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Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Globulus): Malaria Tree  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus belongs to the Myrtles family and its homeland is Australia and Tazmania. It is very easy to grow this tree, and some species can reach heights over 60-70 meters. As its roots widely spread, large quantities of water can be absorbed, which is of great help in drying swaps, particularly in malaria-struck countries; hence the name, malaria tree. In addition, eucalyptus oil together with menthol is used as an ingredient of pastilles to relieve cold-related complaints. Eucalyptus was first imported from Europe to Turkey during the Ottoman empire. Attempts were made to grow this tree for the drying of swaps and prevention of malaria in Edirne, where malaria had been a serious problem. People were enlightened about the benefits of Eucalyptus via articles published in an official newspaper of the city.

Nilufer GOKCE; Esin KARLIKAYA

2002-01-01

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Eucalyptus energy plantations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India has extensive plantations of eucalyptus, a fast-growing, native plant that can be used as wood, fuel, pulp, oil and honey, and erosion control. India raises eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, and E. Citriodara. The applications, environmental requirements, yields, and related species are summarized for each. 2 references. (DCK)

1982-05-01

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Polyphenols from Eucalyptus consideniana and Eucalyptus viminalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From the leaves of Eucalyptus consideniana and E. viminalis, known hydrolysable tannins, galloyl esters and ellagitannins, were isolated. Flavonol glycosides were also isolated from the leaves of E. consideniana. The spectral data of the dimeric ellagitannin, oenothein B (1), are reported.

Santos SC; Waterman PG

2001-01-01

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Eucalyptus in Kerala State  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 25% of the man-made forest in Kerala State accounts for Eucalyptus. Planting of Eucalyptus grandis in Kerala commenced in the year 1958 in the grasslands of High Ranges with an altitude of 1000 metres or so. A special division was formed to implement this programme of afforestation of grasslands under the Five Year Plan Scheme. Almost all the suitable grasslands in the state ground about this elevation have been brought under Eucalyptus grandis and comprises an extent of about 14,000 hectares. Later on in the year 1976, the Kerala Forest Development Corporation was formed with a target of about 40,000 ha to be converted into Eucalyptus at the rate of 5000 ha annually. The Corporation could so far plant only 7000 ha. Recently, a perspective plan was prepared which took stock of the raw material position in the state vis-a-vis the commitment to the industries and the trend is not in favour of carrying Eucalyptus to the natural forest belt any further.

Karunakaran, C.K.

1984-01-01

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Enhancing Eucalyptus Community Cloud  

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Full Text Available In the last few years, the cloud computing model has moved from hype to reality, as witnessed by the increasing number of commercial providers offering their cloud computing solutions. At the same time, various open-source projects are developing cloud computing frameworks open to experimental instrumentation and study. In this work we analyze Eucalyptus Community Cloud, an open-source cloud-computing framework delivering the IaaS model and running under the Linux operating system. Our aim is to present some of the results of our analysis and to propose some enhancements that can make Eucalyptus Community Cloud even more attractive for building both private and community cloud infrastructures, but also with an eye toward public clouds. In addition, we present a to-do list that may hopefully help users in the task of configuring and running their own Linux (and Windows) guests with Eucalyptus.

Andrea Bosin; Matteo Dessalvi; Gian Mario Mereu; Giovanni Serra

2012-01-01

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Cold Soda Pulping of Eucalyptus Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out in the laboratores to determine the suitability of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus globulus for production of cold soda pulps. Based on yield, strength of handsheets and brightness of pulps it was...

T. C. Mantri V. Raghunath Y. K. Sharma Y. V. Sood K. S. Moorthy

1981-01-01

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Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be abou (more) t twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

Silva, Marcio Rogério da; Machado, Gilmara de Oliveira; Deiner, Jay; Calil Junior, Carlito

2010-09-01

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Leaf blight of eucalyptus in nurseries. [Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large number of seedlings of Eucalyptus are raised in forest nurseries for afforestation, road side and avenue plantations. Usually the sowing is done during February and the seedlings are maintained in polythene bags for the plantation during July. During the course of study of nursery diseases a severe leaf blight of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis E. tereticornis and E. hybrid) caused by Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded. Even the big trees of 10 to 15 years were found to be infected by this fungus. Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded on E. globulus from Mysore. Researchers also noticed this disease in Eucalyptus from Kerala. The present report indicated that the disease is being reported for the first time from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Rajastan. 2 references, 1 table.

Jamaluddin; Soni, K.K.; Dadwal, V.S.

1985-12-01

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Eucalyptus boron natural antiseptic agent  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An eucalyptus boron natural antiseptic agent which is a natural plant mineral antiseptic agent comprises the materials of 15% of eucalyptus leave, 10% of camphorwood, 13% of Chinese honeylocust fruit, 12% of pepper, 14% of borax, 14% of copperas, 10% of lime and 10% of fine salt. The natural antiseptic agent is processed into an emulsion, an ointment, a smoking agent and has good antiseptic property and no toxic and deleterious effect.

FUWEN SUN; YANXING XIE; ZHIYONG SUN; ZHIXIONG SUN; CAIJIAO LIU; YANMING LIU

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Phytochemical Evaluation of Eucalyptus citriodora  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus citriodora of Myrtaceae family was collected from Manzary Baba, Malakand Agency, NWFP Pakistan . After identification and post harvest treatment, a preliminary separation of constituents by TLC and best solvent for extraction was attempted. Further resolutions of the component of the crude extracts by TLC and Rf values suggested that two major compounds were present in the sample. Also an economically feasible procedure for the isolation of rutin, a glycoside, from Eucalyptus Citriodora has been developed.

Bashir Ahmad; Shahida Zakir; Shumaila Bashir; Shehnaz Begum; Muhammad Ismail; A. Badshah

2002-01-01

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Eucalyptus in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An account based on a visit by the author which reviews the history of eucalypt introduction, outlines current silvicultural practices with special reference to Guangdong province and Guangxi autonomous region and discusses prospects for the future use of eucalypts in China. There are over 300,000 hectare of plantations in southern China, the main species planted since 1950 being Eucalyptus citriodora, E. exserta, and E. globulus. They provide a wide range of products including sawn timber, posts, poles, fuelwood and essential oils, and are a potential source of pulp and fibreboard. A recent policy decision to increase forest cover from 12.7 to 20% of the land area by 2000 will require an increase in afforestation rate to 2 million hectares/year: it is anticipated that eucalypts will play a significant role.

Turnbull, J.W.

1981-01-01

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Micropropagation of Eucalyptus nitens maiden (Shining gum)  

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Summary Eucalyptus nitens Maiden (shining gum) is a frost-tolerant species of Eucalyptus that can be used as an alternative species to Eucalyptus globulus in some regions of Portugal where winter temperatures are too low. Seedlings and 1-yr-old shoot tips and nodes were used for micropropagation o...

Gomes, Filomena; Canhoto, Jorge

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae) Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)  

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Full Text Available Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m) y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m) (P Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, with 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m) and E. globulus (1.02 m m) (P < 0.01). The greater chromosomal size of E. globulus suggests a greater amount of DNA, probably originated by structural alterations. This evolutionary pattern of karyotype morphology might be associated, as well, with a high level of conservation in chromosome morphology.

Freddy Mora; Claudio Palma-Rojas; Pedro Jara-Seguel

2005-01-01

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Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)/ Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al (more) comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m) y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m) (P Abstract in english Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, with 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m) and E. globulus (1.0 (more) 2 m m) (P

Mora, Freddy; Palma-Rojas, Claudio; Jara-Seguel, Pedro

2005-03-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with t (more) en E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH) and the wood density (WD) were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956), adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Bison, Odair; Ramalho, Magno Antonio Patto; Rezende, Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha; Aguiar, Aurélio Mendes; Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela de

2007-03-01

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Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH) and the wood density (WD) were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956), adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988). Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

Odair Bison; Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha Rezende; Aurélio Mendes Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende

2007-01-01

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The fossil record of Eucalyptus in Patagonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Herein, we name, describe, and illustrate new macrofossil material representing Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae: Myrtoideae, Eucalypteae) from the diverse early Eocene Laguna del Hunco (LH) flora of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. We explore the significance of these fossils in light of understanding the fossil record of eucalypts and the biogeography of the Eucalypteae. METHODS: Fossils representing vegetative and reproductive organs were collected from multiple LH localities over several field seasons. These specimens were prepared, photographed, and compared to extant Eucalyptus. Additional historical collections of Patagonian fossil Eucalyptus were also examined. KEY RESULTS: Vegetative and reproductive organs representing five different Eucalyptus taxa were identified in the LH paleoflora. One new taxon each representing leaves, flower buds, and infructescences with co-occurring, isolated capsules are described and named as new Eucalyptus species. Additionally, two flower types cf. Eucalyptus, represented by one specimen each, are illustrated and briefly described. The fossil species have unique characteristics that independently suggest each belongs within the Eucalypteae. The reproductive material is most similar morphologically to extant Eucalyptus, although it also shares many similarities to the closely related genus Corymbia. CONCLUSIONS: The LH fossil Eucalyptus material is among the few eucalypt macrofossils that have recently been named and described and are the oldest macrofossils that can presently be definitively ascribed to the Eucalypteae. They also represent the only credible description of Eucalyptus fossils occurring outside of Australasia and suggest a once broader geographic distribution for this group.

Hermsen EJ; Gandolfo MA; Zamaloa Mdel C

2012-08-01

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Effects of flooding on Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus globulus seedlings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flooding for up to 40 days induced morphological changes and reduced growth of 6 week old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus globulus seedlings. However, the specific responses to flooding varied markedly between these species and with duration of flooding. Both species produced abundant adventitious roots that originated near the tap root and original lateral roots, but only E. camaldulensis produced adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem. Flooding induced leaf epinasty and reduced total dry weight increment of seedlings of both species but growth of E. globulus was reduced more. In both species dry weight increment of shoots was reduced more than dry weight increment of roots, reflecting compensatory growth of adventitious roots. Adaptation to flooding appeared to be greater in E. camaldulensis than in E. globulus. The importance of formation of adventitious roots in flooding tolerance is emphasized. 1 figure, 1 table.

Gomes, A.R.S.; Kozlowski, T.T.

1980-01-01

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Social implications of Eucalyptus propagation  

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The role of eucalypts for planting in social forestry programs in discussed from the point of view of a non-governmental organization concerned with the welfare of rural people who depend on common and wastelands of their livelihood. Plantations carried out under Social Forestry programs have provided industrial wood rather than satisfying the needs of local people for fuel and other forest products. It would be unrealistic and futile to discuss the Eucalyptus issue in isolation. In order to appreciate the various repercussions of problems arising from plantation forestry, it is necessary to view it in a socio-economic context. The Eucalyptus hybrid has been aggressively promoted by the Karnataka Forest Department under the Social Forestry Project.

Prasad, G.N.N. [Prarambha, Bangalore (India); Ramaswamy, S.R. [Utthana Monthly, Bangalore (India)

1992-12-31

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Puccinia psidii infecting cultivated Eucalyptus and native myrtaceae in Uruguay  

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Eucalyptus or guava rust caused by Puccinia psidii is a serious disease of Eucalyptus and other Myrtaceae. In Uruguay, it has been previously found on Eucalyptus globulus and Psidium brasiliensis. Almost nothing is known regarding the occurrence of this pathogen on other Eucalyptus species or native...

Perez, Carlos A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Altier, Nora A.; Simeto, Sofia; Blanchette, Robert A.

 
 
 
 
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CARACTERIZAÇÃO MICROCLIMÁTICA NO INTERIOR DOS TALHÕES DE Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, localizado em Anhambi, SP  

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Full Text Available Neste estudo avaliou-se algumas características microclimáticas em talhões de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus torelliana, resultantes dos diferentes tipos de cobertura florestal que estas espécies propiciam. Das três espécies estudadas, Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi a que deixou passar as maiores quantidades de radiação solar global e intensidade luminosa. Já Eucalyptus torelliana foi a espécie que mais interceptou a radiação solar e deixou o sub-bosque com menos luminosidade. As maiores temperaturas diárias e nos primeiros 10 cm do solo, foram observadas em Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Para as três espécies, aos 20 cm de profundidade a variação da temperatura foi praticamente constante. Através dos resultados encontrados foi possível confirmar que as árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus torelliana, previamente estudadas na Austrália, pertencem, respectivamente, a formação de floresta aberta baixa, floresta aberta alta e floresta fechada.

Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Fabio Poggiani

1993-01-01

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Water consumption by Eucalyptus hybrid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the results of water consumption by Eucalyptus hybrid trees during the last 27 months in 3m x 3m x 3m RCC lysimeters. Water consumption from 30 to 24.5 cm depth was slightly lesser than the rainfall received, although water consumption from the entire soil depth (0-245 cm) exceeded the rainfall, due to the previously stored soil water. Maximum amount of water was consumed during rains and the least during summer. 25 references, 7 tables.

Dabral, B.G.; Raturi, A.S.

1985-12-01

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Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control  

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In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

Sen-Sarma, P.K.; Thakur, M.L.

1983-12-01

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Eucalyptus gunnii: A possible source of bioenergy?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus are widely grown throughout the world for timber, essential oil, fuel, biomass and cut foliage. In experiments in University College Dublin (UCD), Eucalyptus gunnii yielded an average dry weight of 4.74 kg per plant per annum, equivalent to 12.59 t dm ha{sup -1}. The average calorific values of 17.60 MJ kg{sup -1} (leafy material) and 17.09 MJ kg{sup -1} (woody material) are less than the values reported for other species of Eucalyptus. (author)

Forrest, Mary; Moore, Tom [UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2008-10-15

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Antimicrobial Activity of Oils and Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass), Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available The antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and extracts from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass), Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus camadulensis were tested on Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureous and Escherichia coli. Both the water extract and freeze dried extract of these leaves were used. Zone of inhibition measurement showed that Eucalyptus citriodora oil was very effective against Salmonella typhi and found to suppress growth of the organism after 24 h of incubation. Similar observation was made with a combined extract of Eucalyptus citriodora oil and lemon grass oil. Lemon grass oil was observed to possess high antimicrobial activity on all the three organisms tested while Eucalyptus camadulensis is very active against Staphylococcus aureus. Both the freeze dried extracts and the viscous extracts possess slight antimicrobial activity while in all cases, the aqueous extracts have no effects on the organisms.

B.C. Akin-Osanaiye; A.S. Agbaji; M.A. Dakare

2007-01-01

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EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus CLONES FOR CHARCOAL PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available Charcoal is economically representative in the Brazilian economy, specially in Minas Gerais, the main producer, and consumer of this product. A problem related to the charcoal utilization is its heterogeneous quality, which is influenced both for the wood and the production process. This variability causes waste of material and make it difficult to handle the blast furnaces. The objective of this work was to evaluate the wood of ten clones: seven of Eucalyptus grandis and three of Eucalyptus saligna: both directed to charcoal production. Also, it was looked for to select clones with highercapacity for the establishment of a forestry improvement program. During the assessment it was considered the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the charcoal. According to the results it was verified that there exists a large variation among the assessed clones, which is higher in Eucalyptus grandis. The production of dry mass, associated to the estimation of mass of both lignin and charcoal proportionate a classification of the clones considered as the superior (clones number five, six and two), median (clones number ten, three, one and eight) and inferior (clones number nine, four and seven). Clone seven was the worsen for the charcoal production due to its low growth rate. The classification of the clones based on both the wood chemical characteristics and charcoal yield was not satisfactory. The growth rate was fundamental for the clones classification, being recommendable to incorporate it in future assessment of wood quality. Eucalyptus grandis clones were superior to Eucalyptus saligna clones.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcísio Lima; Fábio Akira Mori; Ana Luiza Lino

2001-01-01

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TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%),Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49%) and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%). In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%),Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83%) and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%). The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Fábio Akira Mori; José Tarcísio Lima; Dione Pereira Cardoso

2003-01-01

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Exploration and Identification of Alternative Raw Materials for Paper and Newsprint Manufacture: Cold Soda Pulping of Various Eucalyptus Species and Gmelina Arborea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Properties of cold soda pulps from various Eucalypt species, viz., Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus deglupta and Eucalyptus torelliana were compared. Excepting the pulps of E. globulous, the remaining were bleac...

T. C. Mantri Y. K. Sharma V. Raghunath D. Ghosh S. Bharati

1978-01-01

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Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG) have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

Batista-Pereira Luciane G.; Fernandes João B.; Corrêa Arlene G.; Silva M. Fátima G. F. da; Vieira Paulo C.

2006-01-01

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Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii) Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2) em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou-se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3). Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético.Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2) obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoculation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3). Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

Adelica Aparecida Xavier; Eugênio Von. Sanfuentes; Davi Theodoro Junghans; Acelino Couto Alfenas

2007-01-01

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Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii)/ Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2) em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou-se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3). Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus (more) e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético. Abstract in english Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2) obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoculation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3). Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respective (more) ly. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

Xavier, Adelica Aparecida; Von. Sanfuentes, Eugênio; Junghans, Davi Theodoro; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

2007-08-01

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Modeling of basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using nondestructive methods  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of nondestructive variables in inferring basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. A total of 27 clones of Eucalyptus urophylla and 22 clones of Eucalyptus grandis were used, sourced from a clonal trial set up in Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. After evaluation using nondestructive techniques of resistography and pin penetration at a constant pressure (Pilodyn®), individuals were felled and disks were removed from the 2%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% portions of the merchantable height section, and also from the portion 1.30 m above ground level. Basic density was determined by the water immersion method. Values of basic density ranged from 0.412 to 0.609 g.cm-3 for clones at age 42 months and from 0.408 to 0.664 g.cm-3 for clones at age 54 months. The clones of Eucalyptus urophylla provided higher values of average basic density in relation to Eucalyptus grandis. The variable 'amplitude' had better correlation with basic density in comparison with pin penetration at a constant pressure. Nondestructive evaluation can be used in mass preselection of genetic materials, prior to subjecting them to a more accurate, reliable evaluation.

Allan Motta Couto; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Thiago Andrade Neves; Thiago de Paula Protásio; Vânia Aparecida de Sá

2013-01-01

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Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) e ASTM-D 1037 (1991). Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) e CSA 0437-93 (1993). As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993). A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular) e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular), foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka) e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura). Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board). Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Ponte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³) and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³). Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) and ASTM-D 1037 (1991) norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) and CSA 0437-93 (1993) norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993) norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular) and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular) of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalyptus grandis (Janka hardness) and Eucalyptus cloezi

Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral; Benedito Rocha Vital; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira Carvalho

2006-01-01

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A case study of Eucalyptus globulus fingerprinting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

• Introduction Tree genetic improvement programs usually lack, in general, pedigree information. Since molecular markers can be used to estimate the level of genetic similarity between individuals, we genotyped a sample of a Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus breeding population—a reference population...

Ribeiro, M.M.

35

Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced...

Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J. A. F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

36

Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class ...

Coetzee, B.; Schols, H.A.; Wolfaardt, F.

37

Weed control and selectivity of flumioxazin in eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Flumioxazin is a registered herbicide for agricultural crops what is an important fact concerning integrated management for weeds in eucalyptus plantations. This study evaluated the efficiency of weed control and the phytotoxicity in eucalyptus plants caused by the herbicide flumioxazin applied alone or in tank mixture with sulfentrazone and isoxaflutole. The aim was to extend the use of thisherbicide in eucalyptus. The herbicide was applied to eucalyptus plants using precision backpack sprayer. It was evaluated, visually,the intoxication percentage and measured height and diameter of eucalyptus trees, the control plants and dry mass of weeds. It wasconcluded that flumioxazin is selective to the eucalyptus at the 125 g.ha-1 dosage, and its efficiency in controlling weeds pre-emergencewas better when mixed in the tank with isoxaflutole and sulfentrazone.

Rafael Augusto Soares Tiburcio; Francisco Affonso Ferreira; Lino Roberto Ferreira; Miler Soares Machado; Aroldo Ferreira Lopes Machado

2012-01-01

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Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii/ Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm&s (more) up3;). Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) e ASTM-D 1037 (1991). Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) e CSA 0437-93 (1993). As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993). A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular) e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular), foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka) e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura). Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board). Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Ponte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³) and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³). Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm (more) ³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) and ASTM-D 1037 (1991) norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) and CSA 0437-93 (1993) norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993) norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular) and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular) of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes

Cabral, Carla Priscilla Távora; Vital, Benedito Rocha; Della Lucia, Ricardo Marius; Pimenta, Alexandre Santos; Soares, Carlos Pedro Boechat; Carvalho, Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira

2006-08-01

39

Activated carbons from Uruguayan eucalyptus wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the new wood plantations in Uruguay consist of eucalyptus, and the development of alternative uses is seen as important. Activated carbons were prepared from eucalyptus wood chars and the results of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} and steam activation were compared. The carbonization step gave rise to a narrow micropore structure and a highly developed microporosity which increased slightly upon CO{sub 2} activation and significantly upon steam activation. This last process led also to a widening of micropore size distribution and developed the mesoporosity more than CO{sub 2} activation did. The presence of O{sub 2} accompanying CO{sub 2} in the activating gas increased the micro- and microporosity of the carbons. No net destruction of microporosity was observed even at high burnoff levels and with as much as 5 vol.%O{sub 2} in the activating gas. 16 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Tancredi, N.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-12-01

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In silico evaluation of the Eucalyptus transcriptome  

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Full Text Available The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) produced in the Forests project provide an invaluable opportunity to assess the Eucalyptus transcriptome. Besides providing information on the different proteins produced by this plant, it is possible to infer gene expression profiles because non-normalized cDNA libraries were used. The EST frequency from any gene is correlated to the transcript levels in the tissues from which the cDNA libraries were constructed. The goal of this work was to identify Eucalyptus genes that showed either differential expression pattern or were ubiquitously expressed in the tissues sampled in the Forests project. Six robust statistical tests and very restrictive rules were applied to gain confidence in the in silico data aiming to avoid false positives. Several genes with interesting expression profiles were identified and some of them were validated by RT-PCR.

Renato Vicentini; Flávio T. Sassaki; Marcos A. Gimenes; Ivan G. Maia; Marcelo Menossi

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Eucalyptus radiata oil as a renewable biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus plants were collected at several places of New South Wales in Australia at the end of November, 1978. The yields of various fractions of terpenoids from fresh leaves and branches of juvenile plants were determined and are summarized in this paper. The best candidate re the amount of oil is E. Radiata var. Australiana, which consists of 4.2% (w/w) volatiles (essential oil) and 4.5% (w/w) non-volatiles in total.

Nishimura, H.; Paton, D.M.; Calvin, M.

1980-10-01

42

THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD  

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Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

O Unsal; S Korkut; C Atik

2003-01-01

43

The Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis discovered in eastern Australia  

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Chrysoporthe cubensis is an important pathogen of commercially planted Eucalyptus species (Myrtaceae) in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where these trees are planted as non-natives. Although the majority of Eucalyptus spp. are native to Australia, Chr. cubensis is not common there and h...

Pegg, Geoffrey S.; Gryzenhout, Marieka; O'Dwyer, Cecilia; Drenth, Andre; Wingfield, Michael J.

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Performance of Australian Provenances of 'Eucalyptus grandis' and 'Eucalyptus saligna' in Hawaii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna were compared at four locations on the island of Hawaii to seek seed sources better than those in current use which were introduced earlier from unrecorded locations in Australia. A broad range o...

R. G. Skolmen

1986-01-01

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Antimicrobial activities of eucalyptus leaf extracts and flavonoids from Eucalyptus maculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: We investigated the antimicrobial activities of eucalyptus leaf extracts to find effective antibacterial agents. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from 26 species of eucalyptus were measured. Extracts of Eucalyptus globulus, E. maculata and E. viminalis significantly inhibited the growth of six Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Propionibacterium acnes), and of a fungus (Trichophyton mentagrophytes), but they did not show strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida). 2',6'-dihydroxy-3'-methyl-4'-methoxy-dihydrochalcone, eucalyptin and 8-desmethyl-eucalyptin, isolated from E. maculata extracts, exhibited potent antimicrobial activities against seven micro-organisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.0 to 31 mg l(-1). CONCLUSIONS: The eucalyptus extracts and three compounds from E. maculata were found to be effective against micro-organisms that cause food poisoning, acne and athlete's foot. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study shows potential uses of extracts from E. globulus, E. maculata and E. viminalis, and antimicrobial compounds isolated from E. maculata.

Takahashi T; Kokubo R; Sakaino M

2004-01-01

46

Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla/ Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais) e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio d (more) e regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17 dias, apresentou superioridade organogênica. Explantes foliares devem ser transferidos para novo meio de indução de brotações a cada cinco dias. Este estudo também teve como objetivo avaliar fatores que afetam a transformação genética de explantes foliares com o gene uidA, via co-cultivo com Agrobacterium tumefaciens, tais como a pré-cultura, a duração da co-cultura e a adição da acetoseringona no meio de cultura. As melhores condições para a expressão do gene uidA foram a cada dois dias de pré-cultura de explantes foliares, três dias de co-cultura com a bactéria e a adição de acetoseringona nos meios de pré e co-cultura. Abstract in english The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differ (more) ences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.

Alcantara, Giovana Bomfim de; Bespalhok Filho, João Carlos; Quoirin, Marguerite

2011-04-01

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Australian eucalyptus oil industry - an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of the main countries trading in eucalyptus oil (used for medicinal and industrial purposes, and for perfume) showed that the total annual world requirement is currently 2000-3000 t: China has the major share with 45%, and Australia supplies less than 3%. The outlook for the industry is discussed in relation to the world trade situation, and it is concluded that Australia has been priced out of the industrial oil market but is maintaining a share of the cineole oil market, especially in SE Asia. In the short term, it seems that establishing plantations solely for oil production cannot be justified.

Small, B.E.J.

1981-01-01

48

Satellyptus: analysis and database of microsatellites from ESTs of Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The main goal of our research was to search for SSRs in the Eucalyptus EST FORESTs database (using a software for mining SSR-motifs). With this objective, we created a database for cataloging Eucalyptus EST-derived SSRs, and developed a bioinformatics tool, named Satellyptus, for finding and analyzing microsatellites in the Eucalyptus EST database. The search for microsatellites in the FORESTs database containing 71,115 Eucalyptus EST sequences (52.09 Mb) revealed 20,530 (more) SSRs in 15,621 ESTs. The SSR abundance detected on the Eucalyptus ESTs database (29% or one microsatellite every four sequences) is considered very high for plants. Amongst the categories of SSR motifs, the dimeric (37%) and trimeric ones (33%) predominated. The AG/CT motif was the most frequent (35.15%) followed by the trimeric CCG/CGG (12.81%). From a random sample of 1,217 sequences, 343 microsatellites in 265 SSR-containing sequences were identified. Approximately 48% of these ESTs containing microsatellites were homologous to proteins with known biological function. Most of the microsatellites detected in Eucalyptus ESTs were positioned at either the 5? or 3? end. Our next priority involves the design of flanking primers for codominant SSR loci, which could lead to the development of a set of microsatellite-based markers suitable for marker-assisted Eucalyptus breeding programs.

