickness, the lengths of which ranging from 2.1 to 2.8 meters, and variable widths. As general rule, mild drying programs were used, at temperatures not higher than 50°C, and having low drying potential. In turn, such programs included steaming based treatment with the purpose of overcoming collapse and reduce drying tensile. The following was assessed: initial and final moisture content, basic density, moisture gradients, checks, shrinkage, tensile and warpage, to finally specify their utilization in flooring, blocks and furniture. Outcomes have shown that Eucalyptus nitens timber features a high surface evaporation, thus generating high moisture gradients, early shrinkage at surface level, along with below P.S.F. drying related tensile, which, in turn, brings about surface and internal checks. When collapse turns to be severe, and because of timber cell wall mechanical strength, both surface and internal checks show up. A better utilization was achieved for radial timber, where Eucalyptus globulus values ranged from 52 to 81% in the case of blocks, form 58 to 91% with respect to flooring, and between 38 and 89% in the case of furniture. Eucalyptus globulus figures ranged from 60 to 71% for blocks, from 59 to 61% for flooring, and between 52 and 63% in the case of furniture. Losses caused by knots in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 22% in the case of radial timber, while the tangential one featured a 5 to 24% variation. On the other hand, Eucalyptus nitens timber showed variations from 12 to 19%, and from 15 to 34% f

Carlos Rozas

2005-01-01

151

Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones.The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS culture media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid. It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges

2011-04-01

152

Produção e decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii / Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção continuada de madeira em plantios comerciais exige conhecimento do processo de ciclagem de nutrientes, que envolve, entre outros aspectos, a produção e a decomposição de serapilheira. Assim, neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar a influência das variáveis climáticas na produção de serapilh [...] eira e de seus componentes, além de avaliar a taxa de decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. Para a execução do estudo, foram instaladas 4 parcelas de 20 m x 20 m, em cada uma foram instalados 4 coletores para as frações folhas, galhos finos e miscelânea da serapilheira e 3 subparcelas para a coleta da fração galhos grossos. O tecido vegetal coletado foi utilizado para o cálculo da deposição e da correlação existente entre variáveis climáticas e deposição. As variáveis climáticas utilizadas, com base mensal, foram temperatura média, temperatura máxima média, temperatura mínima média, precipitação pluviométrica, umidade relativa média, velocidade média do vento, evapotranspiração e radiação solar média, ambas fornecidas por uma estação experimental. Já, para a avaliação da decomposição da serapilheira foram coletadas aleatoriamente 4 amostras quadradas de 0,25 m de lado em cada parcela, utilizadas para a determinação do coeficiente de decomposição (K), meia vida (t0,5) e tempo de decomposição de 95% da serapilheira (t0,95). A produção mensal de serapilheira foi fracamente correlacionada com variáveis climáticas e apresentou média anual de 7,4 Mg ha-1, sendo composta predominantemente pela fração folhas (60%). A decomposição de serapilheira foi considerada lenta. Abstract in english The sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposi [...] tion in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K), half life (t0,5 ) and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 ). The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%). The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Robson Schaff, Corrêa; Márcio, Viera; Elias Frank de, Araújo.

2013-09-01

153

A reference linkage map for Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic linkage maps are invaluable resources in plant research. They provide a key tool for many genetic applications including: mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL; comparative mapping; identifying unlinked (i.e. independent DNA markers for fingerprinting, population genetics and phylogenetics; assisting genome sequence assembly; relating physical and recombination distances along the genome and map-based cloning of genes. Eucalypts are the dominant tree species in most Australian ecosystems and of economic importance globally as plantation trees. The genome sequence of E. grandis has recently been released providing unprecedented opportunities for genetic and genomic research in the genus. A robust reference linkage map containing sequence-based molecular markers is needed to capitalise on this resource. Several high density linkage maps have recently been constructed for the main commercial forestry species in the genus (E. grandis, E. urophylla and E. globulus using sequenced Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT and microsatellite markers. To provide a single reference linkage map for eucalypts a composite map was produced through the integration of data from seven independent mapping experiments (1950 individuals using a marker-merging method. Results The composite map totalled 1107?cM and contained 4101 markers; comprising 3880 DArT, 213 microsatellite and eight candidate genes. Eighty-one DArT markers were mapped to two or more linkage groups, resulting in the 4101 markers being mapped to 4191 map positions. Approximately 13% of DArT markers mapped to identical map positions, thus the composite map contained 3634 unique loci at an average interval of 0.31?cM. Conclusion The composite map represents the most saturated linkage map yet produced in Eucalyptus. As the majority of DArT markers contained on the map have been sequenced, the map provides a direct link to the E. grandis genome sequence and will serve as an important reference for progressing eucalypt research.

Hudson Corey J

2012-06-01

154

In vitro regeneration of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol enables mass multiplication, genetic modification and germplasm conservation of desired plants. In vitro plant regeneration was achieved from nodal segments of 18-months-old superior genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees through direct organogenesis (DO) and direct somatic embryogenesis (DSE) pathways. Initial bud break (BB) stage occurred via DO while shoot multiplication phase followed both DO and DSE pathways. Interestingly, both BB and shoot multiplication stages were achieved on shoot induction and multiplication (SIM) media composed of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Best shoot elongation response was observed on half strength MS fortified with 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP, while root induction and elongation was superior in 1/2 MS?+?1 mg l(-1) Indole butyric acid (IBA). Full strength MS fortified with cytokinins (BAP) and weak auxin (NAA) in the ratio of 20:1 favored direct regeneration pathways. Further, half strength MS supported shoot and root development. The absence of intervening callus phase in this protocol can help in minimizing the chance occurrence of somaclones. When compared to other compositions tried, hardening in 100 % coco peat resulted in maximum survival (80 %) of the in vitro raised plantlets. For mass multiplication, fortnight subculturing of a single nodal explants for eight passages on SIM medium resulted in 60-148 shoot initials. Repeated subculturing in SIM medium induced the formation of direct somatic embryos which in turn improved the turnover capacity and enabled large scale clonal multiplication of elite and desirable trees of E. camaldulensis. Following this protocol, it takes a minimum time period of four-months between in vitro explant inoculation to hardening stage. In the present study, DO and DSE pathway of plant regeneration was reported occurring simultaneously in the same nodal explants of E. camaldulensis. PMID:23573043

Girijashankar, V

2012-01-01

155

IDEAL PERIOD FOR ROOTING A CLONE OF EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA X EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was determinate the time of permanence of an Eucalyptus clone, in acclimatized greenhouse for rhizogenesis of minicuttings. The experiment was realized in acclimatized greenhouse during 24 days, and for 6 days in full sun condition. The adventitial roothing was evaluated in 6 repetition constituted of 11 minicuttings in regular time intervals of three-days. The criteria used to determine the optimum time for rooting of propagules was the intercept of the daily current increase curve (DCI and daily average increase (DAI. By the analyses of the results was verified that at 18 days after of the minicuttings were planted the seedlings already had conditions to be relocated to another stage of the production process, be it acclimation in shade or full sun.

F. D. C. Mangabeira

2014-07-01

156

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora / Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p- [...] cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC).

Marinalva Oliveira, Freitas; Mary Anne S., Lima; Edilberto R., Silveira.

1926-19-01

157

Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

2007-07-01

158

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

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Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC.

Marinalva Oliveira Freitas

2007-01-01

159

Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis / Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufen [...] acil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v), 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA). Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or wit [...] hout the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA). Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

M.R.R, Pereira; D, Martins; A.C.P, Rodrigues; G.S.F, Souza; L.A, Cardoso.

2011-09-01

160

Extracção supercrítica de compostos da casca de Eucalyptus globulus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Esta dissertação visou estudar a extracção com dióxido de carbono supercrítico (SFE) de compostos de elevado valor acrescentado da casca de Eucalyptus globulus, nomeadamente os ácidos triterpénicos (ácido ursólico, oleanólico, betulínico e betulónico) e os seus derivados acetilados. Para tal foram conduzidas experiências para avaliar a influência das condições operatórias da SFE (pressão, temperatura e percentagem do co-solvente utilizado - etanol) sobre o...

Coelho, Roberto Carlos Gaspar Gomes

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CARBONIZATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPP KINETIC MECHANISMS  

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Full Text Available In the present work, a set of general equations related to kinetic mechanism of wood compound carbonization: hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin was obtained by Avrami-Eroffev and Arrhenius equations and Thermogravimetry of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis samples, TG-Isothermal and TG-Dynamic. The different thermal stabilities and decomposition temperature bands of those species compounds were applied as strategy to obtain the kinetic parameters: activation energy, exponential factor and reaction order. The kinetic model developed was validated by thermogravimetric curves from carbonization of others biomass such as coconut. The kinetic parameters found were - Hemicelluloses: E=98,6 kJmol, A=3,5x106s-1 n=1,0; - Cellulose: E=182,2 kJmol, A=1,2x1013s-1 n=1,5; - Lignin: E=46,6 kJmol, A=2,01s-1 n=0,41. The set of equations can be implemented in a mathematical model of wood carbonization simulation (with heat and mass transfer equations with the aim of optimizing the control and charcoal process used to produce pig iron.

Túlio Jardim Raad

2006-06-01

162

Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii, E-mail: rich@cs.ucsb.ed [Computer Science Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States) and Eucalyptus Systems Inc., 130 Castilian Dr., Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

2009-07-01

163

Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focuse open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

164

Five new acylphloroglucinol glycosides from the leaves of Eucalyptus robusta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five new acylphloroglucinol glycosides, robustasides A-E (1-5), together with a known one (6), were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus robusta. The structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis and chemical evidence. The absolute configuration of 1 was further determined by quantum chemical CD calculation. PMID:24689291

Guo, Qian-Yi; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Jian, Yu-Qing; Luo, Shi-Lin; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

2014-02-01

165

Two new euglobals from the leaves of Eucalyptus robusta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new euglobals, R1 (1) and R2 (2), together with eight known euglobals (3-10) were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus robusta. Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Euglobal R1 (1) represents a new skeleton of formyl-isovaleryl phloroglucinol-coupled ?-phellandrene. PMID:22873485

Jian, Yu-Qing; Wang, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Guo, Qian-Yi; Ye, Wen-Cai

2012-01-01

166

Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis / Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da [...] madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m) com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR) e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses) e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial. Abstract in english The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Euc [...] alyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m), as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR). The oldest trees (166 months - E2) which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA).

Fabrício Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Robert Cardoso, Sartório.

2009-06-01

167

Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

Mauro Valdir Schumacher

2009-09-01

168

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980, para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm were collected from 14 trees of Eucalyptus grandis derived from the `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980 model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

Fred Willians Calonego

2006-06-01

169

Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling. PMID:11368586

Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

2001-05-01

170

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01

171

Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae  

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Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Lagartas de T. arnobia alimentadas na geração anterior com folhas de E. grandis preferiram folhas jovens de E. grandis e E.cloeziana, enquanto as alimentadas com E. saligna, na geração anterior, preferiram folhas velhas de E. grandis. A espécie preferida por lagartas de T. arnobia foi E. grandis, observando-se, também maior preferência por folhas jovens que por folhas velhas nas espécies utilizadas nos testes.Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is considered one of the most serious Eucalyptus pests in Brazil. This work was carried out aiming to study feeding preference of T. arnobia and the influence of leaf age on the host selection, using young and old leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Caterpillars fed with E. grandis leaves in previous generation, preferred young leaves of E. grandis and E. cloeziana, while caterpillars fed with E. saligna in previous generation preferred old leaves of E. grandis. The most consumed species was E. grandis, and the caterpillars preferred young leaves than old ones, for all species studied.

Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

1999-01-01

172

Effects of Eucalyptus Allelopathy on Growth Characters and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Phalaris Weed  

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Full Text Available In this study, different amounts of aqueous extracts [0, 5, 15 and 30% (v/v] and decompose of Eucalyptus leaves [(0, 3 and 6% (w/w] were applied to Phalaris in pot culture and evaluated on growth parameters and antioxidant enzymes activity. The results showed that most of the growth parameters of phalaris were decreased when exposed to different amounts of decompose and water extracts of Eucalyptus leaves, especially in the leaf decompose. Also, antioxidant enzymes activity in root and shoot of Phalaris were affected by aqueous extracts and decompose of Eucalyptus leaves. The findings indicated that decompose of Eucalyptus leaves decreased catalase activity and increased ascorbate activity in root and shoot of Phalaris in comparison to control while aqueous extract of Eucalyptus leaves significant raised ascorbate peroxidase in Phalaris root. Activity of other enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in Phalaris affected less aqueous extracts and decompose of Eucalyptus leaves.

M. Niakan

2009-01-01

173

Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. PMID:25303462

Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

2014-12-01

174

Anti-trypanosomal Potential of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis in both the human and animal forms has been confronted with multidimensional problems that include paucity of drugs, resistance, high cost, prolonged treatment protocol and adverse side effects. The main objective of this study was to explore alternative sources of antitrypanosomal agents from the leaves, stem and root barks of Eucalyptus camaldulensis The plant parts were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water; and the extracts screened for antitrypanosomal activity. Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei were administered intraperitoneally doses ranging from 200-600 mg/kg body weight/day of the extracts for 21 consecutive days. One control group was treated with 3.5mg/kg bodyweight of berenil while the other control group was left untreated. The methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf produced complete cure for the animals in the different dose groups and survived as long as those treated with the standard drug, berenil, although the clearance time was faster for the standard drug. Sub inoculation of healthy mice with the blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF of the cured mice did not result in infection, thus indicating a complete and permanent cure. Acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf confirmed the safety of the extract because no mortality was recorded even at 5000 mg/kg bodyweight. However, the extract had no prophylactic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of E. camaldulensis leaf gave 10 fractions, with only fractions 8 and 9 exhibiting minimal antitrypanosomal activities that were not comparable to those of the crude extract and the standard drug (p?0.05. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenes, steroids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and fatty acids in both the crude extract and fraction 9; while fraction 8 contained only terpenes, steroids and fatty acids. Data from GC-MS analysis of the two fractions indicated likely components to be methyl esters, amides, long chain alkenes and alcohols. The result of this study shows that the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf has immense potential for the development of drugs against African trypanosomiasis.

Y.A. Kabiru

2013-04-01

175

Afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus and leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain  

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To test the hypothesis that decomposition of leaf species in streams is influenced by afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus, we compared decay rates, nutrient levels, fungal biomass and macroinvertebrate assemblages on alder and eucalyptus leaf litter in three streams (two headwaters under different forests, and a mid reach) of the Agüera catchment (northern Spain). Whatever the reach, alder always decomposed significantly faster than eucalyptus. Litter contents in nitrogen and phosphorus r...

Pozo, Jesu?s; Basaguren, Ana; Elosegi, Arturo; Molinero, Jon; Fabre, Eric; Chauvet, Eric

1998-01-01

176

Assessment and development of microarray-based DNA fingerprinting in Eucalyptus grandis and related species  

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DNA micro-array technology is a new and powerful technology that could substantially increase the speed of forest tree breeding programmes. This thesis represents a compilation of investigations that focus on the exploitation of DNA micro-array technology for genetic marker analysis of Eucalyptus trees. The major focus of the studies presented in this thesis was on the assessment and development of micro-array-based DNA fingerprinting in Eucalyptus. A DNA chip for Eucalyptus was not available...

Lezar, Sabine

2005-01-01

177

Influence of post-establishment period of clonal minigarden on rooting of cuttings of eucalyptus  

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The  study  aimed  to  evaluate  the  effect  of  age  post-implantation  of   matrices  ministumps  in clonal minigarden on rooting of minicuttings of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis).  The  study  was  conducted  in  an  acclimatized  greenhouse,  designed  in randomized blocks with two treatments, being two months and one year of age of ministumps in clonal minigarden, and six replications consisting, each one, by eleven cuttings. The ...

Dos Santos, V. A. H. F.; Garcia, M. N.; Demartini, W. F. B.; Rosalino, W.; Mangabeira, F. D. C.; Dos Santos, J. P.

2014-01-01

178

RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus  

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Abstract Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus...

Villar Emilie; Klopp Christophe; Noirot Céline; Novaes Evandro; Kirst Matias; Plomion Christophe; Gion Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

179

Plantations clonales d'eucalyptus hybrides en République Populaire du Congo  

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Clonal plantations of hybrid eucalyptus trees in the Popular Republic of Congo. The eucalyptus tree can grow in many different climates. The artificial pollinisation allows the production of hydrides with high performances (quick growth and early start in production). Indefinite multiplication is then possible through cuttings as described by Martin in 1976. In that context, it is possible to use the eucalyptus to afforest semi-arid areas.

Mennig, X.

1989-01-01

180

Plantations clonales d'eucalyptus hybrides en République Populaire du Congo  

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Full Text Available Clonal plantations of hybrid eucalyptus trees in the Popular Republic of Congo. The eucalyptus tree can grow in many different climates. The artificial pollinisation allows the production of hydrides with high performances (quick growth and early start in production. Indefinite multiplication is then possible through cuttings as described by Martin in 1976. In that context, it is possible to use the eucalyptus to afforest semi-arid areas.

Mennig, X.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Improving phosphorus availability from patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer  

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Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) wa...

Villanueva Felipe Carlos Alvarez; Muraoka Takashi; Trevizam Anderson Ricardo; Franzini Vinicius Ide; Rocha Alexandre Prado

2006-01-01

182

Molecular Variability in North Indian Isolates of Cylindrocladium quinquieseptatum Causing Eucalyptus Leaf and Seedling Blight  

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Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum has been considered as the most destructive pathogen of Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations in north India. Genetic resistance has not been determined against this disease in Eucalyptus and genetic diversity among the fungal population in northern India is not known. Seventy three isolates from infected leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus were collected from different northern Indian state and analyzed through RAPD-PCR for screening genetic diversity. The UPGMA clu...

Mohanty, Partha Sarathi; Pandey, Amit; Arya, Pooja; Harsh, N. S. K.

2011-01-01

183

The green-leaved variant of Eucalyptus largiflorens: a story involving hybridization and observant local people  

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Eucalyptus largiflorens (Black Box) is the most common tree in the Chowilla anabranch system on the Murray River floodplain. It typically has dull, glaucous, grey-green leaves. Occasional trees with smaller, glossy green leaves (Green Box) occur scattered amongst the Black Box. In areas with increasing salinity, they usually appear much healthier than adjacent, normal Black Box trees. Green Box plants are intermediate between normal Eucalyptus largiflorens plants and Eucalyptus gracilis plant...

Parsons, Robert F.; Zubrinich, Tatia M.

2010-01-01

184

Características fisiológicas de mudas de Eucalyptus spp submetidas a estresse salino.  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar como o aumento da concentração de cloreto de sódio (NaCl influencia o rendimento quântico potencial do fotossistema II (Fv/Fm, índice da intensidade da cor verde nas folhas (valor SPAD, área foliar, biomassa seca foliar e concentração de potássio (K e sódio (Na nas folhas de mudas de espécies de Eucalyptus. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos de 11,5 L, preenchidos com areia e irrigados com solução salinizada, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial com quatro espécies (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus pellita e Eucalyptus robusta e cinco níveis de salinidade (1,4; 2,50; 4,50; 6,45 e 8,33 dS m-1, com cinco repetições. Até o nível máximo de salinidade aplicado, as mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis e Eucalyptus robusta responderam positivamente com relação às características valor SPAD, rendimento quântico potencial do fotossistema II, biomassa seca foliar e área foliar. Essas avaliações sugerem tolerância dessas espécies às condições de salinidade impostas. Mudas de Eucalyptus pellita mostraram sensibilidade ao estresse salino. As reduções da biomassa seca e área foliar podem estar relacionadas a estratégias de resistência das plantas ao estresse salino.

