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Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus leaf contains chemicals that might help control blood sugar. It also contains chemicals that might have activity against bacteria and fungi. Eucalyptus oil contains chemicals that might help pain and inflammation. It might also block chemicals that cause asthma.

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Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus  

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Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Hyde, K. D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P. W.

2012-01-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

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In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones...

Odair Bison; Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha Rezende; Aurélio Mendes Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende

2007-01-01

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of dist [...] illated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

Marcio Rogério da, Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira, Machado; Jay, Deiner; Carlito, Calil Junior.

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Phytochemical Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus citriodora of Myrtaceae family was collected from Manzary Baba, Malakand Agency, NWFP Pakistan . After identification and post harvest treatment, a preliminary separation of constituents by TLC and best solvent for extraction was attempted. Further resolutions of the component of the crude extracts by TLC and Rf values suggested that two major compounds were present in the sample. Also an economically feasible procedure for the isolation of rutin, a glycoside, from Eucalyptus Citriodora has been developed.

Bashir Ahmad

2002-01-01

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae) / Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cario [...] tipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m) y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m) (P Abstract in english Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, w [...] ith 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m) and E. globulus (1.02 m m) (P

Freddy, Mora; Claudio, Palma-Rojas; Pedro, Jara-Seguel.

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid [...] potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH) and the wood density (WD) were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956), adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair, Bison; Magno Antonio Patto, Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha, Rezende; Aurélio Mendes, Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende.

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair Bison

2007-03-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid [...] potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH) and the wood density (WD) were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956), adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair, Bison; Magno Antonio Patto, Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha, Rezende; Aurélio Mendes, Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende.

2007-03-01

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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology. PMID:24919147

Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

2014-06-19

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[Effects of introducing Eucalyptus on indigenous biodiversity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus is well-known as an effective reforestation tree species, due to its fast growth and high adaptability to various environments. However, the introduction of Eucalyptus could have negative effects on the local environment, e. g., inducing soil degradation, decline of groundwater level, and decrease of biodiversity, and especially, there still have controversies on the effects of introduced Eucalyptus on the understory biodiversity of indigenous plant communities and related mechanisms. Based on a detailed analysis of the literatures at home and abroad, it was considered that the indigenous plant species in the majority of introduced Eucalyptus plantations were lesser than those in natural forests and indigenous species plantations but more than those in other exotic species plantations, mainly due to the unique eco-physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus and the irrational plantation design and harvesting techniques, among which, anthropogenic factors played leading roles. Be that as it may, the negative effects of introducing Eucalyptus on local plant biodiversity could be minimized via more rigorous scientific plantation design and management based on local plant community characteristics. To mitigate the negative effects of Eucalyptus introduction, the native trees and understory vegetation in plantations should be kept intact during reforestation with Eucalyptus to favor the normal development of plant community and regeneration. At the same time, human disturbance should be minimized to facilitate the natural regeneration of native species. PMID:19899483

Ping, Liang; Xie, Zong-Qiang

2009-07-01

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CARACTERIZAÇÃO MICROCLIMÁTICA NO INTERIOR DOS TALHÕES DE Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, localizado em Anhambi, SP  

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Full Text Available Neste estudo avaliou-se algumas características microclimáticas em talhões de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus torelliana, resultantes dos diferentes tipos de cobertura florestal que estas espécies propiciam. Das três espécies estudadas, Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi a que deixou passar as maiores quantidades de radiação solar global e intensidade luminosa. Já Eucalyptus torelliana foi a espécie que mais interceptou a radiação solar e deixou o sub-bosque com menos luminosidade. As maiores temperaturas diárias e nos primeiros 10 cm do solo, foram observadas em Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Para as três espécies, aos 20 cm de profundidade a variação da temperatura foi praticamente constante. Através dos resultados encontrados foi possível confirmar que as árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus torelliana, previamente estudadas na Austrália, pertencem, respectivamente, a formação de floresta aberta baixa, floresta aberta alta e floresta fechada.

Fabio Poggiani

1993-12-01

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Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro  

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Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

Adibe L. Abdalla

2010-09-01

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Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necess?...

Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira Carvalho

2006-01-01

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Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

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Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Evaluation of some properties of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo um...

Pedro Nicolau Serpa; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos Pimenta

2003-01-01

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Ketahanan Bibit Eucalyptus sp. Terhadap Cekaman Kekeringan  

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Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui ketahanan bibit hasil persilangan antara Eucalyptus grandis dengan Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap cekaman kekeringan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di rumah kasa Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial 2 faktor yaitu jenis klon dan perlakuan penyiraman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis klon yang lebih tahan terhadap cekaman kekeringan adalah jenis klon IND-61 (A2) kare...

Saleh Mardin Gulo

2010-01-01

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Recent advances in eucalyptus wood chemistry  

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This paper summarizes our research findings on the chemistry of eucalyptus wood, with especial emphasis on the composition of the lipids and lignin, since these two fractions are of high importance during industrial processing of wood for pulp and papermaking. The paper also reports the differences in composition among different eucalyptus species and their modifications with age. In addition, the behavior of these two fractions during the pulping and bleaching processes are also discussed.

Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Marti?nez Ferrer, A?ngel Toma?s

2011-01-01

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Characterization of latent Botryosphaeriaceae on diverse Eucalyptus species  

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The Koala bears housed and maintained by the Pretoria Zoo are relying on 20 different Eucalyptus species in the Eucalyptus arboretum in Pretoria for food. Species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are well known endophytes and pathogens of Eucalyptus in South Africa and elsewhere. This study was aimed at characterizing the Botryosphaeriaceae infecting these trees planted for the Koala bears. The experimental set-up also provided the opportunity to broaden our knowledge regarding the Eucalyptus specie...

Maleme, Happy-girl Mamodise

2009-01-01

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USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards ma...

Setsuo Iwakiri; Lourival Marin Mendes; Leopoldo Karman Saldanha; Juliano Cláudio dos Santos

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Parte 3: Eucalyptus saligna Smith  

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Full Text Available Se estudió la composición química de la madera de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, a tres alturas del fuste comercial, las muestras, utilizadas son procedentes de la Empresa Forestal de Macurijes, en la provincia de Pinar del Río, Cuba. Se determinaron los contenidos de celulosa, lignina, hemicelulosa, cenizas, así como las sustancias extraíbles en diferentes sistemas de solventes, empleando las Normas TAPPI. Se estudió mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC la celulosa de esta madera y mediante espectroscopia IR la celulosa y la lignina. Los resultados sugieren gran variabilidad en el contenido de sustancias extraíbles en los diferentes sistemas de solventes y en los contenidos de ligninas, aumentando con la altura del fuste, aunque la lignina aumenta aparentemente hacia el 85 % de altura del fuste comercial, los valores de las intensidades normalizadas de las absorciones IR disminuyen con la altura, sugiriendo una estructura menos reticulada en la parte superior y por tanto, más accesible químicamente, atribuidos a la influencia de los extraíbles fenólicos que interfieren en los altos contenidos de lignina. La celulosa demostró diferencias estructurales con la altura del fuste.

U. Orea-Igarza

2004-01-01

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TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho

2003-07-01

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EFFECT OF THE SAWING MODEL IN THE SAWNWOOD QUALITY OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research carried out to evaluate the defects caused by growth stresses on boards produced from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii, using twodifferent sawing models. Logs tested came from fast growing plantations belonging to two diametricclasses. The first sawing model used aimed to produce mainly flat sawn boards and the second aimedto maximize the production of quarter-sawn boards. The results obtained pointed out that quartersawnboards were more prone to twist and bow. Splits were more evident in flat sawn boards. Bowwas only observed in flat sawn boards. As a result of the drying schedule used, collapse was not aproblem. Under the conditions of the study, regardless the species or log diameter, the best result isobtained when flat sawn boards are produced. Eucalyptus grandis was found to be a better species for producing sawnwood than Eucalyptus dunnii.

Márcio Pereira da Rocha

2002-01-01

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Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

2006-01-01

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Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo um...

Serpa Pedro Nicolau; Vital Benedito Rocha; Della Lucia Ricardo Marius; Pimenta Alexandre Santos

2003-01-01

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Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden como fontes de matéria prima para serrarias  

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Este trabalho teve como objetivo geral, buscar alternativas de suprimento de madeira serrada com base sustentada. Para atender tal objetivo, foram estudadas as espécies Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii. Toras das duas espécies em duas classes diamétricas foram aneladas e vaporizadas antes do processo de desdobro. As toras foram desdobradas utilizando-se dois sistemas de desdobro o que permitiu a obtenção de tábuas preferencialmente tangenciais em um e tábuas .. preferencialmente ...

Rocha, Ma?rcio Pereira Da

2013-01-01

27

FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS  

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Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental compositi...

Adrian Pirraglia,; Ronalds Gonzales,; Daniel Saloni; Jeff Wright; Joseph Denig

2011-01-01

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Modeling of basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using nondestructive methods  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of nondestructive variables in inferring basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. A total of 27 clones of Eucalyptus urophylla and 22 clones of Eucalyptus grandis were used, sourced from a clonal trial set up in Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. After evaluation using nondestructive techniques of resistography and pin penetration at a constant pressure (Pilodyn®, individuals were felled and disks were removed from the 2%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% portions of the merchantable height section, and also from the portion 1.30 m above ground level. Basic density was determined by the water immersion method. Values of basic density ranged from 0.412 to 0.609 g.cm-3 for clones at age 42 months and from 0.408 to 0.664 g.cm-3 for clones at age 54 months. The clones of Eucalyptus urophylla provided higher values of average basic density in relation to Eucalyptus grandis. The variable 'amplitude' had better correlation with basic density in comparison with pin penetration at a constant pressure. Nondestructive evaluation can be used in mass preselection of genetic materials, prior to subjecting them to a more accurate, reliable evaluation.

Allan Motta Couto

2013-03-01

29

Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB, fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³ e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³. Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 e ASTM-D 1037 (1991. Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 e CSA 0437-93 (1993. As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993. A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular, foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura. Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board. Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Ponte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³ and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³. Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 and ASTM-D 1037 (1991 norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 and CSA 0437-93 (1993 norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993 norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalyptus grandis (Janka hardness and Eucalyptus cloeziana mixed with Pinus sp

Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

2006-08-01

30

EUCALYPTUS SEEDLINGS QUALITY TREATED WITH PYROLIGNEOUS EXTRACT  

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Full Text Available Bioassays were made in field conditions, in Olhos D Água, Minas Gerais, Brazil, for evaluating pyroligneous extractaction on seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones treated by irrigation. Seedlings 45 days old received thefertilization concentrated and the pyroligneous extract at different concentrations during 45 days, three applications per week. It wasevaluated the height, the diameter, the dry mass of the aerial part of trees (DMA, the dry mass of the root (DMR and the potential ofroot growth (PRG of the seedlings. Pyroligneous extract (from 0.0 to 2.0% did not promote additive effects on eucalyptus seedlingsof E. grandis x E. urophylla clones. The increasing of the pyroligneous extract concentration reduced the diameter, DMA and DMR of eucalyptus seedlings. Application of 100% of the recommended rate of fertilizer produced higher height, dry mass of the aerial part oftree, dry mass of the root and potential of root growth of the seedlings of E. grandis x E. urophylla clones, than with 50%.

Alan Souza-Silva

2006-03-01

31

Disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus / Nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus plantation  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar, em um plantio de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foi utilizada a técnica de litter bags para a avaliação da decomposição. Ao todo, foram utili [...] zados 648 litter bags, com coletas mensais de 18 amostras, durante o período de 36 meses. A perda de massa foliar apresentou correlação positiva com a concentração de nutrientes, indicando que, quanto maior a perda de massa, maior a concentração dos elementos no folhedo remanescente. A decomposição da serapilheira foliar apresentou inicialmente imobilização de P, Fe, Mn e Zn, e disponibilização dos demais nutrientes. O P tornou-se disponível a partir do segundo ano, enquanto o Mn e o Zn, somente a partir do terceiro ano. Abstract in english This study had the objective to evaluate the nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation, Eldorado do Sul-RS. We used the litterbags techniques to assess the decomposition. We used 648 litterbags, with 18 samples collected month [...] ly during 36 months. Mass loss leaf showed positive correlation with nutrients concentration, indicating that the higher mass loss, higher the nutrients concentration in litter remaining. Litter leaf decay initially showed P, Fe, Mn and Zn immobilization and release of the others, in the second year occurred P release and in the third year occurred Mn and Zn release, with Fe exception.

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Elias Frank, Araújo.

2014-09-01

32

Weed control and selectivity of flumioxazin in eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Flumioxazin is a registered herbicide for agricultural crops what is an important fact concerning integrated management for weeds in eucalyptus plantations. This study evaluated the efficiency of weed control and the phytotoxicity in eucalyptus plants caused by the herbicide flumioxazin applied alone or in tank mixture with sulfentrazone and isoxaflutole. The aim was to extend the use of thisherbicide in eucalyptus. The herbicide was applied to eucalyptus plants using precision backpack sprayer. It was evaluated, visually,the intoxication percentage and measured height and diameter of eucalyptus trees, the control plants and dry mass of weeds. It wasconcluded that flumioxazin is selective to the eucalyptus at the 125 g.ha-1 dosage, and its efficiency in controlling weeds pre-emergencewas better when mixed in the tank with isoxaflutole and sulfentrazone.

Rafael Augusto Soares Tiburcio

2012-12-01

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Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii / Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específic [...] as básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) e ASTM-D 1037 (1991). Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) e CSA 0437-93 (1993). As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993). A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular) e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular), foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka) e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura). Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board). Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Po [...] nte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³) and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³). Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) and ASTM-D 1037 (1991) norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) and CSA 0437-93 (1993) norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993) norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular) and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular) of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalypt

Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira, Carvalho.

34

Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii / Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específic [...] as básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) e ASTM-D 1037 (1991). Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) e CSA 0437-93 (1993). As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993). A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular) e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular), foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka) e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura). Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board). Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Po [...] nte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³) and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³). Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) and ASTM-D 1037 (1991) norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) and CSA 0437-93 (1993) norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993) norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular) and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular) of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalypt

Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira, Carvalho.

2006-08-01

35

Interference of Grasses on the Growth of Eucalyptus Clones  

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This experiment aimed to study the interference of Urochloa decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Panicum maximum (100 plants m-2 density), on the initial growth of clones of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis) clones 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Each pot had one plant of eucalyptus and five weed plants. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications, constituting a 5x5 factorial design. ...

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira; Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; José Valcir Fidelis Martins

2013-01-01

36

In silico evaluation of the Eucalyptus transcriptome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) produced in the Forests project provide an invaluable opportunity to assess the Eucalyptus transcriptome. Besides providing information on the different proteins produced by this plant, it is possible to infer gene expression profiles because non-normalized cDNA li [...] braries were used. The EST frequency from any gene is correlated to the transcript levels in the tissues from which the cDNA libraries were constructed. The goal of this work was to identify Eucalyptus genes that showed either differential expression pattern or were ubiquitously expressed in the tissues sampled in the Forests project. Six robust statistical tests and very restrictive rules were applied to gain confidence in the in silico data aiming to avoid false positives. Several genes with interesting expression profiles were identified and some of them were validated by RT-PCR.

Renato, Vicentini; Flávio T., Sassaki; Marcos A., Gimenes; Ivan G., Maia; Marcelo, Menossi.

37

Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

M. N. Garcia

2013-03-01

38

SECAGEM DE MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus viminalis  

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Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos toretes) e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para ...

Ivan Tomaselli; Emmanuel C.E. Rozas M.

1993-01-01

39

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN. WOOD  

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Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn., which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

O Unsal

2003-01-01

40

Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
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USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING  

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Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2004-06-01

42

Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles  

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Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

Juliana Jerásio Bianche

2012-12-01

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Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla / Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrize [...] s em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais) e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17 dias, apresentou superioridade organogênica. Explantes foliares devem ser transferidos para novo meio de indução de brotações a cada cinco dias. Este estudo também teve como objetivo avaliar fatores que afetam a transformação genética de explantes foliares com o gene uidA, via co-cultivo com Agrobacterium tumefaciens, tais como a pré-cultura, a duração da co-cultura e a adição da acetoseringona no meio de cultura. As melhores condições para a expressão do gene uidA foram a cada dois dias de pré-cultura de explantes foliares, três dias de co-cultura com a bactéria e a adição de acetoseringona nos meios de pré e co-cultura. Abstract in english The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: [...] subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.

Giovana Bomfim de, Alcantara; João Carlos, Bespalhok Filho; Marguerite, Quoirin.

2011-04-01

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Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17 dias, apresentou superioridade organogênica. Explantes foliares devem ser transferidos para novo meio de indução de brotações a cada cinco dias. Este estudo também teve como objetivo avaliar fatores que afetam a transformação genética de explantes foliares com o gene uidA, via co-cultivo com Agrobacterium tumefaciens, tais como a pré-cultura, a duração da co-cultura e a adição da acetoseringona no meio de cultura. As melhores condições para a expressão do gene uidA foram a cada dois dias de pré-cultura de explantes foliares, três dias de co-cultura com a bactéria e a adição de acetoseringona nos meios de pré e co-cultura.

Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

2011-04-01

45

ESTABELECIMENTO IN VITRO DE CLONES HÍBRIDOS DE Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o comportamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hillex Maiden x Eucalyptus globulus Labill e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blake x Eucalyptus globulus Labille o efeito de diferentes introduções in vitro (aos 30, 90 e 150 dias após a poda do ápice das minicepasna fase de estabelecimento in vitro. As minicepas, fornecedoras dos explantes para a introdução in vitro,foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais de 21 clones de Eucalyptusurophylla x Eucalyptus globulus e 8 clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus foram coletados,desinfestados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,1 mg L-1 deANA. Após 30 dias em cultura, foram feitas as avaliações e concluiu-se que houve variação entre clones,bem como entre introduções in vitro, para as variáveis estudadas, sendo possível o estabelecimento in vitroda maioria dos clones.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges

2012-09-01

46

Interference of Grasses on the Growth of Eucalyptus Clones  

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Full Text Available This experiment aimed to study the interference of Urochloa decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Panicum maximum (100 plants m-2 density, on the initial growth of clones of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis clones 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Each pot had one plant of eucalyptus and five weed plants. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications, constituting a 5x5 factorial design. The height and the diameter of eucalyptus plants were evaluated at 0, 15, 28, 41 and 50 days after weeds transplanting (DAT. At 50 DAT was measured the foliar area of eucalyptus plants, as well as the dry mass of eucalyptus plants (leaves and stem and the dry mass of weeds. The five clones suffered negative interference during the coexistence with weeds. The clones showed different behaviors through the interaction with weeds. For the more susceptible characteristics to interference – leaves and stem dry mass – eucalyptus clones 3, 4 and 5 were more sensitive to the presence of weeds.

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira

2013-10-01

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Modeling of basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using nondestructive methods / Modelagem da densidade básica da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla por métodos não destrutivos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a precisão da utilização de variáveis não destrutivas na inferência sobre a densidade básica das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla. Foram utilizados 27 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla e 22 clones de Eucalyptus grandis oriundos de teste clon [...] al implantado em Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. Após a avaliação por técnicas não destrutivas de resistografia e penetração por um pino à pressão constante (Pilodyn®), os indivíduos foram abatidos e retirados discos a 2, 10, 30, 50 e 70% da altura comercial, além destes, foram extraídos também discos a 1,30 metros do solo. A densidade básica da madeira foi determinada pelo método de imersão em água. Os clones avaliados apresentaram valores em densidade básica variando de 0,412 a 0,609 g.cm-3 aos 42 meses e 0,408 a 0,664 g.cm-3 aos 54 meses. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram densidade básica média superior em relação aos de Eucalyptus grandis. A variável amplitude apresentou melhor relação com a densidade básica comparada a penetração por um pino à pressão constante. A avaliação não destrutiva pode ser utilizada em uma pré-seleção massal de materiais genéticos, destinando-os posteriormente a uma avaliação mais precisa e confiável. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of nondestructive variables in inferring basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. A total of 27 clones of Eucalyptus urophylla and 22 clones of Eucalyptus grandis were used, sourced from a clonal trial set up in [...] Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. After evaluation using nondestructive techniques of resistography and pin penetration at a constant pressure (Pilodyn®), individuals were felled and disks were removed from the 2%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% portions of the merchantable height section, and also from the portion 1.30 m above ground level. Basic density was determined by the water immersion method. Values of basic density ranged from 0.412 to 0.609 g.cm-3 for clones at age 42 months and from 0.408 to 0.664 g.cm-3 for clones at age 54 months. The clones of Eucalyptus urophylla provided higher values of average basic density in relation to Eucalyptus grandis. The variable 'amplitude' had better correlation with basic density in comparison with pin penetration at a constant pressure. Nondestructive evaluation can be used in mass preselection of genetic materials, prior to subjecting them to a more accurate, reliable evaluation.

Allan Motta, Couto; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

48

Procedures for theoretical redistribution of diameters in eucalyptus stands  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the application of a procedure referred to as step invariant for theoretical redistribution of diameters by class in a diameter distribution model, using the Weibull probability density function. Data from the first rotation of hybrid eucalyptus stands (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla planted with spacings of 3 x 2 m, located in northeastern Bahia state were used. Measurements were taken annually with measurement age ranging between 25 and 89 months. The step invariant procedure provided satisfactory results in comparison to the traditional procedure, being therefore recommended for future applications due to its unbiased results and ease of fit.

Thelma Shirlen Soares

2010-03-01

49

In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs), an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis), has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST cl [...] usters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX). Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y) and cytosolic (TRXh), have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

Aulus Estevão, Barbosa; Paulo, Marinho.

50

Hydrothermal and pulp processing of Eucalyptus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrothermal processing of Eucalyptus wood was performed at operation temperature of 181 degrees C, processing time or 37.5 min and solid water ratio of 1/6 to ensure a maximum loss of xylan recuperation with minimum cellulose fibre degradation. Under those conditions, the loss of xylan was 22% less than that achieved with the conditions 196 degrees C, 50.6 min and 1/8 (solid/water). IN In addition, an experimental design was used to study the influence of process variables: temperature (145-175 degrees C), pulping time (40-120 min) and ethanol concentration (40-70% weight concentration), on the properties of pulps (yield, kappa number, viscosity, cellulose, xylan, lignin acetyl groups contents and brightness) and paper sheets (stretch index, burst index and tear index) obtained from the solid fraction after hydrothermal treatment of Eucalyptus globulus. Pulps with acceptably high physical and chemical properties can be obtained operating at 175 degrees C for 90 min with 55% ethanol concentration. PMID:12573565

Garrote, G; Eugenio, M E; Díaz, M J; Ariza, J; López, F

2003-05-01

51

Multiplicación in vitro de Eucalyptus Dunnii  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus dunnii es una de las especies consideradas promisorias para su desarrollo en suelos pesados de la Provincia de Entre Ríos; su multiplicación se realiza principalmente por semillas, especialmente de importación. En este artículo se exponen los resultados de un estudio sobre la aplicación de técnicas de micropropagación por cultivo in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii. Se trabajó a partir de dos tipos de explantos: segmentos uninodales y brotes epicórmicos, sembrados en medios nutritivos Murashige & Skoog y Mc Cown con el agregado o no de diferentes combinaciones hormonales (citocininas y auxinas. Los resultados para la multiplicación de segmentos uninodales mostraron que la alternancia de citocininas indujo al aumento del número de brotes. La combinación de 0,05 mg/l de ácido indol butírico con 0,5 mg/l de kinetina manifestó diferencia significativa para cantidad y longitud de brotes, respecto a las otras combinaciones. Se logró la inducción de brotes epicórmicos, pero no su evolución en medios de cultivo. Con la aplicación de estas técnicas no se logró el enraizamiento de explantos de E. dunnii, hipótesis planteada en el estudio.

Cristina E. Billard

2005-01-01

52

Fitogeografía y ecología del género Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza el género Eucalyptus, que deriva su nombre de las palabras griegas eu, que significa bien, y kalypteim, que significa cubierto. Estas plantas desempeñan un papel importante en los bosques cerrados de Australia meridional, donde suelen ser árboles de hasta 200 años que constituyen una etapa de transición entre los bosques naturales más antiguos dañados por los incendios y los bosques pluviales cerrados. Los eucaliptos son originarios de Australia y algunos países de Asia sudoriental, donde crecen en condiciones muy diversas de pluviosidad y temperatura. Se conocen más de 500 especies de eucaliptos. Algunos árboles tienen una altura de hasta 90 m pero en zonas abiertas de vegetación baja y de escasa pluviosidad anual son muy corrientes las formas enanas de eucalipto, llamadas ?mallees?, cuyo largo fuste subterráneo permite al árbol sobrevivir a los periodos de sequía. Cuando se planta fuera de su hábitat natural muchas especies de Eucalyptus han mostrado un alto grado de tolerancia a las latitudes y altitudes extremas. Las primeras grandes plantaciones se iniciaron en el Brasil en 1904. En la actualidad, ese país tiene más de un millón de hectáreas de plantaciones de eucaliptos. Más de 100 países por todo el mundo cultivan eucaliptos en plantaciones, países como México, España, Portugal, Marruecos, Argentina, los Estados Unidos y muchos otros.

D. Granados-S\\u00E1nchez

2007-01-01

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Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

2014-09-01

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QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exigências do mercado consumidor.

Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

1997-12-01

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Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING  

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Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2008-03-01

56

Allelopathic Influence of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camadulensis L. on Germination and Seedling Growth of Crops  

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Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate allelopathic influence of eucalyptus on the germination and seedling growth of cotton, sunflower, sorghum, mungbean and mothbean under the laboratory conditions. One kg of fresh leaves of eucalyptus was soaked in ten liter of water for 72 hours. This extract was used in seeds soaking prior to sowing in the pure sand culture. The same extract was applied to the germinated seeds in comparison with simple water application to the control treatments. The results revealed that application of aqueous extract of fresh leaves to seeds of all crops reduced the germination and suppressed the growth of roots and shoots of seedlings of crops belonging to different families.

Muhammad Ayyaz Khan

1999-01-01

57

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01

58

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The de...

Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Anna-Stiina Jääskeläinen

2012-01-01

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PRODUÇÃO DE BIOMASSA E REMOÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM POVOAMENTOS DE Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, PLANTADOS EM ANHEMBÍ, SP  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi, SP. A espécie Eucalyptus grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie Eucalyptus grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

Fabio Poggiani

1993-12-01

60

SECAGEM DE MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus viminalis  

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Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos toretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

Ivan Tomaselli

1993-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii / Evaluation of some properties of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus [...] elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos. Abstract in english This work aimed to determine sawn wood yield, as well as density, volumetric shrinkage, static bending and compression parallel to grain strength, glue line quality and machining for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii wood. Three trees of each species, with approximate ages o [...] f 50, 40 and 40 years, respectively, were cut into logs on the base, middle and top. Property variations were analyzed in the pith-bark and longitudinal directions. The results showed that all the physical and mechanical properties varied inside the tree in the radial and longitudinal directions. Basic density, bending and compression strength increased in the pith-bark direction, while volumetric shrinkage decreased. Therefore, for obtaining denser, more stable wood with larger bending and compression strength it is necessary to harvest older trees. Considering the variations in the longitudinal direction, it was observed that logs from the medium portion of the tree presented smaller values than those from the base and from the top, in all the analyzed properties. Glue line strength and wood failure presented little differences in relation to adherence among juvenile wood and mature wood in all the positions. In the and mortise-and-tenon test, all the species showed satisfactory results, without occurrence of defects.

Pedro Nicolau, Serpa; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta.

2003-10-01

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Mass Propagation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn  

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Full Text Available Nodal segments of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were inoculated on MS medium containing variousconcentrations of growth regulators. Moderate amount of callus got induced explant on MS medium fortified with 0.5 mg L-1 BAP and 1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D. When the explants were cultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 Kn, excellent brownish-yellow callus got induced. Shoots formation occurred on the callus when cultured on MS medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 each of BAP and IAA. The results indicated that shoots regeneration frequency got increased by culturing callus to MS medium containing 1.5 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. Roots were induced on regenerated shoots on MS supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 IBA.

Fazal Rahim

2003-01-01

63

Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii / Evaluation of some properties of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus [...] elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos. Abstract in english This work aimed to determine sawn wood yield, as well as density, volumetric shrinkage, static bending and compression parallel to grain strength, glue line quality and machining for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii wood. Three trees of each species, with approximate ages o [...] f 50, 40 and 40 years, respectively, were cut into logs on the base, middle and top. Property variations were analyzed in the pith-bark and longitudinal directions. The results showed that all the physical and mechanical properties varied inside the tree in the radial and longitudinal directions. Basic density, bending and compression strength increased in the pith-bark direction, while volumetric shrinkage decreased. Therefore, for obtaining denser, more stable wood with larger bending and compression strength it is necessary to harvest older trees. Considering the variations in the longitudinal direction, it was observed that logs from the medium portion of the tree presented smaller values than those from the base and from the top, in all the analyzed properties. Glue line strength and wood failure presented little differences in relation to adherence among juvenile wood and mature wood in all the positions. In the and mortise-and-tenon test, all the species showed satisfactory results, without occurrence of defects.

Pedro Nicolau, Serpa; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta.

64

ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD  

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Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

Adriano Wagner Ballarin

2003-01-01

65

Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera  

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Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

José Cola Zanuncio

2005-05-01

66

Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) / Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1, [...] 5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta. Abstract in english Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were [...] burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.

José Cola, Zanuncio; Marcos Franklin, Sossai; Carlos Alberto Hector, Flechtmann; Teresinha Vinha, Zanuncio; Edylene Marota, Guimarães; Marcelo Curitiba, Espindula.

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Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc  

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Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies according to species. It is 3.4% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni, 2.5% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus and 1.6% for Eucalyptus diversicolor. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx are characterized by an average yield less than 1%, i.e. 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average yields of the two hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus diversicolor are 2.9% and 1.4% respectively. The combinations Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus grandis are characterized by the lowest yields, i.e. 1%, 0.8% and 0.8% respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition shows that the hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni give 1,8-cineole rates superior to 70%, which is required by the users. Comparatively to Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the essential oils of the other crosses reveal a slight decrease in percentage of this product. However, increases of the alpha-pinene and p-cymene contents have been recorded. In general, all products detected in essential oils have average percentages intermediate between those of parental species. Hybridization of eucalyptus can improve the quality and the quantity of eucalyptus essential oils.

Farah A.

2002-01-01

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Mycosphaerella species causing leaf blotch on Eucalyptus species in South Africa  

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Studies presented in this thesis, highlight the complexity and importance of Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD) on Eucalyptus spp., especially in South Africa. In Chapter I, a review of the literature dealing with Mycosphaerella and MLD of Eucalyptus spp. is presented. It is clear from this review that the disease is prevalent in most countries where Eucalyptus spp. are commercially grown, including Australia where they are native. The number of Mycosphaerella species known from Eucalyptus spp...

Hunter, Gavin Craig

2002-01-01

69

Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine  

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Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characteriz...

Mohand Tazerout; Samir Hanchi; Khaled Loubar; Mohand Said Lounici; Lyes Tarabet

2012-01-01

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40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on honey and honeycomb in...

2010-07-01

71

40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement...tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey, honeycomb,...

2010-07-01

72

Inibidor de tripsina em raízes de Eucalyptus urophylla / Trypsin inhibitor from roots of Eucalyptus urophylla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As raízes de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla) podem estar associadas a fungos como Pisolithus tinctorius, formando uma simbiose conhecida como ectomicorriza, mas também podem estar colonizadas por fungos patogênicos, como Rhizoctonia solani, agente causal do tombamento de plantas em viveiros. O obje [...] tivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de atividade inibitória de tripsina, uma serino-protease, em raízes de E. urophylla e a atividade de tripsina em filtrados desses fungos. Alíquotas de extrato protéico bruto de raízes de E. urophylla e frações protéicas parcialmente purificadas por cromatografia de exclusão molecular, do tipo Sephacryl S-100-HR, foram testadas para atividade inibitória de tripsina. Proteínas do extrato ou das frações, quando incubadas com o substrato BAPNA (a-benzoil-arginina-p-nitroanilida) e tripsina comercial na presença de tampão Tris-HCl 0,1 M (pH 8,0), resultou em atividade de inibidor de tripsina ao redor de 80%. Filtrados de meios de cultura de P. tinctorius e R. solani foram parcialmente purificados em cromatografia de exclusão molecular, porém atividade de tripsina sobre o substrato BAPNA não foi verificada em nenhuma das frações. Portanto, não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação direta entre o inibidor da planta e proteases dos fungos. Os resultados apresentados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo dessas proteínas nas interações entre patógenos e simbiontes para espécies de eucalipto. Abstract in english Roots of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) can be associated with fungi such as Pisolithus tinctorius, thus forming an ectomycorrhiza, or be colonized by pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, agent of damping-off in nursery plants. The objective of this work was to verify the presence and ac [...] tivity of trypsin inhibitor, a serino-protease, in roots of E. urophylla and the activity of trypsin in filtrate of these fungi. The crude protein extract from roots and fractions partially purified by molecular sieving chromatography, using Sephacryl S-100-HR, was tested for trypsin inhibitory activity. The protein extracts or fractions, when incubated with BAPNA (a-benzoyl-arginyl-p-nitroanilide) as substrate, in presence of 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8,0), showed activity of trypsin inhibitor around 80%. Culture filtrates from P. tinctorius and R. solani isolates were also semi-purified by chromatography; however, no trypsin activity on BAPNA substrate was observed. Due to this, it was impossible to establish a direct correlation between the plant inhibitor and potential fungal proteases. The results presented here open new perspectives for the study of proteins in the interactions between pathogens and symbionts with eucalyptus species.