Ceresini, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Cristina Lacerda Soares Petrarolha; Missio, Robson Fernando; Souza, Elaine Costa; Fischer, Carlos Norberto; Guillherme, Ivan Rizzo; Gregorio, Ivo; Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara da; Cicarelli, Regina Maria Barreto; Silva, Marco Túlio Alves da; Garcia, José Fernando; Avelar, Gustavo Arbex; Porto Neto, Laercio Ribeiro; Marçon, André Ricardo; Bacci Junior, Maurício; Marini, Danyelle Cristine

2005-01-01

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ESTABELECIMENTO IN VITRO DE CLONES HÍBRIDOS DE Eucalyptus globulus  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o comportamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hillex Maiden x Eucalyptus globulus Labill e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blake x Eucalyptus globulus Labille o efeito de diferentes introduções in vitro (aos 30, 90 e 150 dias após a poda do ápice das minicepas)na fase de estabelecimento in vitro. As minicepas, fornecedoras dos explantes para a introdução in vitro,foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais de 21 clones de Eucalyptusurophylla x Eucalyptus globulus e 8 clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus foram coletados,desinfestados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,1 mg L-1 deANA. Após 30 dias em cultura, foram feitas as avaliações e concluiu-se que houve variação entre clones,bem como entre introduções in vitro, para as variáveis estudadas, sendo possível o estabelecimento in vitroda maioria dos clones.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges; Aloisio Xavier; Leandro Silva de Oliveira; Aline Pontes Lopes; Wagner Campos Otoni; Elizabete Keiko Takahashi; Lucas Amaral de Melo

2012-01-01

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Oldest known Eucalyptus macrofossils are from South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the Patagonian Eucalyptus dominated volcanically disturbed areas adjacent to standing rainforest surrounding an Eocene caldera lake. PMID:21738605

Gandolfo, María A; Hermsen, Elizabeth J; Zamaloa, María C; Nixon, Kevin C; González, Cynthia C; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R

2011-06-28

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Oldest known Eucalyptus macrofossils are from South America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the Patagonian Eucalyptus dominated volcanically disturbed areas adjacent to standing rainforest surrounding an Eocene caldera lake.

Gandolfo MA; Hermsen EJ; Zamaloa MC; Nixon KC; González CC; Wilf P; Cúneo NR; Johnson KR

2011-01-01

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Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus in New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tree breeding, integrated with an active programme of species and provenance testing, is being conducted in Eucalyptus botryoides, E. saligna, E. regnans, E. delegatensis, E. fastigata, E. obliqua, and E. nitens. The programmes involve provenance trials and family tests to give a broad base of genetic variability of the different species, and to form genetically improved local seed sources. Several other species are being tested on a small scale. Selection criteria vary somewhat among the 7 main species, but fast growth, good stem form and branching characteristics, and useful wood are needed in all species. Genetic variation of practical significance has been found in the tolerance of E. regnans and E. fastigata to frost. Considerable emphasis is being placed on searching for strains of E. nitens which are less palatable to the Eucalyptus tortoise beetle, Paropsis charybdis. The breeding method used entails selecting the best trees in the most promising provenances, following by intermating among these to produce the improved seed via seed stands, seedling seed orchards, clonal seed orchards, and progency-tested seed trees. (Refs. 15).

Wilcox, M.D.

1980-01-01

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In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins  

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Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs), an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis), has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX). Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y) and cytosolic (TRXh), have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

Aulus Estevão Barbosa; Paulo Marinho

2005-01-01

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IMPORTANCE OF THE FORESTS PLANTATIONS OF Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available SUMMARYThe worldwide consumption of wood is distributed between the energy necessities, firewood and charcoal (more than 50 %), the sawmill wood, posts, dismount and construction (20 %) and the dedicated to the industry of the cellulose and the paper (27 %). The world previsions for the wood consumption in the year 2000 surpasses the 4000 m3 millions, what supposes a shortage of 1000 millions. There is a shortage in the world of wood as of energy, what converts to the forest production in priority objective. The Eucalyptus has been and is one of the forests resources industrially more used in the entire world. Originated from Australia, it presents an enormous diversity, with more than 600 different species. Its wood is suitable for many uses: domestic consumption, firewood of high calorific power, charcoal production, building structures, posts for communications, parquet ground, cellulose pulp, mine wood, bank subjection, or for fiber board manufacture. From its cellulose multiple products of daily use can be made for example: health paper swaddling clothes and hygienic, derived products as the cellophane or the wrapping paper, formic and other sheets, special papers, filters, electronic papers; as well as manufacture of textile fabrics as “rayon”. The request of derivation products of the eucalyptus wood is still very high world wide, the one that shows a sustained growth.

Rosa Martínez Ruiz; Hilda S. Azpíroz Rivero; José Luís Rodríguez De la O.; Víctor M. CetinaAlcalá y M. A. Gutiérrez Espinoza

2006-01-01

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QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m), para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m). Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%). Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm). O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5%) ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exigências do mercado consumidor.

Giovanni Willer Ferreira; Jorge Vieira Gonzaga; Celso Edmundo B. Foelkel; Teotônio Francisco de Assis; Edvins Ratnieks; Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

1997-01-01

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Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING  

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Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

Setsuo Iwakiri; José Guilherme Prata

2008-01-01

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Cryopreservation of axillary buds of a Eucalyptus grandis x eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents preliminary results from a study to develop methodology for the cryopreservation of axillary buds from an in vitro hybrid Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden.) x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnnh.), maintained for use in a genetic modification programme. Axillary buds were encapsulated in an alginate gel, precultured on media containing elevated levels of sucrose, or a combination of sucrose and glycerol. Encapsulated buds were then dehydrated by evaporation prior to a two-step freezing process in liquid nitrogen. Eighteen percent of shoot explants survived freezing when sucrose alone was used as a protectant against dehydration and cryopreservation. Significantly higher survival (49%) was obtained with the incorporation of glycerol into the protocol. Following cryopreservation, shoots appeared to develop normally, with no evidence of adventitious meristems.

Blakesley D; Kiernan RJ

2001-01-01

58

Antibacterial and Gastroprotective Properties of Eucalyptus torelliana [Myrtaceae] Crude Extracts  

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The antibacterial and gastroprotective properties of crude extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana were investigated. Antibacterial activity was investigated by screening the crude extracts for activity against clinically isolated strains of wound bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus UCH 201...

B.A. Adeniyi; R.O. Odufowoke; S.B. Olaleye

59

Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of Eucalyptus globulus(Myrtaceae) pollen grain  

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The morphology, ultrastructure and cytochemistry of Eucalyptus globulusmature pollen were investigated using light (LM), scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pollen morphology is typically myrtaceous with a suite of characters that allows its distinction from the p...

Eliseu, Susana A.; Dinis, Augusto M.

60

Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay  

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Full Text Available Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

MARTÍNEZ SEBASTIÁN; LUPO SANDRA; BETTUCCI LINA

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43o28'N, and longitude 3o48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

2006-12-01

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PRODUÇÃO DE BIOMASSA E REMOÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM POVOAMENTOS DE Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, PLANTADOS EM ANHEMBÍ, SP  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho) das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi, SP. A espécie Eucalyptus grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho) representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie Eucalyptus grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Fabio Poggiani

1993-01-01

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Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum, a Eucalyptus pathogen, on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum is a canker-associated fungus apparently highly specialized on Eucalyptus. However, in surveys of the microbial population inhabiting native Myrtaceae in Uruguay, fungal cultures resembling N. eucalyptorum were isolated. The possible occurrence of N. eucalyptorum on hosts other than Eucalyptus prompted further investigation. Several surveys were conducted throughout Uruguay to obtain samples from native forests, focusing primarily on species in the Myrtaceae. Fungal identification was based on morphology and confirmed using comparison sequences for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rDNA operon. Pathogenicity was evaluated by inoculating plants of a Eucalyptus grandis clone. Morphological and molecular identification confirmed the occurrence of N. eucalyptorum on Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrceugenia glaucescens and Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum. This is the first report of N. eucalyptorum occurring in hosts other than Eucalyptus. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the ability of this species to produce cankers on E. grandis. This study provides information that will assist breeding programmes in attempts to obtain disease-resistant Eucalyptus plantations and it also suggests that a Eucalyptus pathogen could have moved to native trees in Uruguay.

Pérez CA; Wingfield MJ; Slippers B; Altier NA; Blanchette RA

2009-10-01

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Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc  

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Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies according to species. It is 3.4% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni, 2.5% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus and 1.6% for Eucalyptus diversicolor. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx are characterized by an average yield less than 1%, i.e. 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average yields of the two hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus diversicolor are 2.9% and 1.4% respectively. The combinations Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus grandis are characterized by the lowest yields, i.e. 1%, 0.8% and 0.8% respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition shows that the hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni give 1,8-cineole rates superior to 70%, which is required by the users. Comparatively to Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the essential oils of the other crosses reveal a slight decrease in percentage of this product. However, increases of the alpha-pinene and p-cymene contents have been recorded. In general, all products detected in essential oils have average percentages intermediate between those of parental species. Hybridization of eucalyptus can improve the quality and the quantity of eucalyptus essential oils.

Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

2002-01-01

65

ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD  

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Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10) and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) was20 (EL/GLR ? 20). These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

Adriano Wagner Ballarin; Marcelo Nogueira

2003-01-01

66

SECAGEM DE MADEIRA SERRADA DE Eucalyptus viminalis  

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Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos toretes) e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos). Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

Emmanuel C.E. Rozas M.; Ivan Tomaselli

1993-01-01

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Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foundation tree species define the structure of forest habitat and influence their ecosystem dynamics. However, there is limited understanding of both the patterns and timing of population fluctuations in foundation trees and how they vary among geographical regions. We have reconstructed the demographic history of five genetically distinct populations of the Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus) at the species and regional levels, using three nuclear loci sequenced from 104 individuals. Analysis using a Bayesian skyline plot indicated that the species experienced two periods of expansion, commencing in the Pliocene. Regional analyses showed that island populations expanded earlier, but that the rate of expansion was relatively slow when compared to that of the mainland group. This highlights the need for local demographic history to be taken into account when inferring local adaptation for candidate genes. Population growth throughout the Quaternary signals the ability of the species to persist and thrive under the predominantly harsh conditions of this period. PMID:23643971

Yeoh, Suat Hui; Ho, Simon Y W; Thornhill, Andrew H; Foley, William J

2013-05-03

68

Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foundation tree species define the structure of forest habitat and influence their ecosystem dynamics. However, there is limited understanding of both the patterns and timing of population fluctuations in foundation trees and how they vary among geographical regions. We have reconstructed the demographic history of five genetically distinct populations of the Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus) at the species and regional levels, using three nuclear loci sequenced from 104 individuals. Analysis using a Bayesian skyline plot indicated that the species experienced two periods of expansion, commencing in the Pliocene. Regional analyses showed that island populations expanded earlier, but that the rate of expansion was relatively slow when compared to that of the mainland group. This highlights the need for local demographic history to be taken into account when inferring local adaptation for candidate genes. Population growth throughout the Quaternary signals the ability of the species to persist and thrive under the predominantly harsh conditions of this period.

Yeoh SH; Ho SY; Thornhill AH; Foley WJ

2013-09-01

69

Cryptometrion aestuescens gen. sp. nov. (Cryphonectriaceae) pathogenic to Eucalyptus in Indonesia  

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The recently described Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales) includes numerous important tree pathogens such as the chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica, and various species of Chrysoporthe that cause serious stem canker diseases on Eucalyptus. A recent investigation of dying Eucalyptus gran...

Gryzenhout, Marieka; Tarigan, Marthin; Clegg, P.A.; Wingfield, Michael J.

70

Uptake of inorganic and amino acid nitrogen from soil by Eucalyptus regnans and Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined whether two species of Eucalyptus can take up the amino acid glycine from soil and compared the uptake rate of glycine with the uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium. Ectomycorrhizal seedlings of two ecologically disparate species were studied: Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell., a fast-growing forest tree from low altitudes; and Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Spreng., a slow-growing tree that forms the alpine treeline. Seedlings were grown from seeds in field soil. When seedlings were 4-5 months old, soils were injected with equimolar mixtures of isotope-labeled glycine, ammonium and nitrate. Seedlings and soil were harvested 4 and 48 h later. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of (13)C and (15)N enrichment in plants receiving glycine indicated uptake of 1.5 (13)C for every (15)N at the 4-h harvest (versus 2:1 (13)C:(15)N in labeled glycine), suggesting intact uptake of around 75% of glycine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis detected intact (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine in roots, but the pool of (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine was 10-500 times smaller than (13)C and (15)N excess, and no (13)C(2),(15)N-glycine was detected in shoots. This is consistent with glycine being taken up as an intact molecule that is subsequently metabolized rapidly. Both species took up more nitrate than ammonium, and glycine was the least preferred form of nitrogen (N). Microbes took up more N than seedlings, and their preference for N forms was the mirror image of the plant preferences. These data suggest that patterns of microbial uptake may determine plant preference for forms of N.

Warren CR

2009-03-01

71

Inibidor de tripsina em raízes de Eucalyptus urophylla Trypsin inhibitor from roots of Eucalyptus urophylla  

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Full Text Available As raízes de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla) podem estar associadas a fungos como Pisolithus tinctorius, formando uma simbiose conhecida como ectomicorriza, mas também podem estar colonizadas por fungos patogênicos, como Rhizoctonia solani, agente causal do tombamento de plantas em viveiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de atividade inibitória de tripsina, uma serino-protease, em raízes de E. urophylla e a atividade de tripsina em filtrados desses fungos. Alíquotas de extrato protéico bruto de raízes de E. urophylla e frações protéicas parcialmente purificadas por cromatografia de exclusão molecular, do tipo Sephacryl S-100-HR, foram testadas para atividade inibitória de tripsina. Proteínas do extrato ou das frações, quando incubadas com o substrato BAPNA (a-benzoil-arginina-p-nitroanilida) e tripsina comercial na presença de tampão Tris-HCl 0,1 M (pH 8,0), resultou em atividade de inibidor de tripsina ao redor de 80%. Filtrados de meios de cultura de P. tinctorius e R. solani foram parcialmente purificados em cromatografia de exclusão molecular, porém atividade de tripsina sobre o substrato BAPNA não foi verificada em nenhuma das frações. Portanto, não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação direta entre o inibidor da planta e proteases dos fungos. Os resultados apresentados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo dessas proteínas nas interações entre patógenos e simbiontes para espécies de eucalipto.Roots of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) can be associated with fungi such as Pisolithus tinctorius, thus forming an ectomycorrhiza, or be colonized by pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, agent of damping-off in nursery plants. The objective of this work was to verify the presence and activity of trypsin inhibitor, a serino-protease, in roots of E. urophylla and the activity of trypsin in filtrate of these fungi. The crude protein extract from roots and fractions partially purified by molecular sieving chromatography, using Sephacryl S-100-HR, was tested for trypsin inhibitory activity. The protein extracts or fractions, when incubated with BAPNA (a-benzoyl-arginyl-p-nitroanilide) as substrate, in presence of 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8,0), showed activity of trypsin inhibitor around 80%. Culture filtrates from P. tinctorius and R. solani isolates were also semi-purified by chromatography; however, no trypsin activity on BAPNA substrate was observed. Due to this, it was impossible to establish a direct correlation between the plant inhibitor and potential fungal proteases. The results presented here open new perspectives for the study of proteins in the interactions between pathogens and symbionts with eucalyptus species.

Célia R. Tremacoldi; Sérgio F. Pascholati

2004-01-01

72

EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS/ EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de ag (more) ua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se calculó el grado de correlación de las distintas propiedades del tablero con la densidad de los mismos. Las características de la madera, de las partículas y las propiedades de los tableros demuestran que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens es apta para ser utilizada en la fabricación de estos aglomerados. A medida que aumenta la densidad del tablero se provoca un aumento en las propiedades mecánicas. El hinchamiento y la absorción de agua mejoran con aumentos de la densidad. El análisis de correlación entre las propiedades dependientes (hinchamiento, absorción, flexión y tracción) y la densidad del tablero arrojó coeficientes de correlación mayores a 0,7. La propiedad crítica es el hinchamiento, por lo que se recomienda agregar una emulsión de cera y un catalizador en el adhesivo de la capa central. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate Eucalyptus nitens as raw material for the production of particleboards. Wood density and particle size, slenderness and pH-value were controlled. Bending strength, internal bond, density, thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of particleboards with densities between 450 and 750 kg/m³, were determined. Correlations between board density and properties were calculated. The wood and particle characteristics as well (more) as the obtained board properties proved that Eucalyptus nitens could be used for the particleboard production. As board density increases, higher mechanical properties were founded. Thickness swelling and water absorption decreased as density of particleboard increased. High correlation factors (> 0,7) between dependent variables (thickness swelling, absorption, bending strength and IB) and board density were obtained. Due to swelling is a critical property, we recommend the addition of a wax emulsion and a catalyst in the middle layer of the particleboard.

Poblete W, Hernán; Burgos O, Rodrigo

2010-01-01

73

Eucalyptus applied genomics: from gene sequences to breeding tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in the tropical and subtropical world because of its superior growth, broad adaptability and multipurpose wood properties. Plantation forestry of Eucalyptus supplies high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications while reducing the pressure on tropical forests and associated biodiversity. This review links current eucalypt breeding practices with existing and emerging genomic tools. A brief discussion provides a background to modern eucalypt breeding together with some current applications of molecular markers in support of operational breeding. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genetical genomics are reviewed and an in-depth perspective is provided on the power of association genetics to dissect quantitative variation in this highly diverse organism. Finally, some challenges and opportunities to integrate genomic information into directional selective breeding are discussed in light of the upcoming draft of the Eucalyptus grandis genome. Given the extraordinary genetic variation that exists in the genus Eucalyptus, the ingenuity of most breeders, and the powerful genomic tools that have become available, the prospects of applied genomics in Eucalyptus forest production are encouraging. PMID:18537893

Grattapaglia, Dario; Kirst, Matias

2008-06-05

74

Preliminary studies on chemical weed control in eucalyptus (hybrid) nursery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weeds adversely affect the germination and growth of seedlings in the Eucalyptus hybrid nursery beds. Manual weeding which is generally followed is time consuming, difficult and less effective. In order to overcome this problem a study was undertaken for effective control of weeds in Eucalyptus hybrid nursery by means of preemergence weedicides viz. Baseline (profluralin), Pendimethaline (Stemp 30 EC), Ronster (Oxadiazen) and Simazine. They were applied to nursery beds as pre-emergence spray, at 1.5, 1.5, 0.5 and 1 kg/ha respectively. Basalin was most effective in controlling both dicot and monocot weeks followed by pendimethaline and Ronster. Simazine was lethal to both Eucalyptus and weed seed germination. Seedling of Eucalyptus in Basalin treated plots were more in number (153/sq ft.), taller (24 cm) and healthier compared to other weedicide treatments. Maximum number of dicot and monocot weeds were found in control plot, consequently, seedling growth was very much suppressed. The studies indicated that preemergence chemical weedicides could be effectively used to control nursery weeds and that Basalin weedicide is more effective in controlling both dicot and monocot weeds and appear to be a suitable chemical weedicide for Eucalyptus hybrid nurseries. 8 references, 3 tables.

Rao, N.S.; Desappa; Singh, C.D.

1985-12-01

75

Identification and characterization of homeobox genes in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcriptional factors, usually involved in molecular control of plant developmental patterns. They can be divided into several classes according to conserved sequences within the homeobox region and the presence of specific additional sequences. Based on these conserved sequences, we developed a search procedure to identify possible homeobox genes in the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (FORESTs) database. We were able to identify 50 Eucalyptus sequences (EST-contigs) containing the homeodomain sequence. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to this ESTs-contigs and 44 of them were found to have similarities with one of three well-known homeobox classes: Bell, Knox and HD-Zip, and their sub-classes. However, no EST-contig grouped with the fourth important homeobox class, the PHD-finger homeobox. On the other hand, two sequences have showed pronounced similarity to the Arabidopsis thaliana Wuschel gene, considered an "atypical" homeobox gene. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression pattern of these putative Eucalyptus homeobox genes revealed the presence of ten distinct expression groups. Combining phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns for some of the Eucalyptus genes revealed interesting aspects about some of the potential homeobox genes, which might lead to a better understanding of the Eucalyptus biology and to biotechnological applications.

Graça Celeste Gomes Rocha; Régis Lopes Corrêa; Anna Cristina Neves Borges; Claudio Bustamante Pereira de Sá; Márcio Alves-Ferreira

2005-01-01

76

Eucalyptus occidentalis plantlets are naturally infected by pathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the Sidi M'djahed nursery (Algeria), over 60,000 eucalyptus (Eucalyptus occidentalis) plantlets exhibited tumour-like growths localized at the crown of the plants that resembled crown galls caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bacteria colonizing the galls were isolated and purified. Most (22 out of 24) of the isolates had cultural and biochemical characteristics similar to those of strains of the biovar 1 of A. tumefaciens. Twenty out of 22 Agrobacterium isolates induced tumour formation on various test plants. In PCR experiments, DNA extracted from these virulent strains yielded an amplification signal corresponding to a 247-bp fragment located within the virulence region of nopaline type Ti plasmid. Consistent with this, the opine nopaline was detected in the tumours induced on test plants - but not on eucalyptus plants. Nopaline was degraded by the 20 pathogenic isolates that were also sensitive to agrocin 84, indicating the presence of a nopaline-type pTi in these strains. The chromosomal region encoding the 16S rRNA was analyzed in a sub-population of the pathogenic agrobacterial isolates. The analyzed strains were found to belong to the ribogroup of the reference strain B6. Interestingly, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx grown in the same nursery and in the same soil substrate developed no galls.

Krimi Zoulikha; Raio Aïda; Petit Annik; Nesme Xavier; Dessaux Yves

2006-11-01

77

Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese eucalyptus forests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emission to the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Eucalyptus globulus was studied in the laboratory with young specimen, and in the field with adult trees. Eucalyptus emits both monoterpenes and isoprene. The leaves of young trees emit at higher rates than the leaves of adult trees. The emission of isoprene is highly predominant during the day. The emission of isoprene is dependent on temperature and solar radiation. The emission rate follows the Guenther algorithm if a based emission factor of 32 {mu}gg{sub dw} {sup -1}h{sup -1} is used, increasing with temperature, to a maximum at 40{sup o}C. At higher temperatures there is a decrease in the emission rate. The main C{sub 10} emitted is 1,8-cineol. Cineol emissions increase exponentially with temperature, and are also seasonally dependent. Application of the emission algorithm to the Portuguese eucalyptus forests shows that during summer isoprene and monoterpene emissions by eucalyptus are of the same order of anthropogenic VOC production. Furthermore, in certain regions, in the center-north of Portugal, where eucalyptus forests are predominant, isoprene emissions can reach an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic production of VOCs during daytime periods in July and August. (Author)

Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

2001-07-01

78

Caracterización fitosanitaria de astillas de Eucalyptus spp. y de especies nativas/ Phytosanitary characterization of Eucalyptus spp. and native species chips  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se entregan los primeros antecedentes sobre el estado sanitario de astillas de Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens y de especies nativas. Se estudiaron ocho embarques de astillas, en los cuales el principal problema debido principalmente al tiempo de acanchado del producto fue la presencia de hongos manchadores pertenecientes al género Ceratocystis. No existen problemas ocasionados por insectos, sólo se detectó la presencia de galerías, en un porcentaje muy bajo de astillas de especies nativas (0,05-0,43%), no detectándose problemas en astillas de Eucalyptus spp. Abstract in english This study lists and discusses the occurrence of insects and fungi in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens) chips, as well as on chips from native forest species, for export from Chilean ports. Eight shipments were inspected and analyzed. The main problem was the establishment of Ceratocystis spp. fungi during chip storage. Although no insect species were found, empty galleries were present in the native hardwoods, albeit at very low frequencies (0.05-0.43%). There were no detectable problems with Eucalyptus chips.

LANFRANCO, DOLLY; IDE, SANDRA; RUIZ, CECILIA; VIVES, ISABEL; PEREDO, HERNAN

2003-01-01

79

Caracterización fitosanitaria de astillas de Eucalyptus spp. y de especies nativas Phytosanitary characterization of Eucalyptus spp. and native species chips  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se entregan los primeros antecedentes sobre el estado sanitario de astillas de Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens y de especies nativas. Se estudiaron ocho embarques de astillas, en los cuales el principal problema debido principalmente al tiempo de acanchado del producto fue la presencia de hongos manchadores pertenecientes al género Ceratocystis. No existen problemas ocasionados por insectos, sólo se detectó la presencia de galerías, en un porcentaje muy bajo de astillas de especies nativas (0,05-0,43%), no detectándose problemas en astillas de Eucalyptus spp.This study lists and discusses the occurrence of insects and fungi in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens) chips, as well as on chips from native forest species, for export from Chilean ports. Eight shipments were inspected and analyzed. The main problem was the establishment of Ceratocystis spp. fungi during chip storage. Although no insect species were found, empty galleries were present in the native hardwoods, albeit at very low frequencies (0.05-0.43%). There were no detectable problems with Eucalyptus chips.

DOLLY LANFRANCO; SANDRA IDE; CECILIA RUIZ; ISABEL VIVES; HERNAN PEREDO

2003-01-01

80

AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO COMPENSADO FENÓLICO DE Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparação, foram produzidos também painéis com lâminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído com duas formulações distintas. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa específica superior e menor redução na espessura em relação às demais espécies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistência da linha de cola demonstraram não haver diferenças estatísticas entre as espécies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexão estática, os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relação a Pinus taeda. Em relação aos efeitos de diferentes formulações do adesivo, não foram constatadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceção da resistência da linha de cola no teste úmido.

Setsuo Iwakiri; Antonio Razera Neto; Benedito Carlos de Almeida; Cândido Petro Biasi; Daniel Chies; Francisco Prado Guisantes; José Antonio Franzoni; Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto; Wilson Paulo Bettega

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40) cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

Rudi Setiadji; Andriati Amir Husin

2012-01-01

82

Factorial thinning experiment in eucalyptus grandis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The background and design of a factorial thinning experiment in Eucalyptus grandis are described and the preliminary results up to 15 years of age are discussed. Four main factors are tested, i.e., thinning intensity, commencement of thinning, thinning frequency and final stocking each at three levels. At 15 years of age only two-thirds of the plots had received their final thinning. The experimental site and stand are extremely uniform which is indicated by low standard errors and coefficients of variation. There were highly significant responses in diameter at breast height and height to all main factors which were elucidated further by various significant interactions. The most important result is that mean annual volume increment underbark is not affected by any of the main factors, except in extreme cases which are not normal forestry practice. The influence of rainfall on the results is stressed and may be greater than that of any of the treatments. It is shown that the response of breast height diameter to release by thinning is limited and that generally accepted final stockings are too low for optimum sawlog production of E. grandis at clearfelling. 3 references.

Schoenau, A.P.G.