Andréa Vita Reis Mendonça

2010-08-01

185

Molecular Variability in North Indian Isolates of Cylindrocladium quinquieseptatum Causing Eucalyptus Leaf and Seedling Blight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum has been considered as the most destructive pathogen of Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations in north India. Genetic resistance has not been determined against this disease in Eucalyptus and genetic diversity among the fungal population in northern India is not known. Seventy three isolates from infected leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus were collected from different northern Indian state and analyzed through RAPD-PCR for screening genetic diversity. The UPGMA cluster analysis score of 284 loci permitted identification of 11 population lines and an outlier. This molecular variability prevalent among the north Indian population of the pathogen can used in identifying Cylindrocladium leaf and seedling blight resistant Eucalyptus germplasm. PMID:23729872

Mohanty, Partha Sarathi; Pandey, Amit; Arya, Pooja; Harsh, N S K

2012-06-01

186

Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method / Transformação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenário silvicultural mundial devido à sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rápido e produção de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gênero é dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformação genética impor [...] tante ferramenta para esse propósito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagação in vitro para indução, regeneração e seleção que permita a obtenção de plantas transgênicas a partir de grupos de células transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formação de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformação genética de folhas e calos através da infecção por A. tumefaciens. Para a formação de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentração de nitrogênio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e água de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformação genética de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas à técnica de agrobiobalística, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartículas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferência do gene, enquanto para a transformação genética dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influência de diferentes períodos de infecção. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformação genética de folhas através da técnica de agrobiobalística foi efetiva, sendo possível observar a expressão transiente do gene gus, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os períodos de infecção (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens também apresentaram expressão transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regeneração e seleção e apresentaram formação de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for th [...] is purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

Evânia Galvão, Mendonça; Vanessa Cristina, Stein; Flávia Pereira, Balieiro; Carolina Delfin Fernandes, Lima; Breno Régis, Santos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva.

2013-06-01

187

Stimulatory effect of eucalyptus essential oil on the germination and early growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Efeito estimulante do óleo essencial de eucalipto na germinação e crescimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis  

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The use of essential oil and extracts from plants is becoming an efficient alternative in the biostimulation on growth and protection of plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis on the germination and the  development of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in nursery conditions. The eucalyptus seeds were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?L L-1 of the essential oil in controlled condition...

Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen

2010-01-01

188

Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis / Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entr [...] e 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 a [...] nd 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.

Jussara Bertho, Fantinatti; Roberto, Usberti.

2007-01-01

189

Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entre 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento.

Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

2007-01-01

190

Colorimetria de madeiras dos gêneros Eucalyptus e Corymbia e sua correlação com a densidade / Colorimetry of woods from Eucalyptus and Corymbia genus and its correlation with density  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se, este estudo, com os objetivos de caracterizar a cor da madeira de Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson, Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, Eucalyptus paniculata Sm. e Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden; e determinar sua correlação com a densidade da madeira, visando a avaliar [...] o potencial da colorimetria como uma ferramenta para a identificação e qualificação da madeira. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas segundo o sistema CIE L*a*b* com o auxílio do espectrofotômetro portátil CM 2600d da Konica Minolta. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas entre as densidades das espécies estudadas, sendo a madeira de Eucalyptus paniculata a mais densa e a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis a menos densa. As análises de correlação entre acor e a densidade monstraram que as madeiras mais densas, para as espécies do gênero Eucalyptus estudadas, são mais escuras (menor L*) e apresentam mais pigmento vermelho (a*) e amarelo (b*). Entretanto, o comportamento foi diferente para o Corymbia citriodora, cuja madeira apresentou alta densidade, cor clara e pouco pigmento vermelho, indicando que a combinação das variáveis colorimétricas e da densidade apresenta potencial para segregar a espécie Corymbia citriodora das demais espécies de Eucalyptus estudadas. As madeiras mais densas de Eucalyptus pellita são mais escuras na seção radial, enquanto que as madeiras de Eucalyptus paniculata apresentaram mais pigmento amarelo na seção tangencial. Cada espécie apresentou uma coloração específica, dada pelas variáveis colorimétricas, mostrando o potencial da colorimetria na identificação de madeiras Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to characterize the wood color of Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson, Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, Eucalyptus paniculata Sm. and Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden; and to determine its correlationship with wood density in order to evaluate the po [...] tential of colorimetry as a tool for identification and qualification of wood. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using the CM 2600d spectrophotometer from Konica Minolta. Theresults indicated significant differences between wood densities of all species. Eucalyptus paniculata wood presented the highest density while Eucalyptus grandis wood presented the lowest density. Correlation analysis between color and density showed that the denser woods, considering the species from the Eucalyptus genus studied, are darker (lower L*) and present redder (a*) and more yellow (b*) hues. However, the behavior was different for Corymbia citriodora, whose wood had high density, light color and little red hue, indicating that color variables and density combination has potential to segregate the Corymbia citriodora species from other Eucalyptus species studied. The denser woods of Eucalyptus pellita are darker in the radial section, while woods of Eucalyptus paniculata presented more yellow hue (b*) in the tangential section. Each species presented a specific color, given by colorimetric variables, showing the potential of colorimetry for wood identification.

Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Nathalia Silveira de, Oliveira; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; Natália Dias de, Souza.

2014-12-01

191

Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China  

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Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus...

WenJun Zhang

2012-01-01

192

Optimisation of engine operating parameters for eucalyptus oil mixed diesel fueled DI diesel engine using Taguchi method  

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The present investigation used Eucalyptus oil, distilled oil from leaf of eucalyptus as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel. Generally, Eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be admissible along with diesel fuel in the form of blends. Keeping this in mind experiments have been conducted using blends of Eucalyptus oil and diesel fuel to study its replace ability, performance and emission behaviour. As the investig...

Tamilvendhan D.; Ilangovan V.; Karthikeyan. R*,

2011-01-01

193

Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus / In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 [...] clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina) e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético). Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three [...] in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS culture media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

Silvano Rodrigues, Borges; Aloisio, Xavier; Leandro Silva de, Oliveira; Aline Pontes, Lopes; Wagner Campos, Otoni.

2011-04-01

194

The post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a conserved surveillance mechanism that identifies and cleaves double-stranded RNA molecules and their cellular cognate transcripts. The RNA silencing response is actually used as a powerful technique (named RNA interference) for potent and specific inhi [...] bition of gene expression in several organisms. To identify gene products in Eucalyptus sharing similarities with enzymes involved in the PTGS pathway, we queried the expressed sequence tag database of the Brazilian Eucalyptus Genome Sequence Project Consortium (FORESTs) with the amino acid sequences of known PTGS-related proteins. Among twenty-six prospected genes, our search detected fifteen assembled sequences encoding products presenting high level of similarity (E value

Flávio Tetsuo, Sassaki; Tiago, Campos-Pereira; Ivan de Godoy, Maia.

195

Pectin Methylesterase genes influence solid wood properties of Eucalyptus pilularis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This association study of Eucalyptus pilularis populations provides empirical evidence for the role of Pectin Methylesterase (PME) in influencing solid wood characteristics of Eucalyptus. PME6 was primarily associated with the shrinkage and collapse of drying timber, which are phenotypic traits consistent with the role of pectin as a hydrophilic polysaccharide. PME7 was primarily associated with cellulose and pulp yield traits and had an inverse correlation with lignin content. Selection of specific alleles in these genes may be important for improving trees as sources of high-quality wood products. A heterozygote advantage was postulated for the PME7 loci and, in combination with haplotype blocks, may explain the absence of a homozygous class at all single-nucleotide polymorphisms investigated in this gene. PMID:22052017

Sexton, Timothy R; Henry, Robert J; Harwood, Chris E; Thomas, Dane S; McManus, Luke J; Raymond, Carolyn; Henson, Michael; Shepherd, Mervyn

2012-01-01

196

Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus globulus por embriogénese somática  

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A embriogénese somática (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padrão de micropropagação, desde a indução à aclimatização. A propagação clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefícios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um método efectivo de conseguir ganhos genéticos ...

Pinto, Glo?ria Catarina Cintra Da Costa

2007-01-01

197

Wood and pulp properties of two Eucalyptus globulus wood samples  

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This paper reports experimental data about wood chemical composition (extractives and lignin content), fibre characteristics, kraft cooking behaviour and papermaking potential of two wood samples of Eucalyptus globulus (one industrial chip sample and another obtained from a clone tree). The samples were submitted to the kraft cooking and bleaching processes in order to evaluate its pulping potential. The experimental results showed that the clone tree requires mi...

Santos, A.; Anjos, O.; Simo?es, R.

2004-01-01

198

Chemical composition of lipophilic extractives from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood  

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The composition of lipophilic extractives in the chloroform soluble fraction of the acetone extract from Eucalyptus globulus wood has been examined. The lipid extract was fractionated by solid-phase extraction on aminopropyl-phase cartridges into four different fractions of increasing polarity. The total lipid extract and the resulting fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using high temperature capillary columns. The main compounds identif...

Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Gonza?lez-vila, Francisco Javier; Marti?n Marti?nez, Francisco

1999-01-01

199

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations  

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Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to eval...

Da Silva, Marliane Ca?ssia Soares; Paula, Thiago Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

200

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lipids from Eucalyptus globulus wood  

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Various typical lipid components of wood extractives have been isolated from Eucalyptus globulus wood by supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol. The influence of various extraction parameters on the yield and qualitative composition of the extracts have been studied. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with acetone, the standard method for the determination of wood extractives. The qualitat...

Gonza?lez-vila, Francisco Javier; Bautista, Jose? Manuel; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Gonza?lez, A. G.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Leaf area estimation from tree allometrics in Eucalyptus globulus plantations  

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Data from five studies on the relationships between dendrometric measurements and leaf area of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations were pooled and analyzed to develop regression models for the estimation of leaf area of individual trees. The data, collected at two sites in west-central and southwestern Portugal, varied in age from 2 to 19 years and in plant density from 481 to 1560 trees/ha and included both first and second rotation coppice stands. A total of 29 nonlinear reg...

Fabia?o, Anto?nio; Pereira, J. M. C.; Tome?, Margarida; Carreiras, J. M. B.; Tome?, Jose?; Pereira, J. S.; David, J. S.

1997-01-01

202

Efeito dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla Effect of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones  

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Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, constituído de dois reguladores de crescimento (AIB e ANA), cinco doses de AIB e ANA e quatro clones, em quatro repetiçõ...

Patrícia Bueno Goulart; Aloisio Xavier; Narcisio Zeferino Cardoso

2008-01-01

203

Taxonomic of Pantoea associated with bacterial blight of Eucalyptus  

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The genus Pantoea has seven species and two sub-species, isolated from diverse geographical and ecological sources. The majority of Pantoea species are plant-associated and cause a wide variety of diseases on a range of hosts. P. ananatis causes disease on many agricultural crops including onion, maize, sudangrass, honeydew melon and pineapple. P. ananatis has been identified as the causal agent of a serious bacterial blight and dieback of Eucalyptus in South Africa. Bacterial isolates have a...

Brady, Carrie Louise

2005-01-01

204

Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

2015-01-29

205

Effectiveness of ascorbic acid and PVP in the rooting of clonal mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Eficiência do ácido ascórbico e PVP no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a eficiência dos antioxidantes ácido ascórbico e polivinilpirrolidona (PVP) no enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal, conduzido em canaletas de alvenaria pree [...] nchidas com areia lavada. Experimentalmente, foram testadas cinco concentrações de cada antioxidante nos três clones estudados (C1, C2 e C3). Foram realizadas avaliações de sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas na saída das casas de vegetação e de sombra e da sobrevivência e crescimento das mudas aos 50 dias de idade. A utilização do ácido ascórbico foi favorável para as miniestacas do clone com menor porcentual de enraizamento (C3), porém, a utilização do PVP mostrou-se desfavorável para os clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the rooting of mini-cuttings for three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Mini-cuttings were gathered from a mini-clonal hedge which had been cultivated [...] in concrete ducts containing washed sand. Five concentrations of each antioxidant were experimentally tested on each of the three clones (C1, C2 and C3). Assessments were done of mini-cutting survival and rooting rates when leaving the greenhouse and the shade house, as well as seedling survival and growth at age 50 days. Ascorbic acid was found to be beneficial to the mini-cuttings of the clone with a lower rooting percentage (C3), whereas PVP was found to be unbeneficial to the clones being studied.

Lucas Amaral de, Melo; Aloisio, Xavier; Elizabete Keiko, Takahashi; Antônio Marcos, Rosado; Haroldo Nogueira de, Paiva.

2011-12-01

206

Kajian Beberapa Sifat Dasar Eucalyptus urophylla Umur 7 Tahun  

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The main objective of this research to evaluate anatomical, physical, and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus urophylla 7th as vertically and horizontally. Anatomical properties of E. urophylla was had solitary cylindrical pores, multiple radial and tangential groups. The general characteristic of E. urophylla were yellow, not shiny, the fiber course were straight until wavy, the touch impression was likely soft, did not had a smell and taste. Average of fiber length E. urophylla was 1095.3...

Nainggolan, Julus

2012-01-01

207

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD WITH IMPREGNATED CHEMICALS  

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Methylolurea and carbamide were used to impregnate eucalyptus wood to improve its physical and chemical properties. The physical properties and dimensional stability were examined. TGA was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the wood. FTIR was used to state the changes of functional groups. The changes of wood structure were observed by SEM. The results showed the bending strength and compressive strength parallel to the grain increased by 15.10% and 16.78%, respectively. The basic dens...

Guofeng Wu,; Qian Lang,; Heyu Chen; Junwen Pu

2012-01-01

208

Dinâmica de decomposição e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus no sul do Brasil / Litter decomposition and nutrients in Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus Hybrid Stand in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada, sua decomposição e a taxa de disponibilização de nutrientes em um plantio híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram demarcadas quatro parcelas (20 m Ã- 20 m) e, em cada uma delas, [...] foram coletadas estacionalmente (entre março de 2007 e dezembro de 2010) quatro amostras de forma aleatória. A quantidade de serapilheira estocada sobre o solo foi, em média, de 14,0 Mg ha-1.O coeficiente de decomposição foi de 0,54, com tempo médio para a renovação (1/K) de 1,86 anos e tempo médio para decomposição de 50 e 95% da serapilheira em 1,29 e 5,59 anos, respectivamente. O potássio apresentou o maior coeficiente de devolução (0,52), seguido por B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu; consequentemente, o potássio apresentou menor tempo médio de residência na serapilheira (0,91 anos). Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to determine the litter accumulation stock, its decomposition and nutrient release in an Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state. Four plots were demarcated (20 m Ã- 20 m) and four samples w [...] ere seasonally sampled (from March 2007 to December 2010) at random. Average litter accumulation on soil was 14.0 Mg ha-1. Litter accumulated showed 0.54 decomposition coefficient with average renewal time (1/K) of 1.86 years and average time to litter decomposition of 50, and 95% of litter in 1.29 and 5.59 years, respectively. Potassium presented the highest turnover (0.52), followed by B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu and consequently the lowest average residence time in the litter (0.91 years).

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Marcos Vinicius Winckler, Caldeira.

2013-09-01

209

TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp  

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The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucal...

Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Fábio Akira Mori; José Tarcísio Lima; Dione Pereira Cardoso

2003-01-01

210

Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China  

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Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

WenJun Zhang

2012-06-01

211

Antibacterial and Gastroprotective Properties of Eucalyptus torelliana [Myrtaceae] Crude Extracts  

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Full Text Available The antibacterial and gastroprotective properties of crude extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana were investigated. Antibacterial activity was investigated by screening the crude extracts for activity against clinically isolated strains of wound bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus UCH 2010, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 2125, Escherichia coli UCH 2007, Klebsiella species UCH 2694 and Proteus mirabilis CHO 2014. The dichloromethane crude extracts demonstrated highest antibacterial activity against all tested microorganisms at 10 mg mL-1 concentration. The gastroprotective effect of the crude extract of the leaf was investigated in albino rats. This was evaluated against gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol/HCl mixture. Ethanol/HCl mixture (1.5 mL of 0.15 N HCl in 70% ethanol caused severe gastric mucosal damage with ulcer index of 2.7±0.33. Pre-treatment of animals with crude extract of Eucalyptus torelliana leaf 200 and 1000 mg kg-1 orally for 1h significantly reduced the Pre-treatment of animals with 50 mg kg -1. Ranitidine for 1 h reduced the reduced the formation of ulcer by the ethanol HCl mixture with preventive ratios 56 and 92.5%, respectively. Ranitidine (50 mg kg-1 afforded 92.5% protection. The results therefore suggest that crude extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana possess both antibacterial and gastroprotective properties.

B.A. Adeniyi

2006-01-01

212

Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Araújo.

2014-09-01

213

DRYING BEHAVIOR AND PERMEABILITY OF Eucalyptus grandis LUMBER  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Although the increasing economic importance of Eucalyptus lumber to furniture and other value added products manufacturing, its industrial use is still small. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to dry the lumber and related loses of raw material. There is a general recommendation in literatur [...] e to use a low drying rate in initial stages of the process, and changing to a more aggressive drying after removal of liquid water from the lumber. According classical theory about drying of porous material, this point should coincide with the predominance of diffusion phenomena in the moisture movement; which could be determined through the characteristic drying curve of the material. With the objective to get better knowledge about the drying of Eucalyptus grandis lumber, its characteristic drying curve was determined, and the results proved that Eucalyptus grandis lumber is not permeable to liquid flow. Based on its characteristic drying curve, it is possible to suggest the change of drying conditions when lumber moisture content, dry basis, is between 35% and 40%, then starting a more aggressive drying

Ivaldo P, Jankowsky; Gilson Roberto V. dos, Santos.

214

THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ??of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

Charlote Wink

2013-06-01

215

Individual tree growth models for eucalyptus in northern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The diameter and height growth model is one of three submodels used for simulating individual tree growth. In Brazil, there are few studies on the dimensional growth of individual trees be they native or exotic species, despite their potential. This study aimed to evaluate diameter and height growth [...] models for individual trees for eucalyptus stands and to validate the best fitting model. Tree diameter and height data were obtained from 48 permanent plots of unthinned stands of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid located in northern Brazil. The evaluation of the diameter and height growth models was based on adjusted coefficient of determination, standard error of estimate as a percentage, trend, root mean square error and Akaike Information Criterion. Analysis also included distribution of residual percentage, statistical significance and signs of the coefficients. The Lundqvist-Korf model provided the most accurate estimates for diameter and height growth, in comparison with the other models, providing better statistical values, greater proximity to observed values and better distribution of residual percentages. The use of this type of model is feasible and can result in significant improvements in the accuracy of yield estimates.

Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva.

2014-06-01

216

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.  

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Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.

Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

2009-01-01

217

SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring  

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Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con...

Carlos Rozas; Reinaldo Sánchez; Paula Pinedo

2005-01-01

218

Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus / Rooting of mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB) no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 di [...] as em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias), três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1) e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator indol butiric acid (IBA) on the rooting of apical and intermediate mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones. The mini-cutting rooting was carried out for 30 days in a [...] cclimatized greenhouse and after the cuttings were transferred to shade house, where they remained for 10 days. The experimental design was in random blocks with a triple factorial arrangement constituted by two types of mini-cuttings (apical and intermediate), three IBA concentrations (0, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1) and eleven clones, in three repetitions, composed of 12 mini-cuttings per repetition. The IBA did not affect the characteristics evaluated. The survival and rooting of apical mini-cuttings were significantly higher. There was significant difference among clones regarding the evaluated variables, except for survival after 30 days in greenhouse.

Silvano Rodrigues, Borges; Aloisio, Xavier; Leandro Silva de, Oliveira; Lucas Amaral de, Melo; Antônio Marcos, Rosado.

2011-06-01

219

Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus Rooting of mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clones  

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Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 dias em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias, três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator indol butiric acid (IBA on the rooting of apical and intermediate mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones. The mini-cutting rooting was carried out for 30 days in acclimatized greenhouse and after the cuttings were transferred to shade house, where they remained for 10 days. The experimental design was in random blocks with a triple factorial arrangement constituted by two types of mini-cuttings (apical and intermediate, three IBA concentrations (0, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1 and eleven clones, in three repetitions, composed of 12 mini-cuttings per repetition. The IBA did not affect the characteristics evaluated. The survival and rooting of apical mini-cuttings were significantly higher. There was significant difference among clones regarding the evaluated variables, except for survival after 30 days in greenhouse.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges

2011-06-01

220

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis / Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a [...] ientes do Horto Florestal de Mandurí, SP, pertencente ao Instituto Florestal de São Paulo. Em cada uma das toras foi inserido um termopar próximo ao seu centro. Posteriormente, as toras foram vaporizadas a 90 ºC e 100% de umidade relativa, durante 20 horas. Um coletor de dados registrou as temperaturas, no interior do material, durante o tratamento térmico. Conclui-se que o modelo de Steinhagen et al. (1980) não pode ser diretamente aplicado à espécie em estudo, e propõem-se fatores de correções para a utilização do modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, desenvolvido por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to [...] e `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980) model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo.