Célia R., Tremacoldi; Sérgio F., Pascholati.

2004-04-01

73

EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS / EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron [...] tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se calculó el grado de correlación de las distintas propiedades del tablero con la densidad de los mismos. Las características de la madera, de las partículas y las propiedades de los tableros demuestran que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens es apta para ser utilizada en la fabricación de estos aglomerados. A medida que aumenta la densidad del tablero se provoca un aumento en las propiedades mecánicas. El hinchamiento y la absorción de agua mejoran con aumentos de la densidad. El análisis de correlación entre las propiedades dependientes (hinchamiento, absorción, flexión y tracción) y la densidad del tablero arrojó coeficientes de correlación mayores a 0,7. La propiedad crítica es el hinchamiento, por lo que se recomienda agregar una emulsión de cera y un catalizador en el adhesivo de la capa central. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate Eucalyptus nitens as raw material for the production of particleboards. Wood density and particle size, slenderness and pH-value were controlled. Bending strength, internal bond, density, thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of particleboa [...] rds with densities between 450 and 750 kg/m³, were determined. Correlations between board density and properties were calculated. The wood and particle characteristics as well as the obtained board properties proved that Eucalyptus nitens could be used for the particleboard production. As board density increases, higher mechanical properties were founded. Thickness swelling and water absorption decreased as density of particleboard increased. High correlation factors (> 0,7) between dependent variables (thickness swelling, absorption, bending strength and IB) and board density were obtained. Due to swelling is a critical property, we recommend the addition of a wax emulsion and a catalyst in the middle layer of the particleboard.

Hernán, Poblete W; Rodrigo, Burgos O.

74

Tamanho de parcelas experimentais para Eucalyptus saligna Smith Experimental plot size for Eucalyptus saligna Smith  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, aos 15 meses de idade e aos 5 anos e meio de idade. Os experimentos foram instalados no Horto Florestal Barba Negra em área de produqdo da empresa Riocell S/A, localizada no município de Barra do Ribeiro - RS. O método utilizado para determinação do tamanho ótimo de parcelas foi o de Pimentel Gomes - ESALQ/USP. Os resultados demonstram que o tamanho ótimo de parcelas para plant...

Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon; Lindolfo Storck

1997-01-01

75

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

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Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the...

Marinalva Oliveira Freitas; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

2007-01-01

76

Identification and characterization of homeobox genes in Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Homeobox genes encode transcriptional factors, usually involved in molecular control of plant developmental patterns. They can be divided into several classes according to conserved sequences within the homeobox region and the presence of specific additional sequences. Based on these conserved seque [...] nces, we developed a search procedure to identify possible homeobox genes in the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (FORESTs) database. We were able to identify 50 Eucalyptus sequences (EST-contigs) containing the homeodomain sequence. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to this ESTs-contigs and 44 of them were found to have similarities with one of three well-known homeobox classes: Bell, Knox and HD-Zip, and their sub-classes. However, no EST-contig grouped with the fourth important homeobox class, the PHD-finger homeobox. On the other hand, two sequences have showed pronounced similarity to the Arabidopsis thaliana Wuschel gene, considered an "atypical" homeobox gene. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression pattern of these putative Eucalyptus homeobox genes revealed the presence of ten distinct expression groups. Combining phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns for some of the Eucalyptus genes revealed interesting aspects about some of the potential homeobox genes, which might lead to a better understanding of the Eucalyptus biology and to biotechnological applications.

Graça Celeste Gomes, Rocha; Régis Lopes, Corrêa; Anna Cristina Neves, Borges; Claudio Bustamante Pereira de, Sá; Márcio, Alves-Ferreira.

77

Painéis de madeira aglomerada de resíduos da laminação de diferentes procedências de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus cloeziana / Wood paticleboards made from residues obtained in the veneer production of eucalypt species and provenances  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com este trabalho, objetivou-se fazer a avaliação de 15 procedências de espécies de Eucalyptus cloeziana,Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna, com idade de 31 anos, sendo que esse teste foi instalado no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram fabricados 6 painéis aglomerados para cada pro [...] cedência, a partir dos resíduos gerados pela laminação desse material. Foi utilizado o adesivo uréia-formaldeído com 8%, e parafina a 1%, ambos com base nos seus respectivos teores de sólidos. Os painéis foram prensados à temperatura de 160ºC, pressão específica de 3,92MPa por tempo de 8 minutos. A partir dos resultados concluiu-se que: em absorção de água, destacou-se a espécie Eucalyptus saligna; em inchamento em espessura, a procedência 43 mostrou melhor desempenho dentro da espécie de Eucalyptus grandis; foram obtidos resultados superiores para Eucalyptus cloeziana no que se refere à compressão e MOE; para Eucalyptus grandis, a procedência de número 10695 apresentou melhores propriedades de MOE e MOR. De forma geral, a procedência 10.695 e as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis foram as que apresentaram maiores potenciais para a produção de painéis aglomerados. Abstract in english This work aimed the evaluation of 15 (fifteen) provenances of three eucalypt species: Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The trees were 31 years old and the test was developed in the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Six particleboards for each provenance we [...] re made by using the residues generated in the veneer production of this material. It was used urea-formaldehyde at 8% resin level and paraffin at 1%, both according to their respective solid content. The boards were produced by using a pressing cycle with temperature of 160 ºC, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm² and pressing time of 8 minutes. From the results, it was concluded that the specie Eucalyptus saligna was the best one in terms of water absorption. The 43 provenance of Eucalyptus grandis showed the best development of thickness swelling. Superior results of compression and elastic modulus were found to Eucalyptus cloeziana. The provenance of number 10695 of the specie Eucalyptus grandis presented the best results for elastic and rupture modulus. In general, the provenance 10695 and species of Eucalyptus grandis showed the greatest potential for production of particleboard.

José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Fábio Akira, Mori.

2011-12-01

78

Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ? 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

79

FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental composition, and net heating value of “light roasted” wood were assessed. The heating value of the eucalypts and pellets was enhanced by 19% (average, compared to the original material, while the moisture and volatiles content were drastically reduced. This reduction leads to an increase in the amount (w/w of carbon, enhancing the energy content in the material. Thus, torrefaction is useful for improving the heating value of woody biomass, consuming little external energy due to recirculation and burning of gases for the process. The pellets showed increased energy density, providing improved properties for transportation and handling.

Adrian Pirraglia,

2011-11-01

80

Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos.

Serpa Pedro Nicolau

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Qualidade e rendimento do carvão vegetal de um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla  

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Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the quality and yields of the charcoal of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clone commercially named GG100 for use in iron industry at different ages, plantation sites and spacing. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial electric furnace (muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 until the final temperature of 450 ºC, remaining stabilized for 30 min. The gravimetric yield in charcoal, pyroligneous extract, non condensable gases and insoluble tar, proximate and elemental chemical composition, relative apparent density and higher heating value of the charcoal were determined. In general, the charcoal evaluated may be considered homogeneous based on chemical and physical aspects and can be used in the steel sector. The apparent relative density allowed the charcoal samples differentiation produced by the same pyrolysis condition. The results obtained suggest that the density of the charcoal is highly influenced by the wood origin. It was observed that higher values of higher heating values are positively related with carbon content and negatively related with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and with gravimetric yield in charcoal.

Maíra Reis de Assis

2012-09-01

82

Tamanho de parcelas experimentais para Eucalyptus saligna Smith Experimental plot size for Eucalyptus saligna Smith  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, aos 15 meses de idade e aos 5 anos e meio de idade. Os experimentos foram instalados no Horto Florestal Barba Negra em área de produqdo da empresa Riocell S/A, localizada no município de Barra do Ribeiro - RS. O método utilizado para determinação do tamanho ótimo de parcelas foi o de Pimentel Gomes - ESALQ/USP. Os resultados demonstram que o tamanho ótimo de parcelas para plantas com 5 anos e meio de idade é de 9 a 25 plantas úteis medidas, e para o experimento com 15 rneses de idade a parcela ideal é de 4 plantas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the experimental plots size of Eucalyptus saligna Smith with 5.5 years old and for fifteen months old. The experiment were stablished in Barba Negra Garden Market located in Barra do Ribeiro District, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Pimentel Gomes - E S ALQ/USP method's was used. It was observed that the optimal experimental plots size may range from 9 to 25 plantas for five year old trees and four plants to 15 m onths old.

Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon

1997-12-01

83

Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

Rudi Setiadji

2012-11-01

84

Structural characterization of residual hemicelluloses from hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, an environmental-friendly hydrothermal pretreatment of Eucalyptus fiber followed with alkali post-treatment was developed to produce bioethanol efficiently. This biorefinery process allowed all major components of biomass being converted into high value-added products. The chemical and structural features of the residual hemicelluloses isolated with alkali from the hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber, were comparatively investigated. Sugar and spectral analyses indicated that the hemicelluloses were mainly composed of glucuronoxylans, and especially hemicelluloses prepared at higher temperature (180°C) contained higher contents of glucomannans and ?-glucan. Hydrothermal pretreatment resulted in a significant hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages in xylan backbone, and thus the molecular weight of the hemicelluloses was significantly reduced from 56,520 to 7780g/mol with the increase of temperature. This suggested that a combination of hydrothermal pretreatment at low temperatures (100-140°C) and alkali post-treatment was an effective technique for isolating of hemicelluloses from Eucalyptus fiber. PMID:24867208

Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Li, Han-Ying; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2014-08-01

85

AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO COMPENSADO FENÓLICO DE Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparação, foram produzidos também painéis com lâminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído com duas formulações distintas. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa específica superior e menor redução na espessura em relação às demais espécies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistência da linha de cola demonstraram não haver diferenças estatísticas entre as espécies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexão estática, os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relação a Pinus taeda. Em relação aos efeitos de diferentes formulações do adesivo, não foram constatadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceção da resistência da linha de cola no teste úmido.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2006-10-01

86

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

2011-06-10

87

Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

88

Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

2014-07-01

89

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite e...

Walter Murillo-Arango; Pedronel Araque Marín; Beatriz Henao Murillo; Pela?ez Jaramillo, Carlos A.

2013-01-01

90

Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

2009-06-01

91

Historique de l'introduction du genre Eucalyptus à Madagascar  

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Une recherche documentaire a permis de reconstituer l'historique de l'introduction du genre Eucalyptus à Madagascar entre 1857 et 1889, et cela bien avant l'organi- sation des services forestiers de l'État. Plusieurs acteurs de différents pays ont procédé aux introductions de diverses espèces d'eucalyptus ; mais, à cette époque, l'identi?cation des provenances d'origine des graines n'était jamais men- tionnée. Ces introductions avaient notam- ment pour objectif d'assainir les ré...

Verhaegen, Daniel; Randrianjafy, Honore?; Montagne, Pierre; Danthu, Pascal; Rabevohitra, Raymond; Tassin, Jacques; Bouvet, Jean-marc

2011-01-01

92

Influence of section lengths on volume determination in eucalyptus trees  

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The aim of this work was to assess the influence of different section lengths on the determination of eucalyptus treestem (with bark) volumes and its implications in forest inventory procedures. The 40 Eucalyptus grandis trees used, all from themunicipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, were 77 months old. The volume of the stems (with bark), whose maximum diameter was3,0 cm, was obtained through the Smalian formula, with sections 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 m long. Longer sections lead to overestimat...

Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Gilson Fernandes da Silva; Fabrina Bolzan Martins

2010-01-01

93

Produção e decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii / Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A produção continuada de madeira em plantios comerciais exige conhecimento do processo de ciclagem de nutrientes, que envolve, entre outros aspectos, a produção e a decomposição de serapilheira. Assim, neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar a influência das variáveis climáticas na produção de serapilh [...] eira e de seus componentes, além de avaliar a taxa de decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. Para a execução do estudo, foram instaladas 4 parcelas de 20 m x 20 m, em cada uma foram instalados 4 coletores para as frações folhas, galhos finos e miscelânea da serapilheira e 3 subparcelas para a coleta da fração galhos grossos. O tecido vegetal coletado foi utilizado para o cálculo da deposição e da correlação existente entre variáveis climáticas e deposição. As variáveis climáticas utilizadas, com base mensal, foram temperatura média, temperatura máxima média, temperatura mínima média, precipitação pluviométrica, umidade relativa média, velocidade média do vento, evapotranspiração e radiação solar média, ambas fornecidas por uma estação experimental. Já, para a avaliação da decomposição da serapilheira foram coletadas aleatoriamente 4 amostras quadradas de 0,25 m de lado em cada parcela, utilizadas para a determinação do coeficiente de decomposição (K), meia vida (t0,5) e tempo de decomposição de 95% da serapilheira (t0,95). A produção mensal de serapilheira foi fracamente correlacionada com variáveis climáticas e apresentou média anual de 7,4 Mg ha-1, sendo composta predominantemente pela fração folhas (60%). A decomposição de serapilheira foi considerada lenta. Abstract in english The sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposi [...] tion in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K), half life (t0,5 ) and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 ). The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%). The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Robson Schaff, Corrêa; Márcio, Viera; Elias Frank de, Araújo.

2013-09-01

94

Germination of stress-tolerant Eucalyptus pollen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier reports have indicated that the pollen of Eucalyptus is mechanically robust and unusually resistant to the osmotic stress imposed by immersion in water. We have investigated some of the features of the germination mechanism in the pollen of E. rhodantha with a view to clarifying the role of pollen-wall specializations in determining this resistance. Cultured in vitro, the pollen showed erratic germination, with a scatter of germination times up to 24 h. This was associated with variation between individual grains in the rate of hydration and dispersal of the pectins of the oncus, the thickened outer component of the intine present at each aperture. The oncus is itself differentiated, with a refractive outer layer lying within a sporopollenin operculum and itself overlying the protein-bearing layer of the intine. The outer layer, interpreted as a compacted pectin, undergoes only slow dissolution in aqueous media after the lifting of the operculum, and it is this that apparently protects the grain from the effects of short-term osmotic stress. The rate of dissolution varies between grains, possibly as a consequence of minor differences in developmental rate in the final stages of differentiation in the anther, and this contributes to the wider scatter of germination times. The dehydrated pollen gave one-third of the potential germination after 24 h exposure to 60 degrees C, and a small proportion survived 24 h at 70 degrees C. This degree of heat tolerance must primarily reflect properties of the protoplast of the vegetative cell, not examined in the present study; but the wall specializations may well provide a guard against extreme desiccation, and it is noteworthy that the function of the germination mechanism is not prejudiced by exposure to high temperatures. PMID:4019590

Heslop-Harrison, J; Heslop-Harrison, Y

1985-02-01

95

Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v, 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA. Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto.Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or without the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v, 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA. Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

M.R.R Pereira

2011-09-01

96

Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis / Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufen [...] acil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v), 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA). Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or wit [...] hout the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA). Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

M.R.R, Pereira; D, Martins; A.C.P, Rodrigues; G.S.F, Souza; L.A, Cardoso.

97

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC.

Marinalva Oliveira Freitas

2007-01-01

98

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora / Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p- [...] cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC).

Marinalva Oliveira, Freitas; Mary Anne S., Lima; Edilberto R., Silveira.

99

Termorretificação e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / Heat treatment and color of Eucalyptus grandis wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A termorretificação pode ser utilizada na alteração da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante às madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações colorimétricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 °C, por três, cinco e sete ho [...] ras. Corpos de prova de 2 × 2 × 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliação de claridade (L), matriz vermelho (a*), matriz amarelo (b*), saturação (C) e ângulo de tinta (H). A claridade (L*) reduziu-se a partir de 140 °C; a matriz vermelho (a*), a partir de 140 °C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*), a saturação e o ângulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 °C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alteração da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificação escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliação do uso do material. Abstract in english Heat treatment can be used to change the color of timber, adding value to it. In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in color of Eucalyptus grandis wood subjected to 140, 170, 200, and 230 °C for three, five, and seven hours. Samples of 2 × 2 × 2 cm were dried and heat treated to evaluate light [...] ness (L), a* coordinate (green-red coordinate), b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H). Lightness (L *) decreased as from 140 °C. a* coordinate (green-red coordinate) decreased as from 140 °C for five hours. b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H), saturation, and ink angle reduced as from 170 °C. Temperature was more effective than time to change the color of timber. Heat treatment darkened the wood and can be an alternative to add value to this material.

Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; Elias de Sá, Farias; Teodorico Alves da, Silveira.

100

Termorretificação e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / Heat treatment and color of Eucalyptus grandis wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A termorretificação pode ser utilizada na alteração da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante às madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações colorimétricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 °C, por três, cinco e sete ho [...] ras. Corpos de prova de 2 × 2 × 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliação de claridade (L), matriz vermelho (a*), matriz amarelo (b*), saturação (C) e ângulo de tinta (H). A claridade (L*) reduziu-se a partir de 140 °C; a matriz vermelho (a*), a partir de 140 °C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*), a saturação e o ângulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 °C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alteração da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificação escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliação do uso do material. Abstract in english Heat treatment can be used to change the color of timber, adding value to it. In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in color of Eucalyptus grandis wood subjected to 140, 170, 200, and 230 °C for three, five, and seven hours. Samples of 2 × 2 × 2 cm were dried and heat treated to evaluate light [...] ness (L), a* coordinate (green-red coordinate), b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H). Lightness (L *) decreased as from 140 °C. a* coordinate (green-red coordinate) decreased as from 140 °C for five hours. b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H), saturation, and ink angle reduced as from 170 °C. Temperature was more effective than time to change the color of timber. Heat treatment darkened the wood and can be an alternative to add value to this material.

Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; Elias de Sá, Farias; Teodorico Alves da, Silveira.

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

102

In silico survey of resistance (R) genes in Eucalyptus transcriptome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A major goal of plant genome research is to recognize genes responsible for important traits. Resistance genes are among the most important gene classes for plant breeding purposes being responsible for the specific immune response including pathogen recognition, and activation of plant defence mech [...] anisms. These genes are quite abundant in higher plants, with 210 clusters found in Eucalyptus FOREST database presenting significant homology to known R-genes. All five gene classes of R-genes with their respective conserved domains are present and expressed in Eucalyptus. Most clusters identified (93) belong to the LRR-NBS-TIR (genes with three domains: Leucine-rich-repeat, Nucleotide-binding-site and Toll interleucine 1-receptor), followed by the serine-threonine-kinase class (49 clusters). Some new combinations of domains and motifs of R-genes may be present in Eucalyptus and could represent novel gene structures. Most alignments occurred with dicots (94.3%), with emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) sequences. All best alignments with monocots (5.2%) occurred with rice (Oryza sativa) sequences and a single cluster aligned with the gymnosperm Pinus sylvestris (0.5%). The results are discussed and compared with available data from other crops and may bring useful evidences for the understanding of defense mechanisms in Eucalyptus and other crop species.

Adriano, Barbosa-da-Silva; Ana C., Wanderley-Nogueira; Raphaela R.M., Silva; Luiz C., Berlarmino; Nina M., Soares-Cavalcanti; Ana M., Benko-Iseppon.

103

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01

104

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980, para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm were collected from 14 trees of Eucalyptus grandis derived from the `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980 model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

Fred Willians Calonego

2006-06-01

105

Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae  

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Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Lagartas de T. arnobia alimentadas na geração anterior com folhas de E. grandis preferiram folhas jovens de E. grandis e E.cloeziana, enquanto as alimentadas com E. saligna, na geração anterior, preferiram folhas velhas de E. grandis. A espécie preferida por lagartas de T. arnobia foi E. grandis, observando-se, também maior preferência por folhas jovens que por folhas velhas nas espécies utilizadas nos testes.Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is considered one of the most serious Eucalyptus pests in Brazil. This work was carried out aiming to study feeding preference of T. arnobia and the influence of leaf age on the host selection, using young and old leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Caterpillars fed with E. grandis leaves in previous generation, preferred young leaves of E. grandis and E. cloeziana, while caterpillars fed with E. saligna in previous generation preferred old leaves of E. grandis. The most consumed species was E. grandis, and the caterpillars preferred young leaves than old ones, for all species studied.

Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

1999-01-01

106

Effects of Eucalyptus Allelopathy on Growth Characters and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Phalaris Weed  

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Full Text Available In this study, different amounts of aqueous extracts [0, 5, 15 and 30% (v/v] and decompose of Eucalyptus leaves [(0, 3 and 6% (w/w] were applied to Phalaris in pot culture and evaluated on growth parameters and antioxidant enzymes activity. The results showed that most of the growth parameters of phalaris were decreased when exposed to different amounts of decompose and water extracts of Eucalyptus leaves, especially in the leaf decompose. Also, antioxidant enzymes activity in root and shoot of Phalaris were affected by aqueous extracts and decompose of Eucalyptus leaves. The findings indicated that decompose of Eucalyptus leaves decreased catalase activity and increased ascorbate activity in root and shoot of Phalaris in comparison to control while aqueous extract of Eucalyptus leaves significant raised ascorbate peroxidase in Phalaris root. Activity of other enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in Phalaris affected less aqueous extracts and decompose of Eucalyptus leaves.

M. Niakan

2009-01-01

107

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm)...

Rdova, C. C.; Barrandeguy, M.; Navarrete, E.

2012-01-01

108

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil  

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The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

Callisto, M.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Moreno, P.

2002-01-01

109

Plantations clonales d'eucalyptus hybrides en République Populaire du Congo  

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Full Text Available Clonal plantations of hybrid eucalyptus trees in the Popular Republic of Congo. The eucalyptus tree can grow in many different climates. The artificial pollinisation allows the production of hydrides with high performances (quick growth and early start in production. Indefinite multiplication is then possible through cuttings as described by Martin in 1976. In that context, it is possible to use the eucalyptus to afforest semi-arid areas.

Mennig, X.

1989-01-01

110

Characterization of latent Botryosphaeriaceae on diverse Eucalyptus species  

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The Koala bears housed and maintained by the Pretoria Zoo are relying on 20 different Eucalyptus species in the Eucalyptus arboretum in Pretoria for food. Species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are well known endophytes and pathogens of Eucalyptus in South Africa and elsewhere. This study was aimed at characterizing the Botryosphaeriaceae infecting these trees planted for the Koala bears. The experimental set-up also provided the opportunity to broaden our knowledge regardi...

Maleme, Happy-girl Mamodise

2009-01-01

111

Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae from plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in South China  

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The Botryosphaeriaceae is a species-rich family that includes pathogens of a wide variety of trees, including Eucalyptus species. Symptoms typical of infection by the Botryosphaeriaceae have recently been observed in Eucalyptus plantations in South China. The aim of this study was to identify the Botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms. Isolates were collected from branch cankers and senescent twigs of different Eucalyptus spp. All isolates resembling Botryosphaeriaceae were separat...

Chen, Shuaifei; Pavlic, Draginja; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Xie, Yaojian; Wingfield, Michael J.; Zhou, Xu Dong

2011-01-01

112

Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method / Transformação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenário silvicultural mundial devido à sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rápido e produção de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gênero é dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformação genética impor [...] tante ferramenta para esse propósito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagação in vitro para indução, regeneração e seleção que permita a obtenção de plantas transgênicas a partir de grupos de células transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formação de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformação genética de folhas e calos através da infecção por A. tumefaciens. Para a formação de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentração de nitrogênio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e água de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformação genética de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas à técnica de agrobiobalística, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartículas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferência do gene, enquanto para a transformação genética dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influência de diferentes períodos de infecção. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformação genética de folhas através da técnica de agrobiobalística foi efetiva, sendo possível observar a expressão transiente do gene gus, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os períodos de infecção (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens também apresentaram expressão transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regeneração e seleção e apresentaram formação de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for th [...] is purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

Evânia Galvão, Mendonça; Vanessa Cristina, Stein; Flávia Pereira, Balieiro; Carolina Delfin Fernandes, Lima; Breno Régis, Santos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva.

113

Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method / Transformação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenário silvicultural mundial devido à sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rápido e produção de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gênero é dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformação genética impor [...] tante ferramenta para esse propósito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagação in vitro para indução, regeneração e seleção que permita a obtenção de plantas transgênicas a partir de grupos de células transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formação de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformação genética de folhas e calos através da infecção por A. tumefaciens. Para a formação de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentração de nitrogênio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e água de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformação genética de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas à técnica de agrobiobalística, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartículas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferência do gene, enquanto para a transformação genética dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influência de diferentes períodos de infecção. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformação genética de folhas através da técnica de agrobiobalística foi efetiva, sendo possível observar a expressão transiente do gene gus, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os períodos de infecção (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens também apresentaram expressão transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regeneração e seleção e apresentaram formação de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for th [...] is purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

Evânia Galvão, Mendonça; Vanessa Cristina, Stein; Flávia Pereira, Balieiro; Carolina Delfin Fernandes, Lima; Breno Régis, Santos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva.

2013-06-01

114

Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid  

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Full Text Available Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2 apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66. Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3.Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated from coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2 presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66. Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

2009-04-01

115

Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis / Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entr [...] e 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 a [...] nd 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.

Jussara Bertho, Fantinatti; Roberto, Usberti.

2007-01-01

116

The post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS is a conserved surveillance mechanism that identifies and cleaves double-stranded RNA molecules and their cellular cognate transcripts. The RNA silencing response is actually used as a powerful technique (named RNA interference for potent and specific inhibition of gene expression in several organisms. To identify gene products in Eucalyptus sharing similarities with enzymes involved in the PTGS pathway, we queried the expressed sequence tag database of the Brazilian Eucalyptus Genome Sequence Project Consortium (FORESTs with the amino acid sequences of known PTGS-related proteins. Among twenty-six prospected genes, our search detected fifteen assembled sequences encoding products presenting high level of similarity (E value < 10-40 to proteins involved in PTGS in plants and other organisms. We conclude that most of the genes known to be involved in the PTGS pathway are represented in the FORESTs database.

Flávio Tetsuo Sassaki

2005-01-01

117

Influence of section lengths on volume determination in eucalyptus trees  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the influence of different section lengths on the determination of eucalyptus treestem (with bark volumes and its implications in forest inventory procedures. The 40 Eucalyptus grandis trees used, all from themunicipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, were 77 months old. The volume of the stems (with bark, whose maximum diameter was3,0 cm, was obtained through the Smalian formula, with sections 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 m long. Longer sections lead to overestimations ofthe volume of the trees’ basal part and, consequently, of their total volume. Different statistical tests led to different conclusionsregarding the similar volume estimates resulting from experiments using different section lengths4. Volumetric equations adjusted withlonger sections may introduce bias errors in forest inventory procedures.

Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares

2010-06-01

118

The post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway in Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a conserved surveillance mechanism that identifies and cleaves double-stranded RNA molecules and their cellular cognate transcripts. The RNA silencing response is actually used as a powerful technique (named RNA interference) for potent and specific inhi [...] bition of gene expression in several organisms. To identify gene products in Eucalyptus sharing similarities with enzymes involved in the PTGS pathway, we queried the expressed sequence tag database of the Brazilian Eucalyptus Genome Sequence Project Consortium (FORESTs) with the amino acid sequences of known PTGS-related proteins. Among twenty-six prospected genes, our search detected fifteen assembled sequences encoding products presenting high level of similarity (E value

Flávio Tetsuo, Sassaki; Tiago, Campos-Pereira; Ivan de Godoy, Maia.

119

Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

Ricardo Harakava

2005-01-01

120

Optimisation of engine operating parameters for eucalyptus oil mixed diesel fueled DI diesel engine using Taguchi method  

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The present investigation used Eucalyptus oil, distilled oil from leaf of eucalyptus as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel. Generally, Eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be admissible along with diesel fuel in the form of blends. Keeping this in mind experiments have been conducted using blends of Eucalyptus oil and diesel fuel to study its replace ability, performance and emission behaviour. As the investig...

Tamilvendhan D.; Ilangovan V.; Karthikeyan R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of Eucalyptus Oil Inhalation on Pain and Inflammatory Responses after Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Eucalyptus oil has been reported effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. Participants were randomized 1?:?1 to intervention group (eucalyptus inhalation group) or control group (almond oil inhalation group). Patients inhaled eucalyptus or almond oil for 30 min of continuous passive motion (CPM) on 3 consecutive days. Pain o...

Yang Suk Jun; Purum Kang; Sun Seek Min; Jeong-Min Lee; Hyo-Keun Kim; Geun Hee Seol

2013-01-01

122

QUALIDADE DA SECAGEM DE MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus dunnii  

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No presente estudo, foi avaliado o comportamento de secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus dunnii em estufa piloto convencional, utilizando-se três programas de secagem. Cada programa de secagem teve uma vaporização inicial (pré-vaporização) de 3 horas após uma hora de aquecimento inicial e uma vaporização intermediária de 5 horas para recuperação do colapso, quando a madeira se encontrava a 17% de umidade. Os resultados mostram que, entre os programas de secagem utilizados, somente o p...

Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

2000-01-01

123

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lipids from Eucalyptus globulus wood  

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Various typical lipid components of wood extractives have been isolated from Eucalyptus globulus wood by supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol. The influence of various extraction parameters on the yield and qualitative composition of the extracts have been studied. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with acetone, the standard method for the determination of wood extractives. The qualitat...

Gonza?lez-vila, Francisco Javier; Bautista, Jose? Manuel; Gutie?rrez Sua?rez, Ana; Ri?o Andrade, Jose? Carlos Del; Gonza?lez, A. G.

2000-01-01

124

TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp  

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The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucal...

Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Fábio Akira Mori; José Tarcísio de Lima; Dione Pereira Cardoso

2003-01-01

125

Eucalyptus foliar chemistry explains selective feeding by koalas  

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The koala is the quintessential specialist herbivore, feeding almost exclusively on Eucalyptus foliage. Consequently, the limitations imposed on the koala's diet by plant defences indicate the extent to which evolutionary adaptations allow mammalian herbivores to circumvent such defences. We tested whether a recently discovered group of plant secondary metabolites, the formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs), deters koalas from feeding on some eucalypt foliage. We found that captive koalas...

Moore, Ben D.; Foley, William J.; Wallis, Ian R.; Cowling, Ann; Handasyde, Kathrine A.

2005-01-01

126

Hubungan Berbagai Faktor Lingkungan dan Umur Terhadap Biomassa Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Environmental factors is one of the factors that affect tree biomass increment that can not be modified . Therefore, a research had been conducted on Eucalyptus urograndis in Estate A , Sector Aek Nauli , PT Toba Pulp Lestari Tbk . To see the relationship between the dependent variable, is the biomass of E. urograndis and independent variable, is the rainfall , elevation , slope , soil pH , soil type and age of the plant , it is done by multiple linear regression analysis . The results sho...

Gurning, Rudianto

2014-01-01

127

Effectiveness of ascorbic acid and PVP in the rooting of clonal mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Eficiência do ácido ascórbico e PVP no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a eficiência dos antioxidantes ácido ascórbico e polivinilpirrolidona (PVP) no enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal, conduzido em canaletas de alvenaria pree [...] nchidas com areia lavada. Experimentalmente, foram testadas cinco concentrações de cada antioxidante nos três clones estudados (C1, C2 e C3). Foram realizadas avaliações de sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas na saída das casas de vegetação e de sombra e da sobrevivência e crescimento das mudas aos 50 dias de idade. A utilização do ácido ascórbico foi favorável para as miniestacas do clone com menor porcentual de enraizamento (C3), porém, a utilização do PVP mostrou-se desfavorável para os clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the rooting of mini-cuttings for three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Mini-cuttings were gathered from a mini-clonal hedge which had been cultivated [...] in concrete ducts containing washed sand. Five concentrations of each antioxidant were experimentally tested on each of the three clones (C1, C2 and C3). Assessments were done of mini-cutting survival and rooting rates when leaving the greenhouse and the shade house, as well as seedling survival and growth at age 50 days. Ascorbic acid was found to be beneficial to the mini-cuttings of the clone with a lower rooting percentage (C3), whereas PVP was found to be unbeneficial to the clones being studied.