1984-12-01

83

Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned. PMID:17046244

Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

2006-10-13

84

Suppression of branches in Eucalyptus trees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of neem oil, which acts as a suckericide in tobacco, on branch suppression in Eucalyptus tereticornis was assessed to help maximize stem biomass. Lateral branches of selected trees were pruned, and neem oil solutions at concentrations of either 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, or 0% (untreated control) were applied to leaf axils of the pruned branches. Regeneration of branches was suppressed, and the magnitude of suppression was proportional to the concentration of neem oil. Compared to the control, the percentage reduction in branching at 80% neem oil was 41.6%. When regenerated branches were repruned and neem oil applied at either 100%, 80%, or 0% (control), the regenerating ability of these branches was severely repressed by 78% at 100% neem oil relative to the control. Apical shoots were also topped and treated at either 100% or 0% (control) neem oil to identify the principal suppressive component in neem oil. The principal component azadirachtin was tested at 375, 750, 1500, 3125, 6250, 12?500, 25?000, 50?000, and 100?000 ppm and 0 ppm as the control. Reduction in the coppicing shoot was as high as 85%. Azadirachtin was responsible for the suppression. By pruning the lateral branches with neem oil, wasteful consumption of photosynthates can be precluded and the stem biomass maximized.

Senthalir P; Sharanya S; Paramathma M

2004-06-01

85

Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (?g/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 ?m by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

Karpanen Tarja J; Conway Barbara R; Worthington Tony; Hilton Anthony C; Elliott Tom SJ; Lambert Peter A

2010-01-01

86

RAPD and freezing resistance in Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Eucalyptus globulus is the second most important forest species in Chile, after Pinus radiata. The main advantages of E. globulus are its fast growth (25 m³/ha/year) and its excellent wood quality for kraft pulp production. On the negative side, its low freezing tolerance has been an obstacle for the expansion of plantations, specifically on the foothills of the Andes. The difference in the freezing resistance between clones of E. globulus has a genetic base and, therefo (more) re, it could be detected through DNA molecular markers. Fifteen clones of E. globulus, eight classified as freezing resistant and seven as freezing sensitive were analyzed using the technique of RAPD, in order to obtain molecular markers that could differentiate between freezing sensitive and resistant clones. Eighteen primers amplified reproducible bands. Three bands were only present in freezing resistant clones, two bands of 768 bp, 602 bp obtained with UBC 218 primer and one band of 248 bp obtained with UBC 237 primer. The preliminary results indicate that polymorphism can be observed with the primers employed, but it is not possible to associate the bands with the cold resistance or susceptibility in E. globulus.

Fernández R., Marta; Valenzuela A., Sofía; Balocchi L., Claudio

2006-06-01

87

Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m) com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR) e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses) e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m), as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR). The oldest trees (166 months - E2) which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA).

Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia; Robert Cardoso Sartório

2009-01-01

88

Evolução da silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos tem-se assistido, no Brasil, a um aumento no interesse pela silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus, principalmente decorrente das vantagens do processo quanto à possibilidade de contornar problemas de doenças, heterogeneidade e produtividade dos plantios florestais. Diante do crescente uso de clones, tanto pelas grandes empresas como por pequenos investidores, inclusive produtores rurais, têm-se observado consideráveis avanços tecnológicos, nas últimas (more) décadas, quanto aos processos de seleção de árvores, resgate de árvores superiores, avaliação de clones, produção comercial de mudas (estaquia, miniestaquia e microestaquia) e em práticas silviculturais adotadas na implantação e condução dos plantios de florestas clonais. Buscou-se enfocar os principais temas relacionados ao processo de clonagem do Eucalyptus. Abstract in spanish Evolución de la silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus en Brasil. En los últimos años, en Brasil, hubo un aumento en el interés por la silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus, debido principalmente a las ventajas del proceso en cuanto a la posibilidad de resolver problemas de enfermedades, heterogeneidad y productividad de las plantaciones forestales. El creciente uso de clones, tanto por las grandes empresas como por pequeños inversionistas, inclusive productores rurales, gene (more) ró considerables avances tecnológicos en las últimas décadas, con relación a procesos de selección de árboles, rescate de individuos superiores, evaluación de clones, producción comercial de plantas (estaquilla, miniestaquilla y microestaquilla) y en las prácticas silviculturales adoptadas en la siembra y conducción de plantaciones forestales clonales. En este sentido, se busca enfocar los principales temas relacionados al proceso de clonación de Eucalyptus, involucarados en un programa clonal de esta especie. Abstract in english Evolution in Brazil of Eucalyptus clonal silviculture. In the last years in Brazil there has been an increased interest in Eucalyptus clonal silviculture, mainly due to advantages in diseases control, reduced heterogeneity and increase in commercial plantations productivity. Clone usage has increased among large forestry companies, as well as small investors, including rural producers, due to a better perception of technology advances in last decades, such as processes of (more) plus-tree selection and rescue, clonal evaluation, commercial cuttings production (cutting, minicutting and microcutting), as well as diverse new silvicultural treatments related to clonal forestry. This article focuses on main issues related to Eucalyptus clonal processes, as part of this tree species clonal silviculture.

Xavier, Aloisio; da Silva, Rogério Luiz

2010-06-01

89

Increased biomass production by tissue culture of eucalyptus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buds collected from elite fast-growing eucalyptus trees were multiplied by tissue culture. In this study, the seed (control) and the tissue culture raised plants of Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. torelliana were planted in the field at two population densities. Observations of the height and diameter were taken for biomass calculation. Thirty-four months after planting, there was an overall increase in biomass of the tissue culture raised plants of both species compared with the controls. In E. tereticornis and E. torelliana, the increase in biomass was 36.9 and 49.5%, respectively, over the controls with a 2x2 m spacing. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Khuspe, S.S.; Gupta, P.K.; Kulkarni, D.K.; Mehta, U.; Mascarenhas, A.F.

1987-11-01

90

Utilisation of eucalyptus hybrid - a review. [E. tereticornis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus tereticornis popularly known as Eucalyptus hybrid or Mysore gum has been planted extensively throughout India under the plantation programmes in the successive five year plans. Although most of the plantations have been raised for pulp and paper for which the species is well known to provide an excellent raw material the questions are often posed about its suitability for other purposes. In order to determine its suitability for varied purposes, several investigations were undertaken in the recent past and some are underway at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. The results of these studies are briefly reviewed in the present paper. 21 references.

Rajput, S.S.; Tewari, M.C.

1984-01-01

91

SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con temperaturas no superiores a los 50°C, con un bajo potencial de secado e incluyeron tratamientos de vaporizado para recuperar colapso y reducir tensiones de secado. Se evaluaron contenidos de humedad inicial y final, densidad básica, gradientes de humedades, grietas, contracciones, tensiones y alabeos, determinando finalmente su aprovechamiento en pisos, blocks y muebles. Los resultados indican que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens presenta una fuerte evaporación superficial, generando altos gradientes de humedad, contracciones prematuras a nivel de superficie y tensiones de secado bajo el P.S.F, originando grietas superficiales e internas. Cuando el colapso es severo, debido a la baja resistencia mecánica de la pared celular de la madera, se generan grietas superficiales e internas en la madera. El mejor aprovechamiento se obtuvo para madera radial, donde el Eucalyptus globulus registró entre 52 y 81% para blocks, entre 48 y 91% para piso y entre 38 y 89% para muebles. El Eucalyptus nitens registró entre 60 y 71% en blocks, entre 59 y 61% para piso y entre 52 y 63% para muebles. La pérdida por nudos en Eucalyptus globulus fluctuó entre 3 y 22% en madera radial y entre 5 y 24% para madera tangencial. Para Eucalyptus nitens, en tanto, fluctuó entre 12 y 19% y entre 15 y 34% para los cortes antes señalados. La pérdida por grietas en Eucalyptus globulus varió entre 3 y 10% para madera radial y entre 15 y 21% para tangencial. En el Eucalyptus nitens ésta fluctuó entre 3 y 13% y entre 5 y 38%. Lo anterior, permite concluir que la madera de corte radial es la mejor opción para ser utilizada en estas aplicacionesDrying tests on both Eucalyptus nitens and globulus radial and tangential timber were carried out at Universidad del Bío-Bío Laboratories, under the approach of the D98I1018 FONDEF Project to be later validated at an industrial scale. A 30 mm-thick, 1.8 meter-long and random with scantling was used at a laboratory level, while the one applied at industrial level showed 32 mm of thickness, the lengths of which ranging from 2.1 to 2.8 meters, and variable widths. As general rule, mild drying programs were used, at temperatures not higher than 50°C, and having low drying potential. In turn, such programs included steaming based treatment with the purpose of overcoming collapse and reduce drying tensile. The following was assessed: initial and final moisture content, basic density, moisture gradients, checks, shrinkage, tensile and warpage, to finally specify their utilization in flooring, blocks and furniture. Outcomes have shown that Eucalyptus nitens timber features a high surface evaporation, thus generating high moisture gradients, early shrinkage at surface level, along with below P.S.F. drying related tensile, which, in turn, brings about surface and internal checks. When collapse turns to be severe, and because of timber cell wall mechanical strength, both surface and internal checks show up. A better utilization was achieved for radial timber, where Eucalyptus globulus values ranged from 52 to 81% in the case of blocks, form 58 to 91% with respect to flooring, and between 38 and 89% in the case of furniture. Eucalyptus globulus figures ranged from 60 to 71% for blocks, from 59 to 61% for flooring, and between 52 and 63% in the case of furniture. Losses caused by knots in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 22% in the case of radial timber, while the tangential one featured a 5 to 24% variation. On the other hand, Eucalyptus nitens timber showed variations from 12 to 19%, and from 15 to 34% f

Carlos Rozas; Reinaldo Sánchez; Paula Pinedo

2005-01-01

92

SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES/ Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de seca (more) do fueron suaves, con temperaturas no superiores a los 50°C, con un bajo potencial de secado e incluyeron tratamientos de vaporizado para recuperar colapso y reducir tensiones de secado. Se evaluaron contenidos de humedad inicial y final, densidad básica, gradientes de humedades, grietas, contracciones, tensiones y alabeos, determinando finalmente su aprovechamiento en pisos, blocks y muebles. Los resultados indican que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens presenta una fuerte evaporación superficial, generando altos gradientes de humedad, contracciones prematuras a nivel de superficie y tensiones de secado bajo el P.S.F, originando grietas superficiales e internas. Cuando el colapso es severo, debido a la baja resistencia mecánica de la pared celular de la madera, se generan grietas superficiales e internas en la madera. El mejor aprovechamiento se obtuvo para madera radial, donde el Eucalyptus globulus registró entre 52 y 81% para blocks, entre 48 y 91% para piso y entre 38 y 89% para muebles. El Eucalyptus nitens registró entre 60 y 71% en blocks, entre 59 y 61% para piso y entre 52 y 63% para muebles. La pérdida por nudos en Eucalyptus globulus fluctuó entre 3 y 22% en madera radial y entre 5 y 24% para madera tangencial. Para Eucalyptus nitens, en tanto, fluctuó entre 12 y 19% y entre 15 y 34% para los cortes antes señalados. La pérdida por grietas en Eucalyptus globulus varió entre 3 y 10% para madera radial y entre 15 y 21% para tangencial. En el Eucalyptus nitens ésta fluctuó entre 3 y 13% y entre 5 y 38%. Lo anterior, permite concluir que la madera de corte radial es la mejor opción para ser utilizada en estas aplicaciones Abstract in english Drying tests on both Eucalyptus nitens and globulus radial and tangential timber were carried out at Universidad del Bío-Bío Laboratories, under the approach of the D98I1018 FONDEF Project to be later validated at an industrial scale. A 30 mm-thick, 1.8 meter-long and random with scantling was used at a laboratory level, while the one applied at industrial level showed 32 mm of thickness, the lengths of which ranging from 2.1 to 2.8 meters, and variable widths. As gener (more) al rule, mild drying programs were used, at temperatures not higher than 50°C, and having low drying potential. In turn, such programs included steaming based treatment with the purpose of overcoming collapse and reduce drying tensile. The following was assessed: initial and final moisture content, basic density, moisture gradients, checks, shrinkage, tensile and warpage, to finally specify their utilization in flooring, blocks and furniture. Outcomes have shown that Eucalyptus nitens timber features a high surface evaporation, thus generating high moisture gradients, early shrinkage at surface level, along with below P.S.F. drying related tensile, which, in turn, brings about surface and internal checks. When collapse turns to be severe, and because of timber cell wall mechanical strength, both surface and internal checks show up. A better utilization was achieved for radial timber, where Eucalyptus globulus values ranged from 52 to 81% in the case of blocks, form 58 to 91% with respect to flooring, and between 38 and 89% in the case of furniture. Eucalyptus globulus figures ranged from 60 to 71% for blocks, from 59 to 61% for flooring, and between 52 and 63% in the case of furniture. Losses caused by knots in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 22% in the case of radial timber, while the tangential one featured a 5 to 24% variation. On the other hand, Eucalyptus nitens timb

Rozas, Carlos; Sánchez, Reinaldo; Pinedo, Paula

2005-01-01

93

Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus/ In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mens (more) almente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina) e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético). Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS cult (more) ure media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

Borges, Silvano Rodrigues; Xavier, Aloisio; Oliveira, Leandro Silva de; Lopes, Aline Pontes; Otoni, Wagner Campos

2011-04-01

94

Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina) e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético). Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones.The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS culture media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges; Aloisio Xavier; Leandro Silva de Oliveira; Aline Pontes Lopes; Wagner Campos Otoni

2011-01-01

95

ACLIMATATION OF PLANTS in vitro OBTAINED OF Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. BLAKE AND Eucalyptus grandis HILL EX MAIDEN  

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Full Text Available Micropropagated plants of the species: Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis from 3 to 7 cm. of length with at least 3 roots, were transferred to bags containing a argillarenaceous soil, they were situated in a shaded place which gave a 70 % of shadow. Irrigation was applied by means of spray at intervals during 15 days and they were fertilized after 25 days of acclimatization. Sprinkling with cupper oxichloride were done every 7 days. Two months later the plantlets reached 20 cm of length, so they were consider ready to transplanted to the field. The adaptation percentages gotten were: E. urophylla 85 % y E. grandis 75%.

Rosa Martínez Ruiz; Hilda S. Azpíroz Rivero; José Luis Rodríguez De La O; Víctor M. Cetina Alcalá; M. A. Gutiérrez Espinosa

2005-01-01

96

Produção e decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii/ Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A produção continuada de madeira em plantios comerciais exige conhecimento do processo de ciclagem de nutrientes, que envolve, entre outros aspectos, a produção e a decomposição de serapilheira. Assim, neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar a influência das variáveis climáticas na produção de serapilheira e de seus componentes, além de avaliar a taxa de decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. Para a execuç (more) ão do estudo, foram instaladas 4 parcelas de 20 m x 20 m, em cada uma foram instalados 4 coletores para as frações folhas, galhos finos e miscelânea da serapilheira e 3 subparcelas para a coleta da fração galhos grossos. O tecido vegetal coletado foi utilizado para o cálculo da deposição e da correlação existente entre variáveis climáticas e deposição. As variáveis climáticas utilizadas, com base mensal, foram temperatura média, temperatura máxima média, temperatura mínima média, precipitação pluviométrica, umidade relativa média, velocidade média do vento, evapotranspiração e radiação solar média, ambas fornecidas por uma estação experimental. Já, para a avaliação da decomposição da serapilheira foram coletadas aleatoriamente 4 amostras quadradas de 0,25 m de lado em cada parcela, utilizadas para a determinação do coeficiente de decomposição (K), meia vida (t0,5) e tempo de decomposição de 95% da serapilheira (t0,95). A produção mensal de serapilheira foi fracamente correlacionada com variáveis climáticas e apresentou média anual de 7,4 Mg ha-1, sendo composta predominantemente pela fração folhas (60%). A decomposição de serapilheira foi considerada lenta. Abstract in english The sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin (more) branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K), half life (t0,5 ) and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 ). The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%). The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

Schumacher, Mauro Valdir; Corrêa, Robson Schaff; Viera, Márcio; Araújo, Elias Frank de

2013-09-01

97

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC).

Marinalva Oliveira Freitas; Mary Anne S. Lima; Edilberto R. Silveira

2007-01-01

98

Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

2007-07-01

99

Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora/ Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the iso (more) lated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC).

Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

2007-01-01

100

Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis/ Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta). O delineamento exper (more) imental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v), 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA). Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or without the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four (more) replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA). Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

Pereira, M.R.R; Martins, D; Rodrigues, A.C.P; Souza, G.S.F; Cardoso, L.A

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v), 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA). Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto.Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or without the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA). Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

M.R.R Pereira; D Martins; A.C.P Rodrigues; G.S.F Souza; L.A Cardoso

2011-01-01

102

Calonectria species associated with cutting rot of Eucalyptus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Decline in the productivity of Eucalyptus hybrid cutting production in the Guangdong Province of China is linked to cutting rot associated with several Calonectria spp. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. Two previously undescribed Calo...

Lombard, Lorenzo; Zhou, Xu Dong; Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Wingfield, Michael J.

103

Pollinating Agents of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. –Insects or Wind?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eucalyptus citriodora is a self-compatible, protandrous, monoclinous, mass-bloomer tree. Protandrous nature prevents intrafloral selfing. Geitonogamy becomes predominant. Eighteen different insect species were recorded at the flowers foraging for nectar and pollen. The inefficiency of the visitors m...

Ashoke Bhattacharya; Subrata Mondal; Sudhendu Mandal

104

Above-ground biomass of Eucalyptus camaldulenis Dehn in Israel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus camaldulenisis of d.b.h. from 4 to 40 cm were sampled to determine the weight of the above ground biomass. Double-entry tables were developed from allometric relations to predict oven-dry weights of biomass components, and data are provided to calculate energy contents. The significance of whole-tree-utilization is emphasized. 11 references.

Zohar, Y.; Karschon, R.

1984-01-01

105

Antimicrobial and Gastroprotective Activities of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) Crude Extracts  

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Full Text Available The crude extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial and gastro-protective activities in albino rats. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by screening the crude plant extract for activity against Candida albicans and clinically isolated gentamycin resistant wound bacteria viz: Staphylococcus aureus UCH 2600, Escherichia coli UCH 2554, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 2780 and Proteus mirabilis UCH 2773. These microorganisms were susceptible to the crude extracts at a 10 mg mL-1 concentration. The gastroprotective activity of the methanol extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (MEEC) was investigated in rats. Gastro protection was evaluated against gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol/HCl mixture. The Hcl/Ethanol mixture (1.5 mL of 0.15 N HCl in 70% ethanol) caused severe gastric damage with ulcer index 2.7?0.33. Pre-treatment of animals with crude extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf 200 and 1000 mg kg-1 orally for 1 h significantly reduced the formation of ulcer by the HCl/ethanol mixture with preventive ratios of 56 and 89%, respectively. Ranitidine afforded 92.5% protection. The results suggest that crude extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis has both antimicrobial and anti-ulcer properties.

B.A. Adeniyi; T.O. Lawal; S.B. Olaleye

2006-01-01

106

GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CARBONIZATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPP KINETIC MECHANISMS  

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Full Text Available In the present work, a set of general equations related to kinetic mechanism of wood compound carbonization: hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin was obtained by Avrami-Eroffev and Arrhenius equations and Thermogravimetry of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis samples, TG-Isothermal and TG-Dynamic. The different thermal stabilities and decomposition temperature bands of those species compounds were applied as strategy to obtain the kinetic parameters: activation energy, exponential factor and reaction order. The kinetic model developed was validated by thermogravimetric curves from carbonization of others biomass such as coconut. The kinetic parameters found were - Hemicelluloses: E=98,6 kJmol, A=3,5x106s-1 n=1,0; - Cellulose: E=182,2 kJmol, A=1,2x1013s-1 n=1,5; - Lignin: E=46,6 kJmol, A=2,01s-1 n=0,41. The set of equations can be implemented in a mathematical model of wood carbonization simulation (with heat and mass transfer equations) with the aim of optimizing the control and charcoal process used to produce pig iron.

Túlio Jardim Raad; Paulo César da C. Pinheiro; Maria Irene Yoshida

2006-01-01

107

In silico survey of resistance (R) genes in Eucalyptus transcriptome  

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Full Text Available A major goal of plant genome research is to recognize genes responsible for important traits. Resistance genes are among the most important gene classes for plant breeding purposes being responsible for the specific immune response including pathogen recognition, and activation of plant defence mechanisms. These genes are quite abundant in higher plants, with 210 clusters found in Eucalyptus FOREST database presenting significant homology to known R-genes. All five gene classes of R-genes with their respective conserved domains are present and expressed in Eucalyptus. Most clusters identified (93) belong to the LRR-NBS-TIR (genes with three domains: Leucine-rich-repeat, Nucleotide-binding-site and Toll interleucine 1-receptor), followed by the serine-threonine-kinase class (49 clusters). Some new combinations of domains and motifs of R-genes may be present in Eucalyptus and could represent novel gene structures. Most alignments occurred with dicots (94.3%), with emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) sequences. All best alignments with monocots (5.2%) occurred with rice (Oryza sativa) sequences and a single cluster aligned with the gymnosperm Pinus sylvestris (0.5%). The results are discussed and compared with available data from other crops and may bring useful evidences for the understanding of defense mechanisms in Eucalyptus and other crop species.

Adriano Barbosa-da-Silva; Ana C. Wanderley-Nogueira; Raphaela R.M. Silva; Luiz C. Berlarmino; Nina M. Soares-Cavalcanti; Ana M. Benko-Iseppon

2005-01-01

108

Hadoop MapReduce in Eucalyptus Private Cloud  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates how setting up a private cloud using the Eucalyptus Cloud system could be done along with it's usability, requirements and limitations as an open-source cloud platform providing private cloud solutions. It also studies if using the MapReduce framework through Apache Hadoop's...

Nilsson, Johan

109

Phase change-related variations of dome shape in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis shoot apical meristems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shoot apical meristem (SAM) domes derived from five different outdoor and in vitro sources of juvenile and mature Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis akin genotypes were compared. Overall measurements of SAM dome height H and diameter D ranged from 2 to 35 ?m and 20 to 80 ?m, with significant differences according to the various physiological origins of plant material investigated. SAM domes from the mature trees “Mat” were taller than those from the rejuvenated ministock plants “Rej”; from the in vitro microcuttings “IVM” of the same clone and also from the in vitro juvenile seedlings “IVJ”, whereas outdoor seedlings “Juv” exhibited intermediate SAM dome height. SAM domes from the rejuvenated material “Rej”, from the in vitro mature “IVM” and juvenile “IVJ” origins were also narrower than those from the outdoor seedlings “Juv” and to lesser extent than those from the mature trees “Mat”. Overall, the mature source “Mat” displayed bigger and somehow sharper hemispherical domes than those from “Rej” and “Juv”, physiologically more juvenile, or those from the in vitro origins “IVM” and “IVJ” which looked flatter and smaller. SAM dome height, diameter D and H/D values varied also significantly according to the plastochron. More specifically, H, D, and H/D SAM differences between the five origins were not significant during the early plastochron phase corresponding to leaf initiation, to become more salient as leaf structures started to elongate and to differentiate. This was particularly obvious for mature tree “Mat” SAM dome shapes which showed at this stage much higher H/D values than the other SAM sources. A shape index S used for characterizing more accurately dome shape confirmed these trends. These observations provide additional arguments to the view that juvenility in trees becomes more and more time- and shoot-tip restricted as ageing increases in the course of time during the ontogenetical process and could be ultimately confined to the most organogenic phase of SAM, from which shoot characteristics derive.

Mankessi François; Saya AubinR; Boudon Frédéric; Guédon Yann; Montes Fabienne; Lartaud Marc; Verdeil Jean-Luc; Monteuuis Olivier

2010-08-01

110

Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm were collected from 14 trees of Eucalyptus grandis derived from the `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980) model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

Fred Willians Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

2006-01-01

111

An efficient procedure to stably introduce genes into an economically important pulp tree (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla).  

Science.gov (United States)

Regeneration problems are one of the main limitations preventing the wider application of genetic engineering strategies to the genus Eucalyptus. Seedlings from Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla were selected according to their regeneration (adventitious organogenesis) and transformation capacity. After in vitro cloning, the best genotype of 250 tested was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) antisense cDNA from Eucalyptus gunnii was transferred, under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter with a double enhancer sequence, into a selected genotype. According to kanamycin resistance and PCR verification, 120 transformants were generated. 58% were significantly inhibited for CAD activity, and nine exhibited the highest down-regulation, ranging from 69 to 78% (22% residual activity). Southern blot hybridisation showed a low transgene copy number, ranging from 1 to 4, depending on the transgenic line. Northern analyses on the 5-16 and 3-23 lines (respectively one and two insertion sites) demonstrated the antisense origin of CAD gene inhibition. With respectively 26 and 22% of residual CAD activity, these two lines were considered as the most interesting and transferred to the greenhouse for further analyses. PMID:12885162

Tournier, Vincent; Grat, Sabine; Marque, Christiane; El Kayal, Walid; Penchel, Ricardo; de Andrade, Gisele; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Teulières, Chantal

2003-08-01

112

Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)  

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Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Lagartas de T. arnobia alimentadas na geração anterior com folhas de E. grandis preferiram folhas jovens de E. grandis e E.cloeziana, enquanto as alimentadas com E. saligna, na geração anterior, preferiram folhas velhas de E. grandis. A espécie preferida por lagartas de T. arnobia foi E. grandis, observando-se, também maior preferência por folhas jovens que por folhas velhas nas espécies utilizadas nos testes.Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is considered one of the most serious Eucalyptus pests in Brazil. This work was carried out aiming to study feeding preference of T. arnobia and the influence of leaf age on the host selection, using young and old leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Caterpillars fed with E. grandis leaves in previous generation, preferred young leaves of E. grandis and E. cloeziana, while caterpillars fed with E. saligna in previous generation preferred old leaves of E. grandis. The most consumed species was E. grandis, and the caterpillars preferred young leaves than old ones, for all species studied.

Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos; Wilson Badiali Crocomo; Luiz Carlos Forti; Carlos Frederico Wilcken

1999-01-01

113

Conservation and synteny of SSR loci and QTLs for vegetative propagation in four Eucalyptus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conservation of microsatellite loci, heterozygous in Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus globulus, allowed us to propose homeologies among genetic linkage groups in these species, supported by at least three SSR loci in two different linkage groups. Marker-trait associations for sprouting and adventitious rooting ability were also compared in the four species. Putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing vegetative propagation traits were located on homeologous linkage groups. Our findings indicate high transferability of microsatellite markers between Eucalyptus species of the Symphyomyrtus subgenus and establish foundations for the use of synteny in the genetic analysis of this genus. Microsatellite markers should help integrate eucalypt genetic linkage maps from various sources. The availability of comparative linkage maps provides a basis of more-efficient use of genetic information for molecular breeding and evolutionary studies in Eucalyptus. PMID:12582553

Marques, M.; Brondani, V.; Grattapaglia, D.; Sederoff, R.