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation  

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With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 d...

Neimar de Freitas Duarte; Decio Karam; Elizabeth Uber Bucek; Maria Rita Scotti Muzzi

2012-01-01

222

LEVANTAMENTO DE SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA EM PLANTAÇÕES DE Eucalyptus spp. EM CUIABÁ, ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO  

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Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento populacional de espécies da família Scolytidae em plantios de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Dehnh. Dehnh., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com auxílio de armadilhas etanólicas, modelo escolitídeo-Curitiba, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso, de março de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas, sendo seis por talhão/espécie de Eucalyptus. As coletas foram quinzenais e divididas em dois períodos: seco (maio-outubro e chuva (novembro-abril. Foram coletados um total de 19.153 indivíduos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 42 espécies. Nos períodos seco e chuvoso foram coletados 9.865 e 9.288 indivíduos respectivamente. Nos talhões de Eucalyptus pellita e de Eucalyptus urophylla, foram coletados as maiores quantidades de indivíduos em ambos os períodos analisados. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912; Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801 e Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934 foram, quantitativamente, as espécies mais importantes nos plantios das quatro espécies de Eucalyptus.

Eli Nunes Marques

2004-01-01

223

SURVEY OF SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA IN PLANTATIONS OF Eucalyptus spp. IN CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available A survey of Scolytidae population of species of Scolytidae family was made in plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, located at Cuiabá city in Mato Grosso state from march 1998 to february 1999, with aid of ethanol traps model “escolitídeo-Curitiba”. The were used 24 traps, six per Eucalyptus plot/specie. Collection was made every 15 days and divided in two periods: drought (may – October and rRainy Season (november – april. There were collected a total of 19.153 individuals, distributed in 11 genera and 42 species. In the dry and rain periods there were collected 9.865 and 9.288 individuals, respectively. In plantations of Eucalyptus pellita and Eucalyptus urophylla were collected the largest amount of individuals, in both analyzed periods. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912; Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801 and Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934 were in number, the most important in plantations of the four species of Eucalyptus.

Fabiano de C. Balieiro

2010-08-01

224

Levantamento de Scolytidae (Coleoptera em plantações de Eucalyptus spp. em Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso.  

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Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento populacional de espécies da família Scolytidae em plantios de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Dehnh. Dehnh., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com auxílio de armadilhas etanólicas, modelo escolitídeo-Curitiba, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso, de março de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas, sendo seis por talhão/espécie de Eucalyptus. As coletas foram quinzenais e divididas em dois períodos: seco (maio-outubro e chuva (novembro-abril. Foram coletados um total de 19.153 indivíduos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 42 espécies. Nos períodos seco e chuvoso foram coletados 9.865 e 9.288 indivíduos respectivamente. Nos talhões de Eucalyptus pellita e de Eucalyptus urophylla, foram coletados as maiores quantidades de indivíduos em ambos os períodos analisados. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912; Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801 e Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934 foram, quantitativamente, as espécies mais importantes nos plantios das quatro espécies de Eucalyptus.

Alberto Dorval

2010-08-01

225

Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).  

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During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

2010-01-01

226

Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

227

Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay Inonotus splitbergeri um patógeno do caule de Eucalyptus globulus no Uruguai  

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Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

SEBASTIÁN MARTÍNEZ; SANDRA LUPO; LINA BETTUCCI

2002-01-01

228

Response of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis Plants at Different Doses of Glyphosate  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of eucalyptus plants submitted to the application of glyphosate increasing rates. The doses 0.0, 3.6, 7.2, 18, 36, 72 and 180 g ha-1 of acid equivalent (ae of glyphosate were applied on plants. At 7, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 42 days after application (DAA was determined leaves relative chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. At 22 and 42 DAA plant height and stem diameter were measured. At 42 DAA were determined the leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area. The height, diameter, leaves and stem dry masses and foliar area were converted to percentages, whereas the controls as 100%. These variables were fitted to the model described by Gauss equation. The data chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II were submitted to mean comparison, and when they differed, we performed the Tukey test at 5% probability. All the features presented here showed some hormetic effect promoted by reduced rates of glyphosate and the increments observed in these characteristics (when compared to control ranged between 5.92 and 33.18% at 42 DAA. From average curve with height, diameter, leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area can be concluded that the increase averaged 12% on application of 16 g a.e. of glyphosate ha-1. For leaves chlorophyll content significant differences were observed only at 29 DAA, while for quantum efficiency of photosystem II significant differences were found only at 7 DAA.  

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira

2012-12-01

229

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Four Cultivated Eucalyptus Species in Iran as Medicinal Plants (E. microtheca, E. spathulata, E. largiflorens and E. torquata)  

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The leaves of four cultivated Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus microtheca var. Microtheca F.Muell., Eucalyptus spathulata, Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus torquata were collected in spring from Kashan and Isfahan provinces (central region of Iran). After drying the plant materials in shade, their essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography, using flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Twenty-two components were id...

Fatemeh Sefidkon; Mohammad Hassan Assareh; Zahra Abravesh; Mohammad Mehdi Barazandeh

2007-01-01

230

Tensão de crescimento em árvores vivas de clones de Eucalyptus spp. e de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden e propriedades da sua madeira  

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Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a funcionalidade do método CIRAD-Forêt para determinação das deformações residuais longitudinais (DRL) e determinar o nível de variação da DRL em árvores vivas de clones de Eucalyptus spp. e de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden. Objetivou, ainda, determinar a variação da DRL inter e intra genótipos, avaliar a relação existente entre a DRL e algumas características da madeira, estimar a tensão de crescimento longitudinal usado ...

Trugilho, Paulo Fernando

2013-01-01

231

Utilização da madeira comercial do hibrido de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden na confecção de vigas laminadas coladas  

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Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de produzir e avaliar o comportamento de vigas laminadas coladas horizontalmente, confeccionadas a partir de tábuas obtidas de madeira comercial de dois clones híbridos de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake x Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, provenientes de plantios do Estado de São Paulo. Essas tábuas foram classificadas de forma mecânica em ensaio de flexão estática não-destrutivo. Algumas propriedades de resistência mecânica e rigidez das t...

Nielsen, Ingrid Raquel

2013-01-01

232

Karakterisasi Penyakit Daun pada Pembibitan Enam Klon Hibrid Turunan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita di PT.Toba Pulp Lestari Tbk. Kabupaten Toba Samosir, Sumatera Utara  

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Symptoms of the disease that attacks the dominant hybrid derivative clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita at nursery locations found in the leaves . Characterization of leaf diseases need to do that aims to characterize the leaf symptoms , the level of intensity and widespread attack , and identify the causes of leaf disease. Observation of leaf symptoms done visually on 6 clones , also conducted extensive computation intensity levels and cause disease Observations conducted macros...

Simorangkir, Esthy Aknesya

2014-01-01

233

EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITY, CONTENT AND NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY IN GENOTYPES OF Eucalyptus spp. IN JEQUITINHONHA VALLEY, MG  

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Full Text Available The hybridization of eucalyptus species can provide more productive hybrids and with a high efficiency of nutrient absorption and, or, nutrient use, depending on the combined species. In this context, the present work was undertaken in the Jequitinhonha Valley region, Minas Gerais, and its objectives were: to determine the productivity, content and use efficiency of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in interspecific hybrids of Eucalyptus spp. In each plot, the diameters were measured at breast height (DBH in all the trees, and three trees with diameter similar to the average mean were felled. The volume of the trees was estimated by the Smallian method, using the height, diameter and the bark thickness at the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The fresh weight of the wood, bark, leaves and branches was determined in the field, and samples from them were collected for the determination of dry matter. The log samples consisted of collected disks with bark, from the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The samples of vegetable tissues were analyzed for: N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The results obtained did not show significant differences for the production of crown biomass between the eucalyptus hybrids of the same age. However, the production of log biomass presented significant differences and the naturally pollinated hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla were 50.0 % and 69.0 % more productive compared with the hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Also, these hybrids allocated larger amount of biomass in the log (92.3 % in relation to the crown (7.7 %, and they were more efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The conclusions were that: 1 same aged hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural or controlled pollinations did not differ in their crown biomass; 2 log biomass was reduced in the hybrids from controlled pollination between Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis; 3 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural pollination were more productive and more efficient in the absorption and efficiency of use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and 4 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis are less productive and less efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg.

Geraldo Erli de Faria

2009-10-01

234

PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Eucalyptus grandis EM SUBSTRATOS ORGÂNICOS ALTERNATIVOS  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815745Estudos referentes ao descarte de resíduos orgânicos urbanos e agroindustriais tornaram-se imprescindíveis pela possibilidade de seu uso na produção de mudas florestais e pelo impacto ambiental que seria provocado pelo descarte inadequado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis submetidas a diferentes tipos e combinações de substratos orgânicos urbano e agroindustriais. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos constituídos por diferentes substratos e proporções de combinação dos mesmos (100% Composto Orgânico de Lixo Urbano (COLU; 100% Composto Orgânico de Resíduo Agroindustrial (CORA; 100% Substrato Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Comercial; 25% CORA + 75% Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Solo; 50% COLU + 50% Comercial; 50% CORA + 50% Comercial; 50% Comercial + 50% Solo e 100% Solo e 12 repetições. Avaliaram-se altura da planta, diâmetro do colo, número de folhas, comprimento entre nós, massa fresca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca total, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento do sistema radicular, volume do sistema radicular, raio médio das raízes, área superficial específica do sistema radicular e estabilidade de torrão. Os substratos contendo composto orgânico de lixo urbano apresentam grande potencialidade de uso como substratos alternativos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de substrato comercial ao composto orgânico de lixo urbano possibilita crescimento do sistema radicular e parte aérea das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de 50% de substrato comercial e 50% composto orgânico de resíduo agroindustrial proporciona maior crescimento de diâmetro de caule em relação aos tratamentos contendo solo ou em relação ao composto orgânico de resíduos agroindustriais.

Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

2014-09-01

235

ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

Thais Cunha Ferreira

2004-07-01

236

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels / Avaliação do potencial de uso de nove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus para produção de lâminas e compensados  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espécies de Eucalyptus na produção de lâminas e painéis compensados multilaminados. As lâminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em t [...] rês classes de qualidade para as nove espécies estudadas. Os painéis compensados foram produzidos em laboratório, com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído, com gramatura de 360 g/m² (linha dupla). Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 140ºC e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminação indicaram que, com exceção de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espécies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento médio em laminação acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexão estática paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parâmetros estudados neste trabalho para produção de lâminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield a [...] ccording to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m² (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm², a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski; Leandro Soares da, Silva.

2013-06-01

237

Compatibility and ectomycorrhiza formation among Pisolithus Isolates and Eucalyptus spp Compatibilidade e formação de Ectomicorrizas entre Isolados de Pisolithus e Eucalyptus spp  

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Full Text Available Twenty-nine isolates of the ectomycorrhiza fungus Pisolithus sp. from different geographical and host origins were tested for their ability to form ectomycorrhizae on Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The ectomycorrhiza-forming capacity of isolates varied greatly from one eucalypt species to the other. All isolates from Eucalyptus, nine from Pinus spp. and two isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with E. grandis and E. urophylla. Root colonization rates varied from 0 to 5.2 % for all Pinus isolates and those from unknown hosts. Colonization rates for these isolates were lower than those observed for Eucalyptus isolates (0.8 to 89.4 %. Three isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with neither Eucalyptus species. The main characteristic for distinguishing Pinus from Eucalyptus isolates was mantle color. These data corroborate previous results obtained in our laboratory indicating that the isolates tested represent at least two distinct different species within the genus Pisolithus.Vinte e nove isolados do fungo ectomicorrízico Pisolithus sp., de diferentes regiões geográficas e hospedeiros, foram testados quanto à capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas em plântulas de Eucalyptus grandis e E. urophylla sob condições de casa de vegetação. Os isolados apresentaram grande variação na capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas com ambas as espécies de eucalipto. Todos os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus, 9 originalmente obtidos de Pinus spp. e dois isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos formaram micorrizas com E. grandis e E. urophylla. A taxa de colonização radicular dos isolados originalmente obtidos de Pinus e dos isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos variou de 0 a 5,2 %. A taxa de colonização para esses isolados foi menor do que as obtidas para os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus (0,8 a 89,4 %. Três isolados obtidos de hospedeiros desconhecidos não formaram micorrizas com nenhuma das espécies de Eucalyptus. A característica mais marcante para distinção das ectomicorrizas formadas pelos isolados de Pinus e pelo de Eucalyptus foi a cor do manto fúngico. Esses dados corroboram resultados prévios obtidos em laboratório, indicando que os isolados estudados devem representar ao menos duas espécies distintas dentro do gênero Pisolithus.

Olinto Liparini Pereira

2005-06-01

238

Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances  

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Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed better. In themechanical tests, MOE presented itself above the demands of the norm with the exception of provenance 7785 of Eucalyptus saligna,in which stress was performed parallel to the cover fibers. For parallel MOR, only the provenances 9789 and 10695 of Eucalyptusgrandis and 97852 of Eucalyptus cloeziana managed to reach the demands of the norm ABNT 31:000.05-001/2. For shearing stressand failure in wood, all the provenances and species showed themselves above the demands, with the exception of 10634; 48 and 9753of Eucalyptus grandis.

Fábio Akira Mori

2009-03-01

239

The influence of Eucalyptus globulus heartwood in pulp production  

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A 18-year-old Eucalyptus globulus tree was used to study the influence of heartwood and sapwood in kraft pulping along different reaction times (1 to 95 min). Heartwood had more extractives (9.8 % vs. 3.9 %) and more xylose content (17.5 % and 13.7 %) compared to sapwood, but no differences were found in total lignin content (23.5 % vs. 24.3 %). After 95 min, heartwood pulps had lower yields (52.4 % vs. 56.7 %) and higher residual lignin content (3.0 % vs. 1.2 %) but no difference...

Lourenc?o, Ana Carina Dos Santos

2008-01-01

240

Removal of chromium (vi) by using eucalyptus bark (biosorption)  

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Adsorption of Chromium (VI) on the Eucalyptus bark has been studied with variation in parameters. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, amount of adsorbent, stirring speed, time, temperature and pH were studied. The adsorption has been carried out in batch process. The adsorption capacity increases with decreasing the particle size of adsorbent. The optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption are attained with 2.0 g of adsorbent, 40 ppm metal ion concentration, at room temperature (10 degree C), with 90 min contact time, with 300 rpm agitation speed and at pH 2. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

Couloux Arnaud

2009-03-01

242

VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included ?- pinene (38.6 %, ? -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and ?-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

Mittal Abhilasha

2011-02-01

243

THERMAL MODIFICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD: VARIATION OF COLORIMETRIC PARAMETERS  

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The color modifications in Eucalyptus grandis thermally modified wood were investigated. One hundred eighty specimens (10 x 10 x 200 mm) were prepared and thermally modified in an electric kiln for 4 and 8 h at 180-240ºC. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h* and ?E) were determined by the CIE-L*a*b* method on radial and tangential sections of untreated and treated wood. The results indicated the darkening of specimens in the radial and tangential sections. Both sections showed varia...

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori; Eduardo Schneid; Darci Alberto Gatto; Diego Martins Stangerlin; Rafael Beltrame

2013-01-01

244

INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION  

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Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC)(PO)DD, O(DC)(PO)DP, OD(PO)DD, OD(PO)DP, ODHT(PO)DD, ODHT(PO)DP, OA/D(PO)DD, OA/D(PO)DP, OAD(PO)DD and O(Ze)D(PO). Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to...

Eiras, Ka?tia M. M.; Jorge Luiz Colodette,; Carvalho, Ana Ma?rcia M. L.

2005-01-01

245

Effects of the Simulated Drift of Ripeners on Eucalyptus urograndis  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the drift of ripeners (sulfometuron-methyl, ethephon and trinexapac-ethyl) on the initial growth of Eucalyptus urograndis. The experimental design was a randomized block with seven treatments (control; sulfometuron-methyl 0.9 and 1.2 g i.a. ha-1; ethephon 28.8 and 38.3 g i.a ha-1; trinexapac-ethyl 15 and 20 g i.a. ha-1) with four replicates using each plant as an experimental plot. We evaluate...

Rodrigo Neto Pires; Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira; Mariluce Pascoina Nepomuceno; Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

2013-01-01

246

APLICAÇÕES DA MICROPROPAGAÇÃO NA CLONAGEM DE EUCALYPTUS NO BRASIL  

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Full Text Available Actualmente, en Brasil, dentro de las diversas técnicas de propagación in vitro, la micropropagación ha sido la que mayor interés científico y económico ha despertado en el campo forestal. De hecho, es la técnica más difundida por sus aplicaciones prácticas. Los primeros estudios fueron realizados en la década de los 50's. Entre 1970 y 1980 fueron establecidos algunos laboratorios de cultivo de tejidos. El presente trabajo es una revisión y una síntesis de la información de las aplicaciones de la micropropagación en la clonación de Eucalyptus en los programas de silvicultura clonal de Brasil.

Aloisio Xavier

2009-01-01

247

BEHAVIOR OF GLUED JOINTS OF EUCALYPTUS sp. SAWN WOOD  

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This research evaluated eucalypt wood adhesion capacity. The material evaluated was a commercial sawn wood composed by a blend of species of the genus Eucalyptus. The adhesives used were resorcinol-formaldehyde and polyvinila acetate (PVAc). The wood was segregated in three density with 0% of moisture content: class 1; 2 and 3 that, when combined (class1 x class1; 2x2; 3x3; 1x2; 1x3; 2x3) resulted in six treatments. The performance of the adhesion was evaluated by the shear strength to paral...

Octávio Barbosa Plaster; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Christóvão Pereira Abrahão; Rafael Leite Braz

2008-01-01

248

CREEP IN STRUCTURAL-SIZED BEAMS OF ARGENTINEAN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS  

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The results presented in this paper were obtained from a test carried out during the last series of a research project regarding the creep behaviour of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis loaded in dry condition. A test with a sample containing 15 structural-sized beams was carried out during 470 days. 7 pieces were free of pith and another 8 contained it. The results allow to compare the creep behaviour of these beams with previous data reported for both structural-sized and small-clear specimens...

Piter, J. C.; Calvo, C. F.; Cuffre?, A. G.; Rougier, V. C.; Sosa Zitto, M. A.; Torra?n, E. A.

2007-01-01

249

Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use  

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A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gez.garcia@gmail.com [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-01

250

Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (?-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus.

Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

2012-11-01

251

Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita  

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Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

2004-10-01

252

Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. / Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção do [...] s adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades. Abstract in english Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sod [...] ium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

Angélica de Cássia Oliveira, Carneiro; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

2004-10-01

253

Análise cinética da cura de adesivos de taninos das cascas de três espécies de Eucalyptus por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC Kinetic analysis of bark tannin adhesives from three species of Eucalyptus by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a cinética de cura de adesivos à base de taninos de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus urophylla por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC, comparando-a com a cinética de cura de adesivos comerciais: fenol-formaldeído e de taninos de acácia-negra (Acacia mollissima D.Wild. Verificou-se que o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentou os parâmetros cinéticos (energia de ativação, entalpia, temperatura de pico e ordem de reação mais próximos aos do adesivo comercial de taninos de acácia-negra, que foram totalmente diferentes do adesivo à base de fenol-formaldeído. Com base nestes parâmetros constatou-se que, em relação aos outros dois, o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla é o mais adequado para colagem, uma vez que em condições industriais ele necessitará de uso mínimo de energia e de tempo de prensagem durante o processo de colagem.This work aimed to analyze the cure kinetics of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus urophylla tannins based adhesives by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Another objective was to compare cure kinetics of Eucalyptus tannin adhesives with the cure kinetics of phenol-formaldehyde and Wattle black (Acacia mollissima D. Wild tannin commercial adhesives. It was observed that the Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesives presented kinetic parameters (activation energy, entalpia, peak temperature and reaction order similar to the Wattle black commercial tannin adhesives but were different from the phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Based on these parameters it was concluded that the Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesives are more adequate for wood bonding than the other two Eucalyptus tannin adhesives. Under industrial conditions, Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesive will need a minimum energy and pressing.