Lucas Amaral de, Melo; Aloisio, Xavier; Elizabete Keiko, Takahashi; Antônio Marcos, Rosado; Haroldo Nogueira de, Paiva.

2011-12-01

128

Two new Phytophthora species from South African Eucalyptus plantations  

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A recent study to determine the cause of collar and root rot disease outbreaks of cold tolerant Eucalyptus species in South Africa resulted in the isolation of two putative new Phytophthora species. Based on phylogenetic comparisons using the ITS and ?-tubulin gene regions, these species were shown to be distinct from known species. These differences were also supported by robust morphological characteristics. The names, Phytophthora frigida sp. nov. and Phytophthora alticola sp. nov. are th...

Maseko, Bongani; Burgess, Treena I.; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2007-01-01

129

ADSORPTION OF TOLUENE ONTO BLEACHED EUCALYPTUS PULP TREATED WITH ULTRASOUND  

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Full Text Available Bleached kraft semichemical eucalyptus pulp was used as raw material to adsorb an organic compound, toluene, from aqueous solution. The pulp was sonicated with different powers and different times to obtain smaller cellulose fibers. The adsorption capacity for toluene of sonicated fibers and bleached eucalyptus pulp was measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The absorption capacity for toluene was increased considerably when cellulose nanofibres were obtained. The adsorption capacity of bleached eucalyptus pulp was 36 ?mol/g, while sonicated fibres at 30 W and 20 hours increased the adsorption by 47% and at 50 W and 20 h increased it by 67% compared with untreated fibres. Visual examination and optical microscopy were used to observe the reduction of fibers width and the dispersion increase. Contact angle measurements were used to analyze the variation of hydrophilic character of cellulose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study variations introduced by the ultrasound treatments on the chemical structure of the samples. The adsorption capacity studies showed that the treatment with ultrasound improved the retention capacity of the fibres, increasing considerably the adsorption capacity when the fiber width approached the nanoscale.

Iñaki Urruzola,

2012-07-01

130

Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill.  

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In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease. PMID:23961222

Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Barad, Mahesh B

2013-01-01

131

DRYING BEHAVIOR AND PERMEABILITY OF Eucalyptus grandis LUMBER  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Although the increasing economic importance of Eucalyptus lumber to furniture and other value added products manufacturing, its industrial use is still small. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to dry the lumber and related loses of raw material. There is a general recommendation in literatur [...] e to use a low drying rate in initial stages of the process, and changing to a more aggressive drying after removal of liquid water from the lumber. According classical theory about drying of porous material, this point should coincide with the predominance of diffusion phenomena in the moisture movement; which could be determined through the characteristic drying curve of the material. With the objective to get better knowledge about the drying of Eucalyptus grandis lumber, its characteristic drying curve was determined, and the results proved that Eucalyptus grandis lumber is not permeable to liquid flow. Based on its characteristic drying curve, it is possible to suggest the change of drying conditions when lumber moisture content, dry basis, is between 35% and 40%, then starting a more aggressive drying

Ivaldo P, Jankowsky; Gilson Roberto V. dos, Santos.

132

DRYING BEHAVIOR AND PERMEABILITY OF Eucalyptus grandis LUMBER  

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Full Text Available Although the increasing economic importance of Eucalyptus lumber to furniture and other value added products manufacturing, its industrial use is still small. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to dry the lumber and related loses of raw material. There is a general recommendation in literature to use a low drying rate in initial stages of the process, and changing to a more aggressive drying after removal of liquid water from the lumber. According classical theory about drying of porous material, this point should coincide with the predominance of diffusion phenomena in the moisture movement; which could be determined through the characteristic drying curve of the material. With the objective to get better knowledge about the drying of Eucalyptus grandis lumber, its characteristic drying curve was determined, and the results proved that Eucalyptus grandis lumber is not permeable to liquid flow. Based on its characteristic drying curve, it is possible to suggest the change of drying conditions when lumber moisture content, dry basis, is between 35% and 40%, then starting a more aggressive drying

Ivaldo P Jankowsky

2005-01-01

133

Individual tree growth models for eucalyptus in northern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The diameter and height growth model is one of three submodels used for simulating individual tree growth. In Brazil, there are few studies on the dimensional growth of individual trees be they native or exotic species, despite their potential. This study aimed to evaluate diameter and height growth [...] models for individual trees for eucalyptus stands and to validate the best fitting model. Tree diameter and height data were obtained from 48 permanent plots of unthinned stands of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid located in northern Brazil. The evaluation of the diameter and height growth models was based on adjusted coefficient of determination, standard error of estimate as a percentage, trend, root mean square error and Akaike Information Criterion. Analysis also included distribution of residual percentage, statistical significance and signs of the coefficients. The Lundqvist-Korf model provided the most accurate estimates for diameter and height growth, in comparison with the other models, providing better statistical values, greater proximity to observed values and better distribution of residual percentages. The use of this type of model is feasible and can result in significant improvements in the accuracy of yield estimates.

Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva.

2014-06-01

134

Two new Phytophthora species from South African Eucalyptus plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent study to determine the cause of collar and root rot disease outbreaks of cold tolerant Eucalyptus species in South Africa resulted in the isolation of two putative new Phytophthora species. Based on phylogenetic comparisons using the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions, these species were shown to be distinct from known species. These differences were also supported by robust morphological characteristics. The names, Phytophthora frigida sp. nov. and Phytophthora alticola sp. nov. are thus provided for these taxa, which are phylogenetically closely related to species within the ITS clade 2 (P. citricola, P. tropicali and P.multivesiculata) and 4 (P. arecae and P. megakarya), respectively. Phytophthora frigida is heterothallic, and produces stellate to rosaceous growth patterns on growth medium, corraloid hyphae, sporangia with a variety of distorted shapes and has the ability to grow at low temperatures. Phytophthora alticola is homothallic and has a slower growth rate in culture. Both P. frigida and P. alticola are pathogenic to Eucalyptus dunnii. In pathogenicity tests, they were, however, less pathogenic than P. cinnamomi, which is a well-known pathogen of Eucalyptus in South Africa. PMID:18032009

Maseko, Bongani; Burgess, Treena I; Coutinho, Teresa A; Wingfield, Michael J

2007-11-01

135

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

2012-07-01

136

Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China  

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Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

WenJun Zhang

2012-06-01

137

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.  

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Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.

Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

2009-01-01

138

Effectiveness of ascorbic acid and PVP in the rooting of clonal minicuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in the rooting of mini-cuttings for three clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Mini-cuttings were gathered from a mini-clonal hedge which had been cultivated in concrete ducts containing washed sand. Five concentrations of each antioxidant were experimentally tested on each of the three clones (C1, C2 and C3. Assessments were done of mini-cutting survival and rooting rates when leaving the greenhouse and the shade house, as well as seedling survival and growth at age 50 days. Ascorbic acid was found to be beneficial to the mini-cuttings of the clone with a lower rooting percentage (C3, whereas PVP was found to be unbeneficial to the clones being studied.

Lucas Amaral de Melo

2011-12-01

139

CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES  

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Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho

2003-01-01

140

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis / Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a [...] ientes do Horto Florestal de Mandurí, SP, pertencente ao Instituto Florestal de São Paulo. Em cada uma das toras foi inserido um termopar próximo ao seu centro. Posteriormente, as toras foram vaporizadas a 90 ºC e 100% de umidade relativa, durante 20 horas. Um coletor de dados registrou as temperaturas, no interior do material, durante o tratamento térmico. Conclui-se que o modelo de Steinhagen et al. (1980) não pode ser diretamente aplicado à espécie em estudo, e propõem-se fatores de correções para a utilização do modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, desenvolvido por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to [...] e `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980) model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo.

 
 
 
 
141

Funções para descrever a relação altura diâmetro de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Function the hypsometric relation of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O presente trabalho teve como objetivos definir uma equação para descrever as alturas de árvores de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden em função dos diâmetros medidos a altura do peito. Os dados foram coletados em árvores amostras com idade de seis e sete anos, em quatro hortos florestais da empresa Riocell S.A. localizados na Depressão Central e Encosta do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram ajustados modelos matemáticos, com o emprego do procedimento Forward de regressão, para descrever a r...

Magda Léa Bolzan Zanon; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Jorge Euclides Meyer Klein; Maria Cristina Bueno Coelho

1996-01-01

142

Modelos de predição para sobrevivência de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis Prediction models of Eucalyptus grandis plant survival  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar modelos de predição de plantas sobreviventes de Eucalyptus grandis. Utilizaram-se os seguintes modelos: modelo linear misto com os dados transformados, utilizando-se as transformações angular e BOX-COX; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição binomial e funções de ligação logística, probit e complemento log-log; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica. Os dados são provenientes de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, para avaliação de progênies maternas de Eucalyptus grandis, aos 5 anos de idade, em que a variável resposta são plantas sobreviventes. Para comparação dos efeitos entre os modelos foram estimadas as correlações de Spearman e aplicado o teste de permutação de Fisher. Foi possível concluir que, o modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica se ajustou mal aos dados e que as estimativas para os efeitos fixos e predição para os efeitos aleatórios, não se diferenciaram entre os demais modelos estudados.The objective of this work was to compare models for prediction of the survival of plants of Eucalyptus grandis. The following models were used: linear mixed model with the transformed data, by utilizing the angular transformations and BOX-COX; generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and logistic functions, probit and complement log-log links; generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function. The data came from a randomized block experiment for evaluation of Eucalyptus grandis maternal progenies at five years old, in which the variable response are surviving plants. For comparison of the effects among the models the correlations of Spearman were estimated and the test of permutation of Fisher was applied. It was possible to conclude that: the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function misadjusted to the data; the estimates for the fixed effects and prediction for the random effects did not differ among the to other studied models.

Telde Natel Custódio

2009-01-01

143

Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptu [...] s grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2) apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66). Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3. Abstract in english Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated fro [...] m coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2) presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66). Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

Fabrício Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Robert Cardoso, Sartório.

144

Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

2010-01-01

145

LEVANTAMENTO DE SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA EM PLANTAÇÕES DE Eucalyptus spp. EM CUIABÁ, ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO  

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Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento populacional de espécies da família Scolytidae em plantios de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Dehnh. Dehnh., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com auxílio de armadilhas etanólicas, modelo escolitídeo-Curitiba, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso, de março de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas, sendo seis por talhão/espécie de Eucalyptus. As coletas foram quinzenais e divididas em dois períodos: seco (maio-outubro e chuva (novembro-abril. Foram coletados um total de 19.153 indivíduos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 42 espécies. Nos períodos seco e chuvoso foram coletados 9.865 e 9.288 indivíduos respectivamente. Nos talhões de Eucalyptus pellita e de Eucalyptus urophylla, foram coletados as maiores quantidades de indivíduos em ambos os períodos analisados. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912; Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801 e Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934 foram, quantitativamente, as espécies mais importantes nos plantios das quatro espécies de Eucalyptus.

Eli Nunes Marques

2004-01-01

146

Response of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis Plants at Different Doses of Glyphosate  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of eucalyptus plants submitted to the application of glyphosate increasing rates. The doses 0.0, 3.6, 7.2, 18, 36, 72 and 180 g ha-1 of acid equivalent (ae of glyphosate were applied on plants. At 7, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 42 days after application (DAA was determined leaves relative chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. At 22 and 42 DAA plant height and stem diameter were measured. At 42 DAA were determined the leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area. The height, diameter, leaves and stem dry masses and foliar area were converted to percentages, whereas the controls as 100%. These variables were fitted to the model described by Gauss equation. The data chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of photosystem II were submitted to mean comparison, and when they differed, we performed the Tukey test at 5% probability. All the features presented here showed some hormetic effect promoted by reduced rates of glyphosate and the increments observed in these characteristics (when compared to control ranged between 5.92 and 33.18% at 42 DAA. From average curve with height, diameter, leaves dry mass, stem dry mass and foliar area can be concluded that the increase averaged 12% on application of 16 g a.e. of glyphosate ha-1. For leaves chlorophyll content significant differences were observed only at 29 DAA, while for quantum efficiency of photosystem II significant differences were found only at 7 DAA.  

Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira

2012-12-01

147

Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid), GE 463 (E. ur...

Silva, C. M. M.; Ferreira, L. R.; Ferreira, F. A.; Miranda, G. V.

2004-01-01

148

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

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Full Text Available A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that eucalyptus oil could be direct injectable in a regular diesel engine after little engine modification. This method showed almost same brake thermal efficiency (BTE at full load compared to standard diesel operation. Except NOx emission other emissions were found closer to diesel baseline operation. This mode offered almost 50% smoke free operation at all loads compared to standard diesel operation. Also this method successfully proved the complete replacement of diesel fuel by eucalyptus oil.

D. TAMILVENDHAN

2011-08-01

149

Propagation of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) by organ and tissue culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Micropropagation methods are described for the production of clonal lines from Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) seedlings. Nodal explants from mature trees can also yield shoot cultures, but a high frequency of contamination occurs among such explants. Uncontaminated callus cultures can be produced from mature trees by culturing stamen filaments and shoots can subsequently be regenerated from this callus. The rooting percentage of shoot cultures from either nodes or stamen callus of mature trees is low compared with that from seedling explants. Considerable variation was observed between trees in the ability of stamen callus to regenerate shoots and in the frequency of rooting. (Refs. 27)

Bennett, M.J.; McComb, J.A.

1982-01-01

150

VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.  

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Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included ?- pinene (38.6 %, ? -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and ?-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

Mittal Abhilasha

2011-02-01

151

Bioconversion of eucalyptus bark waste into soil conditioner.  

Science.gov (United States)

An optimized protocol for the bioconversion of eucalyptus bark was devised. It comprised: (i) mechanical reduction in bark size to 0.5-3.0 cm, (ii) moistening to 60-65%, (iii) fortification with ligninase-rich fungus Volvariella sp. (S-1) and 2% urea and (iv) maintenance of this composting mix under aerobic and ambient condition for 14-15 weeks. The resulting bark soil conditioner (BSC) was an easily crumbling, reddish brown biomass, with physico-chemical and microbial properties which would enrich soil fertility/productivity. PMID:11762910

Yadav, K R; Sharma, R K; Kothari, R M

2002-01-01

152

INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION  

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Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC)(PO)DD, O(DC)(PO)DP, OD(PO)DD, OD(PO)DP, ODHT(PO)DD, ODHT(PO)DP, OA/D(PO)DD, OA/D(PO)DP, OAD(PO)DD and O(Ze)D(PO). Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to...

Eiras, Ka?tia M. M.; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Carvalho, Ana Ma?rcia M. L.

2005-01-01

153

Removal of chromium (vi) by using eucalyptus bark (biosorption)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorption of Chromium (VI) on the Eucalyptus bark has been studied with variation in parameters. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, amount of adsorbent, stirring speed, time, temperature and pH were studied. The adsorption has been carried out in batch process. The adsorption capacity increases with decreasing the particle size of adsorbent. The optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption are attained with 2.0 g of adsorbent, 40 ppm metal ion concentration, at room temperature (10 degree C), with 90 min contact time, with 300 rpm agitation speed and at pH 2. (author)

154

Compatibility and ectomycorrhiza formation among Pisolithus Isolates and Eucalyptus spp / Compatibilidade e formação de Ectomicorrizas entre Isolados de Pisolithus e Eucalyptus spp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Vinte e nove isolados do fungo ectomicorrízico Pisolithus sp., de diferentes regiões geográficas e hospedeiros, foram testados quanto à capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas em plântulas de Eucalyptus grandis e E. urophylla sob condições de casa de vegetação. Os isolados apresentaram grande variação n [...] a capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas com ambas as espécies de eucalipto. Todos os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus, 9 originalmente obtidos de Pinus spp. e dois isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos formaram micorrizas com E. grandis e E. urophylla. A taxa de colonização radicular dos isolados originalmente obtidos de Pinus e dos isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos variou de 0 a 5,2 %. A taxa de colonização para esses isolados foi menor do que as obtidas para os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus (0,8 a 89,4 %). Três isolados obtidos de hospedeiros desconhecidos não formaram micorrizas com nenhuma das espécies de Eucalyptus. A característica mais marcante para distinção das ectomicorrizas formadas pelos isolados de Pinus e pelo de Eucalyptus foi a cor do manto fúngico. Esses dados corroboram resultados prévios obtidos em laboratório, indicando que os isolados estudados devem representar ao menos duas espécies distintas dentro do gênero Pisolithus. Abstract in english Twenty-nine isolates of the ectomycorrhiza fungus Pisolithus sp. from different geographical and host origins were tested for their ability to form ectomycorrhizae on Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The ectomycorrhiza-forming capacity of isolates varied gre [...] atly from one eucalypt species to the other. All isolates from Eucalyptus, nine from Pinus spp. and two isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with E. grandis and E. urophylla. Root colonization rates varied from 0 to 5.2 % for all Pinus isolates and those from unknown hosts. Colonization rates for these isolates were lower than those observed for Eucalyptus isolates (0.8 to 89.4 %). Three isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with neither Eucalyptus species. The main characteristic for distinguishing Pinus from Eucalyptus isolates was mantle color. These data corroborate previous results obtained in our laboratory indicating that the isolates tested represent at least two distinct different species within the genus Pisolithus.

Olinto Liparini, Pereira; Maurício Dutra, Costa; Arnaldo Chaer, Borges; Elza Fernandes, Araújo; Maria Catarina Megumi, Kasuya.

155

Compatibility and ectomycorrhiza formation among Pisolithus Isolates and Eucalyptus spp Compatibilidade e formação de Ectomicorrizas entre Isolados de Pisolithus e Eucalyptus spp  

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Full Text Available Twenty-nine isolates of the ectomycorrhiza fungus Pisolithus sp. from different geographical and host origins were tested for their ability to form ectomycorrhizae on Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The ectomycorrhiza-forming capacity of isolates varied greatly from one eucalypt species to the other. All isolates from Eucalyptus, nine from Pinus spp. and two isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with E. grandis and E. urophylla. Root colonization rates varied from 0 to 5.2 % for all Pinus isolates and those from unknown hosts. Colonization rates for these isolates were lower than those observed for Eucalyptus isolates (0.8 to 89.4 %. Three isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with neither Eucalyptus species. The main characteristic for distinguishing Pinus from Eucalyptus isolates was mantle color. These data corroborate previous results obtained in our laboratory indicating that the isolates tested represent at least two distinct different species within the genus Pisolithus.Vinte e nove isolados do fungo ectomicorrízico Pisolithus sp., de diferentes regiões geográficas e hospedeiros, foram testados quanto à capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas em plântulas de Eucalyptus grandis e E. urophylla sob condições de casa de vegetação. Os isolados apresentaram grande variação na capacidade de formar ectomicorrizas com ambas as espécies de eucalipto. Todos os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus, 9 originalmente obtidos de Pinus spp. e dois isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos formaram micorrizas com E. grandis e E. urophylla. A taxa de colonização radicular dos isolados originalmente obtidos de Pinus e dos isolados de hospedeiros desconhecidos variou de 0 a 5,2 %. A taxa de colonização para esses isolados foi menor do que as obtidas para os isolados originalmente obtidos de Eucalyptus (0,8 a 89,4 %. Três isolados obtidos de hospedeiros desconhecidos não formaram micorrizas com nenhuma das espécies de Eucalyptus. A característica mais marcante para distinção das ectomicorrizas formadas pelos isolados de Pinus e pelo de Eucalyptus foi a cor do manto fúngico. Esses dados corroboram resultados prévios obtidos em laboratório, indicando que os isolados estudados devem representar ao menos duas espécies distintas dentro do gênero Pisolithus.

Olinto Liparini Pereira

2005-06-01

156

Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract  

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Full Text Available Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca starch films were prepared by castingmethod with addition of eucalyptus extract and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 asplasticizers. Eucalyptus extract incorporated to the tapioca starch films were dried at different concentrations(0, 15, 25, and 35 of total solid under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as waterabsorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films wereevaluated. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of eucalyptus extract, tensile strength wasincreased from 20.60 to 15.68 (MPa, also elongation was increased from 19.31 to 23.57 (% at break andYoung’s modulus was decreased from 800.31 to 500.32 (MPa. Also incorporation of eucalyptus extract in thestructure of biopolymer increased permeability of water vapor of starch films. Tapioca starch filmsincorporated with eucalyptus extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. Coli. In summary,eucalyptus extract improves functional properties of tapioca starch films and this types of films can be used infood packaging.

M. Rojhan

2013-11-01

157

Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances  

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Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed better. In themechanical tests, MOE presented itself above the demands of the norm with the exception of provenance 7785 of Eucalyptus saligna,in which stress was performed parallel to the cover fibers. For parallel MOR, only the provenances 9789 and 10695 of Eucalyptusgrandis and 97852 of Eucalyptus cloeziana managed to reach the demands of the norm ABNT 31:000.05-001/2. For shearing stressand failure in wood, all the provenances and species showed themselves above the demands, with the exception of 10634; 48 and 9753of Eucalyptus grandis.

Fábio Akira Mori

2009-03-01

158

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels / Avaliação do potencial de uso de nove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus para produção de lâminas e compensados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espécies de Eucalyptus na produção de lâminas e painéis compensados multilaminados. As lâminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em t [...] rês classes de qualidade para as nove espécies estudadas. Os painéis compensados foram produzidos em laboratório, com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído, com gramatura de 360 g/m² (linha dupla). Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 140ºC e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminação indicaram que, com exceção de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espécies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento médio em laminação acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexão estática paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parâmetros estudados neste trabalho para produção de lâminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield a [...] ccording to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m² (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm², a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski; Leandro Soares da, Silva.

2013-06-01

159

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels / Avaliação do potencial de uso de nove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus para produção de lâminas e compensados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espécies de Eucalyptus na produção de lâminas e painéis compensados multilaminados. As lâminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em t [...] rês classes de qualidade para as nove espécies estudadas. Os painéis compensados foram produzidos em laboratório, com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído, com gramatura de 360 g/m² (linha dupla). Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 140ºC e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminação indicaram que, com exceção de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espécies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento médio em laminação acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexão estática paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parâmetros estudados neste trabalho para produção de lâminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield a [...] ccording to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m² (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm², a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski; Leandro Soares da, Silva.

160

Alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / In vitro elongation of minicutings of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Brotações com pequeno alongamento poderão apresentar reduzida formação de raízes se forem diretamente cultivadas em meios de enraizamento ou, ainda, resultar em mudas de baixa qualidade para aclimatização. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dun [...] nii sob diferentes concentrações de Ácido Giberélico (GA3). Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio nutritivo MS reduzido à metade da concentração de sais (¹/2 MS) suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de Ácido alfa-Naftaleno Acético (ANA), 0,1 mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP), e variando-se o GA3, conforme tratamentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo bifatorial 6 x 4, resultante da combinação de seis genótipos e quatro concentrações de GA3 (0,0; 0,2; 0,4 e 0,8 mg L-1). Após 30 dias de cultivo in vitro, foram efetuadas as avaliações. Para a maioria dos genótipos, a ausência de GA3 resultou no maior número de brotações alongadas por explante e maior comprimento de gemas alongadas. Em geral, os genótipos que apresentaram maior número de brotações também tiveram brotações maiores. Com o emprego da maior concentração testada de GA3, observou-se mais de 50% de calogênese em um dos genótipos e intensidade diferenciada nos demais. GA3 não apresenta efeito no alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii e, inclusive, em sua presença os genótipos reduzem o número de brotações alongadas e o comprimento das brotações, aumentando a formação de calos. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii avaliados apresentam desempenho in vitro diferenciado em relação ao alongamento, o qual é passível de seleção. Abstract in english Shoots that have short lengths may present low percentage of survival if they are directly grown on rooting media, or give rise to low quality seedlings for the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii minicuttings under differen [...] t concentrations of giberellic acid. Minicuttings were prepared and inoculated under aseptic conditions on MS nutritive medium with half of the salt concentration (¹/2 MS). We used fixed concentrations of NAA (0.5 mg L-1) and BAP (0.1 mg L-1) varying GA3 according to the treatment. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design, using a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, where the levels of factor "A" refer to different genotypes and the levels of factor B, the concentrations of GA3 (0.0; 0.2; 0.4, and 0.8 mg L-1), each replicate was composed of a flask containing three explants. Thirty days after in vitro culture, evaluations were performed. For most genotypes, the absence of GA3 produced the highest number of elongated shoots for explant and a longer length of elongated shoots. In general, genotypes with the highest number of shoots also had larger shoots. The non-addition of GA3 to the nutritive medium did not promote calli formation, reaching over 50% in the use of higher concentration of GA3 tested (0.80 mg L-1). The calli formation was different in different genotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has no effect on in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii. In the presence of GA3 genotypes reduce the number of elongated shoots and shoot length, increasing the formation of calli. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii evaluated present differently in relation to in vitro elongation, which is able to be selected.

Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira; Aline Ritter, Curti; Aline Ferreira, Paim.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / In vitro elongation of minicutings of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden genotypes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Brotações com pequeno alongamento poderão apresentar reduzida formação de raízes se forem diretamente cultivadas em meios de enraizamento ou, ainda, resultar em mudas de baixa qualidade para aclimatização. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dun [...] nii sob diferentes concentrações de Ácido Giberélico (GA3). Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio nutritivo MS reduzido à metade da concentração de sais (¹/2 MS) suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de Ácido alfa-Naftaleno Acético (ANA), 0,1 mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP), e variando-se o GA3, conforme tratamentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo bifatorial 6 x 4, resultante da combinação de seis genótipos e quatro concentrações de GA3 (0,0; 0,2; 0,4 e 0,8 mg L-1). Após 30 dias de cultivo in vitro, foram efetuadas as avaliações. Para a maioria dos genótipos, a ausência de GA3 resultou no maior número de brotações alongadas por explante e maior comprimento de gemas alongadas. Em geral, os genótipos que apresentaram maior número de brotações também tiveram brotações maiores. Com o emprego da maior concentração testada de GA3, observou-se mais de 50% de calogênese em um dos genótipos e intensidade diferenciada nos demais. GA3 não apresenta efeito no alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii e, inclusive, em sua presença os genótipos reduzem o número de brotações alongadas e o comprimento das brotações, aumentando a formação de calos. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii avaliados apresentam desempenho in vitro diferenciado em relação ao alongamento, o qual é passível de seleção. Abstract in english Shoots that have short lengths may present low percentage of survival if they are directly grown on rooting media, or give rise to low quality seedlings for the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii minicuttings under differen [...] t concentrations of giberellic acid. Minicuttings were prepared and inoculated under aseptic conditions on MS nutritive medium with half of the salt concentration (¹/2 MS). We used fixed concentrations of NAA (0.5 mg L-1) and BAP (0.1 mg L-1) varying GA3 according to the treatment. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design, using a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, where the levels of factor "A" refer to different genotypes and the levels of factor B, the concentrations of GA3 (0.0; 0.2; 0.4, and 0.8 mg L-1), each replicate was composed of a flask containing three explants. Thirty days after in vitro culture, evaluations were performed. For most genotypes, the absence of GA3 produced the highest number of elongated shoots for explant and a longer length of elongated shoots. In general, genotypes with the highest number of shoots also had larger shoots. The non-addition of GA3 to the nutritive medium did not promote calli formation, reaching over 50% in the use of higher concentration of GA3 tested (0.80 mg L-1). The calli formation was different in different genotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has no effect on in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii. In the presence of GA3 genotypes reduce the number of elongated shoots and shoot length, increasing the formation of calli. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii evaluated present differently in relation to in vitro elongation, which is able to be selected.

Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira; Aline Ritter, Curti; Aline Ferreira, Paim.

162

Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita  

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Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

2004-10-01

163

Análise cinética da cura de adesivos de taninos das cascas de três espécies de Eucalyptus por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC Kinetic analysis of bark tannin adhesives from three species of Eucalyptus by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a cinética de cura de adesivos à base de taninos de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus urophylla por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC, comparando-a com a cinética de cura de adesivos comerciais: fenol-formaldeído e de taninos de acácia-negra (Acacia mollissima D.Wild. Verificou-se que o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentou os parâmetros cinéticos (energia de ativação, entalpia, temperatura de pico e ordem de reação mais próximos aos do adesivo comercial de taninos de acácia-negra, que foram totalmente diferentes do adesivo à base de fenol-formaldeído. Com base nestes parâmetros constatou-se que, em relação aos outros dois, o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla é o mais adequado para colagem, uma vez que em condições industriais ele necessitará de uso mínimo de energia e de tempo de prensagem durante o processo de colagem.This work aimed to analyze the cure kinetics of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus urophylla tannins based adhesives by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Another objective was to compare cure kinetics of Eucalyptus tannin adhesives with the cure kinetics of phenol-formaldehyde and Wattle black (Acacia mollissima D. Wild tannin commercial adhesives. It was observed that the Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesives presented kinetic parameters (activation energy, entalpia, peak temperature and reaction order similar to the Wattle black commercial tannin adhesives but were different from the phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Based on these parameters it was concluded that the Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesives are more adequate for wood bonding than the other two Eucalyptus tannin adhesives. Under industrial conditions, Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesive will need a minimum energy and pressing.

Fábio Akira Mori

2002-08-01

164

Estudio preliminar de la contracción y el colapso en Eucalyptus nitens Preliminary study of shrinkage and collapse in Eucalyptus nitens  

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En este trabajo se estudió la contracción y el colapso en familias de Eucalyptus nitens. La madera fue recogida de 15 árboles en pie de 17 años de edad creciendo en plantaciones de la Octava Región de Chile. Fueron seleccionados al azar tres árboles provenientes de cinco familias de E. nitens. Las probetas para los ensayos de contracción y colapso fueron preparadas a partir de una muestra obtenida de una rodela extraida a la altura del DAP de cada árbol. Los ensayos de contracción y ...

Ananias, Rube?n A.; Cinthya Diaz; Laura Leandro

2009-01-01

165

Eucalyptus pellita as a source of resistance to rust, ceratocystis wilt and leaf blight  

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Full Text Available Rust (Puccinia psidii, ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata and cylindrocladium leaf blight (Cylindrocladium pteridis are important diseases of eucalyptus. Planting of resistant genotypes is the most suitable control strategy of forest diseases under field condition. Resistance level of 23 Eucalyptus pellita clones was evaluated by artificial inoculations. Among the inoculated clones, 12 were resistant to rust, 16 to ceratocystis wilt and 12 to cylindrocladium leaf blight, and three of them were resistant to all three diseases. The high intra-specific variability found in this study demonstrates the importance of E. pellita as a disease resistance source to be employed for introgression of novel resistance genes in eucalyptus genetic breeding programs.

Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães

2010-01-01

166

Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported i [...] n other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

Ricardo, Harakava.

167

Leaf Area Index in Seedlings of Eucalyptus sp.  

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Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to follow the development of leaf area index (LAI of eucalyptus seedlings propagated through minicutting. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the FLORA SINOP nursery with controlled conditions in order to ensure temperature around 30 C and relative humidity above 80%. The cuttings were collected from ministumps established in clonal minigarden and were prepared in tubes with substrate. The leaf area index was determined with the aid of an integrator of leaf area and after obtaining the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (f = 0.05 and Tukey test at 5% probability. The Clone 1 and Clone 2 were the only ones to present frank leaf area development under conditions of the greenhouse, while the others came to increase, significantly, the values of leaf area only in sunny conditions. The Clone 4 had a different behavior from the others when it was in sunny conditions, since his leaf area decreases due to abscission of some leaves under these conditions. The results showed different behaviors between the clones tested with regard the expansion of leaf area during the analysis period.Keywords: cuttings, eucalyptus, clone

V. R. Andrade Neto

2013-03-01

168

INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA  

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Full Text Available O estudo analisou a influência da densidade básica de dois clones do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 na qualidade da polpa branqueada (dimensões de fibras e propriedades físico-mecânicas. O desempenho das madeiras nos resultados da polpação, branqueamento e refino foram analisados. As polpações Kraft foram realizadas em digestor de circulação forçada para obtenção de números kappa de 17 ? 1. As polpas não-branqueadas foram submetidas a uma pré-deslignificação com oxigênio e branqueadas pela seqüência D0EOPD1 visando à alvura de 90 ? 1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a polpa branqueada do clone de menor densidade básica apresentou, significativamente, menor número de revoluções no moinho PFI para atingir o índice de tração de 70 N.m/g, baixo grau. Schopper Riegler, para atingir esse nível de tração, gerou folhas com valores mais elevados de volume específico e opacidade. Essas características e propriedades permitem concluir que a polpa do clone de menor densidade foi mais indicada para a fabricação de papéis de imprimir e escrever. A polpa branqueada do clone de maior densidade básica apresentou valores mais elevados de volume específico aparente, ascensão capilar Klemm e menor índice de retenção de água quando analisada sem refino. A polpa branqueada do clone de maior densidade básica mostrou características mais favoráveis para a fabricação de papéis para fins sanitários.

Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

2007-03-01

169

Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, the main product of Eucalyptus oils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The forest industry in Uruguay has grown considerably during the last decade. Eucalyptus plantations account for 74% of the forested land, with Eucalyptus globulus being the most widely distributed species. This industry is dedicated exclusively to the production of wood without exploiting the by-pr [...] oducts (leaves and small branches). Eucalyptus leaves are known to contain important amounts of essential oils composed primarily of 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trymethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). In this work, the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, is achieved using a native bacterium (Rhodococcus sp.) which was isolated from the soil of Eucalyptus forest. A 98% of bioconversion was achieved. Three different optically pure compounds were obtained, and they were identified as 2-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole, 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole and 2-oxo-1,8-cineole.

Paula, Rodríguez; Wilson, Sierra; Sonia, Rodríguez; Pilar, Menéndez.

2006-06-01

170

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil  

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The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

Callisto, M.; Barbosa, F. A. R.; Moreno, P.

2002-01-01

171

PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

2007-06-01

172

Temporal composition of tannin and carbohydrate content in Eucalyptus leaves in South Africa  

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In South Africa, the genus Eucalyptus plays an important role as a plantation tree and hence forms a major economic component in the forest sector. An insect pest of these Eucalyptus species, Gonipterus scutellatus, causes periodic defoliation in the plantations. Plants have extraordinary array of chemicals (secondary metabolites), which defend them from herbivores. This study reports on the seasonal variation of the tannin concentration and carbohydrate content of the le...

Moleki, Rorisang Anna Confidence

2005-01-01

173

Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda  

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This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá), Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda...

Setsuo Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de Matos; Juliana Afonso Pinto; Lívia Cássia Viana; Marina Moura Souza; Rosilani Trianoski; Vanessa Coelho Almeida

2010-01-01

174

Elaboração de modelo de previsão de preço da madeira de Eucalyptus spp.  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this paper was to establish a price forecasting model of Eucalyptus spp. wood in Itapeva (SP and Bauru (SP, using Box & Jenkins (1976 methodology in monthly observations, from May 2002 to January 2008. The results shows that the appropriate models for forecasting Eucalyptus spp. wood price in Itapeva (SP and Bauru (SP were, respectively, ARIMA (0,1,4 and ARIMA (2,1,2.

Naisy Silva Soares

2010-03-01

175

Soil microbial community structure and function responses to successive planting of Eucalyptus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have shown soil degradation after the conversion of native forests to exotic Eucalyptus plantations. However, few studies have investigated the long-term impacts of short-rotation forestry practices on soil microorganisms. The impacts of Eucalyptus successive rotations on soil microbial communities were evaluated by comparing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundances, compositions, and enzyme activities of native Pinus massoniana plantations and adjacent 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation Eucalyptus plantations. The conversion from P. massoniana to Eucalyptus plantations significantly decreased soil microbial community size and enzyme activities, and increased microbial physiological stress. However, the PLFA abundances formed "u" shaped quadratic functions with Eucalyptus plantation age. Alternatively, physiological stress biomarkers, the ratios of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid and Gram+ to Gram- bacteria, formed "n"' shaped quadratic functions, and the ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1omega7c decreased with plantation age. The activities of phenol oxidase, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase increased with Eucalyptus plantation age, while the cellobiohydrolase activity formed "u" shaped quadratic functions. Soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and understory cover largely explained the variation in PLFA profiles while soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and understory cover explained most of the variability in enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil microbial structure and function under Eucalyptus plantations were strongly impacted by plantation age. Most of the changes could be explained by altered soil resource availability and understory cover associated with successive planting of Eucalyptus. Our results highlight the importance of plantation age for assessing the impacts of plantation conversion as well as the importance of reducing disturbance for plantation management. PMID:24494498

Chen, Falin; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Huailin; Wu, Bing; Shi, Qian

2013-10-01

176

Productive Performance and Immunocompetence of Commercial Laying Hens Given Diets Supplemented with Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of Eucalyptus leaf powder supplementation on productive performance and immune response of brown Hy-line laying hens. Sixty brown Hy-line layers were equally divided into four groups. They were fed diet containing 0, 1, 2 and 3g Eucalyptus leaf powder/kg diet form 46 to 54 weeks of age. Egg production (weight and number was recorded daily. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded every 4 weeks. Cell mediated immunity was determined at 54 weeks of age. At the end of the experiment, internal and external egg quality measurements were determined. The present results revealed that supplementation of Eucalyptus at the rate of 3g/kg diet significantly increased egg number compared to the other groups. Likewise, the hens fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus produced significantly higher egg mass compared to remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference among treated groups for egg weight. There was no significant difference among treated groups for all egg quality traits, except for breaking strength. Whereas the eggs produced from hen fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus had a significantly higher breaking strength compared to other treated groups. With respect to immune response, it could be noticed that the hens fed diets supplemented with 2 or 3g Eucalyptus were significantly hyper responder to PHA-P injection compared to other groups. Moreover, the Eucalyptus supplementation at the rate of 2 and 3g/kg diet significantly decreased the H/L ratio of laying hens. In summary, the current experiment has shown that the inclusion of Eucalyptus at the level of 3g/kg diet is useful for improving the productive performance and immunity of commercial laying hens.

A.M. Abd El - Motaal

2008-01-01

177

Índices de competição em árvores individuais de eucalipto Competition indexes for individual eucalyptus trees  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cinco índices de competição independentes da distância, em árvores individuais de plantios comerciais de eucalipto, e verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para o crescimento em diâmetro e altura, bem como a probabilidade de mortalidade para três classes de produtividade. Foram avaliados dados de 30 parcelas permanentes de plantios clonais híbridos, não desbastados, de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Os índices d...

Fabrina Bolzan Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Helio Garcia Leite; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Renato Vinícius Oliveira Castro

2011-01-01

178

Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia  

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Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests ...

José Cola Zanuncio; Pedro Guilherme Lemes; Germi Porto Santos; Marcus Alvarenga Soares; Carlos Frederico Wilcken; José Eduardo Serrão

2014-01-01

179

Eucalyptus pellita as a source of resistance to rust, ceratocystis wilt and leaf blight  

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Rust (Puccinia psidii), ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) and cylindrocladium leaf blight (Cylindrocladium pteridis) are important diseases of eucalyptus. Planting of resistant genotypes is the most suitable control strategy of forest diseases under field condition. Resistance level of 23 Eucalyptus pellita clones was evaluated by artificial inoculations. Among the inoculated clones, 12 were resistant to rust, 16 to ceratocystis wilt and 12 to cylindrocladium leaf blight, and three o...

Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; Miranda Titon; Douglas Lau; Leonardo Novaes Rosse; Leonardo Sarno Soares Oliveira; Carla Cristina Gonçalves Rosado; Guilherme Gegenheiner Ornelas Christo; Acelino Couto Alfenas

2010-01-01

180

Efecto de los sistemas de riego en la rentabilidad de plantaciones de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus) / Effect of irrigation system type on profitability of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El riego es utilizado con mayor frecuencia para establecer plantaciones, con el fin de aumentar el crecimiento y la productividad por superficie. Se estudió el efecto de tres sistemas de riego: microaspersión (T1), goteo (T2) y surco (T3), en la rentabilidad de una plantación de eucalipto (Eucalyptu [...] s globulus), en el Valle Central de la Región del Bío Bío, Chile. La variable proyectada a la edad de cosecha fue el incremento volumétrico de los árboles. Para calcular costos de T1 y T2 se usó una base de datos de 200 predios agrícolas de diferentes superficies con instalación e implementación de estos sistemas. Para T3 se aplicaron costos actualizados de construcción y mantención de las estructuras requeridas para la evaluación financiera. La rentabilidad se determinó mediante el valor actual neto (VAN), valor económico del suelo (VES), y tasa interna de retorno modificada (TIRm). La rentabilidad para T1 y T2 tuvo valores negativos, es decir, estas técnicas de riego no generaron beneficios económicos. El riego por surco (T3) fue rentable para el volumen proyectado a los ocho y diez años de edad de cosecha, obteniéndose con los tres indicadores los mayores retornos al usar una tasa de descuento de 8 % y a un precio de la madera pulpable de 32 US$ m-3 ssc. El VAN fue 989 US$ ha-1 y 1106 US$ ha-1, el VES fue 2152 y 2406 US$ ha-1, y la TIRm 10.4 % y 10.1 %. Estos resultados justifican la utilización del riego por surco (T3) como una técnica eficiente del manejo integrado para una plantación de eucalipto de alta productividad. Abstract in english Irrigation is used increasingly in establishment of forest plantations in order to increase growth and productivity. The effect on profitability of a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation in the Central Valley of the Bío Bío Region, Chile, of three irrigation systems was studied: microsprinkle [...] rs (T1), drip irrigation (T2) and surface irrigation (T3). The variable projected to harvest age was the volumetric increase of the trees. To calculate costs of T1 and T2, a database was used of 200 agricultural operations of varying size where these systems were installed and implemented. For T3, current costs of construction and maintenance of the structures required were used for financial evaluation. Profitability was determined using net present value (NPV), potential land value (PLV) and modified internal return rate (MIRR). Profitability with Tl and T2 had negative values; that is, these irrigation techniques did not generate economic benefits. Surface irrigation (T3) was profitable for the volume projected to eight and ten years harvest age. The greatest returns were obtained with the three indicators using a discount rate of 8 % and a price of pulp wood of US$ 32 m-3 ssc. NPV was US$ 989 ha-¹ and US$ 1106 ha-1; PLV was US$ 2152 and 2406 ha-1, and MIRR was 10.4 % and 10.1 %. These results justify the use of surface irrigation (T3) as an efficient technique in the integrated management of a high-producing eucalyptus plantation.

Emilio, Guerra; Miguel Á., Herrera; Fernando, Drake.

2010-02-15

 
 
 
 
181

Production cost of biomasses from eucalyptus and elefant grass for energy  

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Full Text Available This work established the unit energy cost generated from biomass of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp. and elephant grass (Pennisetum sp. and applied a sensitivity analysis to verify the influences of factors such as the silviculture of eucalyptus, production volume of each species, the cost of land and the interest rate. It was shown that the treatment of eucalyptus in very short rotation of 2 years with reform of stand every 6 years has a average cost of production higher than the traditional treatment of short rotation of 6 years with reform only at the age of 18. It was also observed that eucalyptus has a Production Cost on average of R$ 4,41 /Gj, lower than the elephant grass which is on average of R$ 5,44/Gj, which however has a higher annual capacity of dry matter production. The elephant grass has the possibility to compete with eucalyptus when a set of conditions is met: discount rate higher than or equal to 8%, High price of land, and elephant grass high volume production, greater than or equal to 35 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and year.

Laurent Marie Roger Quéno

2011-09-01

182

Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.  

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Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

2012-01-01

183

Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential  

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In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), ?-pinene (5%), and ?-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), ?-pinene (8.87%), and ?-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50?mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9?mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

2014-01-01

184

Eucalyptus Biomass and Volume Estimation Using Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data  

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Full Text Available This work aims to establish a relationship between volume and biomass with interferometric and radiometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar response from planted Eucalyptus saligna forest stands, using multi-variable regression techniques. X and P band SAR images from the airborne OrbiSAR-1 sensor, were acquired at the study area in the southeast region of Brazil. The interferometric height (Hint = difference between interferometric digital elevation model in X and P bands, contributed to the models developed due to fact that Eucalyptus forest is composed of individuals whose structure is predominantly cylindrical and vertically oriented, and whose tree heights have great correlation with volume and biomass. The volume model showed that the stand volume was highly correlated with the interferometric height logarithm (Log10Hint, since Eucalyptus tree volume has a linear relationship with the vegetation height. The biomass model showed that the combination of both Hint2 and Canopy Scattering Index—CSI (relation of s°VV by the sum of s°VV and s°HH, which represents to the canopy interaction were used in this model, due to the fact that the Eucalyptus biomass and the trees height relationship is not linear. Both models showed a prediction error of around 10% to estimate the Eucalyptus biomass and volume, which represents a great potential to use this kind of technology to help establish Eucalyptus forest inventory for large areas.

Fábio Furlan Gama

2010-03-01

185

Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.  

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In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), ?-pinene (5%), and ?-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), ?-pinene (8.87%), and ?-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50?mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9?mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

Kumar Tyagi, Amit; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

2014-01-01

186

Virulência de estirpes (biovar 1 e 2T) de Ralstonia solanaceraum a Eucalyptus spp. / Virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum strains (biovar 1 and 2T) to Eucalyptus spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A murcha bacteriana do eucalipto (Raça 3 biovar 2T de Ralstonia solanacearum) foi descrita em 2009 em campo com o híbrido de eucalipto urograndis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a virulência de duas estirpes de R. solanacearum a dezessete espécies de Eucalyptus, através do teste de microbioli [...] zação de sementes. A análise estatística dentre espécies mostrou que a virulência variou entre as estirpes estudadas. A virulência da R3bv2T foi significativamente maior em: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei e E. phaeotricha; e maior para R1bv1 somente na espécie E. pellita. Entre espécies de eucalipto, observou-se maior suscetibilidade em "urograndis", E. grandis e E. paniculata para R3bv2T; e em E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua e E. resinifera devido a R1bv1. Abstract in english The bacterial wilt of Eucalyptus (Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 biovar 2T) was reported in field of Eucalyptus hybrid urograndis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the virulence of two R. solanacearum strains to 17 Eucalyptus species, using the seed microbiolization method for pathogen [...] inoculation. The results of the statistical analyses showed that virulence varied between the two R. solanacearum strains. The R3bv2T virulence was higher than the one in R1bv1 in the following Eucalyptus species: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei, and E. phaeotricha. The virulence of the R1bv1 strain was higher only in E. pellita. Among species of Eucalyptus the following ones were more susceptibles: to R3bv2T strain - urograndis, E. grandis and E. paniculata, and to R1bv1 strain - E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua and E. resinifera.

Eder, Marques; Carlos Hidemi, Uesugi; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum.

187

Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production / Análise multivariada aplicada à avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se selecionar clones de Eucalyptus com finalidades energéticas, utilizando as técnicas multivariadas de componentes principais e de agrupamento. Foram avaliados 25 clones de Eucalyptus aos 54 meses de idade. Foram determinados os teores dos componentes elementares (C, H e O [...] ), de lignina, extrativos totais e cinzas, a densidade básica, o poder calorífico superior e a densidade energética. As duas técnicas multivariadas empregadas para a avaliação e seleção dos clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia foram eficientes, sendo observadas similaridades entre os grupos de biomassa formados por elas. Pela análise de agrupamento, foram obtidos cinco grupos distintos, sendo que o grupo um, formado pelo clone U060, possui maior potencial como fonte de energia. Os clones G084, G122, G023 e U108 possuem menor desempenho energético. Abstract in english This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, [...] H and O), lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

Allan Motta, Couto; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

2013-12-01

188

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels  

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Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2013-06-01

189

Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps  

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Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

Israel González

2012-11-01

190

Características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake / Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a variabilidade existente nas características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla aos 6 anos, plantado no município de Martinho Campos, MG. As árvores foram distribuídas em três classes de diâmetro e a amostragem consistiu na ret [...] irada de discos, de 2,5 cm de espessura, a 2%, 10%, 30% e 70% da altura comercial, além de um a 1,30 m do solo (DAP) e, a partir deste ponto, de metro em metro até a altura comercial. Foram tomadas amostras ao longo do raio nos discos, considerando os dois lados em relação à medula. As amostras foram carbonizadas em forno elétrico de laboratório, sendo determinados os rendimentos e a qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que para a primeira carbonização, a classe diamétrica influenciou significativamente o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão vegetal, em líquido pirolenhoso e o teor de cinza do carvão vegetal produzido, e que o rendimento em gás não condensável, o teor de materiais voláteis e o de carbono fixo não foram influenciados pela classe diamétrica; para a segunda carbonização o rendimento gravimétrico aumentou da casca para a medula, para todas as classes diamétricas e ocorreu redução dessa característica com a diminuição das classes diamétricas e que os valores de densidade relativa aparente tenderam a aumentar no sentido medula-casca, em todas as classes diamétricas. Abstract in english This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted [...] of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH) and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade.

191

Características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake / Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a variabilidade existente nas características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla aos 6 anos, plantado no município de Martinho Campos, MG. As árvores foram distribuídas em três classes de diâmetro e a amostragem consistiu na ret [...] irada de discos, de 2,5 cm de espessura, a 2%, 10%, 30% e 70% da altura comercial, além de um a 1,30 m do solo (DAP) e, a partir deste ponto, de metro em metro até a altura comercial. Foram tomadas amostras ao longo do raio nos discos, considerando os dois lados em relação à medula. As amostras foram carbonizadas em forno elétrico de laboratório, sendo determinados os rendimentos e a qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que para a primeira carbonização, a classe diamétrica influenciou significativamente o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão vegetal, em líquido pirolenhoso e o teor de cinza do carvão vegetal produzido, e que o rendimento em gás não condensável, o teor de materiais voláteis e o de carbono fixo não foram influenciados pela classe diamétrica; para a segunda carbonização o rendimento gravimétrico aumentou da casca para a medula, para todas as classes diamétricas e ocorreu redução dessa característica com a diminuição das classes diamétricas e que os valores de densidade relativa aparente tenderam a aumentar no sentido medula-casca, em todas as classes diamétricas. Abstract in english This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted [...] of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH) and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade.

2013-09-01

192

Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

193

Genetic divergence in Eucalyptus spp. clones by molecular RAPD markers  

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Full Text Available The genetic divergence in 20 Eucalyptus spp. clones was evaluated by multivariate techniques based on 167RAPD markers, of which 155 were polymorphic and 12 monomorphic. The measures of genetic distances were obtained by thearithmetic complement of the coefficients of Jaccard and of Sorenso-Nei and Li and evaluated by the hierarchical methods ofSingle Linkage clustering and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA. Independent of the dissimilaritycoefficient, the greatest divergence was found between clones 7 and 17 and the smallest between the clones 11 and 14. Cloneclustering was little influenced by the applied procedure so that, adopting the same percentage of divergence, the UPGMAidentified two groups less for the coefficient of Sorenso-Nei and Li. The clones evidenced considerable genetic divergence,which is partly associated to the origin of the study material. The clusters formed by the UPGMA clustering algorithmassociated to the arithmetic complement of Jaccard were most consistent.

Bruno Ettore Pavan

2006-01-01

194

QUALIDADE DA SECAGEM DE MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus dunnii  

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Full Text Available No presente estudo, foi avaliado o comportamento de secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus dunnii em estufa piloto convencional, utilizando-se três programas de secagem. Cada programa de secagem teve uma vaporização inicial (pré-vaporização de 3 horas após uma hora de aquecimento inicial e uma vaporização intermediária de 5 horas para recuperação do colapso, quando a madeira se encontrava a 17% de umidade. Os resultados mostram que, entre os programas de secagem utilizados, somente o programa considerado o mais suave apresentou um bom resultado em termos de qualidade de madeira seca. Entre os defeitos encontrados estão 37,5% de colapso, 35% de encanoamento e 10% de rachaduras. Embora, desse total, somente 15% do colapso e encanoamento foram classificados como defeitos fortes.

Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

2000-06-01

195

THERMAL MODIFICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD: VARIATION OF COLORIMETRIC PARAMETERS  

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Full Text Available The color modifications in Eucalyptus grandis thermally modified wood were investigated. One hundred eighty specimens (10 x 10 x 200 mm were prepared and thermally modified in an electric kiln for 4 and 8 h at 180-240ºC. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h* and ?E were determined by the CIE-L*a*b* method on radial and tangential sections of untreated and treated wood. The results indicated the darkening of specimens in the radial and tangential sections. Both sections showed variation of L* between 73 and 30, a* between 9 and 5 and b* between 20 and 8. The thermally modified wood at 180 and 200ºC showed similar patterns, equally at 220 and 240ºC. The time of exposure indicated significance just in treatment at 200ºC.

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

2013-01-01

196

Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning, with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

2010-10-01

197

Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da mad [...] eira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste), com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas. Abstract in english Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla [...] x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning), with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

Fabricio Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Mario, Tomazelo Filho.

2010-10-01

198

Surface roughness of heat treated Eucalyptus grandis wood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate surface roughness of heat treated Eucalyptus grandis wood after peripheral planning and sanding performed in directions to the grain and against the grain. For machining tests, workpieces were collected from two different regions in the radial direction, as follows: inte [...] rnal, nearby the pit; external, nearby the bark. Heat treatment was carried out by heating samples at a maximum temperature of 190ºC, with total treatment duration of 390 minutes. Heat treated and control samples underwent peripheral planning and sanding tests. The quality of machined surfaces was assessed by means of roughness average (Ra) measurements across and along the grain orientation. Results indicated significant differences in surface roughness as a function of machining feed direction, sandpaper grit size, and heat treatment. Surface roughness has not shown any difference in the radial direction.

Gilmara Pires, de Moura Palermo; João Vicente, de Figueiredo Latorraca; Luiz Fernando, de Moura; Adriana Maria, Nolasco; Alexandre, Monteiro de Carvalho; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia.

2014-02-24

199

Qualidade de painéis aglomerados homogêneos produzidos com a madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla / Quality of homogeneous particleboard produced with Eucalyptus urophylla clone wood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de painéis aglomerados homogêneos de baixa densidade. Foram avaliados seis clones de Eucalyptus urophylla com 94 meses de idade, plantados no municipio de Paracatu-MG, sendo utilizada como parâmetro de [...] comparação a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Para cada clone de Eucalyptus urophylla e também para o Pinus oocarpa foram produzidos seis painéis com o adesivo uréia-formaldeido no teor de 6%, densidade nominal de 0,60 g/cm³, pressão especifica de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de 8 minutos. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram potencial para produção de painéis aglomerados convencionais de baixa densidade. Os clones 62 e 28 obtiveram os melhores resultados em todas as propriedades fisico-mecânicas avaliadas, apresentando propriedades iguais ou superiores as obtidas para os painéis produzidos com a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Com relação à norma de comercialização CS 236/1966 apenas o clone 28 atendeu a todos os requisitos. Nenhum dos clones avaliados atendeu a norma EN 312/2003. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla clones to produce homogeneous particleboard of low-density. Six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla were evaluated, at 94 months of age and planted in Paracatu-MG. Pinus oocarpa wood was used as a reference. For each Eucalyptus urophylla c [...] lone and also for Pinus oocarpa, six panels were produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive in the concentration of 6%, nominal density of 0.60 g/cm³, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm², temperature of 160ºC and a time of 8 minutes. Eucalyptus urophylla clones presented potential for production of conventional particleboard of low density. Clones 62 and 28 showed the best results for all physical and mechanical properties evaluated, presenting properties equal or superior to those obtained for the panels produced with Pinus oocarpa wood. In relation to CS 236/1966 standard, only the clone 28 met all the requirements. None of the clones meets EN 312/2003 standard.

Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Lilian Lima, Mendonça; José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Fábio Akira, Mori.

200

Leptocybe invasa em Eucalyptus sp. no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Leptocybe invasa Eucalyptus sp. in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo relata o ataque da vespa-da-galha do eucalipto Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle, 2004 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As formas imaturas de L. invasa induzem o crescimento de galhas que podem levar ao desfolhamento de árvores de eucalipto. [...] Abstract in english The present study reports the attack of the Eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle, 2004 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The immature stages of L. invasa induce the growth of galls that can lead to defoliation of eucalyptus trees. [...

Juliana, Garlet; Ervandil Corrêa, Costa; Jardel, Boscardin; Gilmar, Deponti; Clovis Roberto, Shwengber; Leonardo Mortari, Machado.

 
 
 
 
201

Qualidade de painéis aglomerados homogêneos produzidos com a madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla / Quality of homogeneous particleboard produced with Eucalyptus urophylla clone wood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de painéis aglomerados homogêneos de baixa densidade. Foram avaliados seis clones de Eucalyptus urophylla com 94 meses de idade, plantados no municipio de Paracatu-MG, sendo utilizada como parâmetro de [...] comparação a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Para cada clone de Eucalyptus urophylla e também para o Pinus oocarpa foram produzidos seis painéis com o adesivo uréia-formaldeido no teor de 6%, densidade nominal de 0,60 g/cm³, pressão especifica de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de 8 minutos. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram potencial para produção de painéis aglomerados convencionais de baixa densidade. Os clones 62 e 28 obtiveram os melhores resultados em todas as propriedades fisico-mecânicas avaliadas, apresentando propriedades iguais ou superiores as obtidas para os painéis produzidos com a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Com relação à norma de comercialização CS 236/1966 apenas o clone 28 atendeu a todos os requisitos. Nenhum dos clones avaliados atendeu a norma EN 312/2003. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla clones to produce homogeneous particleboard of low-density. Six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla were evaluated, at 94 months of age and planted in Paracatu-MG. Pinus oocarpa wood was used as a reference. For each Eucalyptus urophylla c [...] lone and also for Pinus oocarpa, six panels were produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive in the concentration of 6%, nominal density of 0.60 g/cm³, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm², temperature of 160ºC and a time of 8 minutes. Eucalyptus urophylla clones presented potential for production of conventional particleboard of low density. Clones 62 and 28 showed the best results for all physical and mechanical properties evaluated, presenting properties equal or superior to those obtained for the panels produced with Pinus oocarpa wood. In relation to CS 236/1966 standard, only the clone 28 met all the requirements. None of the clones meets EN 312/2003 standard.

Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Lilian Lima, Mendonça; José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Fábio Akira, Mori.

2014-06-01

202

Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea Production of plywood with different composition from Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1 painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4; e (2 painéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10. Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of structural plywood manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis, var. bahamensis, using different board compositions. It was manufactured experimental panels measuring 50 x 50 cm composed by 5 veneers with 2.2 mm thickness, according to following compositions: (1 panels with all veneers of Eucalytpus saligna and Pinuscaribaea (T1 to T4; (2 panels with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna mixed with Pinus caribaea (T5 to T10. The panels completely manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna showed higher values of glue line shear strength, parallel and perpendicular MOE and MOR. The panel compositions using the veneers of both species with alternate position in the layer did not effectively influence the properties of glue line shear strength, perpendicular MOE and MOR. The placing of Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of plywood resulted in higher values of parallel MOE and MOR. The results of mechanical properties of plywood evaluated in this study were satisfactory in comparison to the control values of the literature and with those the minimum values required by technical standards, indicating the feasibility of production of "combi" type plywood using different veneer combination of hardwood and softwood species.

Setsuo Iwakiri

2012-06-01

203

Efeito dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla / Effect of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento exper [...] imental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, constituído de dois reguladores de crescimento (AIB e ANA), cinco doses de AIB e ANA e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram feitas avaliações em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e pleno sol, quanto ao porcentual de sobrevivência, altura, diâmetro de colo e massa seca da parte aérea e radicular das miniestacas enraizadas. Conclui-se que a utilização do AIB nas doses entre 500 e 2.000 mg L-1 mostrou-se mais eficiente do que o ANA nos quatro clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden under a hydro phonic system in small gutters. The experimen [...] t was arranged in a randomized design with plots in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial constituted of two growth regulators (IBA and ANA), five doses of each growth regulator and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. The evaluations were carried out in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun for survival rate, height, stem diameter and dry mass of the aerial and root parts of the rooted minicuttings. It was concluded that using IBA in doses between 500 and 2,000 mg L-1 was more efficient than using ANA for the four clones studied.

Patrícia Bueno, Goulart; Aloisio, Xavier; Narcisio Zeferino, Cardoso.

1051-10-01

204

Efeito dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla Effect of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones  

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Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, constituído de dois reguladores de crescimento (AIB e ANA, cinco doses de AIB e ANA e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram feitas avaliações em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e pleno sol, quanto ao porcentual de sobrevivência, altura, diâmetro de colo e massa seca da parte aérea e radicular das miniestacas enraizadas. Conclui-se que a utilização do AIB nas doses entre 500 e 2.000 mg L-1 mostrou-se mais eficiente do que o ANA nos quatro clones estudados.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden under a hydro phonic system in small gutters. The experiment was arranged in a randomized design with plots in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial constituted of two growth regulators (IBA and ANA, five doses of each growth regulator and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. The evaluations were carried out in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun for survival rate, height, stem diameter and dry mass of the aerial and root parts of the rooted minicuttings. It was concluded that using IBA in doses between 500 and 2,000 mg L-1 was more efficient than using ANA for the four clones studied.

Patrícia Bueno Goulart

2008-12-01

205

Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

Goodger Jason QD

2010-09-01

206

Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes  

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The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

2011-07-01

207

Funções para descrever a relação altura diâmetro de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Function the hypsometric relation of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos definir uma equação para descrever as alturas de árvores de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden em função dos diâmetros medidos a altura do peito. Os dados foram coletados em árvores amostras com idade de seis e sete anos, em quatro hortos florestais da empresa Riocell S.A. localizados na Depressão Central e Encosta do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram ajustados modelos matemáticos, com o emprego do procedimento Forward de regressão, para descrever a relação hipsométrica. Na seleçõo dos modelos foram considerados as estatísticas de coeficiente de determinação (R², erro padrão da estimativa em percentagem da média (Syx %, bem como, a análise de resíduos dos modelos, tendo sido selecionada a equação In (h-1,30 = b0+b1.ln d + b2.log²d, com coeficientes R² =0,8921 e Syx %= 2,5175.The present work had the objective to define an equation to describe plant heights in function of diameters of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden. Data were collected infour properties of Company Riocell S.A distributed along several counties of the Central Depression and Southeast Slope of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The trees sampled were six to seven years old. The datas were adjusted to heights and diameters to describe the hypsometric relation, usingthe Forward regression procedure. In the selection of the model,the coefficient of determination statistics (R², standard error of estimate in percentage of means (Syx °/o as well as residue analyses of the models were considered. The best height estimations were obtained with the equations In (h-1,3 = b0, + b1 logd + b2ln²d, which showed the following coefficients R² = 0.8921 and Syx %= 2.5175.

Magda Léa Bolzan Zanon

1996-04-01

208

RELAÇÃO ENTRE CONCENTRAÇÕES FOLIARES DE CARBOIDRATOS SOLÚVEIS TOTAIS E TOLERÂNCIA AO FRIO EM DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus spp.  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da rustificação sobre a tolerância ao frio em Eucalyptus dunniiMaiden, Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptussaligna Sm., através da quantificação dos teores foliares de carboidratos solúveis totais e de prolina. Mudasdas quatro espécies (com três meses de idade e cerca de 50 cm de altura foram submetidas a dois períodosde rustificação (0 e 21 dias de exposição a temperaturas diurnas de 5 ºC e noturnas de 1 ºC, com fotoperíodocontrolado de 12 horas. Ao final de cada período de rustificação, as mudas foram submetidas durante 3horas a três gradientes de temperatura abaixo de zero (-2 ºC, -5 ºC e -8 ºC. Foram feitas avaliações dasconcentrações foliares de carboidratos solúveis totais e de prolina, da temperatura letal de 50 % (TL50 e doíndice de dano ao frio. Não foi identificada a presença de prolina nos tecidos foliares das espécies avaliadas.No entanto, em mudas não rustificadas, observou-se diferenças entre as espécies quanto à concentraçãofoliar de carboidratos, sendo maior em Eucalyptus benthamii, intermediária em Eucalyptus dunnii eEucalyptus grandis, e menor em Eucalyptus saligna. A rustificação causou um aumento na concentraçãofoliar de carboidratos de 2,9; 2,5; 2,8 e 1,3 vezes em Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus benthamii, Eucalyptussaligna e Eucalyptus grandis, respectivamente. Em mudas que não foram submetidas à rustificação, aTL50 foi mais baixa em Eucalyptus benthamii, intermediária em Eucalyptus dunnii e Eucalyptus grandis,e mais alta em Eucalyptus saligna. No entanto, com a rustificação das plantas não houve diferenças entreas espécies quanto à TL50. Observou-se que a TL50 diminuiu com a rustificação, exceto no Eucalyptusbenthamii. Houve correlação negativa entre a concentração foliar de carboidratos solúveis totais e a TL50nas espécies avaliadas. Os dados obtidos mostram que a concentração foliar de carboidratos solúveis totaispode ser utilizada como indicador de tolerância ao frio em espécies de Eucalyptus.