2002-06-21

114

Transpiration, stomatal behavior and growth of eucalyptus hybrid seedlings under different soil moisture levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were designed to test the Luxury consumption of water by Eucalyptus hybrid. The results show that under flooded conditions as well as near field capacity Eucalyptus hybrid transpires water copiously. Results also show that under conditions of restricted soil moisture supply, controlled stomatal closure occurs leading to reduction in transpiration rate. It is concluded that growing Eucalyptus hybrid around 15% soil moisture level brings about optimal water usage without series reduction in dry matter production. 17 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

Rawat, P.S.; Negi, D.S.; Rawat, J.S.; Gurumurti, K.

1985-12-01

115

Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases.

Waldman N

2011-10-01

116

Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method/ Transformação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenário silvicultural mundial devido à sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rápido e produção de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gênero é dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformação genética importante ferramenta para esse propósito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagação in vitro para indução, regeneração e seleçã (more) o que permita a obtenção de plantas transgênicas a partir de grupos de células transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formação de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformação genética de folhas e calos através da infecção por A. tumefaciens. Para a formação de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentração de nitrogênio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e água de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformação genética de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas à técnica de agrobiobalística, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartículas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferência do gene, enquanto para a transformação genética dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influência de diferentes períodos de infecção. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformação genética de folhas através da técnica de agrobiobalística foi efetiva, sendo possível observar a expressão transiente do gene gus, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os períodos de infecção (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens também apresentaram expressão transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regeneração e seleção e apresentaram formação de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for this purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transforme (more) d cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

Mendonça, Evânia Galvão; Stein, Vanessa Cristina; Balieiro, Flávia Pereira; Lima, Carolina Delfin Fernandes; Santos, Breno Régis; Paiva, Luciano Vilela

2013-06-01

117

Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis/ Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entre 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um (more) desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox perfo (more) rmance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.

Fantinatti, Jussara Bertho; Usberti, Roberto

2007-01-01

118

EVOLUÇÃO DA SILVICULTURA CLONAL DE eucalyptus NO BRASIL  

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Full Text Available En los últimos años, en Brasil, hubo un aumento en el interés por la silvicultura clonal de Eucalyptus, debido principalmente a las ventajas del proceso en cuanto a la posibilidad de resolver problemas de enfermedades, heterogeneidad y productividad de las plantaciones forestales. El creciente uso de clones, tanto por las grandes empresas como por pequeños inversionistas, inclusive productores rurales, generó considerables avances tecnológicos en las últimas décadas, con relación a procesos de selección de árboles, rescate de individuos superiores, evaluación de clones, producción comercial de plantas (estaquilla, miniestaquilla y microestaquilla) y en las prácticas silviculturales adoptadas en la siembra y conducción de plantaciones forestales clonales. En este sentido, se busca enfocar los principales temas relacionados al proceso de clonación de Eucalyptus, involucarados en un programa clonal de esta especie.

Aloisio Xavier; Rogério Luiz da Silva

2010-01-01

119

Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

Ricardo Harakava

2005-01-01

120

A novel secondary metabolite from the Eucalyptus pathogen Mycosphaerella cryptica  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most abundant metabolite of the eucalyptus leaf spot pathogen Mycosphaerella cryptica was extracted from agar cultures. The structure of the compound was elucidated by detailed studies of NMR and MS data and by comparison with derivatives. The compound is a previously undescribed diphenylether structurally related to pannaric acid found in lichens. Culture extracts from another species of Mycosphaerella isolated from the same environment yielded 5-hydroxymethylfuran-3-carboxylic acid, a furan acidic compound previously isolated from a basidiomycete fungus. Assays for bioactivity of these metabolites revealed no evidence for antimicrobial activity. Some phytotoxicity was seen on newly emerged leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, but not on juvenile or adult leaves, when treated with either metabolite.

Assante G; Nasini G; Zhang S; Bradshaw RE

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of (more) each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

Harakava, Ricardo

2005-01-01

122

Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus canker diseases in Colombia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identities of Botryosphaeriaceae causing cankers on Eucalyptus in Colombia were investigated using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. The pathogenicity of the species was also assessed on 42 Eucalyptus grandis clones planted at four different sites. Two species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were found to occur on E. grandis in Colombia. Neofusicoccum ribis was the more common species, and also the most pathogenic. Botryosphaeria dothidea was found only in one zone of Colombia, and was also less pathogenic than N. ribis. These two species could be distinguished easily based on DNA sequences of the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA region and EF1-?, in addition to conidial sizes. Significant differences in resistance of clones to these pathogens were also evident from the various trials.

Rodas CA; Slippers B; Gryzenhout M; Wingfield MJ

2009-04-01

123

The post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a conserved surveillance mechanism that identifies and cleaves double-stranded RNA molecules and their cellular cognate transcripts. The RNA silencing response is actually used as a powerful technique (named RNA interference) for potent and specific inhibition of gene expression in several organisms. To identify gene products in Eucalyptus sharing similarities with enzymes involved in the PTGS pathway, we queried the expressed sequence tag database of the Brazilian Eucalyptus Genome Sequence Project Consortium (FORESTs) with the amino acid sequences of known PTGS-related proteins. Among twenty-six prospected genes, our search detected fifteen assembled sequences encoding products presenting high level of similarity (E value < 10-40) to proteins involved in PTGS in plants and other organisms. We conclude that most of the genes known to be involved in the PTGS pathway are represented in the FORESTs database.

Flávio Tetsuo Sassaki; Tiago Campos-Pereira; Ivan de Godoy Maia

2005-01-01

124

Biotransformation of (-)-borneol by cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six new biotransformation products, (-)-borneol 2-O-beta-gentiobioside, (-)-borneol 2-O-beta-sophoroside, (-)-borneol 2',6'-di-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 6-exo-hydroxyborneol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 4-hydroxyborneol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5-exo-hydroxyborneol 2-O-beta-gentiobioside, together with 5-exo-hydroxyborneol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from jar fermentor cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana following administration of (-)-borneol.

Orihara Y; Furuya T

1993-11-01

125

Dinâmica de decomposição e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus no sul do Brasil/ Litter decomposition and nutrients in Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus Hybrid Stand in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada, sua decomposição e a taxa de disponibilização de nutrientes em um plantio híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram demarcadas quatro parcelas (20 m Ã- 20 m) e, em cada uma delas, foram coletadas estacionalmente (entre março de 2007 e dezembro de 2010) quatro amostras de forma aleatória. A quantidade de serapilheira estocada sobre o solo foi, e (more) m média, de 14,0 Mg ha-1.O coeficiente de decomposição foi de 0,54, com tempo médio para a renovação (1/K) de 1,86 anos e tempo médio para decomposição de 50 e 95% da serapilheira em 1,29 e 5,59 anos, respectivamente. O potássio apresentou o maior coeficiente de devolução (0,52), seguido por B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu; consequentemente, o potássio apresentou menor tempo médio de residência na serapilheira (0,91 anos). Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to determine the litter accumulation stock, its decomposition and nutrient release in an Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state. Four plots were demarcated (20 m Ã- 20 m) and four samples were seasonally sampled (from March 2007 to December 2010) at random. Average litter accumulation on soil was 14.0 Mg ha-1. Litter accumulated showed 0.54 decomposition coeffi (more) cient with average renewal time (1/K) of 1.86 years and average time to litter decomposition of 50, and 95% of litter in 1.29 and 5.59 years, respectively. Potassium presented the highest turnover (0.52), followed by B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu and consequently the lowest average residence time in the litter (0.91 years).

Viera, Márcio; Schumacher, Mauro Valdir; Caldeira, Marcos Vinicius Winckler

2013-09-01

126

Dinâmica de decomposição e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus no sul do Brasil/ Litter decomposition and nutrients in Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus Hybrid Stand in southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada, sua decomposição e a taxa de disponibilização de nutrientes em um plantio híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram demarcadas quatro parcelas (20 m Ã- 20 m) e, em cada uma delas, foram coletadas estacionalmente (entre março de 2007 e dezembro de 2010) quatro amostras de forma aleatória. A quantidade de serapilheira estocada sobre o solo foi, e (more) m média, de 14,0 Mg ha-1.O coeficiente de decomposição foi de 0,54, com tempo médio para a renovação (1/K) de 1,86 anos e tempo médio para decomposição de 50 e 95% da serapilheira em 1,29 e 5,59 anos, respectivamente. O potássio apresentou o maior coeficiente de devolução (0,52), seguido por B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu; consequentemente, o potássio apresentou menor tempo médio de residência na serapilheira (0,91 anos). Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to determine the litter accumulation stock, its decomposition and nutrient release in an Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state. Four plots were demarcated (20 m Ã- 20 m) and four samples were seasonally sampled (from March 2007 to December 2010) at random. Average litter accumulation on soil was 14.0 Mg ha-1. Litter accumulated showed 0.54 decomposition coeffi (more) cient with average renewal time (1/K) of 1.86 years and average time to litter decomposition of 50, and 95% of litter in 1.29 and 5.59 years, respectively. Potassium presented the highest turnover (0.52), followed by B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu and consequently the lowest average residence time in the litter (0.91 years).

Viera, Márcio; Schumacher, Mauro Valdir; Caldeira, Marcos Vinicius Winckler

2013-01-01

127

CARACTERIZAÇÃO ANATÔMICA DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata da descrição dos caracteres gerais e microscópicos da madeira de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage, sendo fornecidas fotomicrografias e fotografias em microscópio eletrônico. Foram encontrados poros em arranjo diagonal, característico do gênero; parênquima vasicêntrico e vasicêntrico confluente; raios homogêneos; fibras libriformes não septadas, e máculas medulares ocasionais. A porcentagem de elementos constituintes foi comparada com outras espécies da família Myrtaceae e as fibras e elementos vasculares avaliados em função da variação dentro da árvore.

Silvana Nisgoski; Graciela I. B. de Muñiz; Umberto Klock

1998-01-01

128

Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other.

de Lange WJ; Veldtman R; Allsopp MH

2013-08-01

129

Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China  

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Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

WenJun Zhang

2012-01-01

130

Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease.

Ishnava KB; Chauhan JB; Barad MB

2013-01-01

131

Chemical constituents and ecotoxicological effects of leaf extracts Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Full Text Available Artificial forests of Eucalyptus produce large amounts of litterbag that by the action of wind andrainwater are dragged into aquatic environment, with consequent alteration of the aquatic ecosystems.For evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of Eucalyptus urograndis litterbag in the aquatic environment;there were prepared organic extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol), besides anaqueous extract. These polar extracts were tested in vitro against Daphnia similis and D. laevis(Anomopoda: Daphiniidae) as the biological indicators while Chironomus xanthus (Diptera:Chironomidae) was used as bio-indicators for the less polar ones. The testing confirmed the presence oftoxic activity in all extracts and indicated the ecotoxicological potential of the E. urograndis leaves inaquatic environments. The test results pointed to the need of new sustainable technologies allow thepreservation of aquatic environments located in the vicinity of Eucalyptus sp. fields. Concomitantly tothe ecotoxicological studies, hexane and chloroform extracts of litterbag leaves were subjected tophytochemical study, leading to the isolation of 5-hydroxy-4’,7-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone(eucalyptin), 2-(4 ?-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl nonacosanoate and long chain alcohol. These two extracts,along with the aqueous extract were derivatized with BSTFA and then analyzed by GC-MS, allowingto detect 25 organic compounds, mainly fatty acids, long chain hydrocarbons, steroids, carbohydratesand long chain alcohols.

Lucienir Pains Duarte, Rute Cunha Figueiredo, Débora Barbosa da Silva Soares, Marcela Maciel Nogueira; Fabíola Oliveira Lino de Araújo, Arnola Cecília Rietzler

2010-01-01

132

DRYING BEHAVIOR AND PERMEABILITY OF Eucalyptus grandis LUMBER  

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Full Text Available Although the increasing economic importance of Eucalyptus lumber to furniture and other value added products manufacturing, its industrial use is still small. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to dry the lumber and related loses of raw material. There is a general recommendation in literature to use a low drying rate in initial stages of the process, and changing to a more aggressive drying after removal of liquid water from the lumber. According classical theory about drying of porous material, this point should coincide with the predominance of diffusion phenomena in the moisture movement; which could be determined through the characteristic drying curve of the material. With the objective to get better knowledge about the drying of Eucalyptus grandis lumber, its characteristic drying curve was determined, and the results proved that Eucalyptus grandis lumber is not permeable to liquid flow. Based on its characteristic drying curve, it is possible to suggest the change of drying conditions when lumber moisture content, dry basis, is between 35% and 40%, then starting a more aggressive drying

Ivaldo P Jankowsky; Gilson Roberto V. dos Santos

2005-01-01

133

ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,; Jorge Luiz Colodette,; Anna-Stiina Jääskeläinen

2012-01-01

134

Antibacterial and Gastroprotective Properties of Eucalyptus torelliana [Myrtaceae] Crude Extracts  

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Full Text Available The antibacterial and gastroprotective properties of crude extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana were investigated. Antibacterial activity was investigated by screening the crude extracts for activity against clinically isolated strains of wound bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus UCH 2010, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 2125, Escherichia coli UCH 2007, Klebsiella species UCH 2694 and Proteus mirabilis CHO 2014. The dichloromethane crude extracts demonstrated highest antibacterial activity against all tested microorganisms at 10 mg mL-1 concentration. The gastroprotective effect of the crude extract of the leaf was investigated in albino rats. This was evaluated against gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol/HCl mixture. Ethanol/HCl mixture (1.5 mL of 0.15 N HCl in 70% ethanol) caused severe gastric mucosal damage with ulcer index of 2.7±0.33. Pre-treatment of animals with crude extract of Eucalyptus torelliana leaf 200 and 1000 mg kg-1 orally for 1h significantly reduced the Pre-treatment of animals with 50 mg kg -1. Ranitidine for 1 h reduced the reduced the formation of ulcer by the ethanol HCl mixture with preventive ratios 56 and 92.5%, respectively. Ranitidine (50 mg kg-1) afforded 92.5% protection. The results therefore suggest that crude extracts of Eucalyptus torelliana possess both antibacterial and gastroprotective properties.

B.A. Adeniyi; R.O. Odufowoke; S.B. Olaleye

2006-01-01

135

Disentangling respiratory acclimation and adaptation to growth temperature by Eucalyptus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

• Respiratory acclimation to growth temperature differs between species, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that respiratory acclimation of CO(2) release is a consequence of growth regulation such that growth rates of young foliage of Eucalyptus spp. are similar at contrasting growth temperatures. Further, we tested whether such a response is affected by adaptation of Eucalyptus to different thermal environments via growth at different altitudes in the Australian Alps. • We employed calorimetric methods to relate rates of CO(2) release (mainly from substrate oxidation) and rates of O(2) reduction to conservation of energy. Temperature responses of these processes provided insight into mechanisms that control energy conservation and expenditure, and helped define 'instantaneous enthalpic growth capacity' (CapG). • CapG increased with altitude, but was counteracted by other factors in species adapted to highland habitats. The acclimation response was partly driven by changes in respiratory capacity (CapR(CO2)), and partly by more pronounced dynamic responses of CO(2) release (?(R(CO2))) to measurement temperature. We observed enhanced temperature sensitivity of O(2) reduction (E(o)(R(O2))) at higher altitudes. • Adaptation to growth temperature included differences in respiration and growth capacities, but there was little evidence that Eucalyptus species vary in metabolic flexibility.

Kruse J; Turnbull TL; Adams MA

2012-07-01

136

CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES  

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Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcisio Lima; Fábio Akira Mori

2003-01-01

137

Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus Rooting of mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clones  

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Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB) no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 dias em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias), três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1) e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator indol butiric acid (IBA) on the rooting of apical and intermediate mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones. The mini-cutting rooting was carried out for 30 days in acclimatized greenhouse and after the cuttings were transferred to shade house, where they remained for 10 days. The experimental design was in random blocks with a triple factorial arrangement constituted by two types of mini-cuttings (apical and intermediate), three IBA concentrations (0, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1) and eleven clones, in three repetitions, composed of 12 mini-cuttings per repetition. The IBA did not affect the characteristics evaluated. The survival and rooting of apical mini-cuttings were significantly higher. There was significant difference among clones regarding the evaluated variables, except for survival after 30 days in greenhouse.

Silvano Rodrigues Borges; Aloisio Xavier; Leandro Silva de Oliveira; Lucas Amaral de Melo; Antônio Marcos Rosado

2011-01-01

138

Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus/ Rooting of mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB) no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 dias em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em (more) blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias), três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1) e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator indol butiric acid (IBA) on the rooting of apical and intermediate mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones. The mini-cutting rooting was carried out for 30 days in acclimatized greenhouse and after the cuttings were transferred to shade house, where they remained for 10 days. The experimental design was in random blocks with a triple facto (more) rial arrangement constituted by two types of mini-cuttings (apical and intermediate), three IBA concentrations (0, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1) and eleven clones, in three repetitions, composed of 12 mini-cuttings per repetition. The IBA did not affect the characteristics evaluated. The survival and rooting of apical mini-cuttings were significantly higher. There was significant difference among clones regarding the evaluated variables, except for survival after 30 days in greenhouse.

Borges, Silvano Rodrigues; Xavier, Aloisio; Oliveira, Leandro Silva de; Melo, Lucas Amaral de; Rosado, Antônio Marcos

2011-06-01

139

Novel species of Calonectria associated with Eucalyptus leaf blight in Southeast China  

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Leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. is an important disease occurring on Eucalyptus trees grown in plantations of Southeast Asia. Symptoms of leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. have recently been observed in commercial Eucalyptus plantations in FuJian Province in Southeast China. The aim of t...

Chen, ShuaiFei; Lombard, Lorenzo; Roux, Jolanda; Xie, X.J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Zhou, Xu Dong

140

Gene flow estimation with microsatellites in a Malagasy seed orchard of Eucalyptus grandis  

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Eucalyptus grandis has a mixed-mating repro- ductive system. Malagasy Eucalyptus seed orchards were established 15 years ago with two aims both based on panmixia: open-pollinated seed production and genetic improvement. The panmixia hypothesis has never been confirmed in the seed orchard. From a see...

Chaix, G.; Gerber, S. A.; Razafimaharo, V.; Vigneron, P.; Verhaegen, D.; Hamon, S.

 
 
 
 
141

Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae from plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in South China  

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The Botryosphaeriaceae is a species-rich family that includes pathogens of a wide variety of trees, including Eucalyptus species. Symptoms typical of infection by the Botryosphaeriaceae have recently been observed in Eucalyptus plantations in South China. The aim of this study was to identify the Bo...

Chen, ShuaiFei; Pavlic, Draginja; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Xie, YaoJian; Wingfield, Michael J.; Zhou, Xu Dong

142

Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II.  

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Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and eve...

Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Mansilla, J. Pedro; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.

143

LEVANTAMENTO DE SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA) EM PLANTAÇÕES DE Eucalyptus spp. EM CUIABÁ, ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO  

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Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento populacional de espécies da família Scolytidae em plantios de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Dehnh. Dehnh., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com auxílio de armadilhas etanólicas, modelo escolitídeo-Curitiba, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso, de março de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas, sendo seis por talhão/espécie de Eucalyptus. As coletas foram quinzenais e divididas em dois períodos: seco (maio-outubro) e chuva (novembro-abril). Foram coletados um total de 19.153 indivíduos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 42 espécies. Nos períodos seco e chuvoso foram coletados 9.865 e 9.288 indivíduos respectivamente. Nos talhões de Eucalyptus pellita e de Eucalyptus urophylla, foram coletados as maiores quantidades de indivíduos em ambos os períodos analisados. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912); Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801) e Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934) foram, quantitativamente, as espécies mais importantes nos plantios das quatro espécies de Eucalyptus.

Alberto Dorval; Otávio Peres Filho; Eli Nunes Marques

2004-01-01

144

Attenuation of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Eucalyptus globulus  

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In traditional medicine, Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) was used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia in diabetes has been associated with increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage to tissue compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effec...

Nakhaee, Alireza; Bokaeian, Mohammad; Saravani, Mohsen; Farhangi, Ali; Akbarzadeh, Azim

145

Validation of models to estimate the fumigant and larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work is to validate the pre-existing models that relate the larvicidal and adulticidal activities of the Eucalyptus essential oils on Aedes aegypti. Previous works at our laboratory described that the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils can be estimated from the relative concentration of two main components (p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and that the adulticidal effectiveness can be explained, to a great extent, by the presence of large amounts of the component 1,8-cineole in it. In general, the results show that the higher adulticidal effect of essential oils the lower their larvicidal activity. Fresh leaves was harvested and distilled. Once the essential oil was obtained, the chemical composition was analysed, evaluating the biological activity of 15 species of the genus Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev and Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis × nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii var Benthamii Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus benthamii var dorrigoensis Maiden and Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson and K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus robusta Smith, Eucalyptus rubida Deane and Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker). Essential oils of these plant species were used for the validation of equations from preexistent models, in which observed and estimated values of the biological activity were compared. The regression analysis showed a strong validation of the models, re-stating the trends previously observed. The models were expressed as follows: A, fumigant activity [KT(50(min)) = 10.65-0.076 × 1,8-cineole (%)](p < 0.01; F, 397; R (2), 0.79); B, larval mortality (%)((40 ppm)) = 103.85 + 0.482 × p-cymene (%) - 0.363 × ?-pinene (%) - 1.07 × 1,8-cineole (%) (p < 0.01; F, 300; R (2), 0.90). These results confirmed the importance of the mayor components in the biological activity of Eucalyptus essential oils on A. aegypti. However, it is worth mentioning that two or three species differ in the data estimated by the models, and these biological activity results coincide with the presence of minor differential components in the essential oils. According to what was previously mentioned, it can be inferred that the model is able to estimate very closely the biological activity of essential oils of Eucalyptus on A. aegypti.

Lucia A; Juan LW; Zerba EN; Harrand L; Marcó M; Masuh HM

2012-05-01

146

Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay/ Inonotus splitbergeri um patógeno do caule de Eucalyptus globulus no Uruguai  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

MARTÍNEZ, SEBASTIÁN; LUPO, SANDRA; BETTUCCI, LINA

2002-07-01

147

Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay Inonotus splitbergeri um patógeno do caule de Eucalyptus globulus no Uruguai  

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Full Text Available Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

SEBASTIÁN MARTÍNEZ; SANDRA LUPO; LINA BETTUCCI

2002-01-01

148

Performance of Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus grandis trees grown from seed collected at four locations in Australia grew sufficiently better than trees grown from seed from 18 other locations when planted at four different sites on the island of Hawaii. Both E. grandis and E. saligna have been grown in Hawaii for many years, but no records had been made of where the original seed introductions had been made in Australia, or how the different seed lots introduced performed when used in Hawaii. The tests reported here were conducted to determine what locations in the range of the two species in Australia were likley to supply seed that would provide trees best adapted to certain sites on the island of Hawaii where extensive future planting was contemplated. Twenty-two seed lots were tested, 11 of each species. One E. saligna was a local collection, the rest were standard provenance collections made by CSIRO in Australia. The collections represented the complete latitudinal range and a broad elevational range of the species. Four tests were installed as complete randomized blocks, two in 1979 and two in 1981. The results reported are of 4 to 5 year-old trees. At all four sites most E. grandis provenances outgrew most E. saligna, but correlation was weak between latitude of the provenance (adjusted for elevation) and growth. Although the growth of the better performing provences was not statistically significant from the growth of the average performers, certain of the provenances were consistently good performers at all four sites. It is therefore recommended that seed be collected from the best trees growing at the locations in Australia where the provenance collections were made for use in planting sites similar to those of these tests. 4 references.

Skolmen, R.G.

1986-01-01

149

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

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Full Text Available A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that eucalyptus oil could be direct injectable in a regular diesel engine after little engine modification. This method showed almost same brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at full load compared to standard diesel operation. Except NOx emission other emissions were found closer to diesel baseline operation. This mode offered almost 50% smoke free operation at all loads compared to standard diesel operation. Also this method successfully proved the complete replacement of diesel fuel by eucalyptus oil.

D. TAMILVENDHAN; V. ILANGOVAN

2011-01-01

150

CLONAL MICROPROPAGATION in vitro OF Eucalyptus grandis AND E. urophylla  

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Full Text Available The eucalyptus tree (E. urophylla and E. grandis) is an important resource which provides cellulose and hemicellulose used in paper manufacturing in various parts of the world, and particularly in southeastern Mexico. Several biotechnological advances have been developed to solve the difficulties resulting from genetic variability in seed propagation presented by the eucalyptus species. This requires the study of diverse strategies of micropropagation which permit the obtainment and multiplication of eucalyptus clones. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish the technology for the in vitro clonal micropropagation of selected genotypes, for the purpose of obtaining high quality plants for plantations or clonal orchards in southeastern Mexico. For the establishment of the explants to in vitro conditions, the disinfestation times of the explants were evaluated, employing a combination of three levels of disinfestations with antibiotic (terramycin 40 mg/100 ml) and with fungicide (cuprimycin 150 mg/100 ml) at 0, 10 and 30 minutes, thus obtaining up to 90% of the cultures free of contamination. In addition, an evaluation was made of the multiplication of shoots, callus formation and rooting for both species, combining three levels of benzyladenine (0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 mg L-1) and of acetic naphthalene acid (0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L-1) in a Gamborg B5 culture medium. As many as 9 shoots per cultivated explant were obtained, and an average of 5.5 roots per explant, combining 3 mg L-1 of benzyladenine and 1.0 and 3.0 mg L-1 of acetic naphthalene acid. The protocols were established for the acclimatization of the plants.

Rosa Martínez Ruiz; Hilda S. Azpíroz Rivero; José Luis Rodríguez De la O; Víctor M. Cetina Alcalá; M. A. Gutiérrez Espinosa; Jaime Sahagún Castellanos

2005-01-01

151

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels/ Avaliação do potencial de uso de nove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus para produção de lâminas e compensados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espécies de Eucalyptus na produção de lâminas e painéis compensados multilaminados. As lâminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em três classes de qualidade para as nove espécies estudadas. Os painéis compensados foram produzidos em laboratório, com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizand (more) o a resina fenol-formaldeído, com gramatura de 360 g/m² (linha dupla). Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 140ºC e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminação indicaram que, com exceção de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espécies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento médio em laminação acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexão estática paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parâmetros estudados neste trabalho para produção de lâminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded tog (more) ether with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m² (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm², a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Iwakiri, Setsuo; Matos, Jorge Luis Monteiro de; Prata, José Guilherme; Trianoski, Rosilani; Silva, Leandro Soares da

2013-06-01

152

APLICAÇÕES DA MICROPROPAGAÇÃO NA CLONAGEM DE EUCALYPTUS NO BRASIL  

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Full Text Available Actualmente, en Brasil, dentro de las diversas técnicas de propagación in vitro, la micropropagación ha sido la que mayor interés científico y económico ha despertado en el campo forestal. De hecho, es la técnica más difundida por sus aplicaciones prácticas. Los primeros estudios fueron realizados en la década de los 50's. Entre 1970 y 1980 fueron establecidos algunos laboratorios de cultivo de tejidos. El presente trabajo es una revisión y una síntesis de la información de las aplicaciones de la micropropagación en la clonación de Eucalyptus en los programas de silvicultura clonal de Brasil.