Fábio Akira Mori

2002-08-01

254

An assessment of volume-ratio functions for Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens in Chile / Funciones de razón de volumen para Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens en Chile  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se calibraron modelos de razón de volumen y de volumen total para Eucalyptus nitens y Eucalyptus globulus en el sur de Chile. Los modelos fueron ajustados en forma independiente y fueron sometidos a una validación tradicional. Esta validación consideró el sesgo y error total en estimaciones de volum [...] en de productos considerando distintos índices de utilización o diámetros límite. Asimismo, las estimaciones de volumen de productos del sistema de razón de volumen fueron comparadas con las estimaciones de un modelo de ahusamiento (modelo de Bruce). Los resultados indican que funciones generales (comparadas con funciones locales) del logaritmo del volumen entregan mejores estimaciones del volumen total para ambas especies, mientras que un único modelo polinomial estima en mejor forma la razón de volumen en ambas especies. El sistema de funciones (modelos de volumen total + razón) estima insesgadamente volúmenes a diámetros límite de 5 y 10 cm para E. nitens y con un ligero sesgo para E. globulus. Para volúmenes a un diámetro límite de 18 cm las magnitudes de sesgo y error total son muy altas para ambas especies. Se encontró que estos errores totales están más relacionados con los errores en las estimaciones de volumen total que con los errores en las estimaciones de la razón de volumen. Cuando se comparan las estimaciones de volumen con la del modelo de ahusamiento se encontró que el sistema de razón de volumen tiene mejores estimaciones para E. nitens, pero para E. globulus las estimaciones del modelo de ahusamiento son mejores. Abstract in english Volume-ratio and total volume models for Eucalyptus nitens and E. globulus grown in southern Chile were ftted independently. The validation process considered the bias and the total error in the volume estimates, as well as the age classes close to thinning and harvesting operations. Volume estimate [...] s from the system of functions (volume and ratio) were compared to the volume estimates from a taper function (Bruce model) to estimate the volume at different top stem diameters. The results indicated that general (as opposed to local) logarithmic functions performed better in their estimation of the total volume for both species, while a unique polynomial model was the best model for the ratio estimates for both Eucalyptus species. The system of functions (total volume + ratio models) was an unbiased estimator for a top stem diameter of 5 and 10 cm for E. nitens, and was a slightly biased estimator for E. globulus. Estimates of the volume of top stems with 18 cm diameters had a large bias and a large total error for both species. These total errors were generally related to errors in the total volume function rather than to errors in the ratio estimates. When the volume estimates were compared with estimates from a taper function, the volumne-ratio system performed better for E. nitens while the taper function performed better for E. globulus.

Horacio, Gilabert; Carlos, Paci.

2010-04-01

255

Deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. por fungos xilófagos / Deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. wood by xylophagous fungi  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade de deterioração de fungos isolados de madeiras de Eucalyptus spp. e realizar a análise química da madeira deteriorada, para verificar quais dos seus componentes sofreram maiores alterações em consequência do ataque. O experimento foi [...] conduzido no Laboratório de Biodeterioração da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, no município de Jerônimo Monteiro, ES. Doze fungos foram utilizados, destes, nove foram provenientes de culturas puras isoladas a partir de fragmentos de cepas de madeiras de eucalipto deterioradas, coletadas em três localidades distintas, e três culturas puras com reconhecida capacidade de deterioração que foram utilizadas como padrão de comparação. Dos fungos testados, os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2 exibiram boa capacidade de deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. O cerne de eucalipto teve maior resistência natural que o alburno, mas os fungos foram capazes de degradar ambas as madeiras. De modo geral, houve um incremento no teor de extrativos totais na madeira deteriorada (cerne e alburno), para os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2. Nas madeiras de cerne de Eucalyptus grandis houve decréscimo no teor de extrativos para ambos Basidiomicetos. Com relação à holocelulose (celulose + hemiceluloses), ocorreram pequenas diferenças entre as madeiras sadias e deterioradas (variações médias em torno de 1%). Dos fungos testados, o Basidiomiceto 2 causou maior degradação da lignina quando comparado ao Basidiomiceto 1. Abstract in english This research aimed to test the deteriorating ability of fungi isolated from Eucalyptus spp. wood and perform chemical analysis of wood deteriorated, to verify which components of wood suffered major changes in the light of the attack. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratório de Biodeterioraç [...] ão da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil. A total of 12 fungi were used, and nine of these came from pure cultures isolated from fragments of stumps of eucalypt woods deteriorated, collected in three distinct locations, and three with recognized capacity of deterioration that were used as the standard of comparison. The Basidiomycetous fungi 1 and 2 showed high capacity of deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. The heartwood of eucalypt showed a greater natural resistance than the sapwood, but the fungi were able to degrade both them. In general, there were, an increase in the content of extractives in wood damaged (heartwood and sapwood), for Basidiomycetous 1 and Basidiomycetous 2. The heartwood of Eucalyptus grandis there was a decrease in extractives content for both Basidiomycetes. To the holocelulose (cellulose and hemicelluloses), there were small differences between the healthy and damaged wood (mean variations around 1 %). The Fungi, Basidiomycetous 2 caused a greater degradation of lignin as compared to the Basidiomycetous 1.

Luciana Ferreira da, Silva; Juarez Benigno, Paes; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Edson Luiz, Furtado; Fábio Ramos, Alves.

2014-09-01

256

Relação entre concentrações foliares de carboidratos solúveis totais e tolerância ao frio em diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus spp.  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988450O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da rustificação sobre a tolerância ao frio em Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus saligna Sm., através da quantificação dos teores foliares de carboidratos solúveis totais e de prolina. Mudas das quatro espécies (com três meses de idade e cerca de 50 cm de altura foram submetidas a dois períodos de rustificação (0 e 21 dias de exposição a temperaturas diurnas de 5 ºC e noturnas de 1 ºC, com fotoperíodo controlado de 12 horas. Ao final de cada período de rustificação, as mudas foram submetidas durante 3 horas a três gradientes de temperatura abaixo de zero (-2 ºC, -5 ºC e -8 ºC. Foram feitas avaliações das concentrações foliares de carboidratos solúveis totais e de prolina, da temperatura letal de 50 % (TL50 e do índice de dano ao frio. Não foi identificada a presença de prolina nos tecidos foliares das espécies avaliadas. No entanto, em mudas não rustificadas, observou-se diferenças entre as espécies quanto à concentração foliar de carboidratos, sendo maior em Eucalyptus benthamii, intermediária em Eucalyptus dunnii e Eucalyptus grandis, e menor em Eucalyptus saligna. A rustificação causou um aumento na concentração foliar de carboidratos de 2,9; 2,5; 2,8 e 1,3 vezes em Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus benthamii, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus grandis, respectivamente. Em mudas que não foram submetidas à rustificação, a TL50 foi mais baixa em Eucalyptus benthamii, intermediária em Eucalyptus dunnii e Eucalyptus grandis, e mais alta em Eucalyptus saligna. No entanto, com a rustificação das plantas não houve diferenças entre as espécies quanto à TL50. Observou-se que a TL50 diminuiu com a rustificação, exceto no Eucalyptus benthamii. Houve correlação negativa entre a concentração foliar de carboidratos solúveis totais e a TL50 nas espécies avaliadas. Os dados obtidos mostram que a concentração foliar de carboidratos solúveis totais pode ser utilizada como indicador de tolerância ao frio em espécies de Eucalyptus.

Mireli Moura Pitz Floriani

2013-03-01

257

Eucalyptus pellita as a source of resistance to rust, ceratocystis wilt and leaf blight  

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Full Text Available Rust (Puccinia psidii, ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata and cylindrocladium leaf blight (Cylindrocladium pteridis are important diseases of eucalyptus. Planting of resistant genotypes is the most suitable control strategy of forest diseases under field condition. Resistance level of 23 Eucalyptus pellita clones was evaluated by artificial inoculations. Among the inoculated clones, 12 were resistant to rust, 16 to ceratocystis wilt and 12 to cylindrocladium leaf blight, and three of them were resistant to all three diseases. The high intra-specific variability found in this study demonstrates the importance of E. pellita as a disease resistance source to be employed for introgression of novel resistance genes in eucalyptus genetic breeding programs.

Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães

2010-01-01

258

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

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O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a <25, de 25 a <30 e de 30 a <35 cm de diâmetro de 14 árvores de E. grandis provenientes do Horto Florestal de Mandurí, SP, pertencente ao Instituto Florestal de São Paulo. Em cada uma das toras foi inserido um termopar próximo ao seu centro. Posteriormente, as toras fo...

Fred Willians Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

2006-01-01

259

Modelos de predição para sobrevivência de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis / Prediction models of Eucalyptus grandis plant survival  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar modelos de predição de plantas sobreviventes de Eucalyptus grandis. Utilizaram-se os seguintes modelos: modelo linear misto com os dados transformados, utilizando-se as transformações angular e BOX-COX; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição binomia [...] l e funções de ligação logística, probit e complemento log-log; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica. Os dados são provenientes de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, para avaliação de progênies maternas de Eucalyptus grandis, aos 5 anos de idade, em que a variável resposta são plantas sobreviventes. Para comparação dos efeitos entre os modelos foram estimadas as correlações de Spearman e aplicado o teste de permutação de Fisher. Foi possível concluir que, o modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica se ajustou mal aos dados e que as estimativas para os efeitos fixos e predição para os efeitos aleatórios, não se diferenciaram entre os demais modelos estudados. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to compare models for prediction of the survival of plants of Eucalyptus grandis. The following models were used: linear mixed model with the transformed data, by utilizing the angular transformations and BOX-COX; generalized linear mixed model with binomial distributi [...] on and logistic functions, probit and complement log-log links; generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function. The data came from a randomized block experiment for evaluation of Eucalyptus grandis maternal progenies at five years old, in which the variable response are surviving plants. For comparison of the effects among the models the correlations of Spearman were estimated and the test of permutation of Fisher was applied. It was possible to conclude that: the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function misadjusted to the data; the estimates for the fixed effects and prediction for the random effects did not differ among the to other studied models.

Telde Natel, Custódio; Décio, Barbin.

1948-19-01

260

Effect of Albino ophiostoma strains on Eucalyptus nitens extractives  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wood extractives promote pitch formation during pulp and paper manufacturing. To date, this problem has been controlled by extended storage of the chips and/or chemical additives. Biotreatment of the wood prior to pulping provides an alternative that not only decreases the negative impact of the ext [...] ractives but may also improve the kraft pulping efficiency. This initiative seeks to verify the quantity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus nitens wood extractives following biotreatment with three albino fungi species (Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum). Eucalyptus nitens wood chips were sprayed with spore suspensions of Ophiostoma piliferum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma floccosum albino strains (1 × 10(8) spore concentration). After 7 and 21 days of fungal treatment, the extractive content was determined via Soxhlet extraction with an 80:20% n-hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture. The Ophiostoma floccosum F1A94, Ophiostoma piliferum F2D8 and Ophiostoma piceae F2A68 strains proved to be most capable of bioreduction with reductions of 35,1%, 33,2% and 29,3%, respectively. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which demonstrated that most of the tested strains could reduce the ?- sitosterol content.

Juana, Coloma; Laura, Reyes; José, Navarrete; Julio, Alarcón; Lilian, Delgado; Renato, Vera; Priscilla, Ubilla; Karen, Vásquez; José, Becerra.

 
 
 
 
261

Favorable conditions for Xanthomonas axonopodis infection in Eucalyptus spp.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Currently, Xanthomonas axonopodis is one of the main foliar pathogens for Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil. It induces leaf blight and defoliation of seedlings in the nursery and young plants in the field. However, little is known about thefavorable conditions for infection. The establishment and developme [...] nt of bacterial leaf blight caused by X. axonopodis in eucalyptus was studied for different leaf ages, temperatures and leaf wetness durations. Disease severity increased with leaf age, and the highest severity was observed on the fourth pair of completely expanded leaves (from the apex to the base). A higher level of bacterial colonization was also observed on the fourth pair of leaves quantified as bacterial cells/cm2 of leaf area. Twelve hours of free water on the leaf surface, prior to inoculation, was essential to promote a severe infection. However, with the increase in the leaf wetness duration, a decrease in disease severity was observed. The optimal temperature for disease development was 26-30ºC.

Daniela A., Neves; Lúcio M. S., Guimarães; Hélvio G. M., Ferraz; Acelino C., Alfenas.

2014-12-01

262

ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS  

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Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

Roselaine Cristina Pereira

2002-01-01

263

Effects of Cadmium on Some Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus occidentalis  

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Full Text Available Heavy metals including cadmium produced as a result of urban, industrial and agricultural activities lead to the water pollution. Also, considering the growing need for silviculture in Iran, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive research on fast growing and evergreen species of Eucalyptus and their role in heavy metals' absorption. To achieve this goal, Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were grown in pots containing silica and irrigated with a mixture of nutrient solution and cadmium chloride in 5, 10 and 15 m M for 10 months. Root and leaf samples were harvested and the amount of cadmium in stem, root and leaf organs was measured. Also, some morphological and physiological characteristics were determined including soluble sugar and praline. The analysis indicated that the cadmium concentrations of 15 mM treatment in the root, leaf and stem were 585, 142 and 87 mg/kg D.W., respectively. Proline content increased with the increase of Cadmium concentration while the content of pigments decreased. The result of this research shows that eucalypt has the potential of cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. Therefore, the plant can be used to decrease the environmental pollutions.

A. Shariat

2010-10-01

264

Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported i [...] n other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

Ricardo, Harakava.

265

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

2008-03-01

266

WOOD VAPORIZATION EFFECT ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaporization effects on the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression, crushing strength and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction on logs and sawn wood of two sources of Eucalyptus dunnii. The mechanical attempts were performed under the Copant standards in the  climatized conditions (12%. To do so, about two thirds of the logs, with a diameter between 20-30 cm, were vaporized at 100o C and 100% of relative humidity for 20 hours, while  the  remaining  logs  were  kept  as  control.  From  each  log,  a  central plank radially directed with eight centimeter of thickness was taken, from which small beams of 8 cm x 8 cm were taken. Half of the small beams from the vaporized logs were once again submitted to vaporization under the same previously described conditions for a period of 3 hours, thus obtaining three different levels of comparison (control, vaporized on logs and presteaming wood. The results showed a remarkable reduction on the crushing strength in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction with the vaporization on the two conditions and sources of Eucalyptus dunnii used. On the other hand, the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression did not show any change with the vaporization.

Clóvis Roberto Haselein

2009-10-01

267

Toxidez de zinco no crescimento e nutrição de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla em solução nutritiva / Zinc toxicity on growth and nutrition of Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalyptus urophylla in nutrient solution  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de doses excessivas de Zn no crescimento e nutrição do eucalipto, em casa de vegetação. Mudas de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla foram crescidas em vasos contendo 2 L de solução nutritiva de Clark, adicionando-se doses crescentes de Zn: 0, 400, [...] 800, 1.200 e 1.600 miM fornecidas como ZnSO4. Após cinco semanas, as plantas exibiram clorose internerval, escurecimento das raízes e inibição do crescimento, mesmo nas doses mais baixas do metal. A dose crítica de Zn na solução (para redução de 10% na matéria seca da parte aérea) em E. maculata foi de 170,3 miM, e em E. urophylla, 73,0 miM. Os níveis críticos de toxidez de Zn na planta foram de 853 mg kg-1 em E. maculata, e 697,8 mg kg-1 em E. urophylla. Esses resultados indicam que E. maculata é mais tolerante ao Zn do que E. urophylla. Altas doses de Zn reduziram as concentrações de Fe e Ca na matéria seca da parte aérea a níveis considerados deficientes para o crescimento das duas espécies. A translocação de Fe das raízes para a parte aérea foi reduzida, independentemente da espécie, de 21% no controle para apenas 2% em 1.600 miM de Zn, indicando forte relação entre a queda na produção de matéria seca e a ocorrência da deficiência induzida de Fe nas plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of excessive doses of Zn on growth and nutrition of eucalyptus in a greenhouse experiment. Seedlings of Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalyptus urophylla were grown in pots containing 2 L of Clark's nutrient solution, adding increasing levels of Zn, i [...] n muM: 0, 400, 800, 1,200 and 1,600 supplied as ZnSO4. After five weeks, plants exhibited internerval chlorosis, dark roots and growth inhibition, even in lower metal levels. The critical metal dose in the solution, for 10% reduction of shoot dry matter, was 170.3 muM and 73.0 mM in E. maculata and E. urophylla, respectively. The plant critical toxicity levels were 853 mg kg-1 in E. maculata and 697.8 mg kg-1 in E. urophylla. These results indicate that E. maculata is more tolerant to Zn than E. urophylla. High levels of Zn reduced concentrations of Fe and Ca in shoot dry matter to levels considered deficient for the growth of both species. Translocation of Fe from roots to shoots was also reduced, independently of the species, of 21% in control to 2% in 1,600 muM Zn, indicating strong relationship among dry matter reduction and induced Fe-deficiency in plants.

Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa, Soares; Paulo Henrique, Grazziotti; José Oswaldo, Siqueira; Janice Guedes de, Carvalho; Fátima Maria Souza, Moreira.

2001-02-01

268

Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota  

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Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation of C. neoformans var. gattii in our country. A total of 100 Eucalyptus trees, distributed among 13 zones, located in the center, northeast, east and west of Santafé de Bogotá, were studied. Flowers, fruits, leaves, barks and Eucalyptus debris were collected. The samples were processed by extraction with saline solution containing antibiotics, cultured in selective media and the isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Twenty-seven isolates of 9 Cryptococcus sp. were recovered from 21 Eucalyptus trees, from 5 zones. One C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A was recovered. The Cryptococcus associated with Eucalyptus is important because this is the first study done in our country.

A. Duarte

1994-04-01

269

TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden AND Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, AS A SUPPLY FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY  

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Full Text Available This work was carried out at Universidade de Brasília at the Wood Products of Forestry Laboratory (IBAMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Two species of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana were studied to supply the furniture making industry. The wood of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden shows physical properties (density and retractibility and mechanical properties (static bending and hardness very suitable for the industry of wood furniture. Such characteristics are complemented by its excellent behaviour in machining and also good finishing with varnishes. The colour and patterns the wood bring to the consumers a good feeling as well as for the furnitures built with such a species. The wood of Eucalyptus cloeziana, in spite of its mechanical and physical properties higher than those of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, presents good characteristics for the manufacture of furniture. Its grey-olive colouring is consistent with a good choice and taste for the consumers. However, some precaution must be observed during the machining of the wood. This wood’s hardness makes it suitable for parquetry.

Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

2010-08-01

270

Tableros de partículas y MDF de Eucalyptus nitens: ensayos a escala industrial Particleboard and MDF using Eucalyptus nitens: Industrial scale experiments  

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Full Text Available En dos plantas industriales de MASISA S.A. se fabricaron tableros de partículas y MDF empleando madera de Eucalyptus nitens. La madera de E. nitens reemplazó a un 20% del tradicional Pinus radiata en la fabricación de tableros de partículas y en un 100% en MDF. Los parámetros de producción permanecieron tal como se fijan para la producción con pino radiata. Las propiedades de los tableros de partículas cumplieron con los estándares que se fija MASISA S.A. para su producción normal. Los tableros MDF no lograron satisfacer estos estándares. Se recomienda continuar la investigación para mejorar las propiedades de los tableros MDF. Pese a lo anterior, los valores obtenidos permiten aseverar que, con algunas correcciones al proceso, se podrán producir tableros MDF con Eucalyptus nitens.Particleboard containing 20% Eucalyptus nitens, and MDF consisting of 100% Eucalyptus nitens wood were produced industrially at two plants owned by the company MASISA S.A. Normal production parameters for Pinus radiata were maintained. The particleboard produced had the same mechanical and physical properties that MASISA S.A. achieves under normal conditions for Pinus radiata. The MDF panels containing E. nitens did not reach industrial standards. Further investigations are necessary to achieve the required mechanical and physical property standards for MDF boards. The investigation of the properties of these panels indicated that with some process corrections, it will be possible to produce MDF using Eucalyptus nitens.