Mireli Moura Pitz Floriani

2013-03-01

209

Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract  

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Full Text Available Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packaging because of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability of coating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditional packaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract (Aqueous Extract was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca starch films were prepared by casting method with addition of eucalyptus extract and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 as plasticizers. Eucalyptus extract incorporated to the tapioca starch films were dried at different concentrations (0, 15, 25, and 35 of total solid under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as water absorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of eucalyptus extract, tensile strength was increased from 20.60 to 15.68 (MPa, also elongation was increased from 19.31 to 23.57 (% at break and Young’s modulus was decreased from 800.31 to 500.32 (MPa. Also incorporation of eucalyptus extract in the structure of biopolymer increased permeability of water vapor of starch films. Tapioca starch films incorporated with eucalyptus extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. Coli. In summary, eucalyptus extract improves functional properties of tapioca starch films and this types of films can be used in food packaging.

M. Rojhan

2013-05-01

210

Australian Insects Affecting Eucalyptus Species in Turkey Insetos Australianos que Afetam Eucaliptos na Turquia  

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Full Text Available Most Eucalyptus species are endemic to Australia, although a few were introduced into Turkey and neighbouring regions of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th century. According to the most recent national inventories, there are over 20.000 ha of eucalyptus plantations in Turkey. Seven Australian insects have recently been found on eucalyptus seedlings and trees in several parts of Turkey, in recently conducted surveys between 2000 and 2008. Of these, six are phytophagous and one is a parasitoid.The phytophagous species are: the eucalyptus gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa, Fisher and La Salle, 2004, the leaf blade gall wasp (Prelim. maskelli, Ashmead, 1900, the eucalyptus seed capsule wasp (Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae, the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae, the eucalyptus shoot psyllid (Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, and the gum-tree flower thrip (Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. Among these phytophagous species, economically important pests are L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata, and B. occidentalis. The parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleonis attacks the larva and pupae of O. maskelli.A maioria das espécies de eucalipto são originárias da Austrália, embora algumas tenham sido introduzidas na Turquia e países vizinhos no final do século XVIII. De acordo com o último inventário nacional, existem mais de 20.000 ha de plantações de eucalipto na Turquia. Prospeções efetuadas entre 2000 e 2008 detetaram sete espécies de insetos originários da Austrália em sementes e árvores de eucalipto, em várias regiões da Turquia. Seis destas espécies são fitófagas, nomeadamente: Leptocybe invasa (Fisher and La Salle, 2004, Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead, 1900, Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae,Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae, Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera Psyllidae e Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. De entre estas, as pragas mais importantes são L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata e B. occidentalis. A sétima espécie detetada é o parasitóide Closterocerus chamaeleonis, encontrado a atacar larvas e pupas de O. maskelli.

Fatih Aytar

2011-01-01

211

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Four Cultivated Eucalyptus Species in Iran as Medicinal Plants (E. microtheca, E. spathulata, E. largiflorens and E. torquata  

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Full Text Available The leaves of four cultivated Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus microtheca var. Microtheca F.Muell., Eucalyptus spathulata, Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus torquata were collected in spring from Kashan and Isfahan provinces (central region of Iran. After drying the plant materials in shade, their essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography, using flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Twenty-two components were identified in the oil of Eucalyptus microtheca with 1,8-cineole (34.0%, p-cymene (12.4%, ?-pinene (10.7% and ?-pinene (10.5% as main constituents.Twenty-one compounds were identified in the oil of Eucalyptus spathulata with 1,8-cineole (72.5% and ?-pinene (12.7% as main components. Twenty-six compounds were characterized in the oil of Eucalyptus largiflorens with 1,8-cineole (37.5%, p-cymene (17.4% and neoisoverbenol (9.1% as main components. Sixteen compounds were characterized in the oil of Eucalyptus torquata with 1,8-cineole (66.9% ?-pinene (13.9% and trans-pinocarveol (6.3% as main constituents. The results showed that although the 1,8-cineole was the main component of the essential oils of all Eucalyptus species, but its relative content was higher in the oil of Eucalyptus spathulata and Eucalyptus torquata.

Fatemeh Sefidkon

2007-01-01

212

Avaliação do teor de umidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por medidores elétricos resistivos. Evaluation of the Eucalyptus grandis lumber moisture content by resistancetype moisture meters.  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivoverificar a precisão de dois tipos de medidoreselétricos de teor de umidade durante o processo desecagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Foramretiradas amostras representativas de 14 tábuas deEucalyptus grandis e secas em estufa elétrica a40 ºC de temperatura, até que o material atingisse10% de umidade. Durante a secagem foramdeterminados, periodicamente, o teor de umidadeatravés do método de massas correntes e deverificações simultâneas com um medidor elétricoportátil (EMM e com o sistema de controle de umsecador convencional (KCS. Os resultados mostraramque: (1 o sensor de umidade KCS pode substituiro método gravimétrico durante a secagem damadeira; (2 o medidor do teor de umidade EMMsubestima os reais teores de umidade durante asecagem da madeira e não é indicado parasubstituir o método gravimétrico de determinação de umidade.The aim of the study was to evaluate theprecision of two types of electric moisture metersduring the drying process of Eucalyptus grandisboards. Samples were obtained from 14 boards ofEucalyptus grandis and they were dried in electriclaboratory oven at 40 ºC of temperature, until thewood achieve 10% of moisture content. During thedrying, the moisture content was determined bygravimetric method and simultaneous checks by anelectric moisture meter (EMM and by kilncontrol system (KCS. The results showed that:(1 the KCS can replace the gravimetric methodduring the wood drying; (2 the EMMunderestimate the real moisture content during thedrying of boards and it is not indicate as substituteof the gravimetric method.

João Eduardo Guarnetti dos SANTOS

2006-01-01

213

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis / Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de u [...] na emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B). Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico. Abstract in english Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent) of an oil/water [...] emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B). Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Walter, Murillo-Arango; Pedronel, Araque Marín; Beatriz, Henao Murillo; Carlos A, Peláez Jaramillo.

214

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis / Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de u [...] na emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B). Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico. Abstract in english Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent) of an oil/water [...] emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B). Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Walter, Murillo-Arango; Pedronel, Araque Marín; Beatriz, Henao Murillo; Carlos A, Peláez Jaramillo.

2013-03-01

215

Weed control strip influences the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis=Faixa de controle de plantas daninhas influencia o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available Reforestation in Brazil is conventionally carried out with a 50-cm weed control strip, using mechanical or manual hoeing or herbicides. The aim of this study was to determine effects of varying the width of the herbicide-treated strip on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis. Eucalyptus plants were transplanted in Araraquara and Altinópolis counties, São Paulo State, Brazil. In Araraquara, the following treatments were evaluated: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150-cm wide strips, treated with herbicide, on either side of the eucalyptus row; in Altinópolis, the width of the strip on either side of the eucalyptus row was 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 cm. Were evaluated dry matter of leaves, branches and stem and leaf area at 270 days after planting (270 DAP, chlorophyll content (400 DAP, stem diameter and eucalyptus plants height (410 DAP. In Araraquara, the main weed was Panicum maximum, and in Altinópolis, it was Rhynchelytrum repens. For both areas, a minimum of 75 cm of treated strip was required to minimise weed interference with eucalyptus plants’ development.O reflorestamento no Brasil é normalmente realizado com uma faixa de controle de plantas daninhas de 50 cm, utilizando capina mecânica ou manual ou herbicidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da variação da largura da faixa tratadas com herbicidas sobre o estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis. Plantas de eucalipto foram transplantadas nos municípios Araraquara e Altinópolis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em Araraquara, os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 150 cm de larguras de faixas, tratadas com herbicidas, em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto; em Altinópolis, a largura da faixa em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto foi de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 ou 150 cm. Foram avaliados a matéria seca de folhas, ramos e caule e área foliar aos 270 dias após o plantios (DAP, teor de clorofila (400 DAP e altura e diâmentro do caule (410 DAP. Em Araraquara, a principal espécie foi Panicum maximum, em Altinópolis, foi Rhynchelytrum repens. Para ambas as áreas, foi necessário o mínimo de 75 cm de largura de faixa tratada para minimizar a interferência das plantas daninhas no desenvolvimento das plantas de eucalipto.

Roberto Estevão Bragion de Toledo

2012-01-01

216

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

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Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B. Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico.Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B. Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Walter Murillo-Arango

2013-03-01

217

Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp. seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva  

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Full Text Available Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid, GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis, and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materiais cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark, em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp., GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.. Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado.

C.M.M. Silva

2004-12-01

218

Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution / Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materia [...] is cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark), em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp.), GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis) e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.) e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla) x Eucalyptus sp.) e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.). Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado. Abstract in english Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under g [...] reenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid), GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis), and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid) were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla) x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid) and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids) in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.

C.M.M., Silva; L.R., Ferreira; F.A., Ferreira; G.V., Miranda.

2004-12-01

219

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF) / Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF) cujas densidades foram iguai [...] s a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF we [...] re equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Benedito Rocha, Vital; Antônio da Silva, Maciel; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

2005-10-01

220

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Benedito Rocha Vital

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Substituição parcial de fosfato solúvel por natural na implantação de Eucalyptus benthamii e Eucalyptus dunnii no Planalto Sul catarinense / Partial substitution of soluble phosphate by rock phosphate in the planting of Eucalyptus benthamii and Eucalyptus dunnii in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adubação fosfatada é importante para o crescimento inicial do eucalipto, porque suplementa o solo na fase de maior demanda da cultura. O fosfato solúvel (FS) é a fonte comumente utilizada para esse fim, pois apresenta dissolução rápida no solo; contudo, tem custo mais elevado que os fosfatos natur [...] ais (FNs), que por sua vez têm dissolução mais lenta. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de FN como substituinte parcial do FS para o fornecimento de P para Eucalyptus benthamii e E. dunnii. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no campo, um com cada espécie, no município de Otacílio Costa, SC, no período de novembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela principal, testou-se a presença ou ausência do FN (0 ou 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte FN de Bayovar) e nas subparcelas testaram-se as doses de FS (0, 75; 150; e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte superfosfato triplo). Foram realizadas medidas de diâmetro à altura do colo e altura das árvores aos 340 dias, após a aplicação das fontes de P. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adubação fosfatada aumentou o crescimento em diâmetro e altura e incrementou o volume das plantas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, durante o primeiro ano de cultivo. O E. benthamii foi mais exigente à adubação fosfatada, mas permitiu a substituição parcial da dose de fosfato solúvel por fonte de menor solubilidade. Não houve resposta do E. dunnii à aplicação de fosfato natural, devendo a adubação ser realizada com fosfato solúvel. Abstract in english Phosphorus fertilization is important for the initial growth of eucalyptus. Soluble phosphate (SP) sources are commonly used for this purpose because they offer fast dissolution in the soil, but these sources have higher costs than rock phosphate (RP), which has lower solubility. The aim of this stu [...] dy was to evaluate the use of RP as a partial substitute for SP for the initial supply of P to Eucalyptus benthamii and E. dunnii. Two field experiments were carried out (one with each species) in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, SC, Brazil, from November 2010 to December 2011. A randomized block experimental design in a split plot arrangement with three replications was used. In the main plot, the presence or absence of RP (0 or 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 using Bayovar as a P source) was tested, and in the subplots, application rates of SP (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 P2O5, using triple superphosphate) were tested. The diameter was measured at the root collar as well as tree height at 340 days after applying the P sources. The results showed that P fertilization promoted plant growth in diameter and height, increasing the volume of E. benthamii and E. dunnii during the first year of cultivation. E. benthamii was more demanding in P, but allowed partial replacement of soluble phosphate by a source with lower solubility. There was no response from E. dunnii to the application of rock phosphate, and fertilization should be performed only with soluble phosphates.

Luciana Patrícia Rosa, Dias; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Paulo Roberto, Ernani; David José, Miquelluti; Djalma Miler, Chaves; Gustavo, Brunetto.

2014-04-01

222

Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus  

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Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (?-esterase and ?-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are ?-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-?-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae. PMID:23569829

Abd El-Moneim, MR Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, AF

2012-01-01

223

Chemical Compositional and Intra Provenance Variation for Content of Essential Oil in Eucalyptus crebra  

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Full Text Available Variation in the oil yield and composition of essential oils from fifteen differently Eucalyptus crebra (E. crebra trees adopted of Faisalabad was presented. Hydro-distilled leaves of Eucalyptus crebra ranged 0.29-1.33 % of essential oil. Extracted oils were resolved and identified by GC/FID (Gas chromatography on Carbowex-20 M packed glass column. Maximum components (33 were detected in the oil of two different trees (i.e. tree No. 6 and 10. A total of 33 components were detected, out of which 6 amounting to approximately 60% of the oil were identified. In Eucalyptus crebra oils six components (?-pinene, ?-pinene, ?3 carene, ?-phallendrine, Limonene and 1, 8-cineole, were positively identified. The principal constituent 1, 8-cineole, found in the fifteen oils of different trees, was ranged (11.87-43.80%. The other major components were ranged: ?-pinene (0.20-12.13%, ?-pinene (1.68-18.23%, ?3 carene (1.32-5.63% and ?-phallendrine (0.55-7.98%. Only in the oil of one tree limonene (2.37% was found. Chemical composition of oils from tree to tree varied significantly which may be due to the differences in their genetic make up (e.g., age, height and may also be the effect of salinity. Eucalyptus crebra trees oil shown 1, 8-cinole percentage more than 70%, for that reason oils of Eucalyptus crebra trees under study were found suitable for medicinal purposes.

Najum Rasheed Ahmad

2005-01-01

224

Eucalyptus increases ceramide levels in keratinocytes and improves stratum corneum function.  

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The objectives of this study were to identify a plant extract that would improve stratum corneum functions and to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved. Based on the information that stratum corneum functions depend on the level of ceramide in the stratum corneum, we identified a Eucalyptus extract that was able to increase the level of ceramide in human keratinocytes in culture and in human stratum corneum and that improves the stratum corneum water holding and barrier functions. Addition of the Eucalyptus extract to human keratinocytes in culture increased the level of ceramide in a dose-dependent manner and also increased the biosynthesis of ceramide, glucosylceramide and sphingomyelin. Topical application of the Eucalyptus extract on the dry skin of human subjects induced by acetone and diethylether treatment resulted in a significant increase in ceramide level in the stratum corneum, a significant improvement in its water-holding function and an improvement in its barrier function. The addition of macrocarpal A, one of the main components of the Eucalyptus extract, to human keratinocytes in culture increased the level of ceramide and the mRNA expression of serine palmitoyltransferase, acid sphingomyelinase, neutral sphingomyelinase, glucosylceramide synthase and glucocerebrosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that the increased content of ceramides in the stratum corneum may underlie the therapeutic effect of the Eucalyptus extract. Our results also indicate the possibility that macrocarpal A is the key component that stimulates the synthesis of ceramide in the stratum corneum. PMID:21696405

Ishikawa, J; Shimotoyodome, Y; Chen, S; Ohkubo, K; Takagi, Y; Fujimura, T; Kitahara, T; Takema, Y

2012-02-01

225

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

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Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

2012-11-01

226

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA) for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA wit [...] h wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m) in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k) using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91). The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Paulo Ricardo, Gherardi Hein; José, Tarcísio Lima.

2012-11-01

227

Biological Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Camendulensis on Some Fungi and Bacteria  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. These Eucalyptus camendulensis: has been selected for screening antibacterial. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum. The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determin the fungic activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

Mehani Mouna

2014-07-01

228

Stimulatory effect of eucalyptus essential oil on the germination and early growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Efeito estimulante do óleo essencial de eucalipto na germinação e crescimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis  

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The use of essential oil and extracts from plants is becoming an efficient alternative in the biostimulation on growth and protection of plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis on the germination and the  development of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in nursery conditions. The eucalyptus seeds were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?L L-1 of the essential oil in controlled conditions. The eucalyptus seedlings were sprayed with 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ?L L-1 of the essential oil per plant, at intervals of seven days. The effect of this application on the seedling development were analyzed after 30 and 60 days. The results show that the germination was significantly higher when the seeds were exposed to 25 ?L L-1 of the essential oil. The application of essential oil in the concentration of 30 and 40 ?L L-1 provided higher growth of the aerial part and of the roots in greenhouse conditions, being an effective alternative to biostimulation the vegetative growth of eucalyptus seedlings.

doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199

A utilização de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas vem sendo uma alternativa eficiente no bioestímulo do crescimento e proteção vegetal. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização do óleo essencial extraído de folhas de Eucalyptus grandis sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de eucalipto em condições controladas, em casa de vegetação. Sementes de eucalipto foram incubadas em  concentrações de 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial em ambiente controlado.  Posteriormente, pulverizou-se plântulas de eucalipto com 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial por planta, em intervalos de sete dias. Avaliou-se o efeito do óleo sobre o desenvolvimento vegetal aos 30 e 60 dias após o transplante. Os resultados evidenciam que a germinação foi significativamente maior quando as sementes foram tratadas com 25 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial. A aplicação do óleo essencial nas concentrações de 30 e 40 ?L L-1 proporcionou maior crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea das mudas de eucalipto em ambiente controlado, sendo uma alternativa eficiente na bioestimulação do crescimento vegetativo de mudas de eucalipto.

doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199

Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

2010-12-01

229

CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DO Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden CONSORCIADO COM Zea mays L., NA REGIÃO DE SANTA MARIA, RS  

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Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudado o crescimento inicial do Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden sob o consórcio de Zea mays L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições e 7 tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram definidos para o Eucalyptus com e sem adubação consorciado com milho com adubação, e ambas espécies em monocultura adubado. A análise realizada demonstra que a adubação do Eucalyptus resulta em aumento na altura e diâmetro do coleto aos sete meses do plantio e que esta diferença não persiste aos 14 meses; o crescimento em altura do Eucalyptus não sofre interferência da concorrência do milho, mas o crescimento em diâmetro do coleto é afetado pela concorrência do milho. A produção de grãos de milho não é afetada pelo consórcio com Eucalyptus.

Maria T. Fleig

1995-12-01

230

Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis / Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plan [...] tas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA) e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP). O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes) quanto o meio completo (47%). O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas. Abstract in english Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tis [...] sues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP) was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.

Roberson, Dibax; Cristiane de Loyola, Eisfeld; Francine Lorena, Cuquel; Henrique, Koehler; Marguerite, Quoirin.

2005-08-01

231

Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares  

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Full Text Available Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tissues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plantas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes quanto o meio completo (47%. O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas.

Roberson Dibax

2005-08-01

232

Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis / Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plan [...] tas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA) e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP). O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes) quanto o meio completo (47%). O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas. Abstract in english Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tis [...] sues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP) was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.

Roberson, Dibax; Cristiane de Loyola, Eisfeld; Francine Lorena, Cuquel; Henrique, Koehler; Marguerite, Quoirin.

233

Tipos de Ruptura em Madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Modificada Termicamente / Types of Failures in Thermally-Modified Eucalyptus grandis Wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os tipos de ruptura durante os ensaios mecânicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis modificada termicamente. Para tanto, tábuas centrais de 19 árvores de E. grandis com 5,9 anos de idade foram utilizadas nesse estudo. As tábuas foram secas até 10% de umid [...] ade, aplainadas com 32 mm de espessura e seccionadas em peças com 0,60 m de comprimento. Posteriormente, uma das peças foi mantida em seu estado original e as demais foram modificadas termicamente à 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC e 220ºC por 2,5 horas. De cada peça foram produzidos corpos-de­prova para os ensaios de compressão paralela às fibras e de flexão estática. O material foi aclimatizado em câmara climática com 21ºC e 65% de umidade relativa, no Laboratório de Secagem e Preservação da Madeira da FCA, UNESP, de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Após os ensaios mecânicos, os tipos de ruptura foram caracterizados pela norma ASTM D-143 (2007). Os resultados mostraram que: (1) existe uma relação direta, pelo teste qui-quadrado, entre a temperatura do tratamento térmico e a ruptura frágil da madeira de E. grandis; e (2) a madeira dessa espécie quando modificada termicamente à 220ºC apresentou 100% de ruptura caracterizada como frágil. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the types of failures after the mechanical tests of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood. The present study utilized boards that contained the pith from 5 years and 11 months old Eucalyptus grandis trees. The boards were dried up to 10.0% moisture content, planing [...] to 32-mm thick, and cutted into smaller pieces measuring 0.60 m in length. Subsequently, one piece was kept in its original condition and others pieces were thermally-modified at 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC and 220ºC over a period of 2.5 hours. Specimens were obtained for the compression-parallel­to-grain and static-bending tests. All of the specimens were placed in a climatic chamber (21ºC and 65% relative humidity) in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation in the Department of Natural Resources/Forest Sciences, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP, in Brazil. After the mechanical tests the types of failures were classified as recommended by ASTM D-143 (2007). The results show that: (1) there is a direct relationship between the heat treatment temperature and brittle wood by chi-square test; and (2) the E. grandis wood when thermally-modified at 220ºC presented 100% of fragile failure.

Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo; Aline Fernanda de, Brito.

2013-06-01

234

Consumo Foliar de Eucalyptus spp. por Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae  

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Abstract. The productive potential of forest stands is reduced by pest occurrence among other factors. In Brazil, leaf-cutting ants are the most severe eucalypt pests. Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr is prevalent in the south east Brazil. However, scarce information about its potential damage for Eucalyptus forests is available. This work deals to quantifying the eucalypt leaf-consumption by such specie of leaf-cutting ant. Fresh leaves were taken from trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and served to different colonies of A. disciger, during 24 hours period, over eight different times. Leaf-consumption was calculated throughout fresh weights of leaves, before and after ants foraging. Each colony of A. disciger consumed 38.8 ± 3.2 g e 22.0 ± 2.3 g of eucalypt leaves, per day.

Wagner Calixto Morais

2011-07-01

235

Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management  

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Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

João Batista Rezende

2013-03-01

236

NON DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF HEARTWOOD DIAMETER AT BREAST HEIGHT FOR EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AND POPULUS EURAMERICANA HYBRID  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was the evaluation of the heartwood diameter (dcerne at breast height on stand trees, for Eucalyptus globulus Labill and the hybrid Populus euramericana. The data used was collected in eucalyptus and popular pure plantations in Central and North Portugal.The non destructive methods tested in the evaluation of heartwood diameter at breast height were [1] visual identification of the heartwood on core samples and [2] indirect estimation using mathematic models. The results allow to consider that visual determination of dcerne is appropriate for Populus, and development of prediction models based diameter at breast height (d, total height (h and age (t, give better results for eucalyptus.

Hugo Alexandre Jóia

2006-12-01

237

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COLOR OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD CLONES  

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Full Text Available Due to the importance of wood characterization and standardization, this research evaluated the variability of woodcolor inside and among Eucalyptus spp clones, as well as radially and longitudinally inside the trunk through the quantitativecolorimetric color determination of clones of Eucalyptus wood., using CIELAB 1976 system, , through chromatic coordinates L*, a*,b*, C* e h. Eleven clones of natural Eucalyptus clones hybrids, cultivated at the Northwest of Minas Gerais State, were used. Theresults showed that: all colorimetric parameters were statistically different among clones, and among radial position of samples; itwas possible to identify both clones and samples position along the ray, producing wood of different colours, but tending to yellowishand reddish tonalities.

Cláudia Lopes Selvati de Oliveira Mori

2005-06-01

238

Pre- and post-harvest vegetation changes in Eucalyptus (hybrid) plantation in Bettahalli (GKVK)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are given on the tree, shrub and herb and grass flora found in the undergrowth of a 9-year-old coppice Eucalyptus hybrid (E. tereticornis) plot and an adjoining plot clear felled of Eucalyptus in 1974 and allowed to regenerate for 9 years with no shrub cutting or weeding. The total number of species (especially herb) in the clear felled area was greater (53 compared with 28); Phyllanthus lawii, Erythroxylon (Erythroxylum), Ziziphus and sandal were dominant, and grasses luxuriant. Before eucalypts were grown in the area there was no vegetation (including grasses) which suggests that eucalypt establishment improves soil fertility and the chances for natural regeneration. In contrast, in farm woodlots of Eucalyptus in which leaf litter is swept and removed for fuel, soil quality remains poor and there is no natural regeneration.

Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.

1983-01-01

239

Selection of fungi for accelerated decay in stumps of Eucalyptus spp.  

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The objective of this study was to select decay fungi for biological degradation of stumps and roots from Eucalyptus spp. in forest stands. Five fungal isolates were cultured. Subsequently, inoculated in accelerated-decay tests and field tests with tree stumps of Eucalyptus spp. present in a stand belonging to Votorantim Company were conducted. The results showed that: (1) the decay of stumps by Pycnoporus sanguineus and Ganoderma applanatum increased by up to 49.2% and 48.9%, respectively; (2) the enclosing stumps in a polyninyl chloride resulted in a reduced on the resistance due to enhanced decay as measured by an inpact penetrometer in the forest stands at Luiz Antônio, Capão Bonito, and Jacareí, SP, Brazil; and (3) the selected fungi did not show any pathogenic potential toward seedlings and adult trees. This study presents the foundation for the development of a biological system for stump removal in forest stands comprising Eucalyptus spp. PMID:22336745

Andrade, Frederico Aguirre de; Calonego, Fred Willians; Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Furtado, Edson Luiz

2012-04-01

240

Parameterization of the Hydric Transfer Models in Three Eucalyptus Plantations in Congo  

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Full Text Available Quantifying soil water repartition and hydric fluxes is essential to understand soil-plant relationships. Eucalyptus plantations in Pointe-Noire region are on sandy soils, a good knowledge of water behavior in the soil is important to sustainable management of eucalyptus plantations as well as for measuring the impacts of these plantations on the region water resource. The objective of this study is to parameterize a model of hydric transfer in the soil of three, using the HYDRUS 1D software i to compare the behavior hydric of sites and (ii to establish the hydric settlements assessment of Eucalyptus at various stages of development. The results showed different hydrodynamic characteristics according to sites, these differences are ascribable with the geometry and the pores morphology and the farming part of the soils. The hydric statements of four development states of the plantations are established, the implication of these results is discussed.

C. Thaty

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Genetic evaluation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Mato Grosso State, Brazil Avaliação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis no Estado de Mato Grosso  

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The study aimed to estimate parameters, values and genetic gain for growth traits in progenies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, in the State of Mato Grosso. The progenies test was conducted under a randomized block design with 132 progenies, five replications and three plants in single rows, spaced 3 m x 2 m in Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. At 24 months of age, progenies were evaluated for the characters: a diameter at base height (DBH, in centimeters, b total height, in meters, c survival. The individual in the narrow sense heritability for the traits studied can be considered medium to high magnitude (0.13 and 0.21 for height and diameter, respectively. The heritability for survival were practically nil, due to low genetic variability among the progenies, as evidenced by high survival rate of the plants (96.8%. The phenotypic and genetic correlations were of high magnitude for DBH and height prediction. There is genetic variation among progenies for growth traits which will provide significant genetic gains with selection.

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

O estudo objetivou estimar parâmetros, valores e ganhos genéticos para caracteres de crescimento em progênies de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, no estado de Mato Grosso. O teste de progênies foi instalado sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 132 progênies, cinco repetições e três plantas por parcela em linhas simples, no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m no município de Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. Aos 24 meses de idade, as progênies foram avaliadas quanto aos caracteres: a diâmetro à altura da base (DAB, em centímetros; b altura total, em metros; c sobrevivência. As herdabilidades individuais no sentido restrito para os caracteres estudados podem ser consideradas de média a alta magnitude (0,13 e 0,21 para altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Para a sobrevivência, as herdabilidades foram praticamente nulas, devido à baixa variabilidade genética existente entre as progênies, evidenciada pela alta taxa de sobrevivência das plantas (96,8%. As correlações fenotípicas e genéticas preditas foram de elevada magnitude para DAB e altura. Existe variação genética entre as progênies para os caracteres de crescimento o que proporciona ganhos genéticos significativos com seleção.

doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

Reginaldo Brito da Costa

2012-06-01

242

Diversidade genética em populações-núcleo de Eucalyptus grandis / Genetic diversity of two Eucalyptus grandis nucleus populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No melhoramento genético de espécies florestais, uma população base ou indivíduos superiores pré-selecionados tem importância fundamental para a manutenção do programa. Indivíduos de melhores procedências e de ampla base genética propiciam a obtenção de ganhos de forma contínua. O objetivo deste tra [...] balho foi avaliar a diversidade genética em duas populações-núcleo de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliados 39 indivíduos, sendo 19 pertencentes à população 1 e 20, à população 2, utilizando-se 14 primers microssatélite. Os fragmentos foram identificados e analisados a partir dos programas GeneScan e Genotyper, utilizando-se um sequenciador automático ABI Prism 3100. O número de alelos encontrados para cada primer variou de cinco a 15 para a população 1 e, de 8 a 18 para a população 2. A heterozigosidade estimada foi maior na população 2, 0,869, contra 0,843 na população 1. A média da distância genética entre os indivíduos da população 1 foi 0,6220 e na população 2 foi 0,6112. Com a caracterização molecular dos indivíduos destas populações foi construído um banco de dados que permitirá, a partir dos parâmetros de genética de populações, monitorar esses programas de melhoramento em diferentes ciclos de seleção. Abstract in english In genetic breeding of forest species, a base population or pre-selected higher individuals have a fundamental importance to program maintenance due to their better origins and large genetic basis, which continuously propitiates gains. The aim of this study was to verify the variability level in two [...] Eucalyptus grandis nucleus populations. Thus, 39 individuals were evaluated - 19 in population 1, and 20 in population 2. Fourteen microsatellite primers were measured, identified and analyzed using GeneScan and Genotyper software through an ABI Prism 3100 automatic sequencer. The number of alleles in each primer varied between 5 and 15 in population 1, and from 8 to 18 in population 2. Heterozygosity was higher in population 2 - 0.869, versus 0.843 in population 1. Mean genetic distance among individuals was 0.6220 in population 1 and 0.6112 in population 2. After individual molecular characterization, a database was compiled to allow the control of these improvement programs in different selection cycles based on population genetic parameters.

Helenize Gabriela de, Souza; Karolina Marie Alix Benedictte Van Sebroech, Doria; Marco Antonio, Basseto; Daniel Dias, Rosa; Edson Luiz, Furtado; Celso Luis, Marino.

2010-12-01

243

Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus / Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinaçã [...] o da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies. Abstract in english This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature an [...] d localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.

Leonardo David Tuffi, Santos; Marcela, Thadeo; Lourdes, Iarema; Renata Maria Strozi Alves, Meira; Francisco Affonso, Ferreira.

244

Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus / Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinaçã [...] o da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies. Abstract in english This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature an [...] d localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.

Leonardo David Tuffi, Santos; Marcela, Thadeo; Lourdes, Iarema; Renata Maria Strozi Alves, Meira; Francisco Affonso, Ferreira.

2008-08-01

245

CREEP IN STRUCTURAL-SIZED BEAMS OF ARGENTINEAN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS  

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Full Text Available The results presented in this paper were obtained from a test carried out during the last series of a research project regarding the creep behaviour of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis loaded in dry condition. A test with a sample containing 15 structural-sized beams was carried out during 470 days. 7 pieces were free of pith and another 8 contained it. The results allow to compare the creep behaviour of these beams with previous data reported for both structural-sized and small-clear specimens of this timber species and also with those reported for other species. The effectiveness of the criteria adopted by overseas standards as well as those of Latin-American countries for calculating the creep deflections of this timber species under a long-term loading is analysed. The creep deflections obtained in the present research are higher than those calculated by means of the procedures of the Brazilian standard NBR 7190, the European standard Eurocode 5, the American standard National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the Peruvian standard. On the contrary, creep results obtained in this test are lower than those calculated according to the New Zealand standard NZS 3603, the Chilean standard NCh 1198 and the former German standard DIN 1052

J. C Piter

2007-01-01

246

CREEP IN STRUCTURAL-SIZED BEAMS OF ARGENTINEAN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The results presented in this paper were obtained from a test carried out during the last series of a research project regarding the creep behaviour of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis loaded in dry condition. A test with a sample containing 15 structural-sized beams was carried out during 470 days. 7 [...] pieces were free of pith and another 8 contained it. The results allow to compare the creep behaviour of these beams with previous data reported for both structural-sized and small-clear specimens of this timber species and also with those reported for other species. The effectiveness of the criteria adopted by overseas standards as well as those of Latin-American countries for calculating the creep deflections of this timber species under a long-term loading is analysed. The creep deflections obtained in the present research are higher than those calculated by means of the procedures of the Brazilian standard NBR 7190, the European standard Eurocode 5, the American standard National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the Peruvian standard. On the contrary, creep results obtained in this test are lower than those calculated according to the New Zealand standard NZS 3603, the Chilean standard NCh 1198 and the former German standard DIN 1052

J. C, Piter; C. F, Calvo; A. G, Cuffré; V. C, Rougier; M. A, Sosa Zitto; E.A, Torrán.

247

/ CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) PLANTS  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid) and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass det [...] ection (MS). The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol) and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin). In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide), borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

CHRISTIAN, TRONCOSO; JOSÉ, BECERRA; MAGALIS, BITTNER; CLAUDIA, PEREZ; KATIA, SÁEZ; MANUEL, SÁNCHEZ-OLATE; DARCY, RÍOS.