Aloisio Xavier; Wagner Campos Otoni

2009-01-01

153

CO{sub 2} gasification of eucalyptus wood chars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is reported that chars obtained from Eucalyptus grandis sawdust at different carbonization temperatures were gasified with CO{sub 2} in isothermal and non-isothermal thermal gravimetric experiments. At low and intermediate conversion values the reactivity can be reasonably well explained in terms of the development of surface area as gasification proceeds. At high conversion values a steep increase in reactivity is observed which can be attributed to the increasing catalytic effect of the metallic constituents (mainly Na and K) of the inorganic matter present in the chars. Activation energies in the range 230-261 kJ mol{sup -1} are obtained. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Tancredi, N.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-10-01

154

Effect of extractives on heat content of melaleuca and eucalyptus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made of the effects of extraction with various solvents on the heat content of wood, bark, branches and foliage of Melaleuca quinquenervia and Eucalyptus grandis. The effect of extractives was measured by the difference in calorific values between extracted and unextracted samples. Ether or chloroform extractives produced more heat per g when burned than did methanol extractives or the structural components of the biomass sample. The effect of these extractives on the heat value of the materials was statistically significant though small.

Wang, S.; Huffman, J.B.

1982-01-01

155

A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa). A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg) and 1,396 singletons (Sg) that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO) and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

Rengel David; Clemente Hélène; Servant Florence; Ladouce Nathalie; Paux Etienne; Wincker Patrick; Couloux Arnaud; Sivadon Pierre; Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline

2009-01-01

156

Pollinating Agents of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. –Insects or Wind?  

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Full Text Available Eucalyptus citriodora is a self-compatible, protandrous, monoclinous, mass-bloomer tree. Protandrous nature prevents intrafloral selfing. Geitonogamy becomes predominant. Eighteen different insect species were recorded at the flowers foraging for nectar and pollen. The inefficiency of the visitors made the plant into anemophilous nature. Fruit set was unaffected when the insects were excluded from visiting the flowers. Flower and pollen anthesis, pollen release took place during day time. Nocturnal pollen release was not observed. The shifting of pollination system might be viewed as one of the adaptive mechanisms for tropical conditions.

Ashoke Bhattacharya; Subrata Mondal; Sudhendu Mandal

2005-01-01

157

A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. RESULTS: We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa). A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg) and 1,396 singletons (Sg) that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO) and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. CONCLUSION: In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

Rengel D; San Clemente H; Servant F; Ladouce N; Paux E; Wincker P; Couloux A; Sivadon P; Grima-Pettenati J

2009-01-01

158

Propagation of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) by organ and tissue culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Micropropagation methods are described for the production of clonal lines from Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) seedlings. Nodal explants from mature trees can also yield shoot cultures, but a high frequency of contamination occurs among such explants. Uncontaminated callus cultures can be produced from mature trees by culturing stamen filaments and shoots can subsequently be regenerated from this callus. The rooting percentage of shoot cultures from either nodes or stamen callus of mature trees is low compared with that from seedling explants. Considerable variation was observed between trees in the ability of stamen callus to regenerate shoots and in the frequency of rooting. (Refs. 27)

Bennett, M.J.; McComb, J.A.

1982-01-01

159

Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances  

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Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed better. In themechanical tests, MOE presented itself above the demands of the norm with the exception of provenance 7785 of Eucalyptus saligna,in which stress was performed parallel to the cover fibers. For parallel MOR, only the provenances 9789 and 10695 of Eucalyptusgrandis and 97852 of Eucalyptus cloeziana managed to reach the demands of the norm ABNT 31:000.05-001/2. For shearing stressand failure in wood, all the provenances and species showed themselves above the demands, with the exception of 10634; 48 and 9753of Eucalyptus grandis.

José Benedito Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin Mendes; Rafael Farinassi Mendes; Fábio Akira Mori

2009-01-01

160

Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita  

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Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Benedito Rocha Vital; Alexandre Santos Pimenta; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. RESULTS: Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (?-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. CONCLUSION: Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus.

Moura JC; Araújo P; Brito Mdos S; Souza UR; Viana Jde O; Mazzafera P

2012-01-01

162

Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (?-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus.

Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Araújo Pedro; Brito Michael dos; Souza Uiara; Viana Julianade Oliveira Fernandes; Mazzafera Paulo

2012-01-01

163

Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell./ Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas (more) adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades. Abstract in english Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Fl (more) akeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

Carneiro, Angélica de Cássia Oliveira; Vital, Benedito Rocha; Pimenta, Alexandre Santos; Della Lucia, Ricardo Marius

2004-10-01

164

Efecto de los sistemas de riego en la rentabilidad de plantaciones de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus)/ Effect of irrigation system type on profitability of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El riego es utilizado con mayor frecuencia para establecer plantaciones, con el fin de aumentar el crecimiento y la productividad por superficie. Se estudió el efecto de tres sistemas de riego: microaspersión (T1), goteo (T2) y surco (T3), en la rentabilidad de una plantación de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus), en el Valle Central de la Región del Bío Bío, Chile. La variable proyectada a la edad de cosecha fue el incremento volumétrico de los árboles. Para calcula (more) r costos de T1 y T2 se usó una base de datos de 200 predios agrícolas de diferentes superficies con instalación e implementación de estos sistemas. Para T3 se aplicaron costos actualizados de construcción y mantención de las estructuras requeridas para la evaluación financiera. La rentabilidad se determinó mediante el valor actual neto (VAN), valor económico del suelo (VES), y tasa interna de retorno modificada (TIRm). La rentabilidad para T1 y T2 tuvo valores negativos, es decir, estas técnicas de riego no generaron beneficios económicos. El riego por surco (T3) fue rentable para el volumen proyectado a los ocho y diez años de edad de cosecha, obteniéndose con los tres indicadores los mayores retornos al usar una tasa de descuento de 8 % y a un precio de la madera pulpable de 32 US$ m-3 ssc. El VAN fue 989 US$ ha-1 y 1106 US$ ha-1, el VES fue 2152 y 2406 US$ ha-1, y la TIRm 10.4 % y 10.1 %. Estos resultados justifican la utilización del riego por surco (T3) como una técnica eficiente del manejo integrado para una plantación de eucalipto de alta productividad. Abstract in english Irrigation is used increasingly in establishment of forest plantations in order to increase growth and productivity. The effect on profitability of a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation in the Central Valley of the Bío Bío Region, Chile, of three irrigation systems was studied: microsprinklers (T1), drip irrigation (T2) and surface irrigation (T3). The variable projected to harvest age was the volumetric increase of the trees. To calculate costs of T1 and T2, a (more) database was used of 200 agricultural operations of varying size where these systems were installed and implemented. For T3, current costs of construction and maintenance of the structures required were used for financial evaluation. Profitability was determined using net present value (NPV), potential land value (PLV) and modified internal return rate (MIRR). Profitability with Tl and T2 had negative values; that is, these irrigation techniques did not generate economic benefits. Surface irrigation (T3) was profitable for the volume projected to eight and ten years harvest age. The greatest returns were obtained with the three indicators using a discount rate of 8 % and a price of pulp wood of US$ 32 m-3 ssc. NPV was US$ 989 ha-¹ and US$ 1106 ha-1; PLV was US$ 2152 and 2406 ha-1, and MIRR was 10.4 % and 10.1 %. These results justify the use of surface irrigation (T3) as an efficient technique in the integrated management of a high-producing eucalyptus plantation.

Guerra, Emilio; Herrera, Miguel Á.; Drake, Fernando

2010-02-01

165

An assessment of volume-ratio functions for Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens in Chile/ Funciones de razón de volumen para Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se calibraron modelos de razón de volumen y de volumen total para Eucalyptus nitens y Eucalyptus globulus en el sur de Chile. Los modelos fueron ajustados en forma independiente y fueron sometidos a una validación tradicional. Esta validación consideró el sesgo y error total en estimaciones de volumen de productos considerando distintos índices de utilización o diámetros límite. Asimismo, las estimaciones de volumen de productos del sistema de razón de volumen fu (more) eron comparadas con las estimaciones de un modelo de ahusamiento (modelo de Bruce). Los resultados indican que funciones generales (comparadas con funciones locales) del logaritmo del volumen entregan mejores estimaciones del volumen total para ambas especies, mientras que un único modelo polinomial estima en mejor forma la razón de volumen en ambas especies. El sistema de funciones (modelos de volumen total + razón) estima insesgadamente volúmenes a diámetros límite de 5 y 10 cm para E. nitens y con un ligero sesgo para E. globulus. Para volúmenes a un diámetro límite de 18 cm las magnitudes de sesgo y error total son muy altas para ambas especies. Se encontró que estos errores totales están más relacionados con los errores en las estimaciones de volumen total que con los errores en las estimaciones de la razón de volumen. Cuando se comparan las estimaciones de volumen con la del modelo de ahusamiento se encontró que el sistema de razón de volumen tiene mejores estimaciones para E. nitens, pero para E. globulus las estimaciones del modelo de ahusamiento son mejores. Abstract in english Volume-ratio and total volume models for Eucalyptus nitens and E. globulus grown in southern Chile were ftted independently. The validation process considered the bias and the total error in the volume estimates, as well as the age classes close to thinning and harvesting operations. Volume estimates from the system of functions (volume and ratio) were compared to the volume estimates from a taper function (Bruce model) to estimate the volume at different top stem diamete (more) rs. The results indicated that general (as opposed to local) logarithmic functions performed better in their estimation of the total volume for both species, while a unique polynomial model was the best model for the ratio estimates for both Eucalyptus species. The system of functions (total volume + ratio models) was an unbiased estimator for a top stem diameter of 5 and 10 cm for E. nitens, and was a slightly biased estimator for E. globulus. Estimates of the volume of top stems with 18 cm diameters had a large bias and a large total error for both species. These total errors were generally related to errors in the total volume function rather than to errors in the ratio estimates. When the volume estimates were compared with estimates from a taper function, the volumne-ratio system performed better for E. nitens while the taper function performed better for E. globulus.

Gilabert, Horacio; Paci, Carlos

2010-04-01

166

Análise cinética da cura de adesivos de taninos das cascas de três espécies de Eucalyptus por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC) Kinetic analysis of bark tannin adhesives from three species of Eucalyptus by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a cinética de cura de adesivos à base de taninos de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus urophylla por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC), comparando-a com a cinética de cura de adesivos comerciais: fenol-formaldeído e de taninos de acácia-negra (Acacia mollissima D.Wild). Verificou-se que o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentou os parâmetros cinéticos (energia de ativação, entalpia, temperatura de pico e ordem de reação) mais próximos aos do adesivo comercial de taninos de acácia-negra, que foram totalmente diferentes do adesivo à base de fenol-formaldeído. Com base nestes parâmetros constatou-se que, em relação aos outros dois, o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla é o mais adequado para colagem, uma vez que em condições industriais ele necessitará de uso mínimo de energia e de tempo de prensagem durante o processo de colagem.This work aimed to analyze the cure kinetics of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus urophylla tannins based adhesives by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Another objective was to compare cure kinetics of Eucalyptus tannin adhesives with the cure kinetics of phenol-formaldehyde and Wattle black (Acacia mollissima D. Wild) tannin commercial adhesives. It was observed that the Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesives presented kinetic parameters (activation energy, entalpia, peak temperature and reaction order) similar to the Wattle black commercial tannin adhesives but were different from the phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Based on these parameters it was concluded that the Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesives are more adequate for wood bonding than the other two Eucalyptus tannin adhesives. Under industrial conditions, Eucalyptus urophylla tannin adhesive will need a minimum energy and pressing.

Fábio Akira Mori; Benedito Rocha Vital; Alexandre Santos Pimenta; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Gulab Newandram Jahm; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia

2002-01-01

167

Seletividade alimentar e influência da idade da folha de Eucalyptus SPP. para Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)/ Feeding selectivity and influence of leaf age of Eucalyptus SPP. for Thyrinteina Arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) é considerada uma das mais sérias pragas do eucalipto no Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a preferência alimentar de T. arnobia em seis espécies de eucalipto e a influência da idade foliar sobre a seleção hospedeira, utilizando-se folhas jovens e velhas de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus c (more) loeziana. Lagartas de T. arnobia alimentadas na geração anterior com folhas de E. grandis preferiram folhas jovens de E. grandis e E.cloeziana, enquanto as alimentadas com E. saligna, na geração anterior, preferiram folhas velhas de E. grandis. A espécie preferida por lagartas de T. arnobia foi E. grandis, observando-se, também maior preferência por folhas jovens que por folhas velhas nas espécies utilizadas nos testes. Abstract in english Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is considered one of the most serious Eucalyptus pests in Brazil. This work was carried out aiming to study feeding preference of T. arnobia and the influence of leaf age on the host selection, using young and old leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Caterpillars fed with E. grandis leaves in previous generat (more) ion, preferred young leaves of E. grandis and E. cloeziana, while caterpillars fed with E. saligna in previous generation preferred old leaves of E. grandis. The most consumed species was E. grandis, and the caterpillars preferred young leaves than old ones, for all species studied.

Lemos, Raimunda Nonata Santos; Crocomo, Wilson Badiali; Forti, Luiz Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico

1999-01-01

168

Seleção de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de compensados/ Selection of clones of Eucalyptus urophylla for plywood production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a avaliação de 6 clones oriundos da Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) para a confecção de painéis compensados multilaminados. Foram produzidos 6 painéis para cada clone estudado. Utilizou-se adesivo fenol-formaldeído com gramatura de 320g/m². O ciclo de prensagem seguiu os seguintes parâmetros: pressão de 1,47MPa, temperatura de 150ºC e tempo de 10 minutos. A partir dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os (more) clones de Eucalyptus urophylla se apresentam com grande potencial para a produção de painéis compensados multilaminados, uma vez que apresentaram valores de suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima dos referenciados em literatura e, significativamente, superiores aos exigidos pelas normas ABNT 31:000.05-00/2 (flexão estática) e EN 314-2 (resistência ao cisalhamento), sendo considerados para uso como forma de concreto (FOR). O clone que se destacou em todas as propriedades físico-mecânicas, com melhores resultados, foi o 36. Abstract in english This work aimed at the evaluation of six (6) Eucalyptus urophylla clones of Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) for making particleboard panels. Six (6) panels to each clone studies were produced. About 320g/m² of Phenol phormol aldehyde adhesives Were utilized. The pressing cycle parameters were: pressure of 1.47MPa, temperature of 150ºC and 10 minutes of pressing time. It was concluded that clones of Eucalyptus urophylla show a great potential f (more) or production of particleboard panels, since they presented values of physical and mechanical properties above the ones referenced in literature and highly superior to those required by the ABNT Standards 31:000.05-00/2 (static bending) and EN 314-2 (shearing resistance), the tested clones can be used for producing concrete mold (FOR). The clone which stood out the most in all the properties tested was the clone 36.

Guimarães Júnior, José Benedito; Mendes, Lourival Marin; Mendes, Rafael Farinassi; Guimarães, Bárbara Maria Ribeiro; Oliveira, Stefânia Lima

2012-12-01

169

Eucalyptus pellita as a source of resistance to rust, ceratocystis wilt and leaf blight  

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Full Text Available Rust (Puccinia psidii), ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) and cylindrocladium leaf blight (Cylindrocladium pteridis) are important diseases of eucalyptus. Planting of resistant genotypes is the most suitable control strategy of forest diseases under field condition. Resistance level of 23 Eucalyptus pellita clones was evaluated by artificial inoculations. Among the inoculated clones, 12 were resistant to rust, 16 to ceratocystis wilt and 12 to cylindrocladium leaf blight, and three of them were resistant to all three diseases. The high intra-specific variability found in this study demonstrates the importance of E. pellita as a disease resistance source to be employed for introgression of novel resistance genes in eucalyptus genetic breeding programs.

Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; Miranda Titon; Douglas Lau; Leonardo Novaes Rosse; Leonardo Sarno Soares Oliveira; Carla Cristina Gonçalves Rosado; Guilherme Gegenheiner Ornelas Christo; Acelino Couto Alfenas

2010-01-01

170

Effects of Cadmium on Some Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus occidentalis  

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Full Text Available Heavy metals including cadmium produced as a result of urban, industrial and agricultural activities lead to the water pollution. Also, considering the growing need for silviculture in Iran, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive research on fast growing and evergreen species of Eucalyptus and their role in heavy metals' absorption. To achieve this goal, Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were grown in pots containing silica and irrigated with a mixture of nutrient solution and cadmium chloride in 5, 10 and 15 m M for 10 months. Root and leaf samples were harvested and the amount of cadmium in stem, root and leaf organs was measured. Also, some morphological and physiological characteristics were determined including soluble sugar and praline. The analysis indicated that the cadmium concentrations of 15 mM treatment in the root, leaf and stem were 585, 142 and 87 mg/kg D.W., respectively. Proline content increased with the increase of Cadmium concentration while the content of pigments decreased. The result of this research shows that eucalypt has the potential of cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. Therefore, the plant can be used to decrease the environmental pollutions.

A. Shariat; M. H. Assareh; A. Ghamari-Zare

2010-01-01

171

Role of corticular photosynthesis following defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Defoliation can reduce net fixation of atmospheric CO(2) by the canopy, but increase the intensity and duration of photosynthetically active radiation on stems. Stem CO(2) flux and leaf gas exchange in young Eucalyptus globulus seedlings were measured to assess the impact of defoliation on these processes and to determine the potential contribution of re-fixation by photosynthetic inner bark in offsetting the effects of defoliation in a woody species. Pot and field trials examined how artificial defoliation of the canopy affected the photosynthetic characteristics of main stems of young Eucalyptus globulus seedlings. Defoliated potted seedlings were characterized by transient increases in foliar photosynthetic rates and concomitant decreases in stem CO(2) fluxes (both in the dark and light). Defoliated field-grown seedlings showed similar stem CO(2) flux responses, but of reduced magnitude. Despite demonstrating increased re-fixation capability, defoliated potted-seedlings had slowed stem growth. The green stem of seedlings exhibited largely shade-adapted characteristics. Defoliation reduced stem chlorophyll a/b ratio and increased carotenoid concentration. An increased capacity to re-fix internally respired CO(2) (up to 96%) suggested that stem re-fixation represents a previously unexplored mechanism to minimize the impact of foliar loss by maximizing the contribution of all photosynthetic tissues, particularly for young seedlings.

Eyles A; Pinkard EA; O'Grady AP; Worledge D; Warren CR

2009-08-01

172

ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS  

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Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC) for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

Roselaine Cristina Pereira; Lisete Chamma Davide; Magno Antônio Patto Ramalho; Helder Bolognani Andrade

2002-01-01

173

CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60%) possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

Clovis Roberto Haselein; Merielen de Carvalho Lopes; Elio José Santini; Solon Jonas Longhi; Silviana Rosso; Denis L. G. Fernandes; Leonel Freitas de Menezes

2004-01-01

174

Dry matter production by Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn plantation in Jabalpur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present investigation was undertaken on 15 year old (1969) and 5 year old (1979) plants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn raised on the area of Regional Forest Research Centre, Jabalpur. The entire area of plantation was divided in 5 equal compartments. Five trees from each compartment were randombly selected and felled for above ground and below ground biomass studies. Growth parameters in 15 year old plantation were 2-4 times that of plants in 5 year old plantations. The root length was traced to a depth of less than 3 m in all cases. However, the lateral spread was unimaginably vast. The mean lateral spread of 20.3 m was observed in 15 year old plants and 9.01 m in 5 year old plants. The propaganda against Eucalyptus that it is responsible for drying-up of underground water reserve is thus disproved from these studies. These vast lateral root system may be responsible for the utilisation of even the slightest amount of surface moisture which may be available just below the surface in any form of precipitation. In terms of mean annual productivity it was 15.92 t/h/year in 15 year old plants and 6.03 t/h year in 5 year old plants. The maximum contribution to the total above ground biomass has been observed by stem-wood in both plantations.

1984-09-01

175

Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota  

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Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation of C. neoformans var. gattii in our country. A total of 100 Eucalyptus trees, distributed among 13 zones, located in the center, northeast, east and west of Santafé de Bogotá, were studied. Flowers, fruits, leaves, barks and Eucalyptus debris were collected. The samples were processed by extraction with saline solution containing antibiotics, cultured in selective media and the isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Twenty-seven isolates of 9 Cryptococcus sp. were recovered from 21 Eucalyptus trees, from 5 zones. One C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A was recovered. The Cryptococcus associated with Eucalyptus is important because this is the first study done in our country.

A. Duarte; N. Ordoñez; E. Castañeda

1994-01-01

176

Proton Activation Studies of Changes in Mineral Composition of Eucalyptus Obliqua Due to Phytophthora Cinnamomi.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants was compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Young plants of Eucalyptus obliqua, three years...

M. A. Chaudri M. M. Lee J. L. Rouse G. Weste

1978-01-01

177

Lack of association between allozyme heterozygosity and juvenile traits in Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variability for juvenile waits, which included basal diameter, height, biomass accumulation, and growth increment, was studied in eight provenances involving four species, Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. camaldulensis and E. urophylla, under uniform greenhouse conditions. The species diff...

178

Molecular analysis of an endopolygalacturonase gene from a Eucalyptus canker pathogen, Cryphonectria cubensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cryphonectria cubensis causes a serious Eucalyptus canker disease. Fungal cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) are important during the early stages of interaction of the fungus with Eucalyptus. To improve our understanding of the molecular regulation of the interaction of Eucalyptus and C. cubensis, the relevant genes involved in this interaction should be identified, cloned and studied. The aim of this study was, therefore, to clone the endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) gene of C. cubensis. C. cubensis was grown on a medium supplemented with Eucalyptus cell wall extracts. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify part of the endoPG gene from C. cubensis genomic DNA. The resulting sequence was used to design specific primers for use in inverse PCR to amplify the entire endoPG gene of C. cubensis (ccen-1). The endoPG sequence of C. cubensis has 93% amino acid sequence similarity to that of the chestnut blight pathogen, Cryphonectria parasitica.

Chimwamurombe PM; Wingfield BD; Botha AM; Wingfield MJ

2002-02-01

179

Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T). From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

Eder Marques; Carlos H. Uesugi; Marisa A.S.V. Ferreira; Denise V. de Rezende

2012-01-01

180

Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described.

Bernardino AS; Zanuncio TV; Zanuncio JC; Lima ER; Serrão JE

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Botryosphaeriaceae occurring on native Syzygium cordatum in South Africa and their potential threat to Eucalyptus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eight species of the Botryosphaeriaceae (canker and dieback pathogens) were identified on native Syzygium cordatum in South Africa, based on anamorph morphology, ITS rDNA sequence data and PCR-RFLP analysis. The species identified were Neofusicoccum parvum, N. ribis, N. luteum, N. australe, N. mangiferae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Lasiodiplodia gonubiensis and L. theobromae. Their pathogenicity on S. cordatum seedlings and a Eucalyptus grandis x camaldulensis clone was determined in glasshouse inoculation trials. Isolates of all identified species, except one of N. mangiferae, were more pathogenic on the Eucalyptus clone than on S. cordatum. Some of the species that cross-infected these hosts, such as N. ribis, N. parvum and L. theobromae, were amongst the most pathogenic on the Eucalyptus clone, while B. dothidea and L. gonubiensis were the least pathogenic. Results of this study illustrate that species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from native hosts could pose a threat to introduced Eucalyptus spp., and vice versa.

Pavlic D; Slippers B; Coutinho TA; Wingfield MJ

2007-08-01

182

Dietary specialization and Eucalyptus species preferences in Queensland koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Koalas specialize on Eucalyptus leaves, but also feed selectively. Food choice is not random, but depends on various factors that are not well understood, although most research has focused on the role of secondary plant compounds. We studied the feeding choices of four adult male koalas housed at the San Diego Zoo. All subjects had a choice of nine types of Eucalyptus leaves over the eight-week study. The most preferred species was E. camuldulensis, but individual males exhibited different feeding preferences. We conclude that food selectivity among koalas is probably due to multiple factors, rather than only a consequence of secondary plant chemicals. A combination of intrinsic factors, such as developmental trajectory and reproductive state, as well as extrinsic factors, such as leaf chemical fingerprint and moisture, probably interact to shape koala foraging preferences. Koalas forage almost exclusively on Eucalyptus species, but have evolved an adaptive flexibility, enabling them to exploit various Eucalyptus species.

Higgins AL; Bercovitch FB; Tobey JR; Andrus CH

2011-01-01

183

Dietary specialization and Eucalyptus species preferences in Queensland koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Koalas specialize on Eucalyptus leaves, but also feed selectively. Food choice is not random, but depends on various factors that are not well understood, although most research has focused on the role of secondary plant compounds. We studied the feeding choices of four adult male koalas housed at the San Diego Zoo. All subjects had a choice of nine types of Eucalyptus leaves over the eight-week study. The most preferred species was E. camuldulensis, but individual males exhibited different feeding preferences. We conclude that food selectivity among koalas is probably due to multiple factors, rather than only a consequence of secondary plant chemicals. A combination of intrinsic factors, such as developmental trajectory and reproductive state, as well as extrinsic factors, such as leaf chemical fingerprint and moisture, probably interact to shape koala foraging preferences. Koalas forage almost exclusively on Eucalyptus species, but have evolved an adaptive flexibility, enabling them to exploit various Eucalyptus species. PMID:20186726

Higgins, Alexis L; Bercovitch, Fred B; Tobey, Jennifer R; Andrus, Chris Hamlin

184

Sampling methods for assessing social wasps species diversity in a eucalyptus plantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social wasps were collected in a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis, a genetically enhanced eucalyptus) plantation in Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, southwestern of Brazil, by using a variety of sampling methods, including active capture and baited traps set at two microhabitats. Six new records of social wasps for this region were obtained during the study: Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille, Polybia ignobilis Haliday, Polybia occidentalis Olivier, Polybia platycephala (Richards), Protonectarina sylveirae Saussure, and Protopolybia exigua Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The active capture method sampled the greatest number of species. Baited traps installed in the canopy sampled agreater number of individuals of social wasps than those set on the trunks of eucalyptus trees. Fruit based baits captured a greater number of social wasp species than those baited with a protein derivative. Once no method was able to sample all species, we concluded that the efficiency of a survey can be maximized by using traps with a variety of different baits, in combination with active capture methods.

De Souza AR; Venâncio DF; Zanuncio JC; Prezoto F

2011-06-01

185

Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

Waldman, Neil

2011-08-25

186

Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T). From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover (more) the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

Marques, Eder; Uesugi, Carlos H.; Ferreira, Marisa A.S.V.; Rezende, Denise V. de

2012-12-01

187

Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, the main product of Eucalyptus oils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The forest industry in Uruguay has grown considerably during the last decade. Eucalyptus plantations account for 74% of the forested land, with Eucalyptus globulus being the most widely distributed species. This industry is dedicated exclusively to the production of wood without exploiting the by-products (leaves and small branches). Eucalyptus leaves are known to contain important amounts of essential oils composed primarily of 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trymethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2 (more) .2.2]octane). In this work, the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, is achieved using a native bacterium (Rhodococcus sp.) which was isolated from the soil of Eucalyptus forest. A 98% of bioconversion was achieved. Three different optically pure compounds were obtained, and they were identified as 2-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole, 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole and 2-oxo-1,8-cineole.