BRUNO GORRINI

2004-12-01

271

Tableros de partículas y MDF de Eucalyptus nitens: ensayos a escala industrial / Particleboard and MDF using Eucalyptus nitens: Industrial scale experiments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En dos plantas industriales de MASISA S.A. se fabricaron tableros de partículas y MDF empleando madera de Eucalyptus nitens. La madera de E. nitens reemplazó a un 20% del tradicional Pinus radiata en la fabricación de tableros de partículas y en un 100% en MDF. Los parámetros de producción permaneci [...] eron tal como se fijan para la producción con pino radiata. Las propiedades de los tableros de partículas cumplieron con los estándares que se fija MASISA S.A. para su producción normal. Los tableros MDF no lograron satisfacer estos estándares. Se recomienda continuar la investigación para mejorar las propiedades de los tableros MDF. Pese a lo anterior, los valores obtenidos permiten aseverar que, con algunas correcciones al proceso, se podrán producir tableros MDF con Eucalyptus nitens. Abstract in english Particleboard containing 20% Eucalyptus nitens, and MDF consisting of 100% Eucalyptus nitens wood were produced industrially at two plants owned by the company MASISA S.A. Normal production parameters for Pinus radiata were maintained. The particleboard produced had the same mechanical and physical [...] properties that MASISA S.A. achieves under normal conditions for Pinus radiata. The MDF panels containing E. nitens did not reach industrial standards. Further investigations are necessary to achieve the required mechanical and physical property standards for MDF boards. The investigation of the properties of these panels indicated that with some process corrections, it will be possible to produce MDF using Eucalyptus nitens.

BRUNO, GORRINI; HERNAN, POBLETE; GONZALO, HERNANDEZ; FERNANDO, DUNN.

2004-12-01

272

Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii: (II sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas em função das coletas e estações do ano  

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Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a técnica de miniestaquia na clonagem de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii ao longo das estações do ano quanto à sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas. As minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas durante 352 dias em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico em leito de areia com solução nutritiva fornecida por gotejamento, efetuando-se 27 coletas sucessivas de brotações durante as quatro estações do ano (primavera, verão, outono e inverno. Mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca durante 10 segundos em solução hidroalcoólica (1:1 v/v de concentração de 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco repetições e vinte miniestacas por repetição. O enraizamento das miniestacas variou conforme o clone e mostrou-se muito sensível às estações do ano e às oscilações da temperatura. Os melhores índices de enraizamento foram registrados nas estações mais frias onde variou de 19,59% a 56,20% e os menores nas estações mais quentes, com 4,62% a 8,50%. Os clones H19 e H20 apresentaram os maiores índices de enraizamento nas quatro estações do ano.

Gilvano Ebling Brondani

2010-09-01

273

BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus spp. STANDS IN SMALL RURAL PROPERTIES IN VERA CRUZ, RS  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2, 4, 6 and 8 year-old Eucalyptus spp. stands, in the municipality of Vera Cruz, RS. The eucalyptus biomass sampling consisted of felling 24 trees, 6 trees per age, distributed in three diametric classes. The understory and litter compartments were also sampled. The estimated biomass was 26.70; 44.55; 192.67 and 232.93 Mg ha-1 in eucalyptus; 1.87; 1.97; 4.37 and 8.24 Mg ha-1 in understory and 4,05; 5,98; 11,80 and 12,28 Mg ha-1 in the litter, totaling 32.62; 52.50; 208.84 and 253.45 Mg ha-1, respectively, in 2, 4, 6 and 8 year stands. Except for the wood, all the other components of eucalyptus trees showed a decrease in relative biomass with the increase of age.

Mauro Valdir Schumacher

2011-03-01

274

Eucalyptus oil as a cosolvent in water-ethanol-gasoline mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solubility data for water-ethanol-petrol-eucalyptus oil blends studied over the temperature range of -30 to 40 degrees C are presented. The addition of eucalyptus oil as a cosolvent resulted in a significant depression of the cloud point temperature. Individual components of the eucalyptus oil were examined for their effect on the system, and results showed that most had little effect. Piperitone was the most effective, but 1,8-cineole was the most promising practical material. The ternary phase equilibrium data for the system water-petrol-ethanol were determined over the whole composition range at 0 and 25 degrees C; the addition of about 5% 1,8-cineole to petrol increased the single-phase area by more than 11%. The tie-line data were also obtained. These results suggest that eucalyptus oils, particularly those with high 1,8-cineole content, are potential cosolvents for hydrated ethanol fuel blends. 14 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Barton, A.F.M.; Tjandra, J.

1989-01-01

275

Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utiliz [...] ation assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T). From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

Eder, Marques; Carlos H., Uesugi; Marisa A.S.V., Ferreira; Denise V. de, Rezende.

2012-12-01

276

Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T. From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

Eder Marques

2012-12-01

277

Species adaptability, seed availability and prospects for improvement of eucalyptus in Minas Gerais  

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As part of a continuing study into possible improvement of Eucalyptus spp. in plantations, data are presented from all existing trials and experimental plantings in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Growth, uniformity, form and fruiting are indicated.

Ferrevia, M.; Balloni, E.A.; Pinto, J.E. Jr.; Jacob, W.S.

1978-01-01

278

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil  

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The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

Callisto, M.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Moreno, P.

2002-01-01

279

PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

2007-06-01

280

BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES  

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Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it was the most dimensionally instable clone, whereas considering maximum volumetric shrinkage, clone 1 was the most stable. Eucalyptus grandis presented the least basic density and was the most stable, while Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density and was the most dimensionally instable.

Djeison Cesar Batista

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Eucalyptus plantations for energy production in Hawaii. Technical status report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress made on accomplishing research objectives is reported. The objectives of this project are: (1) to increase the biomass production of Eucalyptus; (2) to determine the optimum requirements to maximize yield; (3) to assess planting, cultivation, harvesting, and transportation equipment requirements; (4) to determine the optimum mixture of biomass (eucalyptus and bagasse) at the generator for the production of electricity; and (5) to evaluate a complete production/conversion system which utilized optimum management conditions in relationship to costs. (DMC)

1980-07-14

282

Productive Performance and Immunocompetence of Commercial Laying Hens Given Diets Supplemented with Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of Eucalyptus leaf powder supplementation on productive performance and immune response of brown Hy-line laying hens. Sixty brown Hy-line layers were equally divided into four groups. They were fed diet containing 0, 1, 2 and 3g Eucalyptus leaf powder/kg diet form 46 to 54 weeks of age. Egg production (weight and number was recorded daily. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded every 4 weeks. Cell mediated immunity was determined at 54 weeks of age. At the end of the experiment, internal and external egg quality measurements were determined. The present results revealed that supplementation of Eucalyptus at the rate of 3g/kg diet significantly increased egg number compared to the other groups. Likewise, the hens fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus produced significantly higher egg mass compared to remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference among treated groups for egg weight. There was no significant difference among treated groups for all egg quality traits, except for breaking strength. Whereas the eggs produced from hen fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus had a significantly higher breaking strength compared to other treated groups. With respect to immune response, it could be noticed that the hens fed diets supplemented with 2 or 3g Eucalyptus were significantly hyper responder to PHA-P injection compared to other groups. Moreover, the Eucalyptus supplementation at the rate of 2 and 3g/kg diet significantly decreased the H/L ratio of laying hens. In summary, the current experiment has shown that the inclusion of Eucalyptus at the level of 3g/kg diet is useful for improving the productive performance and immunity of commercial laying hens.

A.M. Abd El - Motaal

2008-01-01

283

Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions  

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Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) re...

Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Araújo Pedro; Brito Michael dos; Souza Uiara; Viana Julianade Oliveira Fernandes; Mazzafera Paulo

2012-01-01

284

Influence of NPK fertilization on the yield of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a species of eucalyptus with potential for establishment of planted forests in the savannah area of Roraima. Little is known about the appropriate management of E. camaldulensis in the conditions of the savannah of Roraima, and for this reason, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the production of essential oil of t...

Ricardo Carvalho Santos; Antonio Alves de Melo Filho; Habdel Nasser Rocha da Costa; Francisco dos Santos Panero; Hosana Carolina dos Santos Barreto; Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa; Hélio Tonini; Rita de Cássia Pompeu de Sousa

2011-01-01

285

Eucalyptus pellita as a source of resistance to rust, ceratocystis wilt and leaf blight  

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Rust (Puccinia psidii), ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) and cylindrocladium leaf blight (Cylindrocladium pteridis) are important diseases of eucalyptus. Planting of resistant genotypes is the most suitable control strategy of forest diseases under field condition. Resistance level of 23 Eucalyptus pellita clones was evaluated by artificial inoculations. Among the inoculated clones, 12 were resistant to rust, 16 to ceratocystis wilt and 12 to cylindrocladium leaf blight, and three o...

Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; Miranda Titon; Douglas Lau; Leonardo Novaes Rosse; Leonardo Sarno Soares Oliveira; Carla Cristina Gonçalves Rosado; Guilherme Gegenheiner Ornelas Christo; Acelino Couto Alfenas

2010-01-01

286

Novel species of Calonectria associated with Eucalyptus leaf blight in Southeast China  

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Leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. is an important disease occurring on Eucalyptus trees grown in plantations of Southeast Asia. Symptoms of leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. have recently been observed in commercial Eucalyptus plantations in FuJian Province in Southeast China. The aim of this study was to identify these Calonectria spp. employing morphological characteristics, DNA sequence comparisons for the ?-tubulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor-1? gene regions ...

Chen, S. F.; Lombard, L.; Roux, J.; Xie, Y. J.; Wingfield, M. J.; Zhou, X. D.

2011-01-01

287

Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus Estabilidade de agregados em solos cultivados com eucalipto  

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The objective of this work was to evaluate the aggregate stability of tropical soils under eucalyptus plantation and native vegetation, and assess the relationships between aggregate stability and some soil chemical and physical properties. Argisols, Cambisol, Latosols and Plinthosol within three eucalyptus-cultivated regions, in the states of Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais, Brazil, were studied. For each region, soils under native vegetation were compared to those under ...

Junior Cesar Avanzi; Lloyd Darrell Norton; Marx Leandro Naves Silva; Nilton Curi; Anna Hoffmann Oliveira; Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

2011-01-01

288

Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood  

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The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm) were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed...

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori; Eduardo Schneid; Darci Alberto Gatto; Rafael Beltrame; Diego Martins Stangerlin

2012-01-01

289

LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL STRAIN IN DIFFERENT SPACING AND AGES IN HYBRID CLONE OF Eucalyptus  

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The utilization of Eucalyptus as supplier of raw-material for sawmills has been progressively increased. Trees of bothbest quality and dimensions represent an important market requirement. Therefore, the effects of forestry treats on the woodcharacteristics must be evaluated. This work veriied the influence of the spacing and of the age in the longitudinal residual strain(LRS), associated to the growth stresses, in clones of Eucalyptus. For determining LRS it was utilised an extensometer CIRA...

Antônio Américo Cardoso Junior; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcísio Lima; Sebastião Carlos da Silva Rosado; Lourival Marin Mendes

2005-01-01

290

Estimate of the crop coefficient for Eucalyptus cultivated under irrigation during initial growth  

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The expansion in areas planted with eucalyptus crops has raised concern about the effects these may have on water resources and existing correlations between water use and crop productivity, which calls for better understanding of water requirements by plant species. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of an irrigated eucalyptus crop, having the estimated dual crop coefficient (dual Kc) as a reference. Mean values found for estimated crop coefficients were 0.57...

Maria Emília Borges Alves; Everardo Chartuni Mantovani; Gilberto Chohaku Sediyama; Júlio César Lima Neves

2013-01-01

291

Influence of leaf area reduction on clonal production of eucalyptus seedlings  

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Clonal production of eucalyptus seedlings has made considerable progress in recent years. Significant developments havetaken place in irrigation and fertilization systems as well as in management of clonal miniorchards. However, the proportion of leaf area instem minicuttings remains almost the same as that used in macrocutting systems. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of leaf area reductionon seedling production of eight eucalyptus clones. The experiment was conducted over a period of ...

Reynaldo Campos Santana; Tiago Reis Dutra; José Pereira Carvalho Neto; Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira; Paulo Henrique Grazziotti; Nairam Félix de Barros Filho

2010-01-01

292

Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory  

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Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava) or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and sho...

Harley Nonato de Oliveira; José Cola Zanuncio; Eder Pin Pedruzzi; Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

2005-01-01

293

Identification of PCR-based markers linked to wood splitting in Eucalyptus grandis  

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Wood splitting is a defect in eucalyptus which results in considerable losses when converting logs to solid wood products. Commonly in forestry, molecular markers are identified through studying pedigrees from a single cross. This limits the application of these markers to that population. Here we report the identification of putative molecular markers linked to wood splitting in an open-pollinated Eucalyptus grandis population. Although the power to detect molecular markers in this populatio...

Barros, Eugenia; Verryn, Steve; Hettasch, Marianne

2002-01-01

294

Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi  

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Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolithus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R....

VOIGT EDUARDO LUIZ; OLIVEIRA VETÚRIA LOPES DE; RANDI ÁUREA MARIA

2000-01-01

295

Temporal composition of tannin and carbohydrate content in Eucalyptus leaves in South Africa  

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In South Africa, the genus Eucalyptus plays an important role as a plantation tree and hence forms a major economic component in the forest sector. An insect pest of these Eucalyptus species, Gonipterus scutellatus, causes periodic defoliation in the plantations. Plants have extraordinary array of chemicals (secondary metabolites), which defend them from herbivores. This study reports on the seasonal variation of the tannin concentration and carbohydrate content of the le...

Moleki, Rorisang Anna Confidence

2005-01-01

296

MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL  

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Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

André Fredo

2009-09-01

297

The Comparison of Eucalyptus Aqueous Extract and Insulin on Blood Sugar and Liver Enzymes in Diabetic Male Rats  

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Background: Since eucalyptus is a traditional plant which has been consumed as antidiabetic in herbal medicines, the aim of this survey was to compare the effect of eucalyptus aqueous extract and insulin on serum blood sugar and liver enzymes in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic male rats. Material & Methods: The experiment was performed on four groups of rats: sham control (A), diabetic control (B), diabetic (C) which received insulin and diabetic group (D) which consumed Eucalyptus aqueous extr...

Ahmadreza Shahraki; Mohammadreza Shahraki

2013-01-01

298

RELAÇÃO ENTRE CONCENTRAÇÕES FOLIARES DE CARBOIDRATOS SOLÚVEIS TOTAIS E TOLERÂNCIA AO FRIO EM DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus spp.  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da rustificação sobre a tolerância ao frio em Eucalyptus dunniiMaiden, Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptussaligna Sm., através da quantificação dos teores foliares de carboidratos solúveis totais e de prolina. Mudasdas quatro espécies (com três meses de idade e cerca de 50 cm de altura) foram submetidas a dois períodosde rustificação (0 e 21 dias de exposição a temperaturas diurna...

Mireli Moura Pitz Floriani; Cristiano André Steffens; Djalma Miler Chaves; Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante; Tiago Georg Pikart; Maitê dos Santos Ribeiro

2013-01-01

299

Peranan Perusahaan Inti Rakyat (PIR) Eucalyptus spp dan Kontribusinya Terhadap Pendapatan Petani Hutan di Kecamatan Habinsaran Kabupaten Toba Samosir  

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The aims of research were to identify role Eucalyptus Community Substance Company (CSC) to fulfil pulp raw materials for PT. Toba Pulp Lestari (PT. TPL), to identify contribution of Eucalyptus to forest farmer household, and to identify social opinion to existence Eucalyptus CSC. The research was conducted at Habinsaran District, Toba Samosir Residence, North Sumatera Province on February 2005. object of the reseacrh was forest farmer household. The research used descriptive method and ...

Nahampun, Ramayana

2012-01-01

300

STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT AND GROWTH DYNAMICS OF Eucalyptus spp., IN AN AGROSILVIPASTORAL SYSTEM ON THE CERRADO-MG  

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This work evaluated the silvicultural and productive behavior of Eucalyptus spp. under four different structuralarrangements of agrosilvipastoral system in cerrado of Minas Gerais in five points in time till 67 months of age. The experiment wasestablished in December of 1999 in a cerrado area of Votorantim Metais, in the Northwestern of Minas Gerais (Paracatu, MG, Brazil).Clonal seedlings of a natural hybrid of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh with Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake were planted f...

Gabriel Corrêa Kruschewsky; Renato Luiz Grisi Macedo; Nelson Venturin; Tadário Kamel de Oliveira

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Efecto de los sistemas de riego en la rentabilidad de plantaciones de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus) / Effect of irrigation system type on profitability of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El riego es utilizado con mayor frecuencia para establecer plantaciones, con el fin de aumentar el crecimiento y la productividad por superficie. Se estudió el efecto de tres sistemas de riego: microaspersión (T1), goteo (T2) y surco (T3), en la rentabilidad de una plantación de eucalipto (Eucalyptu [...] s globulus), en el Valle Central de la Región del Bío Bío, Chile. La variable proyectada a la edad de cosecha fue el incremento volumétrico de los árboles. Para calcular costos de T1 y T2 se usó una base de datos de 200 predios agrícolas de diferentes superficies con instalación e implementación de estos sistemas. Para T3 se aplicaron costos actualizados de construcción y mantención de las estructuras requeridas para la evaluación financiera. La rentabilidad se determinó mediante el valor actual neto (VAN), valor económico del suelo (VES), y tasa interna de retorno modificada (TIRm). La rentabilidad para T1 y T2 tuvo valores negativos, es decir, estas técnicas de riego no generaron beneficios económicos. El riego por surco (T3) fue rentable para el volumen proyectado a los ocho y diez años de edad de cosecha, obteniéndose con los tres indicadores los mayores retornos al usar una tasa de descuento de 8 % y a un precio de la madera pulpable de 32 US$ m-3 ssc. El VAN fue 989 US$ ha-1 y 1106 US$ ha-1, el VES fue 2152 y 2406 US$ ha-1, y la TIRm 10.4 % y 10.1 %. Estos resultados justifican la utilización del riego por surco (T3) como una técnica eficiente del manejo integrado para una plantación de eucalipto de alta productividad. Abstract in english Irrigation is used increasingly in establishment of forest plantations in order to increase growth and productivity. The effect on profitability of a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation in the Central Valley of the Bío Bío Region, Chile, of three irrigation systems was studied: microsprinkle [...] rs (T1), drip irrigation (T2) and surface irrigation (T3). The variable projected to harvest age was the volumetric increase of the trees. To calculate costs of T1 and T2, a database was used of 200 agricultural operations of varying size where these systems were installed and implemented. For T3, current costs of construction and maintenance of the structures required were used for financial evaluation. Profitability was determined using net present value (NPV), potential land value (PLV) and modified internal return rate (MIRR). Profitability with Tl and T2 had negative values; that is, these irrigation techniques did not generate economic benefits. Surface irrigation (T3) was profitable for the volume projected to eight and ten years harvest age. The greatest returns were obtained with the three indicators using a discount rate of 8 % and a price of pulp wood of US$ 32 m-3 ssc. NPV was US$ 989 ha-¹ and US$ 1106 ha-1; PLV was US$ 2152 and 2406 ha-1, and MIRR was 10.4 % and 10.1 %. These results justify the use of surface irrigation (T3) as an efficient technique in the integrated management of a high-producing eucalyptus plantation.

Emilio, Guerra; Miguel Á., Herrera; Fernando, Drake.

2010-02-15

302

Influência do lenho de tração nas propriedades físicas da madeira de Eucalyptus sp.  