248

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD WITH IMPREGNATED CHEMICALS  

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Full Text Available Methylolurea and carbamide were used to impregnate eucalyptus wood to improve its physical and chemical properties. The physical properties and dimensional stability were examined. TGA was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the wood. FTIR was used to state the changes of functional groups. The changes of wood structure were observed by SEM. The results showed the bending strength and compressive strength parallel to the grain increased by 15.10% and 16.78%, respectively. The basic density of modified wood was improved by 14.29%. The shrinkage of volume and swelling of volume were significantly decreased compared to the untreated wood. The TGA results indicated that the mass loss was around 8% during the second stage, from 120°C up to 280°C, while the mass loss of treated wood was around 4%. The treated wood exhibited LOI (limited oxygen index values of about 42%, while the natural wood exhibited a LOI value of 22%. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that chemical bond was produced between wood and methylolurea as a result of chemical reaction between wood and methylolurea. The SEM results indicated that the transverse and tangential sections of the treated specimens were filled with the reaction products, which can prevent the absorption of moisture.

Guofeng Wu,

2012-01-01

249

Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and ?-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), ?-eudesmol (23), and ?-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition. PMID:24641242

Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Wan, Baojie; Inui, Taichi; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F; Jaki, Birgit U

2014-03-28

250

Optimization of agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation in eucalyptus camaldulensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to optimize Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Transformation was done by using LBA4404 containing binary plasmid pGA482 with uidA (Gus) gene under CamV35S promoter and nptII gene under nos promoter. For optimization, different explants (Cotyledonary leaves, plantlet leaves and hypocotyls of young In vitro plants and calli) with and without preculture were infected with a range of optical densities (O.D.600nm=0.3-0.6). Effect of different concentrations of Acetosyringone, infection time and co-cultivation time on transformation efficiency was evaluated. Confirmation of transformation was done through GUS histochemical staining and through PCR. Callogenesis and regeneration was found fast on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP. Highest transformation efficiency was obtained with bacterial suspension of O.D.600nm = 0.5 for non-precultured explants and O.D.600nm=0.3 for precultured explants. (author)

251

Effects of the Simulated Drift of Ripeners on Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the drift of ripeners (sulfometuron-methyl, ethephon and trinexapac-ethyl on the initial growth of Eucalyptus urograndis. The experimental design was a randomized block with seven treatments (control; sulfometuron-methyl 0.9 and 1.2 g i.a. ha-1; ethephon 28.8 and 38.3 g i.a ha-1; trinexapac-ethyl 15 and 20 g i.a. ha-1 with four replicates using each plant as an experimental plot. We evaluated the effects 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after application, when we determined the length, diameter, total leaf area and total dry mass of the stem. The application of sulfometuron-methyl may have resulted in an effect known as “hormesis” due to an increasing trend in stem growth. The application of trinexapac-ethyl resulted in greater increases in the leaf dry mass and leaf area compared with those caused by the other ripeners that were used in this study, most likely due to the loss of apical dominance. The application of ethephon had no significant effect on the plants.

Rodrigo Neto Pires

2013-11-01

252

CLONES DE Eucalyptus VERSUS A PRODUÇÃO DE POLPA CELULÓSICA  

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Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira é definida pelas combinações entre as diversas características intrínsecas da árvore em função do seu uso. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar essas características na madeira de clones de Eucalyptus visando à produção de polpa celulósica kraft de qualidade. Foram usados 15 clones, duas árvores de cada clone, num total de trinta árvores, todos com idades de 5,8 anos. As características avaliadas na madeira foram densidade básica, dimensões das fibras (comprimento da fibra, espessura de parede, diâmetro do lúmen e composição química (teor de celulose, lignina, hemicelulose, extrativos e cinzas. Foram realizados quatro cozimentos Kraft para cada árvore, utilizando diferentes cargas de álcali ativo, para estabelecer a curva de deslignificação da amostra. Essas cargas de álcali foram selecionadas após realização de cozimentos exploratórios, objetivando obtenção de número kappa próximo a 18 na parte mediana da curva. Nos cozimentos, foram avaliados o rendimento depurado, a viscosidade da polpa celulósica e o álcali consumido. Os resultados de rendimento variaram de 43,4 a 52,0 %, o teor de álcali ativo utilizado de 17,5 a 23,4 %, o álcali consumido de 15,5 a 20,0% e a viscosidade de 19,9 a 61,4 cP.

Fábio Akira Mori

2005-03-01

253

Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

da Silva, Marliane de Cassia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2014-01-01

254

MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP  

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Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

Marcos S. Rabelo

2008-08-01

255

INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION  

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Full Text Available Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC(PODD, O(DC(PODP, OD(PODD, OD(PODP, ODHT(PODD, ODHT(PODP, OA/D(PODD, OA/D(PODP, OAD(PODD and O(ZeD(PO. Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to 90±0.5% ISO. Brightness stability was measured after each bleaching stage of the various sequences andexpressed as brightness loss in % ISO. The results indicate that pulps bleached with sequences ending with a peroxide stage havehigher brightness stability compared to those ending with a chlorine dioxide stage. Pulps bleached with a standard sequence, initiatingwith a (DC stage, show brightness stability similar to that of pulp bleached by an ECF (Elementary chlorine free sequence initiatingwith a regular D0 stage. ECF sequences, initiated with hot stages produce pulps with higher brightness stability than sequencesinitiating with a regular D0 stage. The profile across the bleaching sequences shows a tendency of increased brightness stability inalkaline stages containing peroxide and decreased stability in those stages containing chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide, parallelingpulp carbonyl group content.

Kátia M. M. Eiras

2005-12-01

256

Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood  

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Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

2009-12-01

257

La Nutrición Mineral en Plantulas de Eucalyptus Saligna  

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Full Text Available En plántulas de Eucalyptus saligna se indujeron deficiencias de nitrógeno, fósforo, potasio, magnesio, calcio y boro. El potasio fue el nutriente que más limitó el crecimiento en altura y producción de biomasa. En orden de importancia le siguieron nitrógeno, magnesio y fósforo. El calcio no limitó el crecimiento en altura pero sí la producción de biomasa. El boro no produjo limitaciones en ninguno de los parámetros. Se consideró que 100 ppm de nitrógeno, 10 ppm de fósforo, 20 ppm de potasio y 0,5 ppm de boro representan un suministro adecuado para un buen crecimiento en las plántulas cultivadas hidropónicamente. Concentraciones en el follaje de 0,9% N; de 0,05% P a 0,09% P; 0,31% K a 0,38'f{-K; 0,16% Mg; 0,14%Ca y 13 ppm B indicaron deficiencias de los nutrientes. Contenidos foliares de 1,6'J N a 2,1% N; 0,21% P a 0,27'J-P; 1,29% K a 1,94';1,: K; 0,24'k Mg a 0,37% Mg; 0,48% Ca a 1,34% Ca y 26 ppm B a 46 ppm B correspondieron a una cantidad óptima. Se definió a las concentraciones 0,10'k P Y 0,46'1,. K como niveles críticos de fósforo y potasio en el follaje, para las condiciones del Ensayo.

Escobar León M.

1984-09-01

258

Influence of temperature on products yield of Eucalyptus microcorys carbonization  

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Full Text Available During charcoal production different products are formed. These products are influenced primarily by the temperature of carbonization. Given that charcoal is the main input in the production of pig iron in Brazil, this study evaluated the influence of final temperature of carbonization of the products generated and also the influence of the radial and longitudinal sampling on the yield of each product. Samples were taken from internal and external position along the radius and also from three different heights from four Eucalyptus microcorys trees. The samples were carbonized in an electric furnace with an experimental water-cooled condenser and a collecting bottle of condensable volatile materials. The final temperatures of carbonization were 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900°C. The gravimetric yield, tar and non-condensable gases were calculated. The results showed no difference in the gravimetric yield in the longitudinal and radial positions studied, while the tar yield and non-condensable gases showed temperature variations of 700°C and 800°C and the variation of the gravimetric yield temperatures between 500°C to 900°C was 15%, the change of yield of tar from the radial direction of sampling was on average 8%, the variation of the yield of non-condensable gases in a radial sampling was on average 16%.

Renato da Silva Vieira

2013-03-01

259

BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, ?-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

2009-12-01

260

Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter-specific competition.

Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Características palinológicas de mieles de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.) y tréboles (Trifolium sp.) provenientes de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina / Palynological characteristics of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) and clover (Trifolium sp.) honeys from Argentinean Pampean Phytogeographic Province  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el perfil polínico de mieles de tréboles y de eucalipto de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina, con el fin de contribuir a su caracterización palinológica. Se realizó un análisis polínico cualitativo y se aplicaron técnicas estadísticas descriptiva [...] s y multivariadas, para conocer la distribución de frecuencia de los pólenes y caracterizar cada origen floral, según los pólenes acompañantes y los años de cosecha. Se analizaron 81 muestras de miel, de cuatro cosechas diferentes. Se encontraron 41 tipos morfológicos de polen, cuya variación por muestra osciló entre dos y ocho. El taxón presente en más del 80% de las mieles fue Eucalyptus sp. Los principales pólenes acompañantes encontrados pertenecieron a los tipos Helianthus annuus y Carduus sp., para ambos orígenes florales estudiados, y a la familia de las Brassicaceae, para las mieles de tréboles. Los años de cosecha estudiados mostraron diferentes espectros polínicos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the pollen profile of clover and eucalyptus honeys from the Phytogeographic Pampean Province of Argentina, in order to contribute to its palynological characterization. Qualitative pollen analysis was performed. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques we [...] re applied to determine the frequency distribution of pollen and characterize each floral origin by pollen and year of harvest. 81 samples of honey from four different harvests were analyzed. 41 morphological types of pollen were found, which variation per sample ranged from two to eight. Eucalyptus sp. was the taxon present in over 80% of the honeys. There were pollen of Helianthus annuus and Carduus sp. in clover and eucalyptus honeys but pollen of Brassicaceae was only present in clover honeys. Pollen spectra showed differences between the studied years.

María Cristina, Ciappini; María Susana, Vitelleschi.

262

Research and analysis of private cloud: evaluation of a case with Eucalyptus and WaveMaker  

Science.gov (United States)

Private cloud as one model of cloud computing has its own special features, compared with public cloud. It is designed to supply more control over the data to one organization with implementation in a private network. This paper makes a comparison of public cloud and private cloud. After this comparison, we choose Eucalyptus to do a case study on the private cloud. Furthermore, we realize a kind of prototype of SaaS based on Eucalyptus by WaveMaker. We also do some experimental evaluation of this cloud platform services.

Chen, Shi; He, Jianzhong; Yu, Xiaoyuan

2011-12-01

263

Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii / Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta [...] viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² [...] in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by Eucalyptus grandis glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate. Veneer combinations with higher shear strength were pith/outer, intermediary/outer and outer/outer wood.

Benedito Rocha, Vital; Antônio da Silva, Maciel; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

2006-08-01

264

Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

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Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by Eucalyptus grandis glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate. Veneer combinations with higher shear strength were pith/outer, intermediary/outer and outer/outer wood.

Benedito Rocha Vital

2006-08-01

265

Elastic Cloud Computing Infrastructures in the Open Cirrus Testbed Implemented via Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Cloud computing realizes the advantages and overcomes some restrictionsof the grid computing paradigm. Elastic infrastructures can easily be createdand managed by cloud users. In order to accelerate the research ondata center management and cloud services the OpenCirrusTM researchtestbed has been started by HP, Intel and Yahoo!. Although commercialcloud offerings are proprietary, Open Source solutions exist in the field ofIaaS with Eucalyptus, PaaS with AppScale and at the applications layerwith Hadoop MapReduce. This paper examines the I/O performance ofcloud computing infrastructures implemented with Eucalyptus in contrastto Amazon S3.

Baun, Christian; Kunze, Marcel

266

Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft  

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Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption and basic papermaking properties were evaluated. Upon these results, they were considered as potential mixed base material for Kraft cooking. In previous research, significant differences were found between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus maidenii Kraft pulping behavior and no mixture was recommended. New results indicate a similar performance for each studied Eucalyptus species. However, the comparable demand in active alkali charges among them, suggests that mixtures could be successfully employed.

Javier Doldán

2011-05-01

267

Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis / Bioprospectionof Bacillus spp. as potential growth promoters in Eucalyptus urograndis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bact [...] érias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical characteristics of agronomic interest and correlation with the promotion of plant grow thin isolates of Bacillus sp. originating from the eucalyptus rhizosp here. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse. From the bacteria isol [...] ation from the rhizo sp here of plants from different cities of the western region of São Paulo, were obtained 127 isolates of Bacillus sp.. Biochemical testswere performed to characterize thebacterial isolateson the antagonism of pathogenic fungi, the production of auxin, ammonia and enzymatic activity. In the final ste pwe evaluated thepotentialof the isolates, previous lycharacterizedin laboratory conditions, to promote plant growth, using bacteria inoculation in eucalyptus seedling sand growing plants in a green house for 90 days. Eucalyptus growth were evaluated aiming to select the best strain sand to correlate the different variables asses sed. The bio prospecting protocol for Bacillus sp. Rhizosp here was valid to find promising rhizobacteria in increasing eucalyptus growth. Five isolates were selected as promising foracti on on growing eucalyptus. The antagonistic to pathogenic fungi and ammonia production found in isolate so frhizobacteria help fulin the initial selection of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria eucalyptus as significantly correlated with plant growth.

Ana Ligia de Lima, Moreira; Fabio Fernando de, Araújo.

2013-10-01

268

Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis / Bioprospectionof Bacillus spp. as potential growth promoters in Eucalyptus urograndis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bact [...] érias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical characteristics of agronomic interest and correlation with the promotion of plant grow thin isolates of Bacillus sp. originating from the eucalyptus rhizosp here. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse. From the bacteria isol [...] ation from the rhizo sp here of plants from different cities of the western region of São Paulo, were obtained 127 isolates of Bacillus sp.. Biochemical testswere performed to characterize thebacterial isolateson the antagonism of pathogenic fungi, the production of auxin, ammonia and enzymatic activity. In the final ste pwe evaluated thepotentialof the isolates, previous lycharacterizedin laboratory conditions, to promote plant growth, using bacteria inoculation in eucalyptus seedling sand growing plants in a green house for 90 days. Eucalyptus growth were evaluated aiming to select the best strain sand to correlate the different variables asses sed. The bio prospecting protocol for Bacillus sp. Rhizosp here was valid to find promising rhizobacteria in increasing eucalyptus growth. Five isolates were selected as promising foracti on on growing eucalyptus. The antagonistic to pathogenic fungi and ammonia production found in isolate so frhizobacteria help fulin the initial selection of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria eucalyptus as significantly correlated with plant growth.

Ana Ligia de Lima, Moreira; Fabio Fernando de, Araújo.

269

Efeito acaricida de óleos essenciais e concentrados emulsionáveis de Eucalyptus spp em Boophilus microplus / Acaricide effect of Eucalyptus spp essential oils and concentrated emulsion on Boophilus microplus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se um estudo sobre a ação biocida de Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus staigeriana no carrapato Boophilus microplus, buscando-se a produção de acaricidas menos agressivos ao meio ambiente. Os óleos essenciais das três espécies e os concentrados emulsionáveis de E. glob [...] ulus e E. staigeriana foram testados em cinco concentrações diferentes contra larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus. Os óleos foram submetidos à análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM), a fim de se investigar sua composição. O citronelal é o principal componente do óleo de E. citriodora, sendo responsável por sua ação acaricida. O mesmo ocorre com o 1,8-cineol em E. globulus. Em E. staigeriana existem várias substâncias que agem sinergicamente contra B. microplus. O óleo essencial de E. citriodora matou 100% dos carrapatos a uma concentração média de 17,5%, o de E. globulus a 15% e o de E. staigeriana a 12,5%. Os concentrados emulsionáveis de E. globulus mataram 100% dos carrapatos a uma concentração média de 9,9% e o de E. staigeriana a uma concentração de 3,9%. O desenvolvimento de produtos que possam ser testados a campo e comercializados a preços competitivos serão passos a serem seguidos. Os biocarrapaticidas têm um apelo comercial grande, permitindo controlar B. microplus de um modo menos agressivo ao meio ambiente. Abstract in english Biocide action of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus staigeriana were studied against Boophilus microplus tick, aiming the production of an environmentally and ecologically conect and len harmpol acaricide. Essential oil emulsion of three Eucaliptus species were tested in five [...] different concentrations against larvae and engorged female of B. microplus. Oils were submitted to gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis looking for its composition. Citronelal is the major component of E. citriodora essential oil, being responsible for its acaricide action. The same happens with 1.8-cineole in E. globulus. In E. staigeriana, there are many substances involved in a synergic action against B. microplus. E. citriodora essential oil killed all ticks in an average concentration of 17.5% as compared to E. globulus with 15% and E. staigeriana with 12.5%. E. globulus concentrated emulsion killed all ticks in an average concentration of 9.9% and E. staigeriana in a concentration of 3.9%. Further steps will be pursued to make those essential oils to be tested under field conditions and available to the farmers, since bioacaricides has commercial appeal, allowing B. microplus control in a less aggressive way to the environment.

Ana Carolina de Souza, Chagas; Wanderley Mascarenhas, Passos; Hélio Teixeira, Prates; Romário Cerqueira, Leite; John, Furlong; Isabel Cristina Pereira, Fortes.

270

Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna / Taux d'escompte et rotation forestière: le cas de l'Eucalyptus Saligna / Discount Rate and Timber Rotation: the Case of Eucalyptus Saligna  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Eucalipto es una de las especies de mayor importancia económica y ambiental en Colombia. El objetivo de este artículo es observar la relación existente entre la tasa de descuento y el año de corte del Eucalyptus Saligna, mediante el método de Fisher y Hotelling. La metodología consiste en calcula [...] r el máximo Valor Actual Neto y realizar un análisis del comportamiento del año de corte con respecto a la tasa de descuento. La región de estudio es el oriente antioqueño, de donde se tomaron datos suministrados por la reforestadora Doña María para una hectárea típica. Se encontró que el año de corte tiene una relación inversamente proporcional con la tasa de descuento, y que éste disminuye para tasas altas. Abstract in english Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling's method. The methodology consists of ca [...] lculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

Camilo, Restrepo; Mauricio, Alviar.

2010-12-01

271

A tissue culture method for rapid clonal propagation of mature trees of Eucalyptus torelliana and Eucalyptus camaldulensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple shoots were induced from nodal segments of mature Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell. and E. camaldulensis Dehnh trees on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with Kn, BAP, Cal.Pan and Bio. Incubation in semi-solid media at 15°C with continuous illumination followed by growth in agitated liquid media was essential for shoot induction and development in primary explants of E. camaldulensis. For culture of E. gorelliana, growth in agitated liquid media alone was sufficient. Rooting could be induced in shoot cultures of E. torelliana by treatment with NAA whereas treatment with a mixture of IAA, IBA, IPA and NAA was essential for E. camaldulensis. After auxin treatment, transfer to a charcoal-containing medium was necessary. Rooted plantlets could be successfully transferred to pots and field. By this method it is estimated that about 50,000 plantlets of E. torelliana and 20,000 of E. camaldulensis can be produced, in a year, from a single nodal segment of a mature tree. PMID:24258189

Gupta, P K; Mehta, U J; Mascarenhas, A F

1983-12-01

272

Avaliação de um modelo de passo invariante na predição da estrutura de um povoamento de Eucalyptus sp. Evaluation of a step invariant model for the prediction of eucalyptus stand structure  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o modelo de distribuição diamétrica de passo invariante proposto por Guimarães (1994 na projeção da produção de um povoamento de Eucalyptus sp., simulando as alterações nas estruturas horizontal e vertical ao longo do tempo. Utilizaram-se dados da primeira rotação de povoamentos de eucalipto híbrido estaca (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, plantados no espaçamento 3,0 x 2,0 m, localizados na região noroeste do Estado da Bahia, provenientes de medições anuais com idade de medição variando entre 25 e 89 meses. Para realizar as prognoses, foram empregados percentis tomados a 50 e 75% da distribuição diamétrica e as alturas correspondentes aos diâmetros nessas posições. Verificou-se que o modelo de projeção é factível e pode ser utilizado com eficiência, já que ocorreram tendências semelhantes entre os volumes prognosticados e os observados nas parcelas. Além disso, devido à sua simplicidade e à compatibilidade dos resultados, recomenda-se a sua utilização na projeção do crescimento e produção de Eucalyptus sp.This study was carried out to evaluate the step-invariant diametric distribution model, proposed by Guimarães (1994, for the prediction of a Eucalyptus stand production, simulating the alterations in the horizontal and vertical structures with time. Data were taken from annual measurements, with measurement age between 25 and 89 months, of the first rotation of hybrid eucalyptus stands (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, plant spacing of 3.0 x 2.0 m, located in the northeast region of State of Bahia. To perform prognoses percentiles were taken at 50 and 75% of the diametric distribution, and the heights corresponding to the diameters in these positions. The prediction model was proved to be feasible for efficient use, since there were similar tendencies between the forecasted and the observed volumes in the plots. Besides, its use in growth and production prediction of Eucalyptus sp. studies is recommended for its simplicity and result compatibility.

Thelma Shirlen Soares

2007-04-01

273

Effect of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement: a randomized clinical trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus oil has been reported effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. Participants were randomized 1?:?1 to intervention group (eucalyptus inhalation group) or control group (almond oil inhalation group). Patients inhaled eucalyptus or almond oil for 30 min of continuous passive motion (CPM) on 3 consecutive days. Pain on a visual analog scale (VAS), blood pressure, heart rate, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and white blood cell (WBC) count were measured before and after inhalation. Pain VAS on all three days (P < .001) and systolic (P < .05) and diastolic (P = .03) blood pressure on the second day were significantly lower in the group inhaling eucalyptus than that inhaling almond oil. Heart rate, CRP, and WBC, however, did not differ significantly in the two groups. In conclusion, inhalation of eucalyptus oil was effective in decreasing patient's pain and blood pressure following TKR, suggesting that eucalyptus oil inhalation may be a nursing intervention for the relief of pain after TKR. PMID:23853660

Jun, Yang Suk; Kang, Purum; Min, Sun Seek; Lee, Jeong-Min; Kim, Hyo-Keun; Seol, Geun Hee

2013-01-01

274

Eucalyptus essential oil action on mycorrhizal colonization and the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis in soil contaminated by copper Ação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na micorrização e no estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis em solo contaminado por cobre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The use of eucalyptus essential oil can optimize the growth of ectomycorrhizal isolates, which aid the establishment of forest species in soils contaminated by copper. The study aimed to determine the best application of eucalyptus essential oil in the formation of mycorrhizal seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis and its influence on the establishment of these seedlings in soil contaminated by copper. It was used the ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECM Pisolithus microcarpus. The application forms of the essential oil were evaluated in a greenhouse, by means of six treatments. Subsequently, the seedlings were transplanted and evaluated in soil contaminated by copper, greenhouse and field. It was determined height, diameter, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, copper content in plant, colonization and survival in the field. The essential oil of E. grandis supports the growth of mycorrhizal of eucalyptus seedlings, particularly when applied to the substrate. The application of essential oil increases the colonization, promoting growth and survival of seedlings under greenhouse conditions and field.

doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245

A utilização do óleo essencial de eucalipto pode otimizar o crescimento de isolados ectomicorrízicos, os quais auxiliam o estabelecimento de essências florestais em solos contaminados por cobre. O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a melhor forma de aplicação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis micorrizadas e sua influência no estabelecimento dessas mudas em solo contaminado por cobre. Utilizou-se o fungo ectomicorrízico (fECM Pisolithus microcarpus. As formas de aplicação do óleo essencial foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio de seis tratamentos. Posteriormente, as mudas foram transplantadas e avaliadas em solo contaminado por cobre, em condições de casa de vegetação e campo. Determinou-se altura, diâmetro, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raízes, teor de cobre na planta, colonização micorrízica e sobrevivência no campo. O óleo essencial de E. grandis favorece o crescimento de mudas de eucalipto micorrizadas, principalmente quando aplicado diretamente no substrato. A aplicação do óleo essencial aumenta a colonização micorrízica, favorecendo o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em condições de casa de vegetação e campo.

doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245

Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

2011-09-01

275

Longitudinal and radial variation of extractives and total lignin contents in a clone of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine concentrations of extractives and total lignin along with their radial and longitudinal variations in wood from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake at age six years. Longitudinal samples were taken at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height of trees, and radial samples were taken from each longitudinal position, the number of samples depending on the diameter of each disk. Results led to the conclusion that, overall, concentrations of extractives and total lignin in the wood tended to decrease with increasing distance from the pith and tended to increase in portions closer to the tree base.

Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

2011-09-01

276

Aplicação de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importância no setor florestal e muitos avanços na área do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns genótipos promissores ainda não possuem protocolos de multiplicação com técnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se ava [...] liar concentrações de IBA na sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinação da dose de máxima eficiência técnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropônico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca em soluções hidroalcoólicas, cujas concentrações foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por três clones e cinco concentrações de IBA, com cinco repetições, contendo dez miniestacas por repetição. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizogênicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram até a maior concentração de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Abstract in english Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study [...] aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. Ministumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the minicutting basal portion was plunged in hydro-alcoholic solutions, whose concentrations were: 0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1 of IBA. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with the factors consisting of three clones and five IBA concentrations, with five replications, containing 10 minicuttings per replication. IBA positively influenced the minicutting rooting processes, with differentiated behavior between the clones, with 30.32 to 55.45% rooting variation. The positives increments occurred until the highest IBA concentration for H12 and H19 clones. However, the range between 4,000 and 6,000 mg L-1 of IBA treatments promoted the best rooting results for the H20 clone.

Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Fernando, Grossi; Ivar, Wendling; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Marla Alessandra, Araujo.

2010-12-01

277

Aplicação de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importância no setor florestal e muitos avanços na área do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns genótipos promissores ainda não possuem protocolos de multiplicação com técnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se ava [...] liar concentrações de IBA na sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinação da dose de máxima eficiência técnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropônico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca em soluções hidroalcoólicas, cujas concentrações foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por três clones e cinco concentrações de IBA, com cinco repetições, contendo dez miniestacas por repetição. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizogênicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram até a maior concentração de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Abstract in english Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study [...] aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. Ministumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the minicutting basal portion was plunged in hydro-alcoholic solutions, whose concentrations were: 0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1 of IBA. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with the factors consisting of three clones and five IBA concentrations, with five replications, containing 10 minicuttings per replication. IBA positively influenced the minicutting rooting processes, with differentiated behavior between the clones, with 30.32 to 55.45% rooting variation. The positives increments occurred until the highest IBA concentration for H12 and H19 clones. However, the range between 4,000 and 6,000 mg L-1 of IBA treatments promoted the best rooting results for the H20 clone.

Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Fernando, Grossi; Ivar, Wendling; Leonardo Ferreira, Dutra; Marla Alessandra, Araujo.

278

Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were ?-pinene, sabinene, ?-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, ?-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 ?mol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 ?g Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 ?g C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

1997-07-01

279

BEHAVIOR OF GLUED JOINTS OF EUCALYPTUS sp. SAWN WOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research evaluated eucalypt wood adhesion capacity. The material evaluated was a commercial sawn wood composed by a blend of species of the genus Eucalyptus. The adhesives used were resorcinol-formaldehyde and polyvinila acetate (PVAc. The wood was segregated in three density with 0% of moisture content: class 1; 2 and 3 that, when combined (class1 x class1; 2x2; 3x3; 1x2; 1x3; 2x3 resulted in six treatments. The performance of the adhesion was evaluated by the shear strength to parallel compression and by wood failure in the glue line. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the adhesion of the combinations of wood/adhesive presented satisfactory performance. The average shear strength of the joints were shown equivalent to the shear strength of the solid wood with similar performance of adhesion in the two adhesives. In general, resorcinol-formaldheyde adhesive presented higher values (74.41% for wood failure in the joints, but similar to all treatments. The adhesion of samples of higher density presented lower performance probably when only the values of wood failure are considered. The values for the strength of glued joints, in general, were similar when analyzed the results achieved with the resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive- base 140,56 Kgf/cm2. To polyvinila acetate the values of wood failure decrease when the density increase (65.94%, but the resistance in the glue line was positively affected (140.25 Kgf/cm2. In general, the density influenced the adhesion of the joints for the employed adhesives.

Octávio Barbosa Plaster

2008-09-01

280

Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

Soares, P.; Tome, M.

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Eficiência de utilização de nutrientes e sustentabilidade da produção em procedências de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna em sítios florestais do estado de São Paulo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A eficiência de utilização de nutrientes (EUN) e o crescimento de três procedências de Eucalyptus grandis e de três de E. saligna foram avaliados, aos 78 meses de idade, nos municípios de Angatuba, Itapetininga, Paraibuna, São Miguel Aracanjo e São José dos Campos, Estado de São Paulo. Houve variação na produção de biomassa entre os municípios, sendo as maiores produtividades observadas em São Miguel Aracanjo, seguido por Paraibuna, com os demais municípios constituindo um t...

Santana Reynaldo Campos; Barros Nairam Félix de; Neves Júlio Cézar Lima

2002-01-01

282

Alterações morfológicas em Eucalyptus grandis sob aplicação de biorreguladores no período juvenil (Nota Científica. Morphological modifications in Eucalyptus grandis with application of bioregulators at juvenile stage (Scientific Note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a aplicação dos biorreguladores vegetais paclobutrazol, ácido giberélico e ethefon em mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, com o intuito de acompanhar as modificações promovidas pelos hormônios sintéticos durante a fase juvenil. Foram efetuadas avaliações morfológicas como altura (cm e diâmetro do colo (mm e medições indiretas do índice de clorofila. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. A aplicação de paclobutrazol (PBZ promoveu alterações morfológicas nas folhas dos indivíduos como: redução no tamanho, modificação da cor e limbo coriáceo. Foram também verificadas redução no comprimento dos internódios, quebra de dormência de gema e desenvolvimento de ramos laterais, redução do porte das plantas (68% e aumento da quantidade de clorofila (29%.Já o ácido giberélico (GA3 demonstrou ser substância importante relacionada ao desenvolvimento vegetativo, estimulando o crescimento em altura das plantas (41%, mostrando-se inadequado em promover alterações que indicassem o amadurecimento dos tecidos vegetais. O ethefon não promoveu nenhuma alteração significativa na espécie Eucalyptus grandis. This aim of this study was the application of plant bioregulators: paclobutrazol, giberelic acid, and ethefon in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Morphologic evaluations were done, as plant height (cm and stem diameter (mm and indirect measurement of chlorophyll index. The statistical design was in randomized blocks, through split-plot schedule, with three replications. The paclobutrazol (PBZ have promoted leaf morphological variations as: accentuation of central nervures, reduction in size, modification in color and coriaceous leaves. We also verified reduction in internode lengths; overcoming seed dormancy, and development of lateral branches, reduction of plant height (68%, increasing of chlorophyll amount (29%. Giberelic acid (GA3 have shown to be important chemical related to vegetative development, stimulating plant height growth (41%, showing an inapropriate chemical to promote the maturation in plant tissue. Ethephon did not cause any sgnificant change in Eucalyptus grandis.

Cristiano Bueno de MORAES

2012-12-01

283

Competition for nitrogen by three sympatric species of Eucalyptus
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Compétition pour l'azote par trois espèces d'Eucalyptus sympatriques
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* Nitrogen (N) exists in the soil in a variety of different forms and thus plants may avoid competition by taking up N as different chemical forms.* This study examined the uptake of nitrate, ammonium and glycine by three co-occurring species of Eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. radiata and E. rubida) from dry sclerophyll forest in south-eastern Australia. Species preference for N forms was determined by measuring uptake of glycine, nitrate and ammonium from 15N-labelled solutions containing equimol...

Paulding, Emma M.; Baker, Alan J. M.; Warren, Charles R.