Rodríguez, Paula; Sierra, Wilson; Rodríguez, Sonia; Menéndez, Pilar

2006-06-01

188

PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior; Adrián José Molina-Rugama; Carlos Alberto Lima; Terezinha Maria Castro Della Lucia

2007-01-01

189

MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES  

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Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

P. C. C. PINHEIRO; T. J. RAAD; M. I. YOSHIDA

1998-01-01

190

MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

PINHEIRO, P. C. C.; RAAD, T. J.; YOSHIDA, M. I.

1998-12-01

191

A Eucalyptus bacterial wilt isolate from South Africa is pathogenic on Arabidopsis and manipulates host defences  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, has been reported from Eucalyptus plantations in at least three countries in Africa. The lack of genomics resources in Eucalyptus species led us to develop and study a pathosystem between a previously characterized South African isolate and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Ralstonia solanacearum BCCF401 isolated from a Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid was shown to cause disease on A. thaliana ecotype Col-5. Arabidopsis genomics tools were exploited to investigate gene expression changes during wilt disease development, and thereby develop hypotheses that can be tested in Eucalyptus once genomics resources are available. Transcriptome analysis using 5000 A. thaliana ESTs was performed and revealed 141 genes that were differentially regulated by R. solanacearum infection (at a significance threshold of p < 0.03; Bonferroni corrected). A software tool ‘Rank Correlation Comparer' was developed to compare expression profiles with Arabidopsis Affymetrix NASCArray data. High correlations were observed between the response of Arabidopsis plants to both Eucalyptus (BCCF401) and tomato (GMI1000) isolates of R. solanacearum, as well as to Pseudomonas syringae, Botrytis cinerea and treatment with abscisic acid. Basal defence responses in Col-5 in response to R. solanacearum were investigated by comparing the expression data following R. solanacearum infection to data after treatment with the Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP) flg22 and lipopolysaccharide, and the Type Three Secretion System deficient Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato hrp? mutant. A subset of the genes which were induced by PAMPs were repressed by R. solanacearum infection, and vice versa, suggesting that these genes may be repressed or induced, respectively, by specific R. solanacearum effectors. We hypothesize that these genes represent targets of R. solanacearum effectors. The pending release of the Eucalyptus genome sequence will enable orthologues to be identified and these hypotheses to be tested in Eucalyptus trees.

Naidoo S; Fouché-Weich J; Law P; Denby KJ; Marco Y; Berger DK

2011-04-01

192

Antidiabetic effects of Eucalyptus globulus on pancreatic islets: a stereological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced damage in pancreatic islands by stereological methods. Fifty mature normoglycaemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): control; STZ-induced diabetic (D) - by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin; treated control (TC); and treated diabetic (TD1, 2), respectively, received 20 and 62.5 g/kg of eucalyptus in their diet, and 2.5 g/L aqueous extract of eucalyptus in their drinking water from one week after induction of diabetes. After four weeks of the experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of the islets and pancreas, and total number of islets were carried out. Administration of eucalyptus significantly decreased the weight loss and increase of water and food intake in the treated diabetic groups in comparison to the STZ-induced diabetic (D) group. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of islets, and mass of pancreas of both treated diabetic groups were higher than the D group. In TD2, these stereological parameters increased significantly compared to the D group (p 0.05). The results suggested that Eucalyptus globulus with a dose-dependent manner ameliorates diabetic states by partial restoration of pancreatic beta cells and repair of STZ-induced damage in rats. This study suggests a beneficial effect of eucalyptus in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:20512762

Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H; Heidari, Z; Bokaeian, M; Moudi, B

2010-05-01

193

Antidiabetic effects of Eucalyptus globulus on pancreatic islets: a stereological study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced damage in pancreatic islands by stereological methods. Fifty mature normoglycaemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): control; STZ-induced diabetic (D) - by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin; treated control (TC); and treated diabetic (TD1, 2), respectively, received 20 and 62.5 g/kg of eucalyptus in their diet, and 2.5 g/L aqueous extract of eucalyptus in their drinking water from one week after induction of diabetes. After four weeks of the experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of the islets and pancreas, and total number of islets were carried out. Administration of eucalyptus significantly decreased the weight loss and increase of water and food intake in the treated diabetic groups in comparison to the STZ-induced diabetic (D) group. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of islets, and mass of pancreas of both treated diabetic groups were higher than the D group. In TD2, these stereological parameters increased significantly compared to the D group (p < 0.001). Volume density and total volume of beta cells increased 21% and 65%, respectively, in the TD2 group, but it was not statistically significant compared to the diabetic group (p > 0.05). The results suggested that Eucalyptus globulus with a dose-dependent manner ameliorates diabetic states by partial restoration of pancreatic beta cells and repair of STZ-induced damage in rats. This study suggests a beneficial effect of eucalyptus in the treatment of diabetes.

Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb H; Heidari Z; Bokaeian M; Moudi B

2010-05-01

194

Elaboração de modelo de previsão de preço da madeira de Eucalyptus spp.  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this paper was to establish a price forecasting model of Eucalyptus spp. wood in Itapeva (SP) and Bauru (SP), using Box & Jenkins (1976) methodology in monthly observations, from May 2002 to January 2008. The results shows that the appropriate models for forecasting Eucalyptus spp. wood price in Itapeva (SP) and Bauru (SP) were, respectively, ARIMA (0,1,4) and ARIMA (2,1,2).

Naisy Silva Soares; Márcio Lopes da Silva; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; João Eustáquio de Lima; Kaio Henrique Adame de Carvalho

2010-01-01

195

Eucalyptus plantations for energy production in Hawaii. Technical status report, October 1, 1978-June 30, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress made on accomplishing research objectives is reported. The objectives of this project are: (1) to increase the biomass production of Eucalyptus; (2) to determine the optimum requirements to maximize yield; (3) to assess planting, cultivation, harvesting, and transportation equipment requirements; (4) to determine the optimum mixture of biomass (eucalyptus and bagasse) at the generator for the production of electricity; and (5) to evaluate a complete production/conversion system which utilized optimum management conditions in relationship to costs. (DMC)

1980-07-14

196

Identification and Pathogenicity of Chrysoporthe cubensis on Eucalyptus and Syzygium spp. in South China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genus Chrysoporthe includes important pathogens of plantation-grown Eucalyptus spp. and has been reported from several tree genera in the order Myrtales in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. During disease surveys in South China, fruiting structures typical of Chrysoporthe spp. were observed on cankers on Eucalyptus spp. and Syzygium cumini trees. The aim of this study was to confirm the identity of the Chrysoporthe cubensis infecting the Eucalyptus spp. and S. cumini and to test the pathogenicity of the fungus. Following glasshouse trials to select virulent isolates, field inoculations were undertaken to screen different commercial Eucalyptus genotypes for their susceptibility to the fungus. Isolates were characterized based on their morphology and DNA sequence data for the ?-tubulin and internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. Results showed that the putative pathogen represented the Asian form of C. cubensis, which occurred on numerous different Eucalyptus spp. and hybrid clones as well as S. cumini. Field inoculations showed that all six of the Eucalyptus genotypes tested are susceptible to infection by C. cubensis. Significant differences were observed between them, providing prospects to select disease-tolerant planting stock in the future.

Chen SF; Gryzenhout M; Roux J; Xie YJ; Wingfield MJ; Zhou XD

2010-09-01

197

Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

Tarabet L; Loubar K; Lounici MS; Hanchi S; Tazerout M

2012-01-01

198

Production cost of biomasses from eucalyptus and elefant grass for energy  

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Full Text Available This work established the unit energy cost generated from biomass of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) and elephant grass (Pennisetum sp.) and applied a sensitivity analysis to verify the influences of factors such as the silviculture of eucalyptus, production volume of each species, the cost of land and the interest rate. It was shown that the treatment of eucalyptus in very short rotation of 2 years with reform of stand every 6 years has a average cost of production higher than the traditional treatment of short rotation of 6 years with reform only at the age of 18. It was also observed that eucalyptus has a Production Cost on average of R$ 4,41 /Gj, lower than the elephant grass which is on average of R$ 5,44/Gj, which however has a higher annual capacity of dry matter production. The elephant grass has the possibility to compete with eucalyptus when a set of conditions is met: discount rate higher than or equal to 8%, High price of land, and elephant grass high volume production, greater than or equal to 35 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and year.

Laurent Marie Roger Quéno; Álvaro Nogueira de Souza; Humberto Ângelo; Ailton Teixeira do Vale; Ildeu Soares Martins

2011-01-01

199

Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils  

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Full Text Available Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aiming to increase the availability of commercial species and the relationship between oil production and climatic conditions. Eucalyptus leaves were seasonally sampled (three months interval) for distillation and determination of productivity and chemical composition of oil - contents of oils main components. Eucalyptus viminalis showed the highest potential for cineol, and standed out among the species not yet used commercially. Influenced by soil moisture contents and air temperature, the lowest and the highest oil production happened respectively in Spring and Summer. Water deficiency in Spring caused the lowest oil production. In the Summer, on the other hand, the highest oil production was observed when temperatures were higher and no water deficiency registered. There was no climatic influence on the main oil chemical component.

Silva Paulo Henrique Müller da; Brito José Otávio; Silva Junior Francides Gomes da

2006-01-01

200

Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

2012-05-21

 
 
 
 
201

MICROPROPAGACIÓN DE EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) EN EL SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) micropropagation in a temporary immersion system  

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Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo procedimiento para la multiplicación in vitro mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal de plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) procedentes de árboles elite. La mayor eficiencia de multiplicación se estableció a una frecuencia óptima de inmersión cada 12 h con una duración de 3 min. La aplicación adicional de un flujo de aire fresco cada 6 h durante 3 min disminuyó la hiperhidratación de las plantas durante el proceso. Este procedimiento comprendió dos pasos: la brotación o multiplicación múltiple y la elongación de brotes. El mejor tratamiento para la inducción de brotes axilares o multiplicación se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS con los nitratos reducidos a la mitad + 0,5 mg L-1 de benciladenina (BA), con volúmenes de 55,5 mL por grupo de brotes durante tres semanas. La elongación tuvo lugar en el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS) más ácido indolbutírico (AIB) 1,0 g L-1, durante tres semanas. La utilización de este protocolo permitió obtener un promedio de 260 plantas competentes de E. grandis. Las plantas con tamaño mayor a 2 cm se relacionaron positivamente con una mayor supervivencia durante la fase de aclimatización.A new procedure is described for in vitro multiplication using the temporary immersion system for plants (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden) coming from elite trees. The optimum multiplication frequency was established at every 12 h with a duration of 3 min. The additional application of a stream of fresh air every 6 h for 3 min diminished the hyper-hydration of the plants during the process. The procedure involved two steps: shooting and elongation of buds. The best treatment for induction of axillary buds was obtained in the culture medium MS (Murashige and Skoog) with the nitrates reduced to half strength plus 0.5 benciladenin (BA) mg L-1, with volumes of 55.5 mL per group of buds for three weeks. The elongation took place in the MS culture medium plus indol butiric acid (IBA) 1.0 g L-1 for three weeks. The use of this protocol allows producing an average of 260 competent plants of E. grandis. Shoots taller than 2 cm were positively related with higher survival during the acclimatization phase.

Dagoberto Castro R.; Justo González O.

2002-01-01

202

Population genetic analysis and phylogeny reconstruction in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) using high-throughput, genome-wide genotyping.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A set of over 8000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers was tested for its utility in high-resolution population and phylogenetic studies across a range of Eucalyptus taxa. Small-scale population studies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus urophylla demonstrated the potential of genome-wide genotyping with DArT markers to differentiate species, to identify interspecific hybrids and to resolve biogeographic disjunctions within species. The population genetic studies resolved geographically partitioned clusters in E. camaldulensis, E. cladocalyx, E. globulus and E. urophylla that were congruent with previous molecular studies. A phylogenetic study of 94 eucalypt species provided results that were largely congruent with traditional taxonomy and ITS-based phylogenies, but provided more resolution within major clades than had been obtained previously. Ascertainment bias (the bias introduced in a phylogeny from using markers developed in a small sample of the taxa that are being studied) was not detected. DArT offers an unprecedented level of resolution for population genetic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies across the full range of Eucalyptus species.

Steane DA; Nicolle D; Sansaloni CP; Petroli CD; Carling J; Kilian A; Myburg AA; Grattapaglia D; Vaillancourt RE

2011-04-01

203

Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels  

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Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

Setsuo Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de Matos; José Guilherme Prata; Rosilani Trianoski; Leandro Soares da Silva

2013-01-01

204

Population genetic analysis and phylogeny reconstruction in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) using high-throughput, genome-wide genotyping.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of over 8000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers was tested for its utility in high-resolution population and phylogenetic studies across a range of Eucalyptus taxa. Small-scale population studies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus urophylla demonstrated the potential of genome-wide genotyping with DArT markers to differentiate species, to identify interspecific hybrids and to resolve biogeographic disjunctions within species. The population genetic studies resolved geographically partitioned clusters in E. camaldulensis, E. cladocalyx, E. globulus and E. urophylla that were congruent with previous molecular studies. A phylogenetic study of 94 eucalypt species provided results that were largely congruent with traditional taxonomy and ITS-based phylogenies, but provided more resolution within major clades than had been obtained previously. Ascertainment bias (the bias introduced in a phylogeny from using markers developed in a small sample of the taxa that are being studied) was not detected. DArT offers an unprecedented level of resolution for population genetic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies across the full range of Eucalyptus species. PMID:21310251

Steane, Dorothy A; Nicolle, Dean; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, César D; Carling, Jason; Kilian, Andrzej; Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Vaillancourt, René E

2011-02-16

205

Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea Production of plywood with different composition from Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1) painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4); e (2) painéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10). Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of structural plywood manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis, var. bahamensis, using different board compositions. It was manufactured experimental panels measuring 50 x 50 cm composed by 5 veneers with 2.2 mm thickness, according to following compositions: (1) panels with all veneers of Eucalytpus saligna and Pinuscaribaea (T1 to T4); (2) panels with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna mixed with Pinus caribaea (T5 to T10). The panels completely manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna showed higher values of glue line shear strength, parallel and perpendicular MOE and MOR. The panel compositions using the veneers of both species with alternate position in the layer did not effectively influence the properties of glue line shear strength, perpendicular MOE and MOR. The placing of Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of plywood resulted in higher values of parallel MOE and MOR. The results of mechanical properties of plywood evaluated in this study were satisfactory in comparison to the control values of the literature and with those the minimum values required by technical standards, indicating the feasibility of production of "combi" type plywood using different veneer combination of hardwood and softwood species.

Setsuo Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de Matos; Erika da Silva Ferreira; José Guilherme Prata; Rosilani Trianoski

2012-01-01

206

Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea/ Production of plywood with different composition from Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1) painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4); e (2) p (more) ainéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10). Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of structural plywood manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis, var. bahamensis, using different board compositions. It was manufactured experimental panels measuring 50 x 50 cm composed by 5 veneers with 2.2 mm thickness, according to following compositions: (1) panels with all veneers of Eucalytpus saligna and Pinuscaribaea (T1 to T4); (2) panels with veneers (more) of Eucalyptus saligna mixed with Pinus caribaea (T5 to T10). The panels completely manufactured with veneers of Eucalyptus saligna showed higher values of glue line shear strength, parallel and perpendicular MOE and MOR. The panel compositions using the veneers of both species with alternate position in the layer did not effectively influence the properties of glue line shear strength, perpendicular MOE and MOR. The placing of Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of plywood resulted in higher values of parallel MOE and MOR. The results of mechanical properties of plywood evaluated in this study were satisfactory in comparison to the control values of the literature and with those the minimum values required by technical standards, indicating the feasibility of production of "combi" type plywood using different veneer combination of hardwood and softwood species.

Iwakiri, Setsuo; Matos, Jorge Luis Monteiro de; Ferreira, Erika da Silva; Prata, José Guilherme; Trianoski, Rosilani

2012-06-01

207

Myrtus comunis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells  

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Full Text Available In vitro cytotoxicity of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-buthanol, and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. was examined against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT and SRB assays. The results showed significant cytotoxic potential of examined extracts, with IC50 values ranging from 7 to 138 ?g/ml for M. communis and 3-250 ?g/ml for E. camaldulensis. The two plants generally expressed similar activity, and no significant difference in cell line’s sensitivity towards extracts was observed. The results indicate to M. communis and E. camaldulensis as candidates for thorough chemical analyses for identification of active compounds, and eventually for attention in the process of discovery of new natural products in the control of cancer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173037 i br. 172058

Hrubik Jelena D.; Kaišarevi? Sonja N.; Gliši? Branka D.; Jovin Emilija ?.; Mimica-Duki? Neda M.; Kova?evi? Radmila Z.

2012-01-01

208

Escala de notas para quantificação da ferrugem em Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available Utilizando tamanho de pústulas e número de soros como critérios para avaliar a severidade, estabeleceu-se a seguinte escala de notas para quantificação da ferrugem causada por Puccinia psidii em mudas inoculadas de Eucalyptus sp.: S0 = imunidade ou reação de hipersensibilidade, com necrose ou "fleck"; S1 = pústulas puntiformes, 1,6 mm de diâmetro. Aferiu-se essa escala mediante o uso do marcador RAPD AT9/917, geneticamente ligado a um gene de resistência à ferrugem, em uma progênie de E. grandis. Apenas as plantas das classes S0 e S1 apresentaram o referido marcador e foram consideradas resistentes. A inconsistência na classificação de plantas resistentes e suscetíveis foi baixa (8%). O uso dessa escala permitiu a seleção de grande número de plantas resistentes à ferrugem com relativa rapidez, facilidade e precisão.

Junghans Davi T.; Alfenas Acelino C.; Maffia Luiz A.

2003-01-01

209

Wood properties of 1-year-old Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Height, diameter, wood density, bark percentage and moisture content were studied in nursery-grown plants of Eucalyptus tereticornis soon after the first year's growth. Density at stump height was 2.6% greater than whole-tree density reported in studies of 8-9 yr old trees, while fibres were 22% shorter in the young plants. Bark % by weight was 23.9%, which is similar to that for other young hardwoods. Average m.c. (DM) was 90.4%. Faster growth was correlated with longer fibres and higher m.c. Growth rate had no significant effect on density and bark %. Between-tree variation was small for fibre length, relatively small for density and bark %, and large for stem diameter and height. 17 references.

Bhat, K.M.; Bhat, K.V.

1984-01-01

210

Five phloroglucinol-monoterpene adducts from Eucalyptus grandis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five new euglobals possessing the phloroglucinol-monoterpene structure, euglobals G8-G12, together with a known euglobal-IIc were isolated from the hexane fraction of the methanol extract of the leaves of Eucalyptus grandis. Euglobal-G8 is an adduct of formyl-isovaleroyl-phloroglucinol and gamma-terpinene whereas -G9, -G10 and -G11 have the same phloroglucinol moiety fused with alpha-terpinene, while Euglobal-G12 has terpinolene fused with the same phloroglucinol moiety. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidences. Biomimetic synthesis of euglobals suggests that these compounds are derived biogenetically by the Diels-Alder type cycloaddition of the corresponding terpenes with an ortho-quinone methide generated from grandinol.

Umehara K; Singh IP; Etoh H; Takasaki M; Konoshima T

1998-11-01

211

Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste), com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning), with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Gilson Fernandes da Silva; Mauro Eloi Nappo; Mario Tomazelo Filho

2010-01-01

212

Características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake/ Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a variabilidade existente nas características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla aos 6 anos, plantado no município de Martinho Campos, MG. As árvores foram distribuídas em três classes de diâmetro e a amostragem consistiu na retirada de discos, de 2,5 cm de espessura, a 2%, 10%, 30% e 70% da altura comercial, além de um a 1,30 m do solo (DAP) e, a partir deste ponto, de metro em metro até a a (more) ltura comercial. Foram tomadas amostras ao longo do raio nos discos, considerando os dois lados em relação à medula. As amostras foram carbonizadas em forno elétrico de laboratório, sendo determinados os rendimentos e a qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que para a primeira carbonização, a classe diamétrica influenciou significativamente o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão vegetal, em líquido pirolenhoso e o teor de cinza do carvão vegetal produzido, e que o rendimento em gás não condensável, o teor de materiais voláteis e o de carbono fixo não foram influenciados pela classe diamétrica; para a segunda carbonização o rendimento gravimétrico aumentou da casca para a medula, para todas as classes diamétricas e ocorreu redução dessa característica com a diminuição das classes diamétricas e que os valores de densidade relativa aparente tenderam a aumentar no sentido medula-casca, em todas as classes diamétricas. Abstract in english This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH) and starting from this point meter by meter unti (more) l the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

Arantes, Marina Donária Chaves; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando; Silva, José Reinaldo Moreira da; Andrade, Carlos Rogério

2013-09-01

213

Estresse hídrico em plantio de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla, em função do solo, substrato e manejo hídrico de viveiro/ Water stress in the planting of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, due to soil, substrate and water management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar em campo os níveis de estresse hídrico das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla selecionado para tolerância ao déficit hídrico, em função dos substratos, do manejo hídrico e dos solos. As mudas foram produzidas em dois viveiros distintos do Estado de São Paulo: com o substrato Plantmax estacas® (PLX) em Bofete (SP) e com a mistura em partes iguais de casca de arroz carbonizada e vermiculita (CAC), em Ibaté ( (more) SP). A partir dos 60 dias após a estaquia (DAE), durante a rustificação as mudas foram manejadas com cinco frequências de irrigação por subsuperfície: F1 - irrigado uma vez ao dia, F2 - irrigado duas vezes ao dia, F3 - irrigado três vezes ao dia, F4 - irrigado quatro vezes ao dia e FD - mantido em irrigação, restabelecendo a capacidade de campo até o plantio aos 90 DAE, em um solo argiloso e outro arenoso. Foram realizadas avaliações dos níveis de estresse (brando, moderado e severo), que afetaram a sobrevivência nos dois solos, por meio de censo aos 15 e aos 30 dias após o plantio. Com relação aos níveis de estresse avaliados, verificou-se pouca influência do substrato, porém onde ocorreu o PLX proporcionou menores percentuais de plantas afetadas. Independentemente do tipo de solo onde as mudas foram plantadas, os sintomas de estresse nas plantas, de modo geral, foram semelhantes. O manejo de viveiro não influenciou na sobrevivência das mudas, embora tenham ocorrido algumas diferenças estatísticas quando se usaram CAC e plantio no solo arenoso, porém sem tendência clara de comportamento. Os critérios relativos à implantação foram mais determinantes na sobrevivência das mudas no campo até os 30 dias após o plantio, indicando a necessidade de replantio. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of water stress in Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings selected for water deficiency, considering substrate water management and types of soil. The seedlings were produced in two distinct nurseries: the Plantmax estacas® substrate(PLX) in Bofete(SP) and in a mix with equal proportions of rice carbonized husks and vermiculite (CAC) in Ibaté (SP). Sixty days after cutting (DAE) and farther, during harde (more) ning, the seedlings were managed with five underwater irrigations, restoring the field conditions: F1: irrigated once a day, F2: irrigated twice a day, F3: irrigated three times a day, F4: irrigated four times a day and FD: maintained under irrigation, until water saturation until planting at 90 DAE, in a clayie soil and in a sandy soil. Evaluations on the low, moderate and high water stress levels that affect survival in the two types of soil at 15 and 30 days after planting. Little influence of substrates to the water stress levels was observed. However, a lesser percentual of affected seedlings was observed in PLX. Independent of the type of similar symptoms of water stress was observed, independently of type of soil. Nursery management does not affect seedling survival, even though statistical differences were detected when CAC and sandy soil were tested, however, without clear seedlings performance. Factors related to the planting process were more important on the field seedlings survival, until 30 days after planting, exhibiting the necessity of planting again.

Lopes, Jane Luísa Wadas; Guerrini, Iraê Amaral; Silva, Magali Ribeiro da; Saad, João Carlos Cury; Lopes, Cristiano Freitas

2011-02-01

214

ADIÇÃO DE ANTRAQUINONA NA POLPAÇÃO ALCALINA DE Eucalyptus saligna  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes variações dos parâmetros de polpações alcalinas de cavacos de madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, tendo como objetivo estudar a influência da antraquinona (AQ), visando a diminuir os compostos reduzidos de enxofre nas emissões aéreas por meio da redução da sulfidez. Foram realizados oito cozimentos com álcali ativo variando de 19 a 21%, sulfidez de 0 a 20% e antraquinona de 0 a 0,1%, visando aos números kappa de 15,5 ± 1,5, em condições alcalinas controladas pelo fator H. De um modo geral, a adição de antraquinona melhorou a deslignificação, possibilitando a redução da sulfidez. As deslignificações kraft/antraquinona, com sulfidez de 5 e 10%, apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição ao kraft convencional, proporcionando redução da sulfidez do processo sem-prejuízos na polpação. A deslignificação soda/antraquinona, apesar de desempenho ligeiramente inferior, tem potencial para instalações industriais onde o problema de odor é crítico.

Lúcia Helena Jerônimo; Celso E. B. Foelkel; Sonia M. B. Frizzo

2000-01-01

215

Modeling dominant height growth: eucalyptus plantations in Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Difference forms of the well-known Chapman-Richards and Lundqvist-Korf biological growth models are derived for use in modeling dominant height growth using data from remeasured permanent plots. The performance of these models is compared with the performance of the McDill-Amateis difference model for describing dominant height growth of eucalyptus plantations in Portugal. The final model is a difference form of the Chapman-Richards equation with the m shape parameter constrained by initial stand conditions. The model is regional in that there are different estimated parameter values for highly productive sites in the coastal region of Portugal compared to lower productivity sites in the interior. The effect of using overlapping or nonoverlapping measurement intervals in the estimation process is examined with independent data; there appears to be little difference in the predictive ability of the resulting models.

Amaro A; Reed D; Tome M; Themido I

1998-02-01

216

Obtaining biobleached eucalyptus cellulose fibres by using various enzyme combinations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various combinations of laccases, xylanase and cellulase were used to biobleach cellulose fibres from eucalyptus. The Trametes villosa and Myceliophthora thermophila laccases were used in combination with violuric acid (VA(TvL) system) and methyl syringate (MeS(MtL) system), respectively, as mediator. A dissimilar mode of action of the two systems was found: the VA(TvL) treatment released both hexenuronic acids and lignin, whereas the MeS(MtL) released lignin alone. Pulp properties were further improved by applying the mediator before the enzyme during treatment. Pulp properties comparable to those provided by industrial TCF sequences were obtained by inserting a xylanase pretreatment before VA(TvL), but no significant effect was observed after the cellulase pretreatment. As an added value, the resulting enzymatically bleached fibres possess a reduced hexenuronic acid content. The chemical oxygen demand of the effluents from each stage was also assessed.