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Full Text Available The reaction wood is formed in an attempt to remain upright tree in response to the action of forces such as winds, irregular crown or slope of the land that tend to incline it. In hardwoods, as in Eucalyptus, this type of wood is called tension wood and occurs in the region of the stem facing the face of force application. Indicative of the presence of this type of wood is the high shrinkage and basic density compared to normal wood. Once the basic density and shrinkage are parameters for determining the quality of the wood, this study aimed to evaluate the variation of basic density and shrinkage of opposite and tension wood along the radius in four species of Eucalyptus sp. Four tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus maculata, Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus urophylla, with 32 years of age, were taken from an experimental planting of the Federal University of Lavras. Specimens were made to represent the diametrical variation of the opposite of tension wood in disks cut at the dbh. The results indicate that the properties of radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage, coefficient of anisotropy and basic density did not differ statistically between the tension and opposite wood.

Thiago Campos Monteiro

2010-01-01

303

Production cost of biomasses from eucalyptus and elefant grass for energy  

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Full Text Available This work established the unit energy cost generated from biomass of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp. and elephant grass (Pennisetum sp. and applied a sensitivity analysis to verify the influences of factors such as the silviculture of eucalyptus, production volume of each species, the cost of land and the interest rate. It was shown that the treatment of eucalyptus in very short rotation of 2 years with reform of stand every 6 years has a average cost of production higher than the traditional treatment of short rotation of 6 years with reform only at the age of 18. It was also observed that eucalyptus has a Production Cost on average of R$ 4,41 /Gj, lower than the elephant grass which is on average of R$ 5,44/Gj, which however has a higher annual capacity of dry matter production. The elephant grass has the possibility to compete with eucalyptus when a set of conditions is met: discount rate higher than or equal to 8%, High price of land, and elephant grass high volume production, greater than or equal to 35 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and year.

Laurent Marie Roger Quéno

2011-09-01

304

Eucalyptus Biomass and Volume Estimation Using Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data  

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Full Text Available This work aims to establish a relationship between volume and biomass with interferometric and radiometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar response from planted Eucalyptus saligna forest stands, using multi-variable regression techniques. X and P band SAR images from the airborne OrbiSAR-1 sensor, were acquired at the study area in the southeast region of Brazil. The interferometric height (Hint = difference between interferometric digital elevation model in X and P bands, contributed to the models developed due to fact that Eucalyptus forest is composed of individuals whose structure is predominantly cylindrical and vertically oriented, and whose tree heights have great correlation with volume and biomass. The volume model showed that the stand volume was highly correlated with the interferometric height logarithm (Log10Hint, since Eucalyptus tree volume has a linear relationship with the vegetation height. The biomass model showed that the combination of both Hint2 and Canopy Scattering Index—CSI (relation of s°VV by the sum of s°VV and s°HH, which represents to the canopy interaction were used in this model, due to the fact that the Eucalyptus biomass and the trees height relationship is not linear. Both models showed a prediction error of around 10% to estimate the Eucalyptus biomass and volume, which represents a great potential to use this kind of technology to help establish Eucalyptus forest inventory for large areas.

Fábio Furlan Gama

2010-03-01

305

LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT DEPOSITION IN A SEMI-DECIDUOS MOUNTAIN FOREST, AND IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus saligna) AND BRACATINGA (Mimosa scabrella) PLANTATIONS IN AREAS DEGRADED BY MINING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nutrients elements N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were quantified in a semi-deciduos mountain forest, and in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna) and “bracatinga” (Mimosa scaabrella) plantations in areas degraded by mining, close to Poços de Caldas- MG (21º47’13” S - 46º34’10” W).In the eucalyptus annual litterfall was 7,100 kg.ha-1 with 202.4 kg.ha-1 of N, 4.4 kg.ha-1 of P, 46.2 kg.ha-1 of K, 440.2 kg.ha-1 of Ca and 54.0 kg.ha-1 of Mg. In the semi-deciduos mountain forest the annual litte...

Jeferson Antônio de Souza; Antônio Cláudio Davide

2001-01-01

306

MICROPROPAGACIÓN DE EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN EL SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden micropropagation in a temporary immersion system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo procedimiento para la multiplicación in vitro mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal de plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden procedentes de árboles elite. La mayor eficiencia de multiplicación se estableció a una frecuencia óptima de inmersión cada 12 h con una duración de 3 min. La aplicación adicional de un flujo de aire fresco cada 6 h durante 3 min disminuyó la hiperhidratación de las plantas durante el proceso. Este procedimiento comprendió dos pasos: la brotación o multiplicación múltiple y la elongación de brotes. El mejor tratamiento para la inducción de brotes axilares o multiplicación se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS con los nitratos reducidos a la mitad + 0,5 mg L-1 de benciladenina (BA, con volúmenes de 55,5 mL por grupo de brotes durante tres semanas. La elongación tuvo lugar en el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS más ácido indolbutírico (AIB 1,0 g L-1, durante tres semanas. La utilización de este protocolo permitió obtener un promedio de 260 plantas competentes de E. grandis. Las plantas con tamaño mayor a 2 cm se relacionaron positivamente con una mayor supervivencia durante la fase de aclimatización.A new procedure is described for in vitro multiplication using the temporary immersion system for plants (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden coming from elite trees. The optimum multiplication frequency was established at every 12 h with a duration of 3 min. The additional application of a stream of fresh air every 6 h for 3 min diminished the hyper-hydration of the plants during the process. The procedure involved two steps: shooting and elongation of buds. The best treatment for induction of axillary buds was obtained in the culture medium MS (Murashige and Skoog with the nitrates reduced to half strength plus 0.5 benciladenin (BA mg L-1, with volumes of 55.5 mL per group of buds for three weeks. The elongation took place in the MS culture medium plus indol butiric acid (IBA 1.0 g L-1 for three weeks. The use of this protocol allows producing an average of 260 competent plants of E. grandis. Shoots taller than 2 cm were positively related with higher survival during the acclimatization phase.

Dagoberto Castro R.

2002-01-01

307

A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA  

Science.gov (United States)

The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

308

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels  

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Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2013-06-01

309

Virulência de estirpes (biovar 1 e 2T) de Ralstonia solanaceraum a Eucalyptus spp. / Virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum strains (biovar 1 and 2T) to Eucalyptus spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A murcha bacteriana do eucalipto (Raça 3 biovar 2T de Ralstonia solanacearum) foi descrita em 2009 em campo com o híbrido de eucalipto urograndis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a virulência de duas estirpes de R. solanacearum a dezessete espécies de Eucalyptus, através do teste de microbioli [...] zação de sementes. A análise estatística dentre espécies mostrou que a virulência variou entre as estirpes estudadas. A virulência da R3bv2T foi significativamente maior em: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei e E. phaeotricha; e maior para R1bv1 somente na espécie E. pellita. Entre espécies de eucalipto, observou-se maior suscetibilidade em "urograndis", E. grandis e E. paniculata para R3bv2T; e em E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua e E. resinifera devido a R1bv1. Abstract in english The bacterial wilt of Eucalyptus (Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 biovar 2T) was reported in field of Eucalyptus hybrid urograndis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the virulence of two R. solanacearum strains to 17 Eucalyptus species, using the seed microbiolization method for pathogen [...] inoculation. The results of the statistical analyses showed that virulence varied between the two R. solanacearum strains. The R3bv2T virulence was higher than the one in R1bv1 in the following Eucalyptus species: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei, and E. phaeotricha. The virulence of the R1bv1 strain was higher only in E. pellita. Among species of Eucalyptus the following ones were more susceptibles: to R3bv2T strain - urograndis, E. grandis and E. paniculata, and to R1bv1 strain - E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua and E. resinifera.

Eder, Marques; Carlos Hidemi, Uesugi; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum.

1952-19-01

310

Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production / Análise multivariada aplicada à avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se selecionar clones de Eucalyptus com finalidades energéticas, utilizando as técnicas multivariadas de componentes principais e de agrupamento. Foram avaliados 25 clones de Eucalyptus aos 54 meses de idade. Foram determinados os teores dos componentes elementares (C, H e O [...] ), de lignina, extrativos totais e cinzas, a densidade básica, o poder calorífico superior e a densidade energética. As duas técnicas multivariadas empregadas para a avaliação e seleção dos clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia foram eficientes, sendo observadas similaridades entre os grupos de biomassa formados por elas. Pela análise de agrupamento, foram obtidos cinco grupos distintos, sendo que o grupo um, formado pelo clone U060, possui maior potencial como fonte de energia. Os clones G084, G122, G023 e U108 possuem menor desempenho energético. Abstract in english This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, [...] H and O), lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

Allan Motta, Couto; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

2013-12-01

311

A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species. PMID:25632486

Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

2014-12-01

312

Qualidade de painéis aglomerados homogêneos produzidos com a madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla / Quality of homogeneous particleboard produced with Eucalyptus urophylla clone wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de painéis aglomerados homogêneos de baixa densidade. Foram avaliados seis clones de Eucalyptus urophylla com 94 meses de idade, plantados no municipio de Paracatu-MG, sendo utilizada como parâmetro de [...] comparação a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Para cada clone de Eucalyptus urophylla e também para o Pinus oocarpa foram produzidos seis painéis com o adesivo uréia-formaldeido no teor de 6%, densidade nominal de 0,60 g/cm³, pressão especifica de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de 8 minutos. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram potencial para produção de painéis aglomerados convencionais de baixa densidade. Os clones 62 e 28 obtiveram os melhores resultados em todas as propriedades fisico-mecânicas avaliadas, apresentando propriedades iguais ou superiores as obtidas para os painéis produzidos com a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Com relação à norma de comercialização CS 236/1966 apenas o clone 28 atendeu a todos os requisitos. Nenhum dos clones avaliados atendeu a norma EN 312/2003. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla clones to produce homogeneous particleboard of low-density. Six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla were evaluated, at 94 months of age and planted in Paracatu-MG. Pinus oocarpa wood was used as a reference. For each Eucalyptus urophylla c [...] lone and also for Pinus oocarpa, six panels were produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive in the concentration of 6%, nominal density of 0.60 g/cm³, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm², temperature of 160ºC and a time of 8 minutes. Eucalyptus urophylla clones presented potential for production of conventional particleboard of low density. Clones 62 and 28 showed the best results for all physical and mechanical properties evaluated, presenting properties equal or superior to those obtained for the panels produced with Pinus oocarpa wood. In relation to CS 236/1966 standard, only the clone 28 met all the requirements. None of the clones meets EN 312/2003 standard.

Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Lilian Lima, Mendonça; José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Fábio Akira, Mori.

2014-06-01

313

Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea / Production of plywood with different composition from Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x [...] 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1) painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4); e (2) painéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10). Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of structural plywood manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis, var. bahamensis, using different board compositions. It was manufactured experimental panels measuring 50 x 50 cm composed [...] by 5 veneers with 2.2 mm thickness, according to following compositions: (1) panels with all veneers of Eucalytpus saligna and Pinuscaribaea (T1 to T4); (2) panels with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna mixed with Pinus caribaea (T5 to T10). The panels completely manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna showed higher values of glue line shear strength, parallel and perpendicular MOE and MOR. The panel compositions using the veneers of both species with alternate position in the layer did not effectively influence the properties of glue line shear strength, perpendicular MOE and MOR. The placing of Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of plywood resulted in higher values of parallel MOE and MOR. The results of mechanical properties of plywood evaluated in this study were satisfactory in comparison to the control values of the literature and with those the minimum values required by technical standards, indicating the feasibility of production of "combi" type plywood using different veneer combination of hardwood and softwood species.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; Erika da Silva, Ferreira; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski.

2012-06-01

314

Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

315

Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da mad [...] eira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste), com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas. Abstract in english Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla [...] x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning), with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

Fabricio Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Mario, Tomazelo Filho.

2010-10-01

316

Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning, with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

2010-10-01

317

THERMAL MODIFICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD: VARIATION OF COLORIMETRIC PARAMETERS  

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Full Text Available The color modifications in Eucalyptus grandis thermally modified wood were investigated. One hundred eighty specimens (10 x 10 x 200 mm were prepared and thermally modified in an electric kiln for 4 and 8 h at 180-240ºC. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h* and ?E were determined by the CIE-L*a*b* method on radial and tangential sections of untreated and treated wood. The results indicated the darkening of specimens in the radial and tangential sections. Both sections showed variation of L* between 73 and 30, a* between 9 and 5 and b* between 20 and 8. The thermally modified wood at 180 and 200ºC showed similar patterns, equally at 220 and 240ºC. The time of exposure indicated significance just in treatment at 200ºC.

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

2013-01-01

318

Características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake / Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a variabilidade existente nas características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla aos 6 anos, plantado no município de Martinho Campos, MG. As árvores foram distribuídas em três classes de diâmetro e a amostragem consistiu na ret [...] irada de discos, de 2,5 cm de espessura, a 2%, 10%, 30% e 70% da altura comercial, além de um a 1,30 m do solo (DAP) e, a partir deste ponto, de metro em metro até a altura comercial. Foram tomadas amostras ao longo do raio nos discos, considerando os dois lados em relação à medula. As amostras foram carbonizadas em forno elétrico de laboratório, sendo determinados os rendimentos e a qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que para a primeira carbonização, a classe diamétrica influenciou significativamente o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão vegetal, em líquido pirolenhoso e o teor de cinza do carvão vegetal produzido, e que o rendimento em gás não condensável, o teor de materiais voláteis e o de carbono fixo não foram influenciados pela classe diamétrica; para a segunda carbonização o rendimento gravimétrico aumentou da casca para a medula, para todas as classes diamétricas e ocorreu redução dessa característica com a diminuição das classes diamétricas e que os valores de densidade relativa aparente tenderam a aumentar no sentido medula-casca, em todas as classes diamétricas. Abstract in english This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted [...] of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH) and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade.

2013-09-01

319

Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill  

Science.gov (United States)

Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

2008-08-01

320

THERMAL MODIFICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD: VARIATION OF COLORIMETRIC PARAMETERS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The color modifications in Eucalyptus grandis thermally modified wood were investigated. One hundred eighty specimens (10 x 10 x 200 mm) were prepared and thermally modified in an electric kiln for 4 and 8 h at 180-240ºC. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h* and ?E) were determined by the CIE-L* [...] a*b* method on radial and tangential sections of untreated and treated wood. The results indicated the darkening of specimens in the radial and tangential sections. Both sections showed variation of L* between 73 and 30, a* between 9 and 5 and b* between 20 and 8. The thermally modified wood at 180 and 200ºC showed similar patterns, equally at 220 and 240ºC. The time of exposure indicated significance just in treatment at 200ºC.

Pedro Henrique, Gonzalez de Cademartori; Eduardo, Schneid; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Diego, Martins Stangerlin; Rafael, Beltrame.

2013-05-28

 
 
 
 
321

QUALITY OF SAWN TIMBER DRYING OF Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

2009-09-01

322

Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work provides an assessment on the fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus wood by sequential stages of autohydrolysis (to cause the solubilization of hemicelluloses) and organosolv pulping (to dissolve lignin, leaving solids enriched in cellulose). With this approach, valuable products (hemicellulose-derived saccharides, sulphur-free lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates with low contents of residual hemicelluloses) are obtained in separate streams, according to the biomass refinery approach. Autohydrolysis was carried out under optimized operational conditions, and organosolv pulping was performed using uncatalyzed ethanol-water solutions. The effects of the most influential operational variables (autohydrolysis severity, delignification temperature and ethanol concentration in the organosolv stage) on solid yield, solid composition, cellulose susceptibility and recovery of the various fractions was assessed using statistical methods, which enabled the identification of the most favourable operational conditions. PMID:21392966

Romaní, Aloia; Garrote, Gil; López, Francisco; Parajó, Juan Carlos

2011-05-01

323

Resistance of Eucalyptus pellita to rust (Puccinia psidii  

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Full Text Available Eucalypts rust (Puccinia psidii is currently one of the major diseases in commercial eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The primary method of disease control is the use of resistant genotypes, and, among the different species of Eucalyptus, E. pellita is indicated as a promising source of resistance. In this work, the genetic control of rust resistance in E. pellita through inoculations under controlled conditions of 441 plants from four full-sibling families was studied. Inoculations were performed using the monopostular isolate UFV-2, race 1. All families tested segregated for rust resistance, and the number of resistant plants was higher than susceptible in all crosses. Inheritance models based on few genes did not fully explain the observed segregation patterns, and the narrow-sense heritability of rust resistance was estimated between 32.7% and 37.3%. The results suggested that rust resistance in E. pellita is complex and is controlled by major- and minor-effect genes.

Marisângela Rodrigues Santos

2014-11-01

324

Yield models for Eucalyptus globulus fuelwood plantations in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on 53 tree analyses and 105 sample plots of Eucalyptus globulus, models for volume and biomass at single tree and stand levels were developed. The possible growing sites were divided into four site classes. In seedling stands, the site class I corresponds to yield class 44 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 46 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The site class IV corresponds in seedling stand to yield class 9 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 13 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The maximum mean annual increment was reached in seedling stands at the age of 18-19 years, in coppice stands at the age of 14 years. (author).

Pukkala, T.; Pohjonen, V. (Joensuu Univ. (FI). Faculty of Forestry)

1990-01-01

325

Seleção de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de compensados / Selection of clones of Eucalyptus urophylla for plywood production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a avaliação de 6 clones oriundos da Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) para a confecção de painéis compensados multilaminados. Foram produzidos 6 painéis para cada clone estudado. Utilizou-se adesivo fenol-formaldeído com gramatura de 320g/m². O c [...] iclo de prensagem seguiu os seguintes parâmetros: pressão de 1,47MPa, temperatura de 150ºC e tempo de 10 minutos. A partir dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla se apresentam com grande potencial para a produção de painéis compensados multilaminados, uma vez que apresentaram valores de suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima dos referenciados em literatura e, significativamente, superiores aos exigidos pelas normas ABNT 31:000.05-00/2 (flexão estática) e EN 314-2 (resistência ao cisalhamento), sendo considerados para uso como forma de concreto (FOR). O clone que se destacou em todas as propriedades físico-mecânicas, com melhores resultados, foi o 36. Abstract in english This work aimed at the evaluation of six (6) Eucalyptus urophylla clones of Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) for making particleboard panels. Six (6) panels to each clone studies were produced. About 320g/m² of Phenol phormol aldehyde adhesives Were utilized. The pressing c [...] ycle parameters were: pressure of 1.47MPa, temperature of 150ºC and 10 minutes of pressing time. It was concluded that clones of Eucalyptus urophylla show a great potential for production of particleboard panels, since they presented values of physical and mechanical properties above the ones referenced in literature and highly superior to those required by the ABNT Standards 31:000.05-00/2 (static bending) and EN 314-2 (shearing resistance), the tested clones can be used for producing concrete mold (FOR). The clone which stood out the most in all the properties tested was the clone 36.

José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Bárbara Maria Ribeiro, Guimarães; Stefânia Lima, Oliveira.

2012-12-01

326

Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

Goodger Jason QD

2010-09-01

327

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS  

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Full Text Available A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2 are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungal isolate OP4MT2 showed highest zone of inhibition (20 mm against Penicillium chrysogenum among two test fungi. The crude ethyl acetate extract of P3MT1 isolate showed highest zone of inhibition against Candida albicans (19 mm by both well and disc diffusion method when compared to other fungal isolates. Another four fungal isolates (P3ML1, P6MT1, P5MT1 and P2MT1 from the same set of thirty isolates showed positive for the secretion of amylase, protease and laccase enzymes in agar plate method. Two endophytic fungal isolates (P6MT1 & P2MT1 among thirty are able to oxidize guaiacol indicating the presence of Lignin degrading enzymes. Four fungal isolates indicated presence of laccase enzymes by qualitative test were able to decolorize both methylene blue and aniline blue (synthetic dyes in solid and liquid media. The quantitative estimation of percent decolorization of synthetic dyes by spectrophotometric method confirmed more than 90 % reduction in color is made possible by the endophytic fungi. All these fungal strains with good bioactivity are of worth studying in detail for the purification and characterization of the active compounds and enzymes.

K. Ananda et al

2012-08-01

328

Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.  

Science.gov (United States)

A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. PMID:22960456

González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

2012-11-01

329

Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

2011-07-01

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Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils Potencial de onze espécies de eucalipto para a produção de óleos essenciais  

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Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aimi...

Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva; José Otávio Brito; Francides Gomes da Silva Junior

2006-01-01

331

Resistance of Eucalyptus pellita to rust (Puccinia psidii) / Resistência à ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) em Eucalyptus pellita  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) é atualmente uma das principais enfermidades em plantios comerciais de eucalipto no Brasil. Dentre as diferentes espécies de eucalipto, Eucalyptus pellita é apontada como uma promissora fonte de resistência. Neste trabalho estudou-se o controle genético da r [...] esistência à ferrugem em E. pellita por meio de inoculações em condições controladas de 441 plantas oriundas de quatro progênies. As inoculações foram realizadas com o isolado monopostular UFV-2, raça 1. Todas as progênies segregaram para resistência à ferrugem, sendo o número de plantas resistentes superior em todos os cruzamentos. Modelos de herança baseados em poucos genes não explicaram totalmente os padrões de segregação obtidos. A herdabilidade no sentido restrito da resistência à ferrugem foi estimada entre 32,7% a 37,3%. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a resistência à ferrugem em E. pellita é complexa, sendo governada por genes de efeito maior e menor. Abstract in english Eucalypts rust (Puccinia psidii) is currently one of the major diseases in commercial eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The primary method of disease control is the use of resistant genotypes, and, among the different species of Eucalyptus, E. pellita is indicated as a promising source of resistance. [...] In this work, the genetic control of rust resistance in E. pellita through inoculations under controlled conditions of 441 plants from four full-sibling families was studied. Inoculations were performed using the monopostular isolate UFV-2, race 1. All families tested segregated for rust resistance, and the number of resistant plants was higher than susceptible in all crosses. Inheritance models based on few genes did not fully explain the observed segregation patterns, and the narrow-sense heritability of rust resistance was estimated between 32.7% and 37.3%. The results suggested that rust resistance in E. pellita is complex and is controlled by major- and minor-effect genes.

Marisângela Rodrigues, Santos; Lúcio Mauro da Silva, Guimarães; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende; Leonardo Novaes, Rosse; Karina Carnielli, Zamprogno; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

2014-12-01

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Avaliação biomecânica de atividades de produção de mudas de Eucalyptus ssp. / Biomechanical evaluation of activities of Eucalyptus ssp. seedling production  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa foi desenvolvida a partir de dados coletados em viveiro florestal, no Vale do Rio Doce, MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a biomecânica de atividades de produção de mudas de Eucalyptus spp. Essa avaliação foi realizada através da análise bidimensional utilizando-se a técnica de gravação em vi [...] deoteipe, sendo os movimentos "congelados" para medição dos ângulos dos diversos segmentos corpóreos. As forças envolvidas foram medidas para aplicação do modelo biomecânico bidimensional de predição de posturas e forças estáticas, por meio de programa computacional desenvolvido pela Universidade de Michigan, dos Estados Unidos. O transporte manual de mudas utilizando carrinho foi a única atividade que apresentou força de compressão do disco da coluna acima da carga-limite superior; e todas as atividades avaliadas ultrapassaram essa carga, recomendada em pelo menos uma fase do ciclo e em pelo menos uma articulação. Abstract in english This study was based on data collected in a nursery located in the municipality of Rio Doce, MG, to evaluate the biomechanics of activities of Eucalyptus spp seedling production. The evaluation was carried out by the bidimensional analysis with the use of the videotape recording technique, with the [...] images of movements frozen to measure the angles of the several body segments. The involved forces were measured in order to apply the biomechanical bidimensional model for the prediction of postures and static forces, using a software developed by the University of Michigan, US. The seedling transport with a pushcart was the only activity presenting compression force on the spinal disc above the superior load limit; and all the studied activities surpassed the load limit recommended in at least one phase of the cycle and in at least one articulation.

José Urbano, Alves; Amaury Paulo de, Souza; Luciano José, Minette; José Mauro, Gomes; Kátia Regina da, Silva; Marcio Alves, Marçal; Emília Pio da, Silva.

2006-06-01

333

Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculação. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto.Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4 urediniospores /mL and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

Edival Ângelo Valverde Zauza

2008-10-01

334

Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus / Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculaç [...] ão. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin) against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4) [...] urediniospores /mL) and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

Edival Ângelo Valverde, Zauza; Michele Margarido Fonseca, Couto; Luiz Ântonio, Maffia; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

2008-10-01

335

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Four Cultivated Eucalyptus Species in Iran as Medicinal Plants (E. microtheca, E. spathulata, E. largiflorens and E. torquata  

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Full Text Available The leaves of four cultivated Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus microtheca var. Microtheca F.Muell., Eucalyptus spathulata, Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus torquata were collected in spring from Kashan and Isfahan provinces (central region of Iran. After drying the plant materials in shade, their essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography, using flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Twenty-two components were identified in the oil of Eucalyptus microtheca with 1,8-cineole (34.0%, p-cymene (12.4%, ?-pinene (10.7% and ?-pinene (10.5% as main constituents.Twenty-one compounds were identified in the oil of Eucalyptus spathulata with 1,8-cineole (72.5% and ?-pinene (12.7% as main components. Twenty-six compounds were characterized in the oil of Eucalyptus largiflorens with 1,8-cineole (37.5%, p-cymene (17.4% and neoisoverbenol (9.1% as main components. Sixteen compounds were characterized in the oil of Eucalyptus torquata with 1,8-cineole (66.9% ?-pinene (13.9% and trans-pinocarveol (6.3% as main constituents. The results showed that although the 1,8-cineole was the main component of the essential oils of all Eucalyptus species, but its relative content was higher in the oil of Eucalyptus spathulata and Eucalyptus torquata.

Fatemeh Sefidkon

2007-01-01

336

Australian Insects Affecting Eucalyptus Species in Turkey Insetos Australianos que Afetam Eucaliptos na Turquia  

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Full Text Available Most Eucalyptus species are endemic to Australia, although a few were introduced into Turkey and neighbouring regions of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th century. According to the most recent national inventories, there are over 20.000 ha of eucalyptus plantations in Turkey. Seven Australian insects have recently been found on eucalyptus seedlings and trees in several parts of Turkey, in recently conducted surveys between 2000 and 2008. Of these, six are phytophagous and one is a parasitoid.The phytophagous species are: the eucalyptus gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa, Fisher and La Salle, 2004, the leaf blade gall wasp (Prelim. maskelli, Ashmead, 1900, the eucalyptus seed capsule wasp (Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae, the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae, the eucalyptus shoot psyllid (Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, and the gum-tree flower thrip (Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. Among these phytophagous species, economically important pests are L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata, and B. occidentalis. The parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleonis attacks the larva and pupae of O. maskelli.A maioria das espécies de eucalipto são originárias da Austrália, embora algumas tenham sido introduzidas na Turquia e países vizinhos no final do século XVIII. De acordo com o último inventário nacional, existem mais de 20.000 ha de plantações de eucalipto na Turquia. Prospeções efetuadas entre 2000 e 2008 detetaram sete espécies de insetos originários da Austrália em sementes e árvores de eucalipto, em várias regiões da Turquia. Seis destas espécies são fitófagas, nomeadamente: Leptocybe invasa (Fisher and La Salle, 2004, Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead, 1900, Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae,Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae, Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera Psyllidae e Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. De entre estas, as pragas mais importantes são L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata e B. occidentalis. A sétima espécie detetada é o parasitóide Closterocerus chamaeleonis, encontrado a atacar larvas e pupas de O. maskelli.

Fatih Aytar

2011-01-01

337

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.Foi estudada a influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a composição e a estrutura de comunidades de macroinvertebrados associados à macrófita aquática Salvinia auriculata Aublet, em um lago de altitude, margeado por Mata Atlântica secundária e plantações de Eucalyptus. Comparando a diversidade de larvas de Chironomidae (Díptera, Insecta entre as duas margens, foi evidenciada maior diversidade na margem com Eucalyptus. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a predominância de taxa carnívoros entre a macrofauna pode ser o principal fator controlador da diversidade de organismos nas áreas circundadas por plantações de Eucalyptus.

M. CALLISTO

2002-02-01

338

CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

Ailton Teixeira do Vale

2006-07-01

339

Estimation of strength and stiffness of Eucalyptus grandis wood by ultrasound waves Estimativa da resistência e rigidez da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por meio de onda ultrassonora  

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Full Text Available

This study aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic elastic constant obtained in non-destructive testing, as a parameter to estimate the mechanical properties of stiffness and resistance of Eucalyptus grandis. For this we used an emitter of ultrasonic waves, which had its sensitivity evaluated by comparison with the values obtained in the destructive test of static bending. The results show that the dynamic elastic constant can be used as non-destructive inference of the stiffness and resistance of Eucalyptus grandis, though with reservations, because the adjustments observed were relatively low, with R²adj. 0.25 and 0.39, respectively.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.109

O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o uso da constante elástica dinâmica obtida no ensaio não destrutivo, como parâmetro para estimativa das propriedades mecânicas de rigidez e resistência da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isto, utilizou-se um emissor de ondas ultrassônicas, o qual teve sua sensibilidade avaliada através da comparação com os valores obtidos no ensaio destrutivo de flexão estática. Os resultados evidenciam que a constante elástica dinâmica pode ser utilizada para inferência não destrutiva da rigidez e resistência da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, entretanto com ressalvas, pois os ajustes observados foram relativamente baixos, com R²aj. de 0,25 e 0,39, respectivamente.

 

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.109

Magnos Alan Vivian

2012-03-01

340

Composição do substrato sobre o desenvolvimento, qualidade e custo de produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden × Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake.  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985082Os componentes utilizados na produção de substratos influem diretamente no ciclo vegetativo, na qualidade e consequentemente nos custos de produção das mudas. Nesse experimento estudou-se o desenvolvimento, qualidade e custos de produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden × Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, por meio de propagação sexuada, utilizando 12 composições de substrato. A análise dos resultados evidenciou que os substratos puros, a exceção da fibra de coco, não apresentaram características físicas adequadas para a produção de mudas, via sexuada, de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden × Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake em tubetes. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos nos substratos com mistura 1:1 de casca de arroz carbonizada e fibra de coco e na mistura 1:1 de vermiculita e fibra de coco, devido às melhores características morfológicas apresentadas e da possibilidade de redução do tempo de produção, levando à redução no custo final das mudas.

Danilo Simões

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Sphallenum tuberosum (Coleopteria: Cerambycidae em plantas de Eucalyptus spp. no Município de Prado, Bahia Sphallenum tuberosum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Eucalyptus spp. plants in the Municipality of Prado, Bahia, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foi observada a ocorrência da coleobroca Sphallenum tuberosum Bates, 1870 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae atacando árvores de Eucalyptus cloesiana e Eucalyptus grandis no Município de Prado, Estado da Bahia, em setembro de 2002. As árvores atacadas, saudáveis ou decadentes, apresentavam troncos envoltos por cipós da família Malpighiaceae, gênero Stigmaphyllon, que serviam de suporte para penetração da broca no tronco do eucalipto. As galerias formadas por larvas de S. tuberosum apresentavam direção descendente.The woodborer Sphallenum tuberosum Bates, 1870 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae was found damaging Eucalyptus cloesiana and Eucalyptus grandis trees in the Municipality of Prado, State of Bahia, Brazil in September 2002. Damaged trees, either healthy or decadent, had liana of the genus Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae envolving their trunks which represents a support for the woodborer larvae to penetrate into trunks of eucalyptus forming downward galleries.

José Cola Zanuncio

2005-04-01

342

Sphallenum tuberosum (Coleopteria: Cerambycidae) em plantas de Eucalyptus spp. no Município de Prado, Bahia / Sphallenum tuberosum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Eucalyptus spp. plants in the Municipality of Prado, Bahia, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi observada a ocorrência da coleobroca Sphallenum tuberosum Bates, 1870 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) atacando árvores de Eucalyptus cloesiana e Eucalyptus grandis no Município de Prado, Estado da Bahia, em setembro de 2002. As árvores atacadas, saudáveis ou decadentes, apresentavam troncos envoltos [...] por cipós da família Malpighiaceae, gênero Stigmaphyllon, que serviam de suporte para penetração da broca no tronco do eucalipto. As galerias formadas por larvas de S. tuberosum apresentavam direção descendente. Abstract in english The woodborer Sphallenum tuberosum Bates, 1870 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was found damaging Eucalyptus cloesiana and Eucalyptus grandis trees in the Municipality of Prado, State of Bahia, Brazil in September 2002. Damaged trees, either healthy or decadent, had liana of the genus Stigmaphyllon (Malp [...] ighiaceae) envolving their trunks which represents a support for the woodborer larvae to penetrate into trunks of eucalyptus forming downward galleries.

José Cola, Zanuncio; Roosevelt de Paula, Almada; Marcos Franklin, Sossai; Ronald, Zanetti; Teresinha Vinha, Zanuncio; Maria do Carmo Queiroz, Fialho.

2005-04-01

343

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis / Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de u [...] na emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B). Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico. Abstract in english Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent) of an oil/water [...] emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B). Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Walter, Murillo-Arango; Pedronel, Araque Marín; Beatriz, Henao Murillo; Carlos A, Peláez Jaramillo.

2013-03-01

344

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

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Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B. Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico.Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B. Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Walter Murillo-Arango

2013-03-01

345

Weed control strip influences the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis / Faixa de controle de plantas daninhas influencia o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O reflorestamento no Brasil é normalmente realizado com uma faixa de controle de plantas daninhas de 50 cm, utilizando capina mecânica ou manual ou herbicidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da variação da largura da faixa tratadas com herbicidas sobre o estabelecimento de Eucalyptus [...] grandis. Plantas de eucalipto foram transplantadas nos municípios Araraquara e Altinópolis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em Araraquara, os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 150 cm de larguras de faixas, tratadas com herbicidas, em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto; em Altinópolis, a largura da faixa em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto foi de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 ou 150 cm. Foram avaliados a matéria seca de folhas, ramos e caule e área foliar aos 270 dias após o plantios (DAP), teor de clorofila (400 DAP) e altura e diâmentro do caule (410 DAP). Em Araraquara, a principal espécie foi Panicum maximum, em Altinópolis, foi Rhynchelytrum repens. Para ambas as áreas, foi necessário o mínimo de 75 cm de largura de faixa tratada para minimizar a interferência das plantas daninhas no desenvolvimento das plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Reforestation in Brazil is conventionally carried out with a 50-cm weed control strip, using mechanical or manual hoeing or herbicides. The aim of this study was to determine effects of varying the width of the herbicide-treated strip on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis. Eucalyptus plants wer [...] e transplanted in Araraquara and Altinópolis counties, São Paulo State, Brazil. In Araraquara, the following treatments were evaluated: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150-cm wide strips, treated with herbicide, on either side of the eucalyptus row; in Altinópolis, the width of the strip on either side of the eucalyptus row was 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 cm. Were evaluated dry matter of leaves, branches and stem and leaf area at 270 days after planting (270 DAP), chlorophyll content (400 DAP), stem diameter and eucalyptus plants height (410 DAP). In Araraquara, the main weed was Panicum maximum, and in Altinópolis, it was Rhynchelytrum repens. For both areas, a minimum of 75 cm of treated strip was required to minimise weed interference with eucalyptus plants’ development.

João Renato Vaz da, Silva; Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar, Alves; Roberto Estevão Bragion de, Toledo.

2012-03-01

346

LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT DEPOSITION IN A SEMI-DECIDUOS MOUNTAIN FOREST, AND IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus saligna AND BRACATINGA (Mimosa scabrella PLANTATIONS IN AREAS DEGRADED BY MINING  

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Full Text Available The nutrients elements N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were quantified in a semi-deciduos mountain forest, and in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna and “bracatinga” (Mimosa scaabrella plantations in areas degraded by mining, close to Poços de Caldas- MG (21º47’13” S - 46º34’10” W.In the eucalyptus annual litterfall was 7,100 kg.ha-1 with 202.4 kg.ha-1 of N, 4.4 kg.ha-1 of P, 46.2 kg.ha-1 of K, 440.2 kg.ha-1 of Ca and 54.0 kg.ha-1 of Mg. In the semi-deciduos mountain forest the annual litterfall was 4,490 kg.ha-1 with 245.2 kg.ha-1 of N, 10.3 kg.ha-1 of P, 39.5 kg.ha-1 of K, 292.8 kg.ha-1 of Ca and 57.5 kg.ha-1 of Mg, whereas in the “bracatinga” the annual litterfall was 3,460 kg.ha-1 with 217.6 kg.ha-1 of N, 11.1 kg.ha-1 of P, 11.4 kg.ha-1 of K, 194.1 kg.ha-1 of Ca and 25.3 kg.ha-1 of Mg. Therefore, the total quantity of mineral nutrients returned to the soil by litter decomposition is done according to the following sequences: Ca>N>Mg>K>P (semideciduos mountain forest andeucalyptus plantation and N>Ca>Mg>K>P (“bracatinga”. In the litter of bracatinga was detected the smallest quantity of K, Ca and Mg, while, the higher quantity of N and P was detected in eucalyptus. The litter decomposition coefficient was higher in the bracatinga and eucalyptus. The presence of P by coming from organic matter decomposition is bigger in bracatinga plantation, N and Mg in the semi-deciduos mountain forest, and K and Ca in eucalyptus plantations. The lowest rate of P was observed in eucalyptus.

Jeferson Antônio de Souza

2001-01-01

347

Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

Márcio Viera

2011-06-01

348

Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp. seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva  

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Full Text Available Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid, GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis, and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materiais cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark, em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp., GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.. Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado.

C.M.M. Silva

2004-12-01

349

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF) / Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF) cujas densidades foram iguai [...] s a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF we [...] re equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Benedito Rocha, Vital; Antônio da Silva, Maciel; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

2005-10-01

350

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Benedito Rocha Vital

2005-10-01

351

Biological Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Camendulensis on Some Fungi and Bacteria  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. These Eucalyptus camendulensis: has been selected for screening antibacterial. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum. The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determin the fungic activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

Mehani Mouna

2014-07-01

352

Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.  

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Filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease that causes lymphedema and the main vector is Culex quinquefasciatus. A simple measure was taken to eradicate the vector using nanoemulsion. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was formulated in various ratios comprising of eucalyptus oil, tween 80 and water by ultrasonication. The stability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time and 1:2 ratios of eucalyptus oil (6%) and surfactant (12%) was found to be stable. The formulated eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 9.4 nm and were spherical in shape. The larvicidal activity of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion and bulk emulsion was tested and compared. Our nanoemulsion showed higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. The histopathology of larvae-treated and untreated nanoemulsion was analyzed. Furthermore, biochemical assays were carried out to examine the effect of nanoemulsion on biochemical characteristics of larvae. The treated larval homogenate showed decrease in total protein content and a significant reduction in the levels of acetylcholinesterase. The levels of acid and alkaline phosphatase also showed reduction as compared to control larval homogenate. PMID:24401169

Sugumar, S; Clarke, S K; Nirmala, M J; Tyagi, B K; Mukherjee, A; Chandrasekaran, N

2014-06-01

353

NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

Márcio Viera

2013-08-01

354

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

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Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4 within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05 the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05. However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05. The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (qmet was not affected (p ? 0.05 by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C C6rdova

2012-01-01

355

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

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Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4 within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05 the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05. However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05. The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met was not affected (p ? 0.05 by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C C6rdova

2012-09-01

356

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, cont [...] rol) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm) were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom) by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin) from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met) was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05) the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05). However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05). The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met) was not affected (p ? 0.05) by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C, C6rdova; M, Barrandeguy; E, Navarrete.