2010-01-01

284

Tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: pelo método de substituição de seiva / Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: juvenile wood by sap displacement method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, analisar a qualidade do tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e verificar a influência da inversão das peças na solução preservativa, na distribuição, na penetração e na retenção do CCB, ao longo das peças tratadas pelo método [...] de substituição de seiva. Árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram coletadas na Zona Rural do Município de Rio Tinto - PB, de um povoamento com quatro anos. No povoamento foram escolhidas, aleatoriamente, cinco árvores, sendo três de maior diâmetro. Para o tratamento da madeira, empregou-se o método de substituição de seiva por transpiração radial utilizando-se uma solução de 2% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado (CCB) e comparou-se o efeito da inversão das peças na solução preservativa. A distribuição, a penetração e a retenção foram melhores nas peças invertidas, quando comparadas àquelas não-invertidas na solução preservativa. Abstract in english The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulen [...] sis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB) and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

Pablo Marcel de Arruda, Torres; Juarez Benigno, Paes; José Augusto de, Lira Filho; José Wallace Barbosa do, Nascimento.

2011-06-01

285

Tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: pelo método de substituição de seiva / Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: juvenile wood by sap displacement method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, analisar a qualidade do tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e verificar a influência da inversão das peças na solução preservativa, na distribuição, na penetração e na retenção do CCB, ao longo das peças tratadas pelo método [...] de substituição de seiva. Árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram coletadas na Zona Rural do Município de Rio Tinto - PB, de um povoamento com quatro anos. No povoamento foram escolhidas, aleatoriamente, cinco árvores, sendo três de maior diâmetro. Para o tratamento da madeira, empregou-se o método de substituição de seiva por transpiração radial utilizando-se uma solução de 2% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado (CCB) e comparou-se o efeito da inversão das peças na solução preservativa. A distribuição, a penetração e a retenção foram melhores nas peças invertidas, quando comparadas àquelas não-invertidas na solução preservativa. Abstract in english The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulen [...] sis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB) and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

Pablo Marcel de Arruda, Torres; Juarez Benigno, Paes; José Augusto de, Lira Filho; José Wallace Barbosa do, Nascimento.

286

Fertirrigação na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis nos períodos de inverno e verão / Fertirrigation in production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis during winter and summer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas correlacionando o parcelamento da fertirrigação com o desenvolvimento e qualidade de mudas florestais, em diferentes sistemas de produção e períodos do ano são fundamentais para a otimização de insumos e minimização do ciclo de produção. Dessa forma conduziu-se esse estudo com o objetivo d [...] e verificar a influência do parcelamento da fertirrigação no desenvolvimento e qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis nos períodos de inverno e verão. As fertilizações por meio do sistema de irrigação por capilaridade foram parceladas em: uma, duas, três ou seis vezes por semana, sendo mantida a quantidade total de nutrientes aplicados. Concluiu-se que, as fertirrigações mais eficazes para o desenvolvimento e a qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis foram de seis e uma vez na semana, para o período de inverno e verão, respectivamente, demonstrando-se a necessidade de adequação dos manejos de fertirrigação em função do período do ano. Abstract in english Studies correlating the splitting of fertigation with the development and quality of tree seedlings in different production systems and periods of the year are fundamental to optimize inputs and minimization of the production cycle. Thus we conducted this study aimed to check the influence of the sp [...] lit of fertigation in the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in winter and summer periods. The fertilization through the irrigation system by capillarity was split on: one, two, three or six times in the week, maintaining the total amount of nutrients applied. We concluded that the most effective fertigation for the development and quality of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis were six and one times in the week for the period of winter and summer, respectively, demonstrating the need for adequacy of fertigation managements according to the period of year.

Simone Fernandes, Ciavatta; Magali Ribeiro da, Silva; Danilo, Simões.

2014-06-01

287

Plantio misto de Eucalyptus spp. com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio / Mixed plantation of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A revisão relata os principais benefícios do plantio misto de eucalipto com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico. Buscou-se analisar as interações ecológicas das espécies envolvidas no sistema, a arquitetura espacial utilizada e o possível aumento de produtividade do sistema cons [...] orciado. Com base nisso, observa-se que o cultivo misto de eucaliptos com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico só deve ser realizado em locais onde os processos e as interações entre espécies aumentarão o crescimento, a produção de biomassa ou a qualidade do produto final desejado. De forma geral, os estudos indicam que o interplantio de leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio proporciona incremento na produtividade das plantas de eucalipto. Contudo, devem-se analisar as interações dos plantios mistos até a sua idade de rotação, para que, com isso, possam ser verificados os possíveis efeitos da fixação biológica de nitrogênio atmosférico pela leguminosa na produtividade do eucalipto. Abstract in english In this paper, we aimed to review the main benefits of the mixed plantation of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees. To this end, the ecological interactions of the species involved in the system was analyzed, as well as the space architecture used and the possible increase in productivity c [...] aused by the intercropping. On this basis, it was possible to observe that the mixed cropping of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees should be implemented only in locations where the processes and interactions between species will increase the growth, biomass production or quality of desired product. In general, studies indicate that mixed plantation provides an increase in productivity in eucalyptus stand. However, it is important to analyze the interactions of mixed stand until the age of rotation, so that the possible effects of atmospheric nitrogen fixation by legume trees on the productivity of eucalyptus can be verified.

Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Edenilson, Liberalesso; Marcos Vinícius Winckler, Caldeira; Luciano Farinha, Watzlawick.

288

Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus / Efeito da idade e da classe diamétrica nas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus clonal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da idade e da classe diamétrica sobre as características físicas, térmicas e químicas de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla. O material utilizado neste estudo com 34, 48, 61, 74 e 86 meses de idade, foi proveniente [...] de área de reflorestamento, de propriedade da GERDAU S.A., sendo selecionadas duas árvores em cada idade por classe diamétrica, respeitando a proporção de cada parcela lançada nos locais amostrados. As características físicas: densidade básica da madeira, massa seca e o estoque de carbono; químicas: holocelulose, teor de extrativos totais, lignina total, cinzas; análises elementar e térmica da madeira foram determinadas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a maioria das características da madeira foi influenciada pela idade e classe diamétrica. A espécie estudada apresentou grande potencial para produção de massa seca e geração de energia na forma de calor, que pode ser convertida em energia mecânica e eletricidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, [...] 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

Wilma Michele Santos, Santana; Natalino, Calegario; Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho.

2012-03-01

289

Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on amaryllis and associated grassy weed Efeitos alelopáticos do Eucalyptus citriodora sobre amarílis e em gramíneas daninhas associadas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Petri dish assay was carried out for screening different concentrations of aqueous extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora on germination and seedling growth of wild oat weed (Avena fatua). Seed germination, root and shoot length of wild oat exhibited different degrees of inhibition according to the concentration of the aqueous extract. Maximum inhibitions of germination percentage, root and shoot length were recorded when using 25% fresh leaf extract. Based on this prelim...

El-rokiek, K. G.; Eid, R. A.

2009-01-01

290

Physiological Responses of Eucalyptus Under Saline Environment I: Ionic Composition in Selected Salt Tolerant and Salt Sensitive Provenances of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the two provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (tolerant = SL2 and sensitive = SL4 selected from the previous studies to scruntinize the ionic content and growth under saline environments using gravel technique. It was observed the plant height, shoot and root fresh and dry weight and stem diameter decreased with the increase in salinity level in both the provenances upto 2% NaCl. However reduction was more clear in salt sensitive provenance of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The chemical analysis for different ion showed that Na+ increased in shoot and root in both the provenances of Eucalyptus. However root contain more Na+ in both provenances under all treatments. The other ions such as K+, Ca+ decreased with the application of salinity. The reduction was more pronounced in sensitive provenance. In case of P reduction was observed with the salinity but it was not up to the deficient mark. The N contents severely decreased with salinity in shoot and root of both the provenances, however N contents are less in salt sensitive provenance under all treatment in shoot as well as root.

Tariq Mahmood Qureshi

2000-01-01

291

Classificação de clones de Eucalyptus sp visando à produção de polpa celulósica / Classification of Eucalyptus sp clones for kraft pulp production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou classificar e selecionar clones de Eucalyptus sp, tendo em vista a qualidade das polpas kraft obtidas a partir de cada material. Os clones foram classificados quanto a rendimento depurado, viscosidade da polpa e álcali ativo usado no processo de polpação. A classificação dos [...] clones foi realizada por meio da análise de agrupamento, utilizando-se o método de otimização de Tocher. A análise de agrupamento permitiu a separação dos clones em cinco grupos distintos, sendo encontrados grupos de clones com alto, médio e baixo potenciais para produção de polpa celulósica. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência foram o rendimento depurado (58,1%) e a viscosidade da polpa celulósica (35,0%). Em geral, nos clones avaliados foram verificadas grandes variações com relação aos parâmetros estudados. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to classify and select clones of Eucalyptus sp, aiming at pulp quality improvement. The clones were classified according to the screened yield, pulp viscosity and active alkali used for pulping. Classification of the clones was achieved by cluster analysis using the [...] Tocher method. The clones were classified in groups having high, medium and low potential for pulp production. The results showed that the parameter that most contributed to group the different Eucalyptus sp clones was the screened yield (58,1%), followed by pulp viscosity (35,0%). In general, large variation was observed for the parameters evaluated.

Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Maria Lucia, Bianchi; José Lívio, Gomide; Ulf, Schuchardt.

292

Classificação de clones de Eucalyptus sp visando à produção de polpa celulósica Classification of Eucalyptus sp clones for kraft pulp production  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou classificar e selecionar clones de Eucalyptus sp, tendo em vista a qualidade das polpas kraft obtidas a partir de cada material. Os clones foram classificados quanto a rendimento depurado, viscosidade da polpa e álcali ativo usado no processo de polpação. A classificação dos clones foi realizada por meio da análise de agrupamento, utilizando-se o método de otimização de Tocher. A análise de agrupamento permitiu a separação dos clones em cinco grupos distintos, sendo encontrados grupos de clones com alto, médio e baixo potenciais para produção de polpa celulósica. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência foram o rendimento depurado (58,1% e a viscosidade da polpa celulósica (35,0%. Em geral, nos clones avaliados foram verificadas grandes variações com relação aos parâmetros estudados.The objectives of this study were to classify and select clones of Eucalyptus sp, aiming at pulp quality improvement. The clones were classified according to the screened yield, pulp viscosity and active alkali used for pulping. Classification of the clones was achieved by cluster analysis using the Tocher method. The clones were classified in groups having high, medium and low potential for pulp production. The results showed that the parameter that most contributed to group the different Eucalyptus sp clones was the screened yield (58,1%, followed by pulp viscosity (35,0%. In general, large variation was observed for the parameters evaluated.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho

2004-12-01

293

Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory  

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Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and shorter longevity of females in guava leaves than in Eucalyptus leaves. The better development and reproduction with P. guajava showed that this insect could be reared in laboratory with guava leaves.Thyrinteina arnobia, é umas das mais importantes lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução desse lepidóptero em folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava e Eucalyptus grandis, na 15º geração, após criar essa espécie por 14 gerações em folhas de goiabeira. T. arnobia apresentou menor período larval, maior viabilidade de lagartas e de pupas, maior peso pupal, maior número de ovos totais por fêmea e viabilidade de ovos e menor longevidade de fêmeas com folhas de goiabeira. Além disso, teve melhor desempenho e reprodução com P. guajava, do que com folhas de E. grandis, mostrando que esse inseto pode ser criado com folhas de goiabeira em laboratório.

Harley Nonato de Oliveira

2005-09-01

294

Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Thyrinteina arnobia, é umas das mais importantes lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução desse lepidóptero em folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava) e Eucalyptus grandis, na 15º geração, após criar essa espécie por 14 geraç [...] ões em folhas de goiabeira. T. arnobia apresentou menor período larval, maior viabilidade de lagartas e de pupas, maior peso pupal, maior número de ovos totais por fêmea e viabilidade de ovos e menor longevidade de fêmeas com folhas de goiabeira. Além disso, teve melhor desempenho e reprodução com P. guajava, do que com folhas de E. grandis, mostrando que esse inseto pode ser criado com folhas de goiabeira em laboratório. Abstract in english Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava) or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species [...] for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and shorter longevity of females in guava leaves than in Eucalyptus leaves. The better development and reproduction with P. guajava showed that this insect could be reared in laboratory with guava leaves.

Harley Nonato de, Oliveira; José Cola, Zanuncio; Eder Pin, Pedruzzi; Marcelo Curitiba, Espindula.

295

THE EFFECT OF Eucalyptus APMP FIBERS REINFORCEMENT ON Pinus radiata KRAFT PULP PROPERTIES  

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Full Text Available Kraft pulps derived from pine species are largely used for high strength paper products. The quality of such pulps hasbeen improved significantly in the last decades through advances in wood quality and adequate choice of pine species. The quality ofpine fibers can be further improved by incorporating other fibers to them. In fact, the mixture of pine fibers with hardwood fibers iscommon practice around the world. An alternative to further improve the quality of pine fibers is by mixing them with wood fibersproduced by modern techniques. This study evaluated the impact of mixing 10-40% of eucalyptus wood fibers produced by the P-RCAPMP process on the Pinus radiata fiber properties. The pulp mixes were beat in a PFI mill and evaluated for the main physicalproperties. It was observed that the eucalyptus wood fibers improve the bonding capacity of the Pinus radiata fibers. At a given tensilestrength, the properties of tear index and opacity of the pulp mix increase with increasing proportion of eucalyptus wood fibers. It isconcluded that addition of up to 30% eucalyptus wood fibers to Pinus radiata kraft pulp is viable alternative to improve some of itsproperties.

Mauro Manfredi

2008-06-01

296

Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

297

TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON AND FRACTIONS OF ORGANIC MATTER IN DIFFERENT DISTANCES OF EUCALYPTUS STUMP  

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Full Text Available The knowledge concerned to the horizontal and vertical distribution of organic carbon and organic matter fractions on remaining eucalyptus stumps in the field leads to a better comprehension about the changes that may occur in these features along the cultivation. This work aimed at determining the variation of total organic carbon in soil and organic matter fractions at different horizontal distances from remaining eucalyptus stump, at different ages, in the direction of the stump line. So, soil samples were collected around the eucalyptus’s stump from the previous rotation, with 31 and 54 months-aged, and at the distances of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 cm, at 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm depth layers. The soil samples were analyzed about: total organic carbon (COT and carbon concentration on humic substances (SH and on the light free fraction (FLL. The results indicated variation on organic carbon concentration from several fractions of soil organic matter as long as it hold off from the remaining eucalyptus’s stump (CRE with 31 and 54 months-aged. The C concentrations of the fulvic acids fraction, humic fraction, SH and COT get variable with CRE’s age. The major C concentrations of the several soil organic matter fractions on the surface layer reflect the deposition and maintenance of forest residues on the soil surface, mainly after forest harvesting.

Geraldo Erli de Faria

2008-09-01

298

Mass spore production and inoculation of Calonectria pteridis on Eucalyptus spp. under different environmental conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Calonectria pteridis is one of the most important causal agents of Calonectria leaf blight (CLB) of Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil, which is a limiting factor for growth of Eucalyptus plantations. In this study we developed standard procedures for in vitro mass spore production and inoculation of C. pter [...] idis for screening plant species and clones for resistance to CLB. The isolates used in this study were identified using similarity in DNA sequence to reference strains. Among six media tested, glucose asparagine agar induced the highest sporulation production and a significantly enhanced sporulation was found by scraping the aerial mycelium and temporarily submersing the cultures in tap water, followed by drying and additional incubation of the culture. We also demonstrated that the severity of CLB on excised leaves of two Eucalyptus spp. clones increased significantly when the inoculated leaves were incubated in the dark. The optimal temperature for infection was 26ºC when plants were incubated for 48 hours post-inoculation in a mist chamber and then maintained in a greenhouse (25ºC±5ºC) for 50 days. This study identifies environmental conditions to improve spore production and inoculation procedures of C. pteridis for selection of resistant Eucalyptus spp.

Rafael F., Alfenas; Olinto L., Pereira; Rodrigo G., Freitas; Camila S., Freitas; Miguel A.D., Dita; Acelino C., Alfenas.

2013-10-01

299

Sampling methods for assessing social wasps species diversity in a eucalyptus plantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social wasps were collected in a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis, a genetically enhanced eucalyptus) plantation in Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, southwestern of Brazil, by using a variety of sampling methods, including active capture and baited traps set at two microhabitats. Six new records of social wasps for this region were obtained during the study: Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille, Polybia ignobilis Haliday, Polybia occidentalis Olivier, Polybia platycephala (Richards), Protonectarina sylveirae Saussure, and Protopolybia exigua Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The active capture method sampled the greatest number of species. Baited traps installed in the canopy sampled agreater number of individuals of social wasps than those set on the trunks of eucalyptus trees. Fruit based baits captured a greater number of social wasp species than those baited with a protein derivative. Once no method was able to sample all species, we concluded that the efficiency of a survey can be maximized by using traps with a variety of different baits, in combination with active capture methods. PMID:21735938

De Souza, A R; Venâncio, D F A; Zanuncio, J C; Prezoto, F

2011-06-01

300

Australian Insects Affecting Eucalyptus Species in Turkey / Insetos Australianos que Afetam Eucaliptos na Turquia  

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Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A maioria das espécies de eucalipto são originárias da Austrália, embora algumas tenham sido introduzidas na Turquia e países vizinhos no final do século XVIII. De acordo com o último inventário nacional, existem mais de 20.000 ha de plantações de eucalipto na Turquia. Prospeções efetuadas entre 200 [...] 0 e 2008 detetaram sete espécies de insetos originários da Austrália em sementes e árvores de eucalipto, em várias regiões da Turquia. Seis destas espécies são fitófagas, nomeadamente: Leptocybe invasa (Fisher and La Salle, 2004), Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead, 1900), Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae),Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae), Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera Psyllidae) e Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). De entre estas, as pragas mais importantes são L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata e B. occidentalis. A sétima espécie detetada é o parasitóide Closterocerus chamaeleonis, encontrado a atacar larvas e pupas de O. maskelli. Abstract in english Most Eucalyptus species are endemic to Australia, although a few were introduced into Turkey and neighbouring regions of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th century. According to the most recent national inventories, there are over 20.000 ha of eucalyptus plantations in Turkey. Seven Australia [...] n insects have recently been found on eucalyptus seedlings and trees in several parts of Turkey, in recently conducted surveys between 2000 and 2008. Of these, six are phytophagous and one is a parasitoid.The phytophagous species are: the eucalyptus gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa, Fisher and La Salle, 2004), the leaf blade gall wasp (Prelim. maskelli, Ashmead, 1900), the eucalyptus seed capsule wasp (Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae), the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae), the eucalyptus shoot psyllid (Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and the gum-tree flower thrip (Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Among these phytophagous species, economically important pests are L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata, and B. occidentalis. The parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleonis attacks the larva and pupae of O. maskelli.

Fatih, Aytar; Said, Da& #287; da& #351; ; Celalettin, Duran.

 
 
 
 
301

Distribución Radial de Polifenoles en Troncos de Eucalyptus grandis: Radial Distribution of Polyphenols in the Stems of Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los polifenoles colorean las pulpas y pueden interferir en los procesos de pulpado. No se conocen trabajos sobre su distribución en Eucalyptus grandis. Se midió la variación radial de concentración de polifenoles en cinco individuos de E. grandis de 7 y 18 años de edad. Se utilizó etanol azeotrópico [...] para la extracción de la madera reducida a virutas. Los resultados concuerdan con el patrón general citado en la bibliografía. En los árboles de 7 años hubo en proporción más polifenoles en la albura que en los de 18. No se notaron diferencias significativas en los espectrogramas de absorción UV entre los anillos de los árboles de 18 años. Un espectrograma diferente en uno de 7, indicaría la existencia de hibridación. La concentración de polifenoles alrededor de un nudo dio cuatro veces más alta que en la madera de la misma edad. Abstract in english Polyphenols color pulps and may interfere in the pulping process. No research works on the distribution in E. grandis are known. The radial variation of polyphenol concentration in five E. grandis individuals aged 7 and 18 years old was measured. Azeotropic ethanol was used for the extraction of the [...] wood reduced to shaving. Results are in accordance with the general pattern cited in the bibliography. In 7 year old trees, there were relatively more polyphenols in the sapwood than in those of 18. No significant differences were noticed in the UV absorption spectrograms among the rings of the 18 year-old trees. A different spectrogram in one aged 7 would indicate the existence of hybridation. The concentration of poliphenols around one of the knots was four times as high than in the wood of the same age.

Carlos E., Núñez.

2009-07-01

302

Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile / Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presencia del chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus, fue reportada por primera vez en el país en junio de 2009, como resultado del Programa de Vigilancia Forestal del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Insecto succionador cuyo daño lo ocasionan tanto ninfas como adultos al alimentarse [...] de la savia de sus hospederos desde las hojas. Cuando las poblaciones aumentan, se produce una fuerte reducción de la tasa fotosintética de las hojas, lo que puede provocar una disminución del crecimiento y en ocasiones producir la defoliación completa del árbol. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la detección de T. peregrinus, delimitar su área de distribución y establecer el rango de hospederos dentro de las especies del género Eucalyptus presentes en Chile. Para esto se instalaron trampas amarillas pegajosas en la región Metropolitana, comuna de Til-Til, y en la región de Valparaíso y se realizó una prospección nacional que abarcó las regiones con presencia de especies del género Eucalyptus. Se detectaron nueve puntos positivos (= presencia) en la región Metropolitana y uno en la región de Valparaíso. La detección de estados inmaduros y adultos de T. peregrinus sobre E. camaldulensis indica que el insecto se encuentra establecido en las regiones Metropolitana y de Valparaíso, Chile. Se dan a conocer las acciones a seguir dentro de las labores de control oficial ejecutadas por el SAG. Abstract in english The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was first reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When pop [...] ulations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims of this study were to confirm the detection of T. peregrinus, define its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence) were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the official control tasks performed by SAG.

Sandra, Ide M; Cecilia, Ruiz G; Ariel, Sandoval C; Juan, Valenzuela E.

303

Estimating biophysical properties of eucalyptus plantations using optical remote sensing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of the inversion of optical remote sensing products to measure critical biophysical properties of Eucalyptus Forests at regional scales is investigated here. The biophysical variables used were leaf area Index, LAI, Diameter at Breast Height, DBH, Height and Age of Eucalyptus stands pertaining to a combination of different genetic materials (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrids) and propagating systems (seeds or cuttings) and management system (planting and coppicing). The field sampling was done daily during 3 months, from April to June 1997, and covered 130 stands of minimum sizes of 9 hectares, within an Eucalyptus farming area of about 800 km2, centered at 19 degrees South, 42 degrees West, Brazil. The stands ranged from 12 to 84 months old. The measurements of LAI were done using two pairs of LAI-2000 (LICOR) under conditions of diffuse light. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, SAVI, were derived from a LANDSAT-TM image acquired on June 5, 1997. Furthermore, a mixture model technique was applied to derive three new parameters: fraction of green vegetation, FGV, fraction of shadow, FSH, and fraction of soil, FS. Regression analysis were done between biophysical variables and remote sensing products. Linear correlation with coefficients of determination, R2, as high as 0.8 were found between LAI versus FGV and LAI versus SAVI, on all genetic materials. In general, SAVI was shown to give better estimates of LAI than NDVI, which is explained by the openings in the canopy as the Eucalyptus grow older. The correlation with the other biophysical variables (Height and DBH) were also shown to be significant, although the R2 ranged from 0.4 to 0.6. The correlation between FGV and SAVI was higher than 90% such that they can be used to estimate Eucalyptus biophysical parameters with the same statistical significance.

Soares, Joao V.; Xavier, Alexandre C.; de Almeida, Auro C.; da Costa Freitas, Corina

1998-12-01

304

Índices de competição em árvores individuais de eucalipto / Competition indexes for individual eucalyptus trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cinco índices de competição independentes da distância, em árvores individuais de plantios comerciais de eucalipto, e verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para o crescimento em diâmetro e altura, bem como a probabilidade de mortalidade para t [...] rês classes de produtividade. Foram avaliados dados de 30 parcelas permanentes de plantios clonais híbridos, não desbastados, de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Os índices de competição foram avaliados por meio do coeficiente de correlação simples e o teste F?parcial, juntamente com o teste de identidade, para verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para três classes de produtividade. O índice de área basal foi o que apresentou o melhor desempenho. Ao contrário do observado quanto ao crescimento em diâmetro e altura, para a probabilidade de mortalidade, foi possível o ajuste de uma única equação para as três classes de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate five distance?independent competition indexes, in individual trees of an eucalyptus commercial plantation, and to verify the possibility of fitting a single equation for growth and height, as well as the probability of mortality for three yield classes. Dat [...] a from 30 permanent plots of unthinned clonal hybrids of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla forest, were analyzed. The competition indexes were evaluated through the simple correlation coefficient and the partial?F test, together with an identity test to verify if a single equation could be adjusted for the three yield classes. The basal area index performed better than other competition indexes. Contrarily to what was found for diameter and height, it was possible to adjust a single equation for the three yield classes for the probability of mortality.

Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Helio Garcia, Leite; Agostinho Lopes de, Souza; Renato Vinícius Oliveira, Castro.

1089-10-01

305

Índices de competição em árvores individuais de eucalipto Competition indexes for individual eucalyptus trees  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cinco índices de competição independentes da distância, em árvores individuais de plantios comerciais de eucalipto, e verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para o crescimento em diâmetro e altura, bem como a probabilidade de mortalidade para três classes de produtividade. Foram avaliados dados de 30 parcelas permanentes de plantios clonais híbridos, não desbastados, de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Os índices de competição foram avaliados por meio do coeficiente de correlação simples e o teste F?parcial, juntamente com o teste de identidade, para verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para três classes de produtividade. O índice de área basal foi o que apresentou o melhor desempenho. Ao contrário do observado quanto ao crescimento em diâmetro e altura, para a probabilidade de mortalidade, foi possível o ajuste de uma única equação para as três classes de produtividade.The objective of this work was to evaluate five distance?independent competition indexes, in individual trees of an eucalyptus commercial plantation, and to verify the possibility of fitting a single equation for growth and height, as well as the probability of mortality for three yield classes. Data from 30 permanent plots of unthinned clonal hybrids of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla forest, were analyzed. The competition indexes were evaluated through the simple correlation coefficient and the partial?F test, together with an identity test to verify if a single equation could be adjusted for the three yield classes. The basal area index performed better than other competition indexes. Contrarily to what was found for diameter and height, it was possible to adjust a single equation for the three yield classes for the probability of mortality.

Fabrina Bolzan Martins

2011-09-01

306

Adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus ao Estado do Rio Grande do Sul / Adaptability for Eucalyptus multi species hybrids in the State of Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus em quatro ambientes do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os ensaios foram realizados nas áreas da empresa CMPC Celulose Riograndense, nos Municípios de Minas do Leão (Horto Florestal Cambará), Encruzilhada do Su [...] l (Horto Florestal Capivara), Dom Feliciano (Horto Florestal Fortaleza) e Vila Nova do Sul (Horto Florestal São João). No ano 2007 foi implantada uma rede de testes clonais com 146 clones de Eucalyptus, pertencentes a 34 diferentes espécies e, ou híbridos, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 30 repetições e uma planta por parcela (Single Tree Plot). Aos 3 anos de idade, foram mensurados o diâmetro à altura do peito (dap) e a altura total (Ht) das árvores dos experimentos. O incremento médio anual (IMA) foi calculado de acordo com o volume individual por clone e o estande de plantas no hectare na idade de avaliação do teste clonal. Concluiu-se que em um programa de melhoramento do eucalipto a análise simultânea de produtividade, estabilidade e adaptabilidade deve ser preferida em relação ao simples ordenamento de valores genotípicos. Na seleção simultânea, destacaram-se entre os melhores materiais genéticos do ordenamento, híbridos do tipo "three-way cross", formados por três diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus. Os híbridos mais promissores para a geração de clones superiores foram E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) e E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) e E. grandis x E. urophylla. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the adaptability multi species hybrid of Eucalyptus in four environments in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The tests were conducted in the areas of CMPC Celulose Riograndense in the municipalities of Minas do Leão (Cambará farm), Encruzilhada do Sul (C [...] apivara farm), Dom Feliciano (Fortaleza farm) and Vila Nova do Sul (São João farm). A network of clonal tests was established in 2007with 146 clones of Eucalyptus, belonging to 34 different species and, or hybrids, in a randomized block design with 30 replications in single tree plot). The diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height (Ht) of trees at three years of old were measured. The mean annual increment (MAI) was calculated according to the volume per individual clone and plant stand in hectare at the evaluation age of the clonal test. It was concluded that in a breeding program for Eucalyptus, the simultaneous analysis of productivity, stability and adaptability should be done rather than the simple ordering of genotypic values. "Three-way cross" Hybrid-type made up of three different species of Eucalyptus stood out among the best genetic materials in the simultaneous selection. The most promising hybrids for the generation of higher clones were E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) and E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) and E. grandis x E. urophylla.

Gleison Augusto, Santos; Marcos Deon Vilela, Resende; Luciana Duque, Silva; Antônio, Higa; Teotônio Francisco, Assis.

2013-08-01

307

Adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus ao Estado do Rio Grande do Sul / Adaptability for Eucalyptus multi species hybrids in the State of Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus em quatro ambientes do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os ensaios foram realizados nas áreas da empresa CMPC Celulose Riograndense, nos Municípios de Minas do Leão (Horto Florestal Cambará), Encruzilhada do Su [...] l (Horto Florestal Capivara), Dom Feliciano (Horto Florestal Fortaleza) e Vila Nova do Sul (Horto Florestal São João). No ano 2007 foi implantada uma rede de testes clonais com 146 clones de Eucalyptus, pertencentes a 34 diferentes espécies e, ou híbridos, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 30 repetições e uma planta por parcela (Single Tree Plot). Aos 3 anos de idade, foram mensurados o diâmetro à altura do peito (dap) e a altura total (Ht) das árvores dos experimentos. O incremento médio anual (IMA) foi calculado de acordo com o volume individual por clone e o estande de plantas no hectare na idade de avaliação do teste clonal. Concluiu-se que em um programa de melhoramento do eucalipto a análise simultânea de produtividade, estabilidade e adaptabilidade deve ser preferida em relação ao simples ordenamento de valores genotípicos. Na seleção simultânea, destacaram-se entre os melhores materiais genéticos do ordenamento, híbridos do tipo "three-way cross", formados por três diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus. Os híbridos mais promissores para a geração de clones superiores foram E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) e E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) e E. grandis x E. urophylla. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the adaptability multi species hybrid of Eucalyptus in four environments in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The tests were conducted in the areas of CMPC Celulose Riograndense in the municipalities of Minas do Leão (Cambará farm), Encruzilhada do Sul (C [...] apivara farm), Dom Feliciano (Fortaleza farm) and Vila Nova do Sul (São João farm). A network of clonal tests was established in 2007with 146 clones of Eucalyptus, belonging to 34 different species and, or hybrids, in a randomized block design with 30 replications in single tree plot). The diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height (Ht) of trees at three years of old were measured. The mean annual increment (MAI) was calculated according to the volume per individual clone and plant stand in hectare at the evaluation age of the clonal test. It was concluded that in a breeding program for Eucalyptus, the simultaneous analysis of productivity, stability and adaptability should be done rather than the simple ordering of genotypic values. "Three-way cross" Hybrid-type made up of three different species of Eucalyptus stood out among the best genetic materials in the simultaneous selection. The most promising hybrids for the generation of higher clones were E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) and E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) and E. grandis x E. urophylla.

Gleison Augusto, Santos; Marcos Deon Vilela, Resende; Luciana Duque, Silva; Antônio, Higa; Teotônio Francisco, Assis.

308

Caracterização da estrutura anatômica, densidade básica e morfologia de cavacos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de painéis MDF Characterization of wood anatomy, basic density, and morphology of Eucalyptus grandis chips for MDF production  

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O aumento na produção dos painéis "Medium Density Fiberboard" (MDF) confeccionados com madeira de espécies de Eucalyptus spp de rápido crescimento evidencia a necessidade da caracterização dos seus componentes celulares, da densidade básica e da morfologia de cavacos. Com esse objetivo, foram coletadas três amostras de cavacos de madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, na linha de produção de indústria de painel. Em laboratório, os cavacos foram dissociados por maceração, pa...

Ugo Leandro Belini; Mario Tomazello Filho; Matheus Perez Chagas; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias

2008-01-01

309

RAPD analysis of genetic variability in a multiprovenance base population of Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden Variabilidade genética através da técnica RAPD de uma população-base multiprocedências de Eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden  

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This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability among individuals of a base population of Eucalyptus grandis and to build a molecular marker database for the analyzed populations. The Eucalyptus grandis base population comprised 327 individuals from Coff's Harbour, Atherton and Rio Claro. A few plants came from other sites (Belthorpe MT. Pandanus, Kenilworth, Yabbra, etc.). Since this base population had a heterogeneous composition, the groups were divided according to geographic localiz...