Valls C; Cadena EM; Blanca Roncero M

2013-01-01

217

Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W. [CSIR, Sabie (South Africa). Sabie Forestry Research Center

1992-12-31

218

Estabelecimento, multiplicação e alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden/ Establishment, multiplication and elongation in vitro of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cloro ativo (NaOCl) na assepsia de explantes para o estabelecimento in vitro, bem como benzilaminopurina (BAP) e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA) para a multiplicação e alongamento de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. As minicepas fornecedoras de propágulos para introdução in vitro foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram desi (more) nfestados com 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0% (v/v) de cloro ativo durante 10 min e inoculados em meio de cultura MS. Na obtenção de brotações múltiplas, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS suplementado com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Na fase de alongamento, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de ANA. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados, obtendo-se 45%, 46% e 66% de estabelecimento do clone H12, H19 e H20, respectivamente. A concentração de BAP que resultou na maior proliferação de gemas axilares para o clone H12 aos 60 dias foi estimada na faixa de 0,25 e 0,30 mg L-1. Aos 60 dias, a faixa entre 0,25 e 0,75 mg L-1 de ANA promoveu o maior número de brotações alongadas do clone H12. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate different concentrations of active chlorine (NaOCl) in explant asepsis for the establishment in vitro as well as of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in the multiplication and elongation of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Ministumps, which supply shoots for introduction in vitro, were cultivated in a clonal mini garden under semi-hydroponic system. Nodal segments of clones H12, H19 and H20 were disinfested with (more) 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v) of active chlorine during 10 minutes and inoculated in MS medium. In the multiplication phase, culture ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of BAP was used. In the elongation phase, ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of NAA was used. No interaction occurred between the studied levels, with 45%, 46% and 66% of establishment of clones H12, H19 and H20, respectively. The BAP concentration that resulted in the highest axillary's bud proliferation for clone H12 at 60 days was estimated in the range of 0.25 to 0.30 mg L-1. At 60 days, the range between 0.25 to 0.75 mg L-1 of NAA, promoted the highest number of elongated shoots for H12 clone.

Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Dutra, Leonardo Ferreira; Grossi, Fernando; Wendling, Ivar; Hornig, Jefferson

2009-02-01

219

THERMAL MODIFICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD: VARIATION OF COLORIMETRIC PARAMETERS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The color modifications in Eucalyptus grandis thermally modified wood were investigated. One hundred eighty specimens (10 x 10 x 200 mm) were prepared and thermally modified in an electric kiln for 4 and 8 h at 180-240ºC. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h* and ?E) were determined by the CIE-L*a*b* method on radial and tangential sections of untreated and treated wood. The results indicated the darkening of specimens in the radial and tangential sections. Both (more) sections showed variation of L* between 73 and 30, a* between 9 and 5 and b* between 20 and 8. The thermally modified wood at 180 and 200ºC showed similar patterns, equally at 220 and 240ºC. The time of exposure indicated significance just in treatment at 200ºC.

Gonzalez de Cademartori, Pedro Henrique; Schneid, Eduardo; Gatto, Darci Alberto; Martins Stangerlin, Diego; Beltrame, Rafael

2013-05-01

220

THERMAL MODIFICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD: VARIATION OF COLORIMETRIC PARAMETERS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The color modifications in Eucalyptus grandis thermally modified wood were investigated. One hundred eighty specimens (10 x 10 x 200 mm) were prepared and thermally modified in an electric kiln for 4 and 8 h at 180-240ºC. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, h* and ?E) were determined by the CIE-L*a*b* method on radial and tangential sections of untreated and treated wood. The results indicated the darkening of specimens in the radial and tangential sections. Both (more) sections showed variation of L* between 73 and 30, a* between 9 and 5 and b* between 20 and 8. The thermally modified wood at 180 and 200ºC showed similar patterns, equally at 220 and 240ºC. The time of exposure indicated significance just in treatment at 200ºC.

Gonzalez de Cademartori, Pedro Henrique; Schneid, Eduardo; Gatto, Darci Alberto; Martins Stangerlin, Diego; Beltrame, Rafael

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

2007-01-01

222

Obtaining biobleached eucalyptus cellulose fibres by using various enzyme combinations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various combinations of laccases, xylanase and cellulase were used to biobleach cellulose fibres from eucalyptus. The Trametes villosa and Myceliophthora thermophila laccases were used in combination with violuric acid (VA(TvL) system) and methyl syringate (MeS(MtL) system), respectively, as mediator. A dissimilar mode of action of the two systems was found: the VA(TvL) treatment released both hexenuronic acids and lignin, whereas the MeS(MtL) released lignin alone. Pulp properties were further improved by applying the mediator before the enzyme during treatment. Pulp properties comparable to those provided by industrial TCF sequences were obtained by inserting a xylanase pretreatment before VA(TvL), but no significant effect was observed after the cellulase pretreatment. As an added value, the resulting enzymatically bleached fibres possess a reduced hexenuronic acid content. The chemical oxygen demand of the effluents from each stage was also assessed. PMID:23218295

Valls, Cristina; Cadena, Edith M; Blanca Roncero, M

2012-08-30

223

Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work provides an assessment on the fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus wood by sequential stages of autohydrolysis (to cause the solubilization of hemicelluloses) and organosolv pulping (to dissolve lignin, leaving solids enriched in cellulose). With this approach, valuable products (hemicellulose-derived saccharides, sulphur-free lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates with low contents of residual hemicelluloses) are obtained in separate streams, according to the biomass refinery approach. Autohydrolysis was carried out under optimized operational conditions, and organosolv pulping was performed using uncatalyzed ethanol-water solutions. The effects of the most influential operational variables (autohydrolysis severity, delignification temperature and ethanol concentration in the organosolv stage) on solid yield, solid composition, cellulose susceptibility and recovery of the various fractions was assessed using statistical methods, which enabled the identification of the most favourable operational conditions.

Romaní A; Garrote G; López F; Parajó JC

2011-05-01

224

Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work provides an assessment on the fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus wood by sequential stages of autohydrolysis (to cause the solubilization of hemicelluloses) and organosolv pulping (to dissolve lignin, leaving solids enriched in cellulose). With this approach, valuable products (hemicellulose-derived saccharides, sulphur-free lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates with low contents of residual hemicelluloses) are obtained in separate streams, according to the biomass refinery approach. Autohydrolysis was carried out under optimized operational conditions, and organosolv pulping was performed using uncatalyzed ethanol-water solutions. The effects of the most influential operational variables (autohydrolysis severity, delignification temperature and ethanol concentration in the organosolv stage) on solid yield, solid composition, cellulose susceptibility and recovery of the various fractions was assessed using statistical methods, which enabled the identification of the most favourable operational conditions. PMID:21392966

Romaní, Aloia; Garrote, Gil; López, Francisco; Parajó, Juan Carlos

2011-02-21

225

Bioethanol production from hydrothermally pretreated Eucalyptus globulus wood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were pretreated in aqueous media under non-isothermal conditions to reach maximal temperatures (T(MAX)) in the range 195-250 degrees C, in order to assess the effects of the pre-treatment severity on the fractionation of wood and on the susceptibility of processed samples toward enzymatic hydrolysis. Both the fraction of cellulose susceptible to hydrolysis and the hydrolysis rate increased with the severity of the pre-treatments, but the overall glucose yield decreased for substrates pretreated at T(MAX) above 220 degrees C owing to cellulose losses. Using substrates pretreated at T(MAX)=220 degrees C, up to 94% of polysaccharides were recovered in the hydrolysis media as mono- or oligo-saccharides. High glucose to ethanol conversions were obtained operating at low enzyme charges in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation mode.

Romaní A; Garrote G; Alonso JL; Parajó JC

2010-11-01

226

Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis/ Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a an? (more) ?lise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste), com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas. Abstract in english Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behav (more) ior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning), with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

Gonçalves, Fabricio Gomes; Oliveira, José Tarcísio da Silva; Silva, Gilson Fernandes da; Nappo, Mauro Eloi; Tomazelo Filho, Mario

2010-10-01

227

Estabelecimento, multiplicação e alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Establishment, multiplication and elongation in vitro of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cloro ativo (NaOCl) na assepsia de explantes para o estabelecimento in vitro, bem como benzilaminopurina (BAP) e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA) para a multiplicação e alongamento de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. As minicepas fornecedoras de propágulos para introdução in vitro foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram desinfestados com 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0% (v/v) de cloro ativo durante 10 min e inoculados em meio de cultura MS. Na obtenção de brotações múltiplas, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS suplementado com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Na fase de alongamento, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de ANA. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados, obtendo-se 45%, 46% e 66% de estabelecimento do clone H12, H19 e H20, respectivamente. A concentração de BAP que resultou na maior proliferação de gemas axilares para o clone H12 aos 60 dias foi estimada na faixa de 0,25 e 0,30 mg L-1. Aos 60 dias, a faixa entre 0,25 e 0,75 mg L-1 de ANA promoveu o maior número de brotações alongadas do clone H12.This work aimed to evaluate different concentrations of active chlorine (NaOCl) in explant asepsis for the establishment in vitro as well as of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in the multiplication and elongation of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Ministumps, which supply shoots for introduction in vitro, were cultivated in a clonal mini garden under semi-hydroponic system. Nodal segments of clones H12, H19 and H20 were disinfested with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v) of active chlorine during 10 minutes and inoculated in MS medium. In the multiplication phase, culture ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of BAP was used. In the elongation phase, ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of NAA was used. No interaction occurred between the studied levels, with 45%, 46% and 66% of establishment of clones H12, H19 and H20, respectively. The BAP concentration that resulted in the highest axillary's bud proliferation for clone H12 at 60 days was estimated in the range of 0.25 to 0.30 mg L-1. At 60 days, the range between 0.25 to 0.75 mg L-1 of NAA, promoted the highest number of elongated shoots for H12 clone.

Gilvano Ebling Brondani; Leonardo Ferreira Dutra; Fernando Grossi; Ivar Wendling; Jefferson Hornig

2009-01-01

228

Role of extractives in soda pulping of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of extractives on the rate of delignification of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood during soda pulping and on the pulp yield has been investigated. The kinetics of delignification of extracted and unextracted wood was studied in model pulping experiments in which woodmeal samples and chips were heated with soda liquors containing large excesses of alkali. The results showed that the extractives do not accelerate the rate of delignification or increase the selectivity of lignin removal. Soda pulping of unextracted wood gave pulps in higher yields than from extracted wood (compared at the same lignin content) but required longer times to produce pulps with particular lignin contents. The rate of delignification of Pinus radiata wood increased when it was pulped together with Tectona grandis (teak) wood which contained extractives known to increase the rate of lignin removal during soda pulping. A similar effect was not observed when the pine wood was pulped together with E. diversicolor wood. (Refs. 16).

Olm, L.; Wearne, R.; Nelson, P.J.

1981-09-01

229

Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile.

González-García S; Moreira MT; Feijoo G

2012-11-01

230

Efeito dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla Effect of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, constituído de dois reguladores de crescimento (AIB e ANA), cinco doses de AIB e ANA e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram feitas avaliações em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e pleno sol, quanto ao porcentual de sobrevivência, altura, diâmetro de colo e massa seca da parte aérea e radicular das miniestacas enraizadas. Conclui-se que a utilização do AIB nas doses entre 500 e 2.000 mg L-1 mostrou-se mais eficiente do que o ANA nos quatro clones estudados.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden under a hydro phonic system in small gutters. The experiment was arranged in a randomized design with plots in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial constituted of two growth regulators (IBA and ANA), five doses of each growth regulator and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. The evaluations were carried out in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun for survival rate, height, stem diameter and dry mass of the aerial and root parts of the rooted minicuttings. It was concluded that using IBA in doses between 500 and 2,000 mg L-1 was more efficient than using ANA for the four clones studied.

Patrícia Bueno Goulart; Aloisio Xavier; Narcisio Zeferino Cardoso

2008-01-01

231

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS  

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Full Text Available A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2) are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungal isolate OP4MT2 showed highest zone of inhibition (20 mm) against Penicillium chrysogenum among two test fungi. The crude ethyl acetate extract of P3MT1 isolate showed highest zone of inhibition against Candida albicans (19 mm) by both well and disc diffusion method when compared to other fungal isolates. Another four fungal isolates (P3ML1, P6MT1, P5MT1 and P2MT1) from the same set of thirty isolates showed positive for the secretion of amylase, protease and laccase enzymes in agar plate method. Two endophytic fungal isolates (P6MT1 & P2MT1) among thirty are able to oxidize guaiacol indicating the presence of Lignin degrading enzymes. Four fungal isolates indicated presence of laccase enzymes by qualitative test were able to decolorize both methylene blue and aniline blue (synthetic dyes) in solid and liquid media. The quantitative estimation of percent decolorization of synthetic dyes by spectrophotometric method confirmed more than 90 % reduction in color is made possible by the endophytic fungi. All these fungal strains with good bioactivity are of worth studying in detail for the purification and characterization of the active compounds and enzymes.

K. Ananda et al

2012-01-01

232

Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

2011-07-01

233

Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately (more) after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

Duarte, Neimar de Freitas; Karam, Decio; Bucek, Elizabeth Uber; Muzzi, Maria Rita Scotti

2012-06-01

234

Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculação. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto.Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin) against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4) urediniospores /mL) and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

Edival Ângelo Valverde Zauza; Michele Margarido Fonseca Couto; Luiz Ântonio Maffia; Acelino Couto Alfenas

2008-01-01

235

Variations of DNA methylation in Eucalyptus urophylla×Eucalyptus grandis shoot tips and apical meristems of different physiological ages  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global DNA methylation was assessed by high?performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the first time in Eucalyptus urophylla×Eucalyptus grandis shoot tips comparing three outdoor and one in vitro sources of related genotypes differing in their physiological age. The DNA methylation levels found were consistent with those reported for other Angiosperms using the same HPLC technology. Notwithstanding noticeable time?related fluctuations within each source of plant material, methylation rate was overall higher for the mature clone (13.7%) than for the rejuvenated line of the same clone (12.6%) and for the juvenile offspring seedlings (11.8%). The in vitro microshoots of the mature clone were less methylated (11.3%) than the other outdoor origins, but the difference with the juvenile seedlings was not significant. Immunofluorescence investigations on shoot apices established that the mature source could be distinguished from the rejuvenated and juvenile origins by a higher density of cells with methylated nuclei in leaf primordia. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) from the mature clone also showed a greater proportion and more methylated cells than SAMs from the rejuvenated and juvenile origins. The nuclei of these latter were characterized by fewer and more dispersed labeled spots than for the mature source. Our findings establish that physiological ageing induced quantitative and qualitative variations of DNA methylation at shoot tip, SAM and even cellular levels. Overall this DNA methylation increased with maturation and conversely decreased with rejuvenation to reach the lower scores and to show the immunolabeling patterns that characterized juvenile material nuclei.

Mankessi F; Saya AR; Favreau B; Doulbeau S; Conéjéro G; Lartaud M; Verdeil J; Monteuuis O

2011-10-01

236

Controle genético da regeneração in vitro em progênies de Eucalyptus grandis Genetic control of in vitro regeneration of Eucalyptus grandis  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o controle genético da regeneração direta in vitro a partir de plântulas de Eucalyptus grandis, foram utilizadas sementes de 10 progênies de polinização aberta da população base, origem Atherton, localizada em Anhembi, Estado de São Paulo. Vinte dias de cultivo após a germinação, 196 segmentos distais dos hipocótilos por progênie foram inoculados in vitro num Delineamento em Blocos Completos Aleatorizado Generalizado, com duas unidades experimentais por bloco e sete repetições por bloco, usando a interação blocos por progênie como estimadora do erro experimental. Após 14 semanas de cultivo, foram feitas avaliações da regeneração. Houve diferenças significativas de regeneração entre as progênies (PThe genetic control of in vitro direct regeneration was tested on seedlings of ten open-pollinated progenies from the base population of Atherton origin of Eucalyptus grandis at University of São Paulo (Brazil). Seeds were germinated in vitro, after twenty days, distal hypocotyls segments from 196 seedlings per progeny were inoculated in culture media at Generalized Complete Randomized Block Design, with two experimental units per block and seven repetitions, using the interaction blocks by progenies as an estimate of the experimental error. At week 14 from the inoculation bud induction was evaluated. Regeneration among progenies were significantly different (P<0.0001). Regeneration varied from 11 to 60%. The narrow-sense heritability between means of experimental units for in vitro regeneration was height. (h2m=0.94), indicating a strong genetic control of the trait within the population and also a high maternal effect. High variability within the study sample was found.

Carlos David Vera Bravo; Antônio Natal Gonçalves; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias; Roland Vencovsky

2008-01-01

237

Variations of DNA methylation in Eucalyptus urophylla×Eucalyptus grandis shoot tips and apical meristems of different physiological ages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global DNA methylation was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the first time in Eucalyptus urophylla×Eucalyptus grandis shoot tips comparing three outdoor and one in vitro sources of related genotypes differing in their physiological age. The DNA methylation levels found were consistent with those reported for other Angiosperms using the same HPLC technology. Notwithstanding noticeable time-related fluctuations within each source of plant material, methylation rate was overall higher for the mature clone (13.7%) than for the rejuvenated line of the same clone (12.6%) and for the juvenile offspring seedlings (11.8%). The in vitro microshoots of the mature clone were less methylated (11.3%) than the other outdoor origins, but the difference with the juvenile seedlings was not significant. Immunofluorescence investigations on shoot apices established that the mature source could be distinguished from the rejuvenated and juvenile origins by a higher density of cells with methylated nuclei in leaf primordia. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) from the mature clone also showed a greater proportion and more methylated cells than SAMs from the rejuvenated and juvenile origins. The nuclei of these latter were characterized by fewer and more dispersed labeled spots than for the mature source. Our findings establish that physiological ageing induced quantitative and qualitative variations of DNA methylation at shoot tip, SAM and even cellular levels. Overall this DNA methylation increased with maturation and conversely decreased with rejuvenation to reach the lower scores and to show the immunolabeling patterns that characterized juvenile material nuclei.

Mankessi F; Saya AR; Favreau B; Doulbeau S; Conéjéro G; Lartaud M; Verdeil JL; Monteuuis O

2011-10-01

238

Estudio preliminar de la contracción y el colapso en Eucalyptus nitens/ Preliminary study of shrinkage and collapse in Eucalyptus nitens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudió la contracción y el colapso en familias de Eucalyptus nitens. La madera fue recogida de 15 árboles en pie de 17 años de edad creciendo en plantaciones de la Octava Región de Chile. Fueron seleccionados al azar tres árboles provenientes de cinco familias de E. nitens. Las probetas para los ensayos de contracción y colapso fueron preparadas a partir de una muestra obtenida de una rodela extraida a la altura del DAP de cada árbol. Los ensay (more) os de contracción y colapso fueron realizados de acuerdo a las normas chilenas. Fueron determinados la contracción, el colapso, el coeficiente de contracción unitario y el punto de intersección de la contracción. Los resultados evidenciaron que la contracción y el colapso aumentaron con la posición radial y una alta contracción y colapso en la zona central y lateral en fue asociada a una baja de la densidad en esta zonas. Abstract in english In this study the variation of transversal shrinkage and collapse in Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated. Fifteen trees, three of each five different families were collected from plantations of E. nitens 17 years-old, growing in the Eighth Region of Chile. The wood samples of shrinkage and collapse was obtained from the first log, in three positions from the pith to bark south (core, transition and lateral). Wood samples were prepared and then acclimatized in according to th (more) e Chilean Standards. The collapse was determined by the difference of shrinkage before and after reconditioning. Shrinkage unit coefficients and the shrinkage intersection points were also determined. The results showed variability radial transversal shrinkage and collapse of between trees and families of E. nitens. The transversal shrinkage and collapse tended to increase with radial position, despite that higher transversal shrinkage and collapse were more intense in the core or transition zones due to lower densities.

Ananias, Rubén A; Diaz, Cinthya; Leandro, Laura

2009-01-01

239

Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus/ Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculação. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os (more) fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin) against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4) urediniospores /mL) and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension (more) after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

Zauza, Edival Ângelo Valverde; Couto, Michele Margarido Fonseca; Maffia, Luiz Ântonio; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

2008-10-01

240

Funções para descrever a relação altura diâmetro de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Function the hypsometric relation of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos definir uma equação para descrever as alturas de árvores de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden em função dos diâmetros medidos a altura do peito. Os dados foram coletados em árvores amostras com idade de seis e sete anos, em quatro hortos florestais da empresa Riocell S.A. localizados na Depressão Central e Encosta do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram ajustados modelos matemáticos, com o emprego do procedimento Forward de regressão, para descrever a relação hipsométrica. Na seleçõo dos modelos foram considerados as estatísticas de coeficiente de determinação (R²), erro padrão da estimativa em percentagem da média (Syx %), bem como, a análise de resíduos dos modelos, tendo sido selecionada a equação In (h-1,30) = b0+b1.ln d + b2.log²d, com coeficientes R² =0,8921 e Syx %= 2,5175.The present work had the objective to define an equation to describe plant heights in function of diameters of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden. Data were collected infour properties of Company Riocell S.A distributed along several counties of the Central Depression and Southeast Slope of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The trees sampled were six to seven years old. The datas were adjusted to heights and diameters to describe the hypsometric relation, usingthe Forward regression procedure. In the selection of the model,the coefficient of determination statistics (R²), standard error of estimate in percentage of means (Syx °/o) as well as residue analyses of the models were considered. The best height estimations were obtained with the equations In (h-1,3) = b0, + b1 logd + b2ln²d, which showed the following coefficients R² = 0.8921 and Syx %= 2.5175.

Magda Léa Bolzan Zanon; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Jorge Euclides Meyer Klein; Maria Cristina Bueno Coelho

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Australian Insects Affecting Eucalyptus Species in Turkey Insetos Australianos que Afetam Eucaliptos na Turquia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most Eucalyptus species are endemic to Australia, although a few were introduced into Turkey and neighbouring regions of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th century. According to the most recent national inventories, there are over 20.000 ha of eucalyptus plantations in Turkey. Seven Australian insects have recently been found on eucalyptus seedlings and trees in several parts of Turkey, in recently conducted surveys between 2000 and 2008. Of these, six are phytophagous and one is a parasitoid.The phytophagous species are: the eucalyptus gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa, Fisher and La Salle, 2004), the leaf blade gall wasp (Prelim. maskelli, Ashmead, 1900), the eucalyptus seed capsule wasp (Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae), the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae), the eucalyptus shoot psyllid (Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and the gum-tree flower thrip (Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Among these phytophagous species, economically important pests are L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata, and B. occidentalis. The parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleonis attacks the larva and pupae of O. maskelli.A maioria das espécies de eucalipto são originárias da Austrália, embora algumas tenham sido introduzidas na Turquia e países vizinhos no final do século XVIII. De acordo com o último inventário nacional, existem mais de 20.000 ha de plantações de eucalipto na Turquia. Prospeções efetuadas entre 2000 e 2008 detetaram sete espécies de insetos originários da Austrália em sementes e árvores de eucalipto, em várias regiões da Turquia. Seis destas espécies são fitófagas, nomeadamente: Leptocybe invasa (Fisher and La Salle, 2004), Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead, 1900), Quadrastichodella nova Girault, 1922 (Hym.: Eulophidae),Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col: Cerambycidae), Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor (Hemiptera Psyllidae) e Thrips australis (Bagnall, 1915) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). De entre estas, as pragas mais importantes são L. invasa, O. maskelli, P. semipunctata e B. occidentalis. A sétima espécie detetada é o parasitóide Closterocerus chamaeleonis, encontrado a atacar larvas e pupas de O. maskelli.

Fatih Aytar; Said Da?da?; Celalettin Duran

2011-01-01

242

The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.Foi estudada a influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a composição e a estrutura de comunidades de macroinvertebrados associados à macrófita aquática Salvinia auriculata Aublet, em um lago de altitude, margeado por Mata Atlântica secundária e plantações de Eucalyptus. Comparando a diversidade de larvas de Chironomidae (Díptera, Insecta) entre as duas margens, foi evidenciada maior diversidade na margem com Eucalyptus. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a predominância de taxa carnívoros entre a macrofauna pode ser o principal fator controlador da diversidade de organismos nas áreas circundadas por plantações de Eucalyptus.

M. CALLISTO; F. A. R. BARBOSA; P. MORENO

2002-01-01

243

Ocorrência de Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre 1891) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) em Eucalyptus spp. em Minas Gerais Occurrence of Costalimaita lurida (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eucalyptus spp. in Minas Gerais state, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chrysomelids are important pests in forest plantations because they cause injuries and affect tree growth. Among the chrysomelid, Eumolpinae subfamily presents the greatest number of species recorded as pest. The purpose of this study was to register the occurrence and evaluate the attack of Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891) in a plantation of Eucalyptus spp. in the northern of Minas Gerais state. The attack was observed in September 2006 on a twelve months old plantation of age with the following species being injuried: Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. urophylla, E. robusta, a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla and also Corymbia torelliana.doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.257Coleópteros da família Chrysomelidae são importantes pragas no Brasil por causarem injúrias e afetarem o crescimento das árvores. Dentre os crisomelideos, a subfamília Eumolpinae possui maior número de espécies registradas como pragas. O objetivo deste estudo foi registrar a ocorrência e avaliar o ataque de Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891) em um plantio de Eucalyptus spp. no norte de Minas Gerais. O ataque foi observado em setembro de 2006, em plantio com 12 meses de idade,  com as seguintes espécies injuriadas: Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. urophylla, E. robusta, um híbrido entre E. grandis e E. urophylla e também Corymbia torelliana. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.257 

Alexandre Arnhold; Dinarte Gonçalves

2010-01-01

244

Weed control strip influences the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis/ Faixa de controle de plantas daninhas influencia o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O reflorestamento no Brasil é normalmente realizado com uma faixa de controle de plantas daninhas de 50 cm, utilizando capina mecânica ou manual ou herbicidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da variação da largura da faixa tratadas com herbicidas sobre o estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis. Plantas de eucalipto foram transplantadas nos municípios Araraquara e Altinópolis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em Araraquara, os seguintes tratamentos foram a (more) valiados: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 150 cm de larguras de faixas, tratadas com herbicidas, em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto; em Altinópolis, a largura da faixa em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto foi de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 ou 150 cm. Foram avaliados a matéria seca de folhas, ramos e caule e área foliar aos 270 dias após o plantios (DAP), teor de clorofila (400 DAP) e altura e diâmentro do caule (410 DAP). Em Araraquara, a principal espécie foi Panicum maximum, em Altinópolis, foi Rhynchelytrum repens. Para ambas as áreas, foi necessário o mínimo de 75 cm de largura de faixa tratada para minimizar a interferência das plantas daninhas no desenvolvimento das plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Reforestation in Brazil is conventionally carried out with a 50-cm weed control strip, using mechanical or manual hoeing or herbicides. The aim of this study was to determine effects of varying the width of the herbicide-treated strip on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis. Eucalyptus plants were transplanted in Araraquara and Altinópolis counties, São Paulo State, Brazil. In Araraquara, the following treatments were evaluated: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150-cm wide str (more) ips, treated with herbicide, on either side of the eucalyptus row; in Altinópolis, the width of the strip on either side of the eucalyptus row was 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 cm. Were evaluated dry matter of leaves, branches and stem and leaf area at 270 days after planting (270 DAP), chlorophyll content (400 DAP), stem diameter and eucalyptus plants height (410 DAP). In Araraquara, the main weed was Panicum maximum, and in Altinópolis, it was Rhynchelytrum repens. For both areas, a minimum of 75 cm of treated strip was required to minimise weed interference with eucalyptus plants? development.