2012-09-01

357

Substituição parcial de fosfato solúvel por natural na implantação de Eucalyptus benthamii e Eucalyptus dunnii no Planalto Sul catarinense / Partial substitution of soluble phosphate by rock phosphate in the planting of Eucalyptus benthamii and Eucalyptus dunnii in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adubação fosfatada é importante para o crescimento inicial do eucalipto, porque suplementa o solo na fase de maior demanda da cultura. O fosfato solúvel (FS) é a fonte comumente utilizada para esse fim, pois apresenta dissolução rápida no solo; contudo, tem custo mais elevado que os fosfatos natur [...] ais (FNs), que por sua vez têm dissolução mais lenta. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de FN como substituinte parcial do FS para o fornecimento de P para Eucalyptus benthamii e E. dunnii. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no campo, um com cada espécie, no município de Otacílio Costa, SC, no período de novembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela principal, testou-se a presença ou ausência do FN (0 ou 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte FN de Bayovar) e nas subparcelas testaram-se as doses de FS (0, 75; 150; e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte superfosfato triplo). Foram realizadas medidas de diâmetro à altura do colo e altura das árvores aos 340 dias, após a aplicação das fontes de P. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adubação fosfatada aumentou o crescimento em diâmetro e altura e incrementou o volume das plantas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, durante o primeiro ano de cultivo. O E. benthamii foi mais exigente à adubação fosfatada, mas permitiu a substituição parcial da dose de fosfato solúvel por fonte de menor solubilidade. Não houve resposta do E. dunnii à aplicação de fosfato natural, devendo a adubação ser realizada com fosfato solúvel. Abstract in english Phosphorus fertilization is important for the initial growth of eucalyptus. Soluble phosphate (SP) sources are commonly used for this purpose because they offer fast dissolution in the soil, but these sources have higher costs than rock phosphate (RP), which has lower solubility. The aim of this stu [...] dy was to evaluate the use of RP as a partial substitute for SP for the initial supply of P to Eucalyptus benthamii and E. dunnii. Two field experiments were carried out (one with each species) in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, SC, Brazil, from November 2010 to December 2011. A randomized block experimental design in a split plot arrangement with three replications was used. In the main plot, the presence or absence of RP (0 or 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 using Bayovar as a P source) was tested, and in the subplots, application rates of SP (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 P2O5, using triple superphosphate) were tested. The diameter was measured at the root collar as well as tree height at 340 days after applying the P sources. The results showed that P fertilization promoted plant growth in diameter and height, increasing the volume of E. benthamii and E. dunnii during the first year of cultivation. E. benthamii was more demanding in P, but allowed partial replacement of soluble phosphate by a source with lower solubility. There was no response from E. dunnii to the application of rock phosphate, and fertilization should be performed only with soluble phosphates.

Luciana Patrícia Rosa, Dias; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Paulo Roberto, Ernani; David José, Miquelluti; Djalma Miler, Chaves; Gustavo, Brunetto.

2014-04-01

358

CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DO Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden CONSORCIADO COM Zea mays L., NA REGIÃO DE SANTA MARIA, RS  

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Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudado o crescimento inicial do Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden sob o consórcio de Zea mays L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições e 7 tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram definidos para o Eucalyptus com e sem adubação consorciado com milho com adubação, e ambas espécies em monocultura adubado. A análise realizada demonstra que a adubação do Eucalyptus resulta em aumento na altura e diâmetro do coleto aos sete meses do plantio e que esta diferença não persiste aos 14 meses; o crescimento em altura do Eucalyptus não sofre interferência da concorrência do milho, mas o crescimento em diâmetro do coleto é afetado pela concorrência do milho. A produção de grãos de milho não é afetada pelo consórcio com Eucalyptus.

Maria T. Fleig

1995-12-01

359

Stimulatory effect of eucalyptus essential oil on the germination and early growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Efeito estimulante do óleo essencial de eucalipto na germinação e crescimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis  

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The use of essential oil and extracts from plants is becoming an efficient alternative in the biostimulation on growth and protection of plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis on the germination and the  development of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in nursery conditions. The eucalyptus seeds were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?L L-1 of the essential oil in controlled conditions. The eucalyptus seedlings were sprayed with 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ?L L-1 of the essential oil per plant, at intervals of seven days. The effect of this application on the seedling development were analyzed after 30 and 60 days. The results show that the germination was significantly higher when the seeds were exposed to 25 ?L L-1 of the essential oil. The application of essential oil in the concentration of 30 and 40 ?L L-1 provided higher growth of the aerial part and of the roots in greenhouse conditions, being an effective alternative to biostimulation the vegetative growth of eucalyptus seedlings.

doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199

A utilização de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas vem sendo uma alternativa eficiente no bioestímulo do crescimento e proteção vegetal. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização do óleo essencial extraído de folhas de Eucalyptus grandis sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de eucalipto em condições controladas, em casa de vegetação. Sementes de eucalipto foram incubadas em  concentrações de 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial em ambiente controlado.  Posteriormente, pulverizou-se plântulas de eucalipto com 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial por planta, em intervalos de sete dias. Avaliou-se o efeito do óleo sobre o desenvolvimento vegetal aos 30 e 60 dias após o transplante. Os resultados evidenciam que a germinação foi significativamente maior quando as sementes foram tratadas com 25 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial. A aplicação do óleo essencial nas concentrações de 30 e 40 ?L L-1 proporcionou maior crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea das mudas de eucalipto em ambiente controlado, sendo uma alternativa eficiente na bioestimulação do crescimento vegetativo de mudas de eucalipto.

doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199

Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

2010-12-01

360

Tipos de Ruptura em Madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Modificada Termicamente / Types of Failures in Thermally-Modified Eucalyptus grandis Wood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os tipos de ruptura durante os ensaios mecânicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis modificada termicamente. Para tanto, tábuas centrais de 19 árvores de E. grandis com 5,9 anos de idade foram utilizadas nesse estudo. As tábuas foram secas até 10% de umid [...] ade, aplainadas com 32 mm de espessura e seccionadas em peças com 0,60 m de comprimento. Posteriormente, uma das peças foi mantida em seu estado original e as demais foram modificadas termicamente à 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC e 220ºC por 2,5 horas. De cada peça foram produzidos corpos-de­prova para os ensaios de compressão paralela às fibras e de flexão estática. O material foi aclimatizado em câmara climática com 21ºC e 65% de umidade relativa, no Laboratório de Secagem e Preservação da Madeira da FCA, UNESP, de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Após os ensaios mecânicos, os tipos de ruptura foram caracterizados pela norma ASTM D-143 (2007). Os resultados mostraram que: (1) existe uma relação direta, pelo teste qui-quadrado, entre a temperatura do tratamento térmico e a ruptura frágil da madeira de E. grandis; e (2) a madeira dessa espécie quando modificada termicamente à 220ºC apresentou 100% de ruptura caracterizada como frágil. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the types of failures after the mechanical tests of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood. The present study utilized boards that contained the pith from 5 years and 11 months old Eucalyptus grandis trees. The boards were dried up to 10.0% moisture content, planing [...] to 32-mm thick, and cutted into smaller pieces measuring 0.60 m in length. Subsequently, one piece was kept in its original condition and others pieces were thermally-modified at 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC and 220ºC over a period of 2.5 hours. Specimens were obtained for the compression-parallel­to-grain and static-bending tests. All of the specimens were placed in a climatic chamber (21ºC and 65% relative humidity) in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation in the Department of Natural Resources/Forest Sciences, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP, in Brazil. After the mechanical tests the types of failures were classified as recommended by ASTM D-143 (2007). The results show that: (1) there is a direct relationship between the heat treatment temperature and brittle wood by chi-square test; and (2) the E. grandis wood when thermally-modified at 220ºC presented 100% of fragile failure.

Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo; Aline Fernanda de, Brito.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

A Tool for Automatic Dependability Test in Eucalyptus Cloud Computing Infrastructures  

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Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a paradigm that dynamically provides resources as services through the Internet. The constant concern about the trust placed in cloud computing systems inspires dependability studies. A possible way of performing dependability studies, especially regarding reliability and availability, is through fault injection tools, which enable to observe the system’s behavior during the occurrence of fault events. This paper presents a fault injection tool, called EucaBomber, for reliability and availability studies in the Eucalyptus cloud computing platform. The tool supports fault injections in Eucalyptus hardware and software components at runtime, and also upholds reparation of both types of injected faults. The efficiency of EucaBomber is tested through a case study involving two different scenarios where faults and repairs of hardware and software are injected in the Eucalyptus platform simulating the system's events. Such a tool assists the system administrator and planners to evaluate the system’s availability and maintenance policies.

Debora Souza

2013-05-01

362

POLIAMINAS COMO MARCADORES BIOQUÍMICOS DE SALINIDADE EM CALOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Full Text Available Marcadores bioquímicos têm sido usados na análise de plantas submetidas a vários tipos de estresse, entre eles a salinidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o estresse salino em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis em relação ao conteúdo de poliaminas. Explantes (hipocótilos obtidos de sementes foram inoculados em meio indutivo de calos e foram submetidos a diferentes níveis de NaCl e analisados aos 10, 20 e 30 dias de inoculação. As poliaminas livres foram extraídas, isoladas e quantificadas usando TLC (Cromatografia de Camada Delgada. O conteúdo de putrescina foi maior, enquanto que o conteúdo de espermidina apresentou decréscimo, em calos submetidos a condições salinas. Os resultados mostram que o acúmulo de putrescina está relacionado com a exposição a NaCl em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis. A diminuição do conteúdo de espermina pode ser usada como marcador bioquímico de calos de Eucalyptus sujeitos à salinidade.

Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

2002-11-01

363

PLANT-AND MICROBIAL-DERIVED BIOMARKERS IN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS CULTIVATED WITH EUCALYPTUS AND ACÁCIA  

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Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987554Changes in the management system for the cultivation of different forest populations and the use of crop rotation can lead to changes in the quality of soil organic matter (SOM and vegetable residue deposition. This study evaluated the stage of decomposition and the contribution of plant and microbial compounds of microbial origin for SOM through biomarkers, such as phenols-derived lignin, carbohydrates and amino sugars in monoculture of eucalyptus of short-cycle (Eucalyptus urograndis (seven years compared to crop rotation system with acacia (Acacia mangium Willd. after eucalyptus monoculture; monoculture of eucalyptus of long-cycle (24 years and native vegetation (Atlantic Forest, as a condition of the original soil of the north coast of Espírito Santo state. To do so, it was estimated in samples of soil and litter the content of total organic C (TOC, total N (TN and the contents of lignin-derived phenols (VSC, the carbohydrates and the amino sugars derived from soil microbial activity and relationships acids and aldehyde groups vanilil ((Ac/Alvanilil and syringyl ((Ac/Alsyringyl of the lignin, relations hexoses/pentoses (H/P of the carbohydrates,  glucosamine/muramic acid (Gluc/Ac. Mur and glucosamine/galactosamine (Gluc/Gal of the amino sugars. The results indicated that litter of the monoculture of eucalyptus short-cycle has greater deposition of dry matter, lignin content (VSC and carbohydrates, C/N and VSC/N ratio; similar proportion of coarse litter, fine litter and C content and; lower N content in comparison to the crop rotation system with acacia. In the soil, acacia cultivation increases C, N and carbohydrates content, enlarge the acid/aldehyde ratio of vanilil grouping and the glucosamine/muramic acid ratio of amino sugars derived from microbial activity. The increase in time of eucalyptus cultivation (24 years increased C content and decreased the VSC/N ratio in SOM compared to the monoculture of eucalyptus short-cycle, but still having C and N content lower than in soil of acacia and native forest. The smallest Ac/Al ratio of phenol derived from lignin in soils cultivated with eucalyptus (in long and short-cycle indicates that the SOM is in lower stage of decomposition (oxidation than in the soil cultivated with acacia, and that under native forest. In the soils under acacia, followed by that of eucalyptus short-cycle, the highest glucosamine/muramic acid ratio suggested a greater contribution of fungi in SOM cycling, whereas in the native forest and eucalyptus long-cycle soils there is greater abundance of bacteria-derived compounds. In this sense, there was recovery in the quality of the soil cultivated with eucalyptus long-cycle and rotated with acacia in respect to the monoculture eucalyptus short-cycle.

Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

2012-12-01

364

Estudo da compatibilidade entre a madeira e as cascas de Eucalyptus grandis e cimento portland.  

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Full Text Available As características dos painéis cimento-madeira podem ser prejudicadas em virtude da incompatibilidade química do cimento com alguns materiais lignocelulósicos que podem inibir a "pega" do cimento. Porém, este efeito pode ser minimizado com tratamentos químicos dos materiais. As diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus podem ser promissoras como matéria-prima na produção desse tipo de painel, principalmente os resíduos gerados na forma de cascas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compatibilidade química da madeira e cascas tratadas e não-tratadas quimicamente de Eucalyptus com o cimento Portland. O tratamento químico das cascas foi realizado com solução de hidróxido de sódio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis apresentou uma aptidão moderada ao cimento, as cascas tratadas, alta aptidão e as cascas não-tratadas, aptidão extremamente baixa. Verificou-se a influência positiva do tratamento químico nas cascas, possibilitando futuramente sua incorporação na manufatura de painéis cimento-madeira.

Fábio Akira Mori

2010-08-01

365

Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L  

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The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

366

Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management  

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Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

João Batista Rezende

2013-03-01

367

Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature and localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinação da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies.

Leonardo David Tuffi Santos

2008-08-01

368

Nutritional content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stump leaves / Teor nutricional foliar em minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar os teores foliares nutricionais de minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii em relação a diferentes concentrações de Zn e B ao longo de sucessivas coletas de brotações. As brotações foram oriundas de minicepas fertirrigadas com soluções nutritivas variando nas concentrações de Zn e B ( [...] S1 - isento de Zn e B, S2 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn, S3 - 0,5 mg L-1 de B, S4 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S5 - 1,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S6 - 2,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B), sendo realizadas oito coletas de brotações do minijardim clonal. Ao longo do experimento foram determinados o teor nutricional foliar de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Considerou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes variaram significativamente em relação aos tratamentos avaliados, sendo que as soluções S5 e S6 apresentaram as melhores respostas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the foliar nutrient content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stumps treated with different Zn and B concentrations during successive shoot collections. Shoots were collected from mini-stumps fertigated with nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of Z [...] n and B (S1 - free of Zn and B; S2 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn; S3 - 0.5 mg L-1 B; S4 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn and B; S5 - 1.0 mg L-1 Zn and B; S6 - 2.0 mg L-1 Zn and B). Eight shoot collections from the clonal mini-garden were performed. For each shoot collection, the nutritional content of the leaf was determined (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The experiment was conducted using a randomized design with a split plot and included three replications. The foliar macro and micronutrient contents varied significantly in relation to the treatments, and the S5 and S6 nutritive solutions presented the best responses.

Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Francisco José Benedini, Baccarin; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves; Marcílio de, Almeida.

2014-12-01

369

Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in response to 200 mg L-1 of BAP treatment, during 1 and 2 hours. The use of the pulse on in vitro multiplication of E. grandis is feasible.

Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

2006-12-01

370

Genetic evaluation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Mato Grosso State, Brazil Avaliação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis no Estado de Mato Grosso  

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The study aimed to estimate parameters, values and genetic gain for growth traits in progenies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, in the State of Mato Grosso. The progenies test was conducted under a randomized block design with 132 progenies, five replications and three plants in single rows, spaced 3 m x 2 m in Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. At 24 months of age, progenies were evaluated for the characters: a diameter at base height (DBH, in centimeters, b total height, in meters, c survival. The individual in the narrow sense heritability for the traits studied can be considered medium to high magnitude (0.13 and 0.21 for height and diameter, respectively. The heritability for survival were practically nil, due to low genetic variability among the progenies, as evidenced by high survival rate of the plants (96.8%. The phenotypic and genetic correlations were of high magnitude for DBH and height prediction. There is genetic variation among progenies for growth traits which will provide significant genetic gains with selection.

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

O estudo objetivou estimar parâmetros, valores e ganhos genéticos para caracteres de crescimento em progênies de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, no estado de Mato Grosso. O teste de progênies foi instalado sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 132 progênies, cinco repetições e três plantas por parcela em linhas simples, no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m no município de Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. Aos 24 meses de idade, as progênies foram avaliadas quanto aos caracteres: a diâmetro à altura da base (DAB, em centímetros; b altura total, em metros; c sobrevivência. As herdabilidades individuais no sentido restrito para os caracteres estudados podem ser consideradas de média a alta magnitude (0,13 e 0,21 para altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Para a sobrevivência, as herdabilidades foram praticamente nulas, devido à baixa variabilidade genética existente entre as progênies, evidenciada pela alta taxa de sobrevivência das plantas (96,8%. As correlações fenotípicas e genéticas preditas foram de elevada magnitude para DAB e altura. Existe variação genética entre as progênies para os caracteres de crescimento o que proporciona ganhos genéticos significativos com seleção.

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

Reginaldo Brito da Costa

2012-06-01

371

Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1997-10-01

372

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

373

CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill PLANTS  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and mass detection (MS. The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin. In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide, borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

CHRISTIAN TRONCOSO

2011-01-01

374

/ CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) PLANTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid) and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass det [...] ection (MS). The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol) and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin). In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide), borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

CHRISTIAN, TRONCOSO; JOSÉ, BECERRA; MAGALIS, BITTNER; CLAUDIA, PEREZ; KATIA, SÁEZ; MANUEL, SÁNCHEZ-OLATE; DARCY, RÍOS.

375

Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

2010-01-01

376

Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood  

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Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

2009-12-01

377

[Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87?g/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

2014-01-01

378

Influence of temperature on products yield of Eucalyptus microcorys carbonization  

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Full Text Available During charcoal production different products are formed. These products are influenced primarily by the temperature of carbonization. Given that charcoal is the main input in the production of pig iron in Brazil, this study evaluated the influence of final temperature of carbonization of the products generated and also the influence of the radial and longitudinal sampling on the yield of each product. Samples were taken from internal and external position along the radius and also from three different heights from four Eucalyptus microcorys trees. The samples were carbonized in an electric furnace with an experimental water-cooled condenser and a collecting bottle of condensable volatile materials. The final temperatures of carbonization were 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900°C. The gravimetric yield, tar and non-condensable gases were calculated. The results showed no difference in the gravimetric yield in the longitudinal and radial positions studied, while the tar yield and non-condensable gases showed temperature variations of 700°C and 800°C and the variation of the gravimetric yield temperatures between 500°C to 900°C was 15%, the change of yield of tar from the radial direction of sampling was on average 8%, the variation of the yield of non-condensable gases in a radial sampling was on average 16%.

Renato da Silva Vieira

2013-03-01

379

Effects of the Simulated Drift of Ripeners on Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the drift of ripeners (sulfometuron-methyl, ethephon and trinexapac-ethyl on the initial growth of Eucalyptus urograndis. The experimental design was a randomized block with seven treatments (control; sulfometuron-methyl 0.9 and 1.2 g i.a. ha-1; ethephon 28.8 and 38.3 g i.a ha-1; trinexapac-ethyl 15 and 20 g i.a. ha-1 with four replicates using each plant as an experimental plot. We evaluated the effects 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after application, when we determined the length, diameter, total leaf area and total dry mass of the stem. The application of sulfometuron-methyl may have resulted in an effect known as “hormesis” due to an increasing trend in stem growth. The application of trinexapac-ethyl resulted in greater increases in the leaf dry mass and leaf area compared with those caused by the other ripeners that were used in this study, most likely due to the loss of apical dominance. The application of ethephon had no significant effect on the plants.

Rodrigo Neto Pires

2013-11-01

380

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD WITH IMPREGNATED CHEMICALS  

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Full Text Available Methylolurea and carbamide were used to impregnate eucalyptus wood to improve its physical and chemical properties. The physical properties and dimensional stability were examined. TGA was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the wood. FTIR was used to state the changes of functional groups. The changes of wood structure were observed by SEM. The results showed the bending strength and compressive strength parallel to the grain increased by 15.10% and 16.78%, respectively. The basic density of modified wood was improved by 14.29%. The shrinkage of volume and swelling of volume were significantly decreased compared to the untreated wood. The TGA results indicated that the mass loss was around 8% during the second stage, from 120°C up to 280°C, while the mass loss of treated wood was around 4%. The treated wood exhibited LOI (limited oxygen index values of about 42%, while the natural wood exhibited a LOI value of 22%. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that chemical bond was produced between wood and methylolurea as a result of chemical reaction between wood and methylolurea. The SEM results indicated that the transverse and tangential sections of the treated specimens were filled with the reaction products, which can prevent the absorption of moisture.

Guofeng Wu,

2012-01-01