Susi Meire Maximino Leite; Édson Seizo Mori; Celina Ferraz do Valle; César Augusto Valencise Bonine; Celso Luís Marino

2008-01-01

310

New geographical distribution and seasonality of Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Eucalyptus urograndis in Guiricema, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a voracious defoliator, responsible for big losses associated to eucalyptus plantations. The attack of this pest can be characterized by the appearance of holes in the leaves and consequent fall, which reduces the photosynthetic potential, and thus slows the development of plants attacked. The objective of this research was to report the new occurrence and characterize the period of attack of beetle C. ferruginea in plantations of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (= Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae in municipality of Guiricema,  Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The period of monitoring started in December 2006 and extended until December 2012. The first attacks of C. ferruginea in this region started in the end of September, and showed a peak of population and greater intensity of damage from mid-October until the second week of November.

E. M. Pires

2013-11-01

311

Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi / Colonização e acumulação de compostos fenólicos em raízes de Eucalyptus dunnii maiden infectadas com fungus ectomicorrízicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a compatibilidade entre Eucalyptus dunnii e os fungos ectomicorrízicos Hysterangium gardneri e Pisolithus sp. - isolados de Eucalyptus spp.-, Rhizopogon nigrescens e Suillus cothurnatus - isolados de Pinus spp.-, in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus colonizaram as raízes [...] . As micorrizas de Pisolithus sp. apresentaram manto e rede de Hartig; as de H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus apresentaram apenas manto. S. cothurnatus provocou aumento de fenóis nas raízes; Pisolithus sp. e R. nigrescens provocaram diminuição dessas substâncias. Os fungos isolados de Eucalyptus parecem mais compatíveis em relação a E. dunnii do que os de Pinus. A concentração de fenóis nas raízes parece estar envolvida nesse fenômeno, particularmente em relação a Pisolithus sp. e S. cothurnatus. Abstract in english Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolit [...] hus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R. nigrescens decreased the level of these substances. The isolates from Eucalyptus seem to be more compatible towards E. dunnii than those from Pinus. The mechanisms involved could be related, at least in the cases of Pisolithus and Suillus, to the concentration of phenolics in roots.

EDUARDO LUIZ, VOIGT; VETÚRIA LOPES DE, OLIVEIRA; ÁUREA MARIA, RANDI.

312

Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi Colonização e acumulação de compostos fenólicos em raízes de Eucalyptus dunnii maiden infectadas com fungus ectomicorrízicos  

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Full Text Available Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolithus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R. nigrescens decreased the level of these substances. The isolates from Eucalyptus seem to be more compatible towards E. dunnii than those from Pinus. The mechanisms involved could be related, at least in the cases of Pisolithus and Suillus, to the concentration of phenolics in roots.Estudou-se a compatibilidade entre Eucalyptus dunnii e os fungos ectomicorrízicos Hysterangium gardneri e Pisolithus sp. - isolados de Eucalyptus spp.-, Rhizopogon nigrescens e Suillus cothurnatus - isolados de Pinus spp.-, in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus colonizaram as raízes. As micorrizas de Pisolithus sp. apresentaram manto e rede de Hartig; as de H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus apresentaram apenas manto. S. cothurnatus provocou aumento de fenóis nas raízes; Pisolithus sp. e R. nigrescens provocaram diminuição dessas substâncias. Os fungos isolados de Eucalyptus parecem mais compatíveis em relação a E. dunnii do que os de Pinus. A concentração de fenóis nas raízes parece estar envolvida nesse fenômeno, particularmente em relação a Pisolithus sp. e S. cothurnatus.

EDUARDO LUIZ VOIGT

2000-09-01

313

Seletivicty of eucalyptus genotypes to herbicides rates /
Seletividade de genótipos de eucalipto a doses de herbicidas
 

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The aim of this work was to quantify the herbicide selectivity applied at post-emergence of eucalyptus in different rates. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions in the period from January to March 2007 at the Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel in Universidade Federal de Pelotas – Capão do Leão-RS. Experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. Treatments were in a factorial scheme: factor A - eucalyptus genotypes (E. globulus e E. saligna), factor...

Siumar Pedro Tironi; José Matheus Betemps Vaz da Silva; Ezequiel de Oliveira; Catarine Markus; Camila Peligrinotti Tarouco; Dirceu Agostinetto

2010-01-01

314

Patterns of hybridization and asymmetrical gene flow in hybrid zones of the rare Eucalyptus aggregata and common E. rubida  

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The patterns of hybridization and asymmetrical gene flow among species are important for understanding the processes that maintain distinct species. We examined the potential for asymmetrical gene flow in sympatric populations of Eucalyptus aggregata and Eucalyptus rubida, both long-lived trees of southern Australia. A total of 421 adults from three hybrid zones were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. We used genealogical assignments, admixture analysis and analyses of spatial genetic...

Ayre, D. J.; Whelan, R. J.; Young, A. G.

2011-01-01

315

Validasi Model Allometrik Biomassa di bawah Permukaan Hutan Tanaman Eucalyptus grandis Di IUPHHK PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk. Sumatera Utara  

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Forest productivity represents forest ability picture to reduce CO2 emission on atmosfer by physiology activity. The forest productifity measurement is done by biomass measurement. The purpose of research is to testing mainstay lavel of allometric of below grome biomass of plased Eucalyptus grandis forest that had been compiled at former research. Plotting method inventory in the location, the result of research on the estimation of the tree-root biomass of Eucalyptus grandis. The reaserch pr...

Sihombing, Chandra Aloysius

2011-01-01

316

Les marsupiaux arboricoles folivores et l’eucalyptus : un exemple d’adaptation aux défenses anti-herbivores des plantes  

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Seules quatre espèces de mammifères folivores, toutes marsupiales, ont des adaptations digestives et métaboliques qui leur permettent de consommer les feuilles d’eucalyptus. Il s’agit du Possum à queue en anneau (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), du Grand phalanger (Petauroides volans), du Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) et du Phalanger renard (Trichosurus vulpecula). Après avoir exposé quels sont les éléments anti-nutritionnels et toxiques présents dans les feuilles d’eucalyptus, l...

Lemarchand, Marie-laure

2008-01-01

317

SILVICULTURAL BEHAVIOR OF CLONES AND SPECIES/PROVENANCES OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus sp. IN NORTHWEST OF MINAS GERAIS STATE  

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Full Text Available This research evaluated the behavior of clone seedlings of natural hybrid of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh-Eucalyptusurophila S. T. Blake, identified as clones 8, 9, 11, and 12. Eucalyptus species/provenance were: APS-V (Eucalyptus camaldulensis,Zimbabue Africa provenance, USA (Eucalyptus urophylla, Avaré, Brazil provenance, EpK (Eucalyptus pellita Kuranda, Australiaprovenance and EcP (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Petford, Autrália provenance. The Experiment was established in four plantingspacing (3x2m; 6x2m; 6x3m and 6x4m. The experimental design was the entirely casualized block in a factorial outline (8x4x3, witheight genetic materials (four clones and four species/provenances, four spacing and three repetitions totaling 96 parcels. Thecollection of data was accomplished at 9.4 years of age. The survival, DAP, was evaluated the total height, the individual volume andfor hectare. The obtained data were submitted to the of Scott-Knott average test at 5% of probability. The results showed that, for DBHand volume per plant the interaction clones/provenance x spacing was significant; the volume per hectare decreased as the spacingincreased; the height was not affected by spacing, but was affected by the genetic material; for survival, the interaction clones/provenances x spacing was significant.

Wagner Massote Magalhães

2007-12-01

318

BENDING STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF POLES OF ARGENTINEAN Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación orientada a determinar la resistencia y la rigidez de postes de Eucalyptus grandis de Argentina. La importancia de conocer con precisión las propiedades mecánicas de este material cobró mayor relevancia con la creciente demanda [...] de postes de esta especie y con la adopción de modernos procedimientos de cálculo orientados a lograr un diseño estructural confiable y económico. Con este fin se llevó a cabo un proyecto empírico que abarcó dos muestras de postes en tamaño estructural, nuevos y sin tratamientos, los cuales se ensayaron en estado verde conforme a los procedimientos establecidos en la norma estadounidense ASTM D 1036 (2005) y en la argentina IRAM 9529 (2004) para pruebas en voladizo. La muestra 1 incluyó postes con 12 m de longitud nominal y una edad de 14 años, y la muestra 2 estuvo compuesta por postes con 8 m de longitud nominal y una edad de 11 años. Los valores promedio encontrados para la conicidad fueron similares a los adoptados por la norma ANSI 05.1 (2002) y tanto el tamaño de los nudos como la nudosidad compararon bien con los valores permitidos por esta norma. El valor medio de la tensión de rotura en la línea de empotramiento fue de 62,9 N/mm² para la Muestra 1 y de 56,3 N/mm² para la Muestra 2. Estos resultados son relativamente altos en comparación con los publicados para madera aserrada de la misma especie ensayada en estado seco y son comparables a los adoptados por la norma ANSI 05.1c (2004) para postes de diferentes especies. Ambas muestras exhibieron un coeficiente de variación de 13 % para la resistencia en la línea de empotramiento, valor que es relativamente bajo en comparación con los adoptados por la norma estadounidense y puede ser considerado una ventaja del material para uso estructural. El valor medio del módulo de elasticidad alcanzó 10935 N/mm² para la muestra 1 y 9546 N/mm² para la muestra 2, con un coeficiente de variación de 14 % en ambos casos. Los resultados también pusieron de manifiesto diferencias significativas entre los valores de las propiedades mecánicas de ambas muestras, integradas por postes de diferentes edades y dimensiones. El coeficiente de correlación entre la nudosidad y la resistencia alcanzó los insignificantes valores de 0,09 para la muestra 1 y de 0,02 para la muestra 2, mientras que los valores correspondientes entre el módulo de elasticidad y la resistencia fueron 0,52 y 0,37. Abstract in english The present paper reports the results of an investigation regarding the determination of bending strength and stiffness in full-size poles of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis. The importance of accurately knowing the mechanical properties of this material has increased with the increasing demand of ut [...] ility poles of this species and with the use of modern procedures aimed at achieving a reliable and economical structural design. For this purpose an empirical research project with two samples containing new, green, untreated poles was carried out according to the procedures adopted by both the American standard ASTM D 1036 (2005) and the Argentinean standard IRAM 9529 (2004) for cantilever bending tests. Sample 1 enclosed 14 year-old poles with nominal length of 12 m and Sample 2 enclosed 11 year-old poles with nominal length of 8 m. The results found for the average circumference taper were similar to the values adopted by the American standard ANSI 05.1 (2002) and knot dimensions as well as knot ratio compared well with those permitted by this standard. The mean value found for maximum fibre stress at ground line reached 62.9 N/mm² for Sample 1 and 56.3 N/mm² for Sample 2. These strength results are relatively high in comparison with values reported for seasoned sawn timber of the same species and they compare well with those published by the American standard ANSI 05.1c (2004) for poles of different species. Both samples showed a coefficient of variation of 13 % for strength a

E.A, Torrán; M.A, Sosa Zitto; A.D, Cotrina; J.C, Piter.

319

Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira / Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de [...] plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a conso [...] rtium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during parallel-to-the-grain and mortising sawing. Woods from the clones tested seem very appropriate for furniture production. In fact, the samples did not show any difficulties during machining.

Maria Odete Alves de, Souza; José de Castro, Silva; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Wescley Viana, Evangelista.

2009-08-01

320

Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira / Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de [...] plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a conso [...] rtium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during parallel-to-the-grain and mortising sawing. Woods from the clones tested seem very appropriate for furniture production. In fact, the samples did not show any difficulties during machining.

Maria Odete Alves de, Souza; José de Castro, Silva; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Wescley Viana, Evangelista.

 
 
 
 
321

In vitro establishment and multiplication of genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii no estabelecimento in vitro e a influência de genótipos cultivados em diferentes concentrações de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP) na multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram oriundos de 10 matrizes, seleciona [...] das a campo em função de características fenotípicas superiores. Para o estabelecimento in vitro foram avaliados 10 genótipos, e, para a multiplicação in vitro, 30 tratamentos, que corresponderam às combinações de seis genótipos que obtiveram sucesso no estabelecimento in vitro com cinco concentrações de BAP (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1). Constatou-se comportamento diferenciado dos genótipos em relação ao estabelecimento in vitro, sendo que os genótipos 3, 6 e 7 apresentaram estabelecimento superior a 70%, enquanto para os demais as médias variaram entre 40 e 6,6%. Os genótipos 1, 5, 8 e 9 foram, posteriormente, descartados em virtude do número reduzido de explantes estabelecidos. A contaminação microbiana e a oxidação fenólica constituíram fatores que comprometem o estabelecimento in vitro. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii interagem de maneira diferenciada com BAP na multiplicação in vitro, porém a concentração 0,50 mg L-1 influencia positivamente a formação de gemas por explante na maior parte dos genótipos estudados. A hiperhidricidade é relativamente baixa na presença de 0,50 mg L-1 de BAP, não comprometendo a multiplicação in vitro de segmentos nodais de Eucalyptus dunnii. Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the effect of genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii on in vitro establishment and also the influence of genotypes grown in different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on in vitro multiplication. Explants were obtained from 10 parent plants selected in the field as a [...] function of their superior phenotype characteristics. For in vitro establishment, 10 genotypes were evaluated, while in vitro multiplication consisted of 30 treatments which corresponded to combinations of six genotypes found to succeed in the in vitro establishment and five BAP concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 mg L-1). Different behaviors were observed regarding the genotypes as to in vitro establishment rates, in which genotypes 3, 6 and 7 had establishment rates of over 70%, against 40% to 6.6% for the other genotypes. Genotypes 1, 5, 8 and 9 were later discarded due to the reduced number of explants successfully established. Factors such as microbial contamination and phenol oxidation posed a threat to in vitro establishment. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii interacted differently with BAP in in vitro multiplication, noting that the concentration 0.50 mg L-1 positively influenced bud formation on the explants in most genotypes. Hyperhydricity was relatively low when 0.50 mg L-1 BAP was used and thus does not pose a threat to in vitro multiplication of nodal segments of Eucalyptus dunnii.

Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Maristela Machado, Araújo; Aline Ritter, Curti; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira.

2014-03-01

322

Crescimento de raizes e da parte aérea de clones de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e de Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp submetidos a dois regimes de irrigação no campo Performance of Eucalyptus spp clones under different levels of soil water availability in the field - root and aboveground growth  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou subsidiar a seleção de genótipos de eucalipto para plantio em ambientes com disponibilidade variável de água no solo, através da análise do crescimento de raízes na fase inicial de estabelecimento da planta no campo e de sua associação com o crescimento das plantas adultas. Foram utilizados os clones 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 e 1277 de eucalipto, sob dois regimes de irrigação, a partir de seis meses de idade, em condições de campo, no norte do Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi estabelecido em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. O crescimento em altura aos 38 meses de idade não variou significativamente entre os tratamentos de irrigação, enquanto em diâmetro e volume nessa mesma idade foi significativamente superior nas plantas do tratamento irrigado em relação ao não-irrigado, sendo os clones 1260 e 0321 os mais produtivos. O clone 1277 apresentou menor sensibilidade à deficiência hídrica, o que pode ser atribuído ao intenso crescimento do sistema radicular. O clone 1250 apresentou menor crescimento em altura e diâmetro, possivelmente em razão de apresentar menor crescimento do sistema radicular, o que torna esse clone mais suscetível à deficiência hídrica. Com base nas avaliações realizadas, o clone 1250 não deve ser recomendado para regiões com déficit hídrico acentuado, e os demais clones estudados podem ser estabelecidos em regiões com regime hídrico semelhante ao da região objeto deste estudo, destacando-se os clones 1260 e 0321, por apresentarem maior produção volumétrica. Em condições de déficit hídrico mais acentuado, o clone 1277 é o mais promissor, em razão de não ter apresentado redução no crescimento, quando sob deficiência hídrica acentuada no solo.Below and aboveground growth of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and one Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp clones identified as 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 and 1277, were studied in the field under varying water availability. The objective of the study was to select eucalypt genotypes to be planted in sites with varying soil water availability. The experiment was set in Northeastern Brazil, Inhambupe, Bahia (Latitude - 11º47'00''S; Longitude - 38º21'00''W and Altitude - 154 m, with mean annual rainfall of 950 mm. Two levels of irrigation were applied six months after the seedlings have being planted in the field: (a irrigated when weekly rainfall was lower than 10 mm and, (b non-irrigated - plants received water only from rainfall. Root distribution and biomass were determined six months after planting, just before the irrigation treatment started, in order to characterize root growth of each clone. Height and diameter at breast height (DBH were measured at the age of 38 months. There was no significant difference (P=0.05 in height growth at this age between irrigation treatments, but there were differences in growth among clones: clone 1260 was significantly taller than the others. DBH and volume were significantly larger for irrigated plants; however, there was a tendency of clone 1277 to maintain growth even under drought. Clone 1260 followed by the 0321 presented the highest volume by the age of 38 months in both dry and wet soil conditions. The growth rate of clone 1277 is lower than for clones 1260 and 0321, but, due to its root production and distribution deep in the soil profile, it survives and grows in sites with low soil water availability. Clone 1250 showed great reduction in volume when under water stress, probably due to its poor root growth, i.e., this clone is not recommended for dry sites.

Geraldo Gonçalves dos Reis

2006-12-01

323

Crescimento de raizes e da parte aérea de clones de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e de Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp submetidos a dois regimes de irrigação no campo / Performance of Eucalyptus spp clones under different levels of soil water availability in the field - root and aboveground growth  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou subsidiar a seleção de genótipos de eucalipto para plantio em ambientes com disponibilidade variável de água no solo, através da análise do crescimento de raízes na fase inicial de estabelecimento da planta no campo e de sua associação com o crescimento das plantas adulta [...] s. Foram utilizados os clones 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 e 1277 de eucalipto, sob dois regimes de irrigação, a partir de seis meses de idade, em condições de campo, no norte do Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi estabelecido em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. O crescimento em altura aos 38 meses de idade não variou significativamente entre os tratamentos de irrigação, enquanto em diâmetro e volume nessa mesma idade foi significativamente superior nas plantas do tratamento irrigado em relação ao não-irrigado, sendo os clones 1260 e 0321 os mais produtivos. O clone 1277 apresentou menor sensibilidade à deficiência hídrica, o que pode ser atribuído ao intenso crescimento do sistema radicular. O clone 1250 apresentou menor crescimento em altura e diâmetro, possivelmente em razão de apresentar menor crescimento do sistema radicular, o que torna esse clone mais suscetível à deficiência hídrica. Com base nas avaliações realizadas, o clone 1250 não deve ser recomendado para regiões com déficit hídrico acentuado, e os demais clones estudados podem ser estabelecidos em regiões com regime hídrico semelhante ao da região objeto deste estudo, destacando-se os clones 1260 e 0321, por apresentarem maior produção volumétrica. Em condições de déficit hídrico mais acentuado, o clone 1277 é o mais promissor, em razão de não ter apresentado redução no crescimento, quando sob deficiência hídrica acentuada no solo. Abstract in english Below and aboveground growth of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and one Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp clones identified as 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 and 1277, were studied in the field under varying water availability. The objective of the study was to select eucalypt genotyp [...] es to be planted in sites with varying soil water availability. The experiment was set in Northeastern Brazil, Inhambupe, Bahia (Latitude - 11º47'00''S; Longitude - 38º21'00''W and Altitude - 154 m), with mean annual rainfall of 950 mm. Two levels of irrigation were applied six months after the seedlings have being planted in the field: (a) irrigated when weekly rainfall was lower than 10 mm and, (b) non-irrigated - plants received water only from rainfall. Root distribution and biomass were determined six months after planting, just before the irrigation treatment started, in order to characterize root growth of each clone. Height and diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured at the age of 38 months. There was no significant difference (P=0.05) in height growth at this age between irrigation treatments, but there were differences in growth among clones: clone 1260 was significantly taller than the others. DBH and volume were significantly larger for irrigated plants; however, there was a tendency of clone 1277 to maintain growth even under drought. Clone 1260 followed by the 0321 presented the highest volume by the age of 38 months in both dry and wet soil conditions. The growth rate of clone 1277 is lower than for clones 1260 and 0321, but, due to its root production and distribution deep in the soil profile, it survives and grows in sites with low soil water availability. Clone 1250 showed great reduction in volume when under water stress, probably due to its poor root growth, i.e., this clone is not recommended for dry sites.

Geraldo Gonçalves dos, Reis; Maria das Graças Ferreira, Reis; Ivan da Costa Ilhéu, Fontan; Marco Antonio, Monte; Antônio Nascimento, Gomes; Carlos Henrique Rodrigues de, Oliveira.

2006-12-01

324

Prediction of the modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus grandis through two nondestructive techniques / Predição do módulo de elasticidade de Eucalyptus grandis por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou estimar o módulo de elasticidade à flexão estática da madeira de cerne e alburno de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas: ultrassom e ondas de tensão. Para tal, 60 amostras de cerne e alburno foram preparadas. Os testes não destrutivos foram reali [...] zados por meio de um equipamento de ultrassom e um de ondas de tensão, enquanto que os testes destrutivos de flexão estática foram realizados em uma máquina universal de ensaios. Os principais resultados mostraram que a madeira de cerne apresentou melhor comportamento nos ensaios não destrutivos, quando comparada à madeira de alburno. No entanto, o melhor modelo matemático foi obtido considerando-se cerne e alburno, quando estes foram analisados por meio da técnica ultrassônica. Dessa maneira, concluiu-se, no presente estudo, que as técnicas de ondas de tensão e ultrassom podem ser empregadas com o intuito de estimar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to estimate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) at static bending of Rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) heartwood and sapwood through two nondestructive techniques: ultrasound and stress wave. Sixty samples of heartwood and sapwood were prepared. Nondestructive tests were performed us [...] ing ultrasound and stress wave timer equipment, while destructive tests were carried out in a universal machine through static bending tests. The main results showed that the heartwood presented better behavior than the sapwood in the non-destructive tests. However, the best model was obtained considering both wood types through the ultrasonic technique. Therefore, stress wave and ultrasonic techniques could be employed to estimate the modulus of elasticity of Rose gum wood.

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de, Cademartori; André Luiz, Missio; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

325

Flutuação populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. em jardim clonal de Eucalyptus spp Population fluctuation of Rhizoctonia spp. in clonal nurseries of Eucalyptus spp  

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Full Text Available A queima de folhas em brotações em jardim clonal e a mela de estacas na fase de enraizamento, causadas por espécies de Rhizoctonia, podem limitar a produção de mudas de eucalipto por estaquia. Apesar de sua importância, pouco se conhece sobre essas doenças. Assim, visando otimizar as estratégias de controle dessas doenças, nesse trabalho objetivou-se elucidar aspectos da dinâmica populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. no solo e em brotações, a fim de estabelecer, correlações com a incidência da doença, bem como determinar a distribuição do patógeno em jardim clonal de eucalipto. Conclui-se que há flutuação populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. em jardim clonal de eucalipto, sendo observado um padrão de distribuição espacial agregado do inóculo no solo. A dinâmica populacional de Rhizoctonia spp. foi correlacionada à temperatura, mas não à precipitação pluviométrica.Leaf blight in shoots of clonal hedges and web blight of cuttings for rooting, caused by Rhizoctonia species, may be limiting to the production of eucalyptus seedlings by cuttings. Despite their importance, there have been few etiological and epidemiological studies of these diseases. To optimize disease management strategies, this research aimed to evaluate population dynamics of Rhizoctonia spp. in soil and eucalyptus cuttings to correlate with disease incidence, and to determine spatial distribution of Rhizoctonia spp. inoculum in a clonal nursery of eucalyptus cuttings. Population fluctuation of Rhizoctonia spp. was detected throughout the year. Pathogen distribution in soil was found to have an aggregated pattern. Temperature, but not rainfall, was correlated to population levels of Rhizoctonia spp in soil samples.

Eugenio Sanfuentes

2007-04-01

326

Parâmetros morfológicos na avaliação de qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis Morphological parameters quality for the evalution of Eucalyptus grandis seedling  

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Full Text Available Este experimento foi instalado com o objetivo de estudar os parâmetros morfológicos nas avaliações da qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis produzidas em diferentes tamanhos de tubetes. O substrato utilizado foi uma mistura de 80% de composto orgânico (CO e de 20% de moinha de carvão (MC, adubados com a presença e ausência dos elementos N, P e K. Como embalagens foram utilizados quatro tamanhos de tubetes de plástico rígido, com volumes de 50, 110, 200 e 280 cm³. A adoção da altura e da relação altura/peso de matéria seca da parte aérea deve ser considerada, por terem sido estes os parâmetros que apresentaram boa contribuição relativa à qualidade das mudas, sem contudo ser um processo destrutivo. A adoção somente da altura para estimar a qualidade de mudas, aos 90 dias de idade no tubete de 110 cm³ de volume, poderá ser utilizada por apresentar boa contribuição relativa e por ser um parâmetro de fácil determinação e não ser um método destrutivo, além de sua medição ser muito fácil.An experiment was carried out to study the morphological parameters used to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings producedin different tube sizes. A mixture of 80% organic compound (CO and 20% charcoal powder fertilized with and without N, P and K was used as substrate. Four sizes of hard plastic tubes at the volumes of 50, 110, 200 and 280 cm³ were used as packaging. Height and height/weight relationship of the aerial part dry matter should be considered, since although providing a satisfactory contribution to seedling quality pattern, the parameters did not present a destructive process. The use of height only to estimate the quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in the 110 cm³ volume tube when they were 90-day old should be used, since it presents a satisfactory relative contribution, besides being a nondestructive, easily determined and measured parameter.

José Mauro Gomes

2002-11-01

327

Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada / Chemical and color changes in heat treated Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden wood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lig [...] nina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a*) e matriz amarelo (b*) da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos. Abstract in english The heat treatment aims to improve the features to add value to the wood through the application of heat. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and colorimetric changes in Eucalyptus grandis wood heat treated at 170, 200 and 230 °C for three, five and seven hours. The content of ex [...] tractives, lignin, holocellulose, elemental composition and colorimetric parameters were determined. The extractives content increased in treatments at 170 °C and decreased from 200 °C, while total lignin increased and holocellulose decreased from 200 °C. The carbon content increased and oxygen content decreased at 230 °C for five and seven hours. The heat treatment reduced lightness, a* coordinate (red coordinate) and b* coordinate (yellow coordinate) of eucalyptus wood in all treatments.

Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; João Rodrigo Coimbra, Nobre; Javan Pereira, Motta; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho.

328

Determinação da densidade básica da madeiras de Eucalyptus por diferentes métodos não destrutivos Determination of Eucalyptus basic density by different non-destructive methods  

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Full Text Available Os métodos não destrutivos vêm se tornando importante alternativa para predições das características da madeira. A facilidade e precisão das predições têm feito com que muitas empresas adotem estes novos métodos. A avaliação da qualidade da madeira por técnicas mais simples e rápidas é uma necessidade fundamental na qualificação de florestas de Eucalyptus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar diferentes métodos de avaliação não destrutiva da madeira, a saber: (1 Resistógrafo, (2 Pilodyn e (3 Espectroscopia de Infravermelho Próximo-NIRS para predição da densidade básica da madeira. Neste estudo foram utilizados seis clones de eucalipto, com 3 anos de idade, plantados comercialmente com espaçamentos de 3,0 x 3,3m. As amostras foram coletadas no Estado de Minas Gerais, em diferentes regiões (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce e Santa Bárbara. Foram utilizadas cinco árvores por clone. A técnica para estimativa da densidade básica que apresentou maior precisão foi a resistografia, seguida do NIR e, finalmente, do Pilodyn.Non-destructive methods are becoming an important alternative for predicting the wood characteristics. The predictions ease and accuracy have led many companies to adopt these new methods. Assessing the wood quality by simpler and faster techniques is a fundamental need in the Eucalyptus forests qualification. This study aimed to investigate some different methods of wood nondestructive evaluation, namely: "(1 Resistograph, (2 Pilodyn, and (3, and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS" to predict the wood basic density. Six different three-year-old eucalyptus clones, planted commercially in the spacing of 3.0 x 3.3, were used for this study. The samples were collected in Minas Gerais, from different regions (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce, and Santa Bárbara. We used five trees per clone. The technique to estimate the basic density with the highest accuracy was resistograph followed by the NIR and finally Pilodyn..

Adriana de Fátima Gomes Gouvêa

2011-04-01

329

Determinação da densidade básica da madeiras de Eucalyptus por diferentes métodos não destrutivos / Determination of Eucalyptus basic density by different non-destructive methods  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os métodos não destrutivos vêm se tornando importante alternativa para predições das características da madeira. A facilidade e precisão das predições têm feito com que muitas empresas adotem estes novos métodos. A avaliação da qualidade da madeira por técnicas mais simples e rápidas é uma necessida [...] de fundamental na qualificação de florestas de Eucalyptus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar diferentes métodos de avaliação não destrutiva da madeira, a saber: (1) Resistógrafo, (2) Pilodyn e (3) Espectroscopia de Infravermelho Próximo-NIRS para predição da densidade básica da madeira. Neste estudo foram utilizados seis clones de eucalipto, com 3 anos de idade, plantados comercialmente com espaçamentos de 3,0 x 3,3m. As amostras foram coletadas no Estado de Minas Gerais, em diferentes regiões (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce e Santa Bárbara). Foram utilizadas cinco árvores por clone. A técnica para estimativa da densidade básica que apresentou maior precisão foi a resistografia, seguida do NIR e, finalmente, do Pilodyn. Abstract in english Non-destructive methods are becoming an important alternative for predicting the wood characteristics. The predictions ease and accuracy have led many companies to adopt these new methods. Assessing the wood quality by simpler and faster techniques is a fundamental need in the Eucalyptus forests qua [...] lification. This study aimed to investigate some different methods of wood nondestructive evaluation, namely: "(1) Resistograph, (2) Pilodyn, and (3), and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)" to predict the wood basic density. Six different three-year-old eucalyptus clones, planted commercially in the spacing of 3.0 x 3.3, were used for this study. The samples were collected in Minas Gerais, from different regions (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce, and Santa Bárbara). We used five trees per clone. The technique to estimate the basic density with the highest accuracy was resistograph followed by the NIR and finally Pilodyn..

Adriana de Fátima Gomes, Gouvêa; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Lívio, Gomide; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade; Isabel Cristina Nogueira, Alves.

330

Prediction of the modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus grandis through two nondestructive techniques / Predição do módulo de elasticidade de Eucalyptus grandis por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo objetivou estimar o módulo de elasticidade à flexão estática da madeira de cerne e alburno de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas: ultrassom e ondas de tensão. Para tal, 60 amostras de cerne e alburno foram preparadas. Os testes não destrutivos foram reali [...] zados por meio de um equipamento de ultrassom e um de ondas de tensão, enquanto que os testes destrutivos de flexão estática foram realizados em uma máquina universal de ensaios. Os principais resultados mostraram que a madeira de cerne apresentou melhor comportamento nos ensaios não destrutivos, quando comparada à madeira de alburno. No entanto, o melhor modelo matemático foi obtido considerando-se cerne e alburno, quando estes foram analisados por meio da técnica ultrassônica. Dessa maneira, concluiu-se, no presente estudo, que as técnicas de ondas de tensão e ultrassom podem ser empregadas com o intuito de estimar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to estimate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) at static bending of Rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) heartwood and sapwood through two nondestructive techniques: ultrasound and stress wave. Sixty samples of heartwood and sapwood were prepared. Nondestructive tests were performed us [...] ing ultrasound and stress wave timer equipment, while destructive tests were carried out in a universal machine through static bending tests. The main results showed that the heartwood presented better behavior than the sapwood in the non-destructive tests. However, the best model was obtained considering both wood types through the ultrasonic technique. Therefore, stress wave and ultrasonic techniques could be employed to estimate the modulus of elasticity of Rose gum wood.

Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de, Cademartori; André Luiz, Missio; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

2014-09-01

331

Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada / Chemical and color changes in heat treated Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden wood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lig [...] nina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a*) e matriz amarelo (b*) da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos. Abstract in english The heat treatment aims to improve the features to add value to the wood through the application of heat. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and colorimetric changes in Eucalyptus grandis wood heat treated at 170, 200 and 230 °C for three, five and seven hours. The content of ex [...] tractives, lignin, holocellulose, elemental composition and colorimetric parameters were determined. The extractives content increased in treatments at 170 °C and decreased from 200 °C, while total lignin increased and holocellulose decreased from 200 °C. The carbon content increased and oxygen content decreased at 230 °C for five and seven hours. The heat treatment reduced lightness, a* coordinate (red coordinate) and b* coordinate (yellow coordinate) of eucalyptus wood in all treatme