Silva, João Renato Vaz da; Alves, Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar; Toledo, Roberto Estevão Bragion de

2012-03-01

245

Weed control strip influences the initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis=Faixa de controle de plantas daninhas influencia o crescimento inicial de Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reforestation in Brazil is conventionally carried out with a 50-cm weed control strip, using mechanical or manual hoeing or herbicides. The aim of this study was to determine effects of varying the width of the herbicide-treated strip on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis. Eucalyptus plants were transplanted in Araraquara and Altinópolis counties, São Paulo State, Brazil. In Araraquara, the following treatments were evaluated: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150-cm wide strips, treated with herbicide, on either side of the eucalyptus row; in Altinópolis, the width of the strip on either side of the eucalyptus row was 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 cm. Were evaluated dry matter of leaves, branches and stem and leaf area at 270 days after planting (270 DAP), chlorophyll content (400 DAP), stem diameter and eucalyptus plants height (410 DAP). In Araraquara, the main weed was Panicum maximum, and in Altinópolis, it was Rhynchelytrum repens. For both areas, a minimum of 75 cm of treated strip was required to minimise weed interference with eucalyptus plants’ development.O reflorestamento no Brasil é normalmente realizado com uma faixa de controle de plantas daninhas de 50 cm, utilizando capina mecânica ou manual ou herbicidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da variação da largura da faixa tratadas com herbicidas sobre o estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis. Plantas de eucalipto foram transplantadas nos municípios Araraquara e Altinópolis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em Araraquara, os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 150 cm de larguras de faixas, tratadas com herbicidas, em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto; em Altinópolis, a largura da faixa em ambos os lados da linha de eucalipto foi de 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 ou 150 cm. Foram avaliados a matéria seca de folhas, ramos e caule e área foliar aos 270 dias após o plantios (DAP), teor de clorofila (400 DAP) e altura e diâmentro do caule (410 DAP). Em Araraquara, a principal espécie foi Panicum maximum, em Altinópolis, foi Rhynchelytrum repens. Para ambas as áreas, foi necessário o mínimo de 75 cm de largura de faixa tratada para minimizar a interferência das plantas daninhas no desenvolvimento das plantas de eucalipto.

João Renato Vaz da Silva; Pedro Luís da Costa Aguiar Alves; Roberto Estevão Bragion de Toledo

2012-01-01

246

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis/ Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones ace (more) ite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B). Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico. Abstract in english Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent) of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, sepa (more) rated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B). Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Murillo-Arango, Walter; Araque Marín, Pedronel; Henao Murillo, Beatriz; Peláez Jaramillo, Carlos A

2013-03-01

247

Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B). Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico.Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent) of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B). Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

Walter Murillo-Arango; Pedronel Araque Marín; Beatriz Henao Murillo; Carlos A Peláez Jaramillo

2013-01-01

248

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF)/ Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF) cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m? (more) ?, respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on o (more) ne face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Vital, Benedito Rocha; Maciel, Antônio da Silva; Della Lucia, Ricardo Marius

2005-10-01

249

Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF) Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF) cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

Benedito Rocha Vital; Antônio da Silva Maciel; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia

2005-01-01

250

Eucalyptus rust: a disease with the potential for serious international implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eucalyptus spp. are propagated extensively as non-natives in plantations in many parts of the tropics and sub-tropics. A number of diseases result in serious losses to this economically important forest resource. Eucalyptus rust, caused by Puccinia psidii, is one such example. The economic losses due to this disease are the result of infections of seedlings, young trees, and coppice. P psidii occurs predominately in Central and South America, but reports of a similar rust are known from other areas. Eucalyptus rust is a remarkable disease in that the pathogen is not known on eucalypts in their centers of origin. It has apparently originated on native Myrtaceae in South America and is highly infective on some Eucalyptus spp. planted there. P. psidii causes one of the most serious forestry diseases in Brazil and is considered to be the most serious threat to eucalypt plantations worldwide. Advances in eucalyptus rust research are reviewed here, with a focus on topics such as distribution, host range, pathogen specialization, symptomatology, etiology, epidemiology, and control.

Coutinho TA; Wingfield MJ; Alfenas AC; Crous PW

1998-07-01

251

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. (more) Soil samples (10 cm) were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom) by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin) from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met) was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05) the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05). However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05). The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met) was not affected (p ? 0.05) by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C6rdova, C; Barrandeguy, M; Navarrete, E

2012-09-01

252

Main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of Eucalyptus grandis in the Municipality of Bom Despacho, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1987 to February 1992. A total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. These four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. The number of species without defined importance to eucalyptus, and non-identified species, increased during the collecting period of five years while those of primary and secondary pests showed similar numbers in all years. The most collected primary pests Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll and Stenalcidia sp. (Geometridae) showed higher frequencies during the driest and coldest periods of the year, whereas Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Notodontidae) was most frequent during periods of higher rainfall. Species of groups III and IV increased in diversity with eucalyptus age. This area has a high probability of outbreaks of eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars, especially T. arnobia. For this reason, lepidopteran pests should be monitored in this plantation during the driest and coldest periods of the year, when they can reach population peaks.

Zanuncio TV; Zanuncio JC; de Freitas FA; Pratissoli D; Sediyama CA; Maffia VP

2006-06-01

253

Main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of Eucalyptus grandis in the Municipality of Bom Despacho, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1987 to February 1992. A total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. These four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. The number of species without defined importance to eucalyptus, and non-identified species, increased during the collecting period of five years while those of primary and secondary pests showed similar numbers in all years. The most collected primary pests Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll and Stenalcidia sp. (Geometridae) showed higher frequencies during the driest and coldest periods of the year, whereas Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Notodontidae) was most frequent during periods of higher rainfall. Species of groups III and IV increased in diversity with eucalyptus age. This area has a high probability of outbreaks of eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars, especially T. arnobia. For this reason, lepidopteran pests should be monitored in this plantation during the driest and coldest periods of the year, when they can reach population peaks. PMID:18494322

Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Zanuncio, José C; de Freitas, Fernando A; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Maffia, Vanessa P

2006-06-01

254

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA) for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (more) (Ec0,m) in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k) using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91). The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Gherardi Hein, Paulo Ricardo; Tarcísio Lima, José

2012-11-01

255

Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. METHODS: Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. RESULTS: The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (?-esterase and ?-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are ?-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-?-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae.

Abd El-Moneim MA; Fatma SA; Turky A

2012-01-01

256

Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA) for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m) in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k) using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91). The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein; José Tarcísio Lima

2012-01-01

257

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm) were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom) by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin) from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met) was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05) the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05). However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05). The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (qmet) was not affected (p ? 0.05) by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C C6rdova; M Barrandeguy; E Navarrete

2012-01-01

258

Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm) were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom) by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin) from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met) was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05) the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05). However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05). The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met) was not affected (p ? 0.05) by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

C C6rdova; M Barrandeguy; E Navarrete

2012-01-01

259

Análise cinética da cura de adesivos de taninos das cascas de três espécies de Eucalyptus por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC)  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a cinética de cura de adesivos à base de taninos de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus urophylla por calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC), comparando-a com a cinética de cura de adesivos comerciais: fenol-formaldeído e de taninos de acácia-negra (Acacia mollissima D.Wild). Verificou-se que o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentou os parâmetros cinéticos (energia de ativação, entalpia, temperatura de pico e ordem de reação) mais próximos aos do adesivo comercial de taninos de acácia-negra, que foram totalmente diferentes do adesivo à base de fenol-formaldeído. Com base nestes parâmetros constatou-se que, em relação aos outros dois, o adesivo de taninos de Eucalyptus urophylla é o mais adequado para colagem, uma vez que em condições industriais ele necessitará de uso mínimo de energia e de tempo de prensagem durante o processo de colagem.

Mori Fábio Akira; Vital Benedito Rocha; Pimenta Alexandre Santos; Trugilho Paulo Fernando; Jahm Gulab Newandram; Della Lucia Ricardo Marius

2002-01-01

260

CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DO Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden CONSORCIADO COM Zea mays L., NA REGIÃO DE SANTA MARIA, RS  

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Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudado o crescimento inicial do Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden sob o consórcio de Zea mays L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições e 7 tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram definidos para o Eucalyptus com e sem adubação consorciado com milho com adubação, e ambas espécies em monocultura adubado. A análise realizada demonstra que a adubação do Eucalyptus resulta em aumento na altura e diâmetro do coleto aos sete meses do plantio e que esta diferença não persiste aos 14 meses; o crescimento em altura do Eucalyptus não sofre interferência da concorrência do milho, mas o crescimento em diâmetro do coleto é afetado pela concorrência do milho. A produção de grãos de milho não é afetada pelo consórcio com Eucalyptus.

Paulo Renato Schneider; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Juarez Martins Hoppe; Lindolfo Storck; Frederico Fleig; Marcos Schneider; Maria T. Fleig; Alcides Gatto

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Stimulatory effect of eucalyptus essential oil on the germination and early growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Efeito estimulante do óleo essencial de eucalipto na germinação e crescimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of essential oil and extracts from plants is becoming an efficient alternative in the biostimulation on growth and protection of plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis on the germination and the  development of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in nursery conditions. The eucalyptus seeds were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?L L-1 of the essential oil in controlled conditions. The eucalyptus seedlings were sprayed with 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ?L L-1 of the essential oil per plant, at intervals of seven days. The effect of this application on the seedling development were analyzed after 30 and 60 days. The results show that the germination was significantly higher when the seeds were exposed to 25 ?L L-1 of the essential oil. The application of essential oil in the concentration of 30 and 40 ?L L-1 provided higher growth of the aerial part and of the roots in greenhouse conditions, being an effective alternative to biostimulation the vegetative growth of eucalyptus seedlings.doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199A utilização de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas vem sendo uma alternativa eficiente no bioestímulo do crescimento e proteção vegetal. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização do óleo essencial extraído de folhas de Eucalyptus grandis sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de eucalipto em condições controladas, em casa de vegetação. Sementes de eucalipto foram incubadas em  concentrações de 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial em ambiente controlado.  Posteriormente, pulverizou-se plântulas de eucalipto com 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial por planta, em intervalos de sete dias. Avaliou-se o efeito do óleo sobre o desenvolvimento vegetal aos 30 e 60 dias após o transplante. Os resultados evidenciam que a germinação foi significativamente maior quando as sementes foram tratadas com 25 ?L L-1 do óleo essencial. A aplicação do óleo essencial nas concentrações de 30 e 40 ?L L-1 proporcionou maior crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea das mudas de eucalipto em ambiente controlado, sendo uma alternativa eficiente na bioestimulação do crescimento vegetativo de mudas de eucalipto.doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199

Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen

2010-01-01

262

Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares  

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Full Text Available Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tissues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP) was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plantas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA) e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP). O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes) quanto o meio completo (47%). O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas.

Roberson Dibax; Cristiane de Loyola Eisfeld; Francine Lorena Cuquel; Henrique Koehler; Marguerite Quoirin

2005-01-01

263

Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis/ Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plantas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonar (more) es foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA) e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP). O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes) quanto o meio completo (47%). O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas. Abstract in english Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tissues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supple (more) mented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP) was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.

Dibax, Roberson; Eisfeld, Cristiane de Loyola; Cuquel, Francine Lorena; Koehler, Henrique; Quoirin, Marguerite

2005-08-01

264

Tipos de Ruptura em Madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Modificada Termicamente/ Types of Failures in Thermally-Modified Eucalyptus grandis Wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os tipos de ruptura durante os ensaios mecânicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis modificada termicamente. Para tanto, tábuas centrais de 19 árvores de E. grandis com 5,9 anos de idade foram utilizadas nesse estudo. As tábuas foram secas até 10% de umidade, aplainadas com 32 mm de espessura e seccionadas em peças com 0,60 m de comprimento. Posteriormente, uma das peças foi mantida em seu estado original e as demais for (more) am modificadas termicamente à 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC e 220ºC por 2,5 horas. De cada peça foram produzidos corpos-de­prova para os ensaios de compressão paralela às fibras e de flexão estática. O material foi aclimatizado em câmara climática com 21ºC e 65% de umidade relativa, no Laboratório de Secagem e Preservação da Madeira da FCA, UNESP, de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Após os ensaios mecânicos, os tipos de ruptura foram caracterizados pela norma ASTM D-143 (2007). Os resultados mostraram que: (1) existe uma relação direta, pelo teste qui-quadrado, entre a temperatura do tratamento térmico e a ruptura frágil da madeira de E. grandis; e (2) a madeira dessa espécie quando modificada termicamente à 220ºC apresentou 100% de ruptura caracterizada como frágil. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the types of failures after the mechanical tests of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood. The present study utilized boards that contained the pith from 5 years and 11 months old Eucalyptus grandis trees. The boards were dried up to 10.0% moisture content, planing to 32-mm thick, and cutted into smaller pieces measuring 0.60 m in length. Subsequently, one piece was kept in its original condition and others pieces were thermally-modified (more) at 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC and 220ºC over a period of 2.5 hours. Specimens were obtained for the compression-parallel­to-grain and static-bending tests. All of the specimens were placed in a climatic chamber (21ºC and 65% relative humidity) in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation in the Department of Natural Resources/Forest Sciences, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP, in Brazil. After the mechanical tests the types of failures were classified as recommended by ASTM D-143 (2007). The results show that: (1) there is a direct relationship between the heat treatment temperature and brittle wood by chi-square test; and (2) the E. grandis wood when thermally-modified at 220ºC presented 100% of fragile failure.

Calonego, Fred Willians; Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Brito, Aline Fernanda de

2013-06-01

265

Effect of Echinophora platyloba, Stachys lavandulifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants on Trichomonas vaginalis growth in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite which causes vaginitis in women worldwide. Metronidazole with vast side effects is drug of choice for this infection. In search for an alternative drug, in this study the effect of three plants on Trichomonas vaginalis has been investigated in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcoholic and watery extracts of Echinophora platyloba, Stachys lavandulifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were prepared. In TYIS culture medium containing alive Trichomonas vaginalis different concentrations of extracts of three plants were added. Following, 24, 48, and 72 h incubation the number of parasite in each test tube was counted. RESULTS: Eucalyptus camaldulensis showed a strong effect on Trichomonas vaginalis growth. However, no significant effect was observed with Echinophora platyloba or Stachys lavandulifolia extracts. CONCLUSION: Eucalyptus camaldulensis can be considered as an alternative drug for treatment of infective vaginitis which is caused by bacteria, fungi and parasites.

Youse HA; Kazemian A; Sereshti M; Rahmanikhoh E; Ahmadinia E; Rafaian M; Maghsoodi R; Darani HY

2012-01-01

266

POLIAMINAS COMO MARCADORES BIOQUÍMICOS DE SALINIDADE EM CALOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis  

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Full Text Available Marcadores bioquímicos têm sido usados na análise de plantas submetidas a vários tipos de estresse, entre eles a salinidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o estresse salino em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis em relação ao conteúdo de poliaminas. Explantes (hipocótilos) obtidos de sementes foram inoculados em meio indutivo de calos e foram submetidos a diferentes níveis de NaCl e analisados aos 10, 20 e 30 dias de inoculação. As poliaminas livres foram extraídas, isoladas e quantificadas usando TLC (Cromatografia de Camada Delgada). O conteúdo de putrescina foi maior, enquanto que o conteúdo de espermidina apresentou decréscimo, em calos submetidos a condições salinas. Os resultados mostram que o acúmulo de putrescina está relacionado com a exposição a NaCl em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis. A diminuição do conteúdo de espermina pode ser usada como marcador bioquímico de calos de Eucalyptus sujeitos à salinidade.

Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima; Isabela M. Toledo Piza; Andréa Henrique; Massanori Takaki

2002-01-01

267

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COLOR OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD CLONES  

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Full Text Available Due to the importance of wood characterization and standardization, this research evaluated the variability of woodcolor inside and among Eucalyptus spp clones, as well as radially and longitudinally inside the trunk through the quantitativecolorimetric color determination of clones of Eucalyptus wood., using CIELAB 1976 system, , through chromatic coordinates L*, a*,b*, C* e h. Eleven clones of natural Eucalyptus clones hybrids, cultivated at the Northwest of Minas Gerais State, were used. Theresults showed that: all colorimetric parameters were statistically different among clones, and among radial position of samples; itwas possible to identify both clones and samples position along the ray, producing wood of different colours, but tending to yellowishand reddish tonalities.

Cláudia Lopes Selvati de Oliveira Mori; José Tarcísio Lima; Fábio Akira Mori; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Joaquim Carlos Goncalez

2005-01-01

268

NON DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF HEARTWOOD DIAMETER AT BREAST HEIGHT FOR EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AND POPULUS EURAMERICANA HYBRID  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was the evaluation of the heartwood diameter (dcerne) at breast height on stand trees, for Eucalyptus globulus Labill and the hybrid Populus euramericana. The data used was collected in eucalyptus and popular pure plantations in Central and North Portugal.The non destructive methods tested in the evaluation of heartwood diameter at breast height were [1] visual identification of the heartwood on core samples and [2] indirect estimation using mathematic models. The results allow to consider that visual determination of dcerne is appropriate for Populus, and development of prediction models based diameter at breast height (d), total height (h) and age (t), give better results for eucalyptus.

Hugo Alexandre Jóia; Teresa Fonseca; Maria Emília Silva; Carlos Pacheco Marques

2006-01-01

269

A Tool for Automatic Dependability Test in Eucalyptus Cloud Computing Infrastructures  

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Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a paradigm that dynamically provides resources as services through the Internet. The constant concern about the trust placed in cloud computing systems inspires dependability studies. A possible way of performing dependability studies, especially regarding reliability and availability, is through fault injection tools, which enable to observe the system’s behavior during the occurrence of fault events. This paper presents a fault injection tool, called EucaBomber, for reliability and availability studies in the Eucalyptus cloud computing platform. The tool supports fault injections in Eucalyptus hardware and software components at runtime, and also upholds reparation of both types of injected faults. The efficiency of EucaBomber is tested through a case study involving two different scenarios where faults and repairs of hardware and software are injected in the Eucalyptus platform simulating the system's events. Such a tool assists the system administrator and planners to evaluate the system’s availability and maintenance policies.

Debora Souza; Rubens Matos; Jean Araujo; Vandi Alves; Paulo Maciel

2013-01-01

270

Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP) na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1), tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas), pH (3 e 5,8) da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação), e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1), exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours), pH values (3 and 5.8), and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate), and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in response to 200 mg L-1 of BAP treatment, during 1 and 2 hours. The use of the pulse on in vitro multiplication of E. grandis is feasible.

Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade; Marcílio de Almeida; Antônio Natal Gonçalves

2006-01-01

271

Genetic evaluation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Mato Grosso State, Brazil Avaliação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis no Estado de Mato Grosso  

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Full Text Available The study aimed to estimate parameters, values and genetic gain for growth traits in progenies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, in the State of Mato Grosso. The progenies test was conducted under a randomized block design with 132 progenies, five replications and three plants in single rows, spaced 3 m x 2 m in Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. At 24 months of age, progenies were evaluated for the characters: a) diameter at base height (DBH), in centimeters, b) total height, in meters, c) survival. The individual in the narrow sense heritability for the traits studied can be considered medium to high magnitude (0.13 and 0.21) for height and diameter, respectively. The heritability for survival were practically nil, due to low genetic variability among the progenies, as evidenced by high survival rate of the plants (96.8%). The phenotypic and genetic correlations were of high magnitude for DBH and height prediction. There is genetic variation among progenies for growth traits which will provide significant genetic gains with selection.doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49O estudo objetivou estimar parâmetros, valores e ganhos genéticos para caracteres de crescimento em progênies de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, no estado de Mato Grosso. O teste de progênies foi instalado sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 132 progênies, cinco repetições e três plantas por parcela em linhas simples, no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m no município de Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. Aos 24 meses de idade, as progênies foram avaliadas quanto aos caracteres: a) diâmetro à altura da base (DAB), em centímetros; b) altura total, em metros; c) sobrevivência. As herdabilidades individuais no sentido restrito para os caracteres estudados podem ser consideradas de média a alta magnitude (0,13 e 0,21) para altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Para a sobrevivência, as herdabilidades foram praticamente nulas, devido à baixa variabilidade genética existente entre as progênies, evidenciada pela alta taxa de sobrevivência das plantas (96,8%). As correlações fenotípicas e genéticas preditas foram de elevada magnitude para DAB e altura. Existe variação genética entre as progênies para os caracteres de crescimento o que proporciona ganhos genéticos significativos com seleção.doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

Reginaldo Brito da Costa; Luana Pâmella de Almeida Azevedo; Diego Tyszka Martinez; Antonio de Arruda Tsukamoto Filho; Dayane Ávila Fernandes; Oacy Eurico de Oliveira; Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende

2012-01-01

272

Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina/ In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP) na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1), tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas), pH (3 e 5,8) da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações (more) por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação), e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1), exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours), pH values (3 and 5.8), and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multipli (more) cation rate), and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in response to 200 mg L-1 of BAP treatment, during 1 and 2 hours. The use of the pulse on in vitro multiplication of E. grandis is feasible.

Andrade, Wirifran Fernandes de; Almeida, Marcílio de; Gonçalves, Antônio Natal

2006-12-01

273

INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION  

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Full Text Available Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC)(PO)DD, O(DC)(PO)DP, OD(PO)DD, OD(PO)DP, ODHT(PO)DD, ODHT(PO)DP, OA/D(PO)DD, OA/D(PO)DP, OAD(PO)DD and O(Ze)D(PO). Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to 90±0.5% ISO. Brightness stability was measured after each bleaching stage of the various sequences andexpressed as brightness loss in % ISO. The results indicate that pulps bleached with sequences ending with a peroxide stage havehigher brightness stability compared to those ending with a chlorine dioxide stage. Pulps bleached with a standard sequence, initiatingwith a (DC) stage, show brightness stability similar to that of pulp bleached by an ECF (Elementary chlorine free) sequence initiatingwith a regular D0 stage. ECF sequences, initiated with hot stages produce pulps with higher brightness stability than sequencesinitiating with a regular D0 stage. The profile across the bleaching sequences shows a tendency of increased brightness stability inalkaline stages containing peroxide and decreased stability in those stages containing chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide, parallelingpulp carbonyl group content.

Kátia M. M. Eiras; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Ana Márcia M. L. Carvalho

2005-01-01

274

Response of Eucalyptus species to field infection by Puccinia psidii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirteen species of Eucalyptus with a total of 23 provenances (prs) were tested for resistance to Puccinia psidii in a field experiment with four replicates of 25 plants. Provenances were rated according to a scale based on the percentage of plants infected and the number of rust pustules. E. grandis pr South Africa was highly susceptible; E. grandis prs Coff’s Harbour, Kiogle Tablelands, and Garça, E. cloeziana prs Carbonita and Transvaal, and E. citriodora pr Florasa and E. saligna pr Cesanook were susceptible; E. urophylla pr Australia 9003, E. camaldulensis prs Gibb River and Petford, E. tereticornis pr S. Helenvale, E. pirocarpa pr Woolgoolga, E. paniculata pr Florasa, E. punctata pr Manduri, E. maculata pr Bom Despacho, and E. saligna pr Mt. Scanzi were moderately susceptible; E. pellita pr N. Australia 10966, E. microcorys pr Fabriciano, and E. urophylla pr Australia 10136 were resistant; and E. pellita prs Helenvale, Mt. Pandanus, and NE Coen were highly resistant. Rust did not affect height growth of two susceptible and four moderately susceptible provenances but did suppress growth of three other susceptible provenances. Except for E. grandis pr South Africa, all provenances were free of rust 1 yr after exposure to inoculum.

Dianese JC; Moraes TSdeA; Silva AR

1984-04-01

275

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD WITH IMPREGNATED CHEMICALS  

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Full Text Available Methylolurea and carbamide were used to impregnate eucalyptus wood to improve its physical and chemical properties. The physical properties and dimensional stability were examined. TGA was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the wood. FTIR was used to state the changes of functional groups. The changes of wood structure were observed by SEM. The results showed the bending strength and compressive strength parallel to the grain increased by 15.10% and 16.78%, respectively. The basic density of modified wood was improved by 14.29%. The shrinkage of volume and swelling of volume were significantly decreased compared to the untreated wood. The TGA results indicated that the mass loss was around 8% during the second stage, from 120°C up to 280°C, while the mass loss of treated wood was around 4%. The treated wood exhibited LOI (limited oxygen index) values of about 42%, while the natural wood exhibited a LOI value of 22%. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that chemical bond was produced between wood and methylolurea as a result of chemical reaction between wood and methylolurea. The SEM results indicated that the transverse and tangential sections of the treated specimens were filled with the reaction products, which can prevent the absorption of moisture.

Guofeng Wu,; Qian Lang,; Heyu Chen,; Junwen Pu

2012-01-01

276

Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus grandis trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa were studied to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. It was expected that by defining this relationship, modeling of the soil water balance could be used to predict the fraction of transpiration taking place at any given time. As part of the experimental procedure soil water recharge was prevented by plastic sheeting, thus allowing the roots in the soil to induce continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth and sap flow rates revealed only moderate drought stress; trees at both sites extracted water down to eight meters and more, below the surface. These results suggest that because of uncertainties about the depth of the root system, the soil water recharge mechanisms and other related factors, soil water balance studies are not useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of soil water deficits at these sites. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

Dye, P. J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research, Division of Forest Science and Technology, Nelspruit (South Africa)

1996-01-01

277

SPATIAL DEPENDENCE STUDY OF Eucalyptus grandis DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS  

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Full Text Available The knowledge of spatial continuity structure of dendrometric characteristics is crucial in forest inventory, managementand planning. The inclusion of spatial continuity effect in inventory analysis provides stable and safe results that can be used in forestmanagement and planning. This paper evaluated the structure of spatial continuity of four dendrometric characteristics obtainedby two sampling procedures. Data were collected in 987 hectares of Eucalyptus grandis, located in the south of São Paulo State.Two sampling procedures were used, systematic grading and unencumbered systematic. For each plot from the two samples, thefollowing dendrometric characteristics were measured: volume, quadratic average diameter, basal area and average height of thedominant trees. For each one of these characteristics, anisotropic and isotropic semi variogrammes were built, in order toevaluate the spatial continuity structure. The semi variogrammes were built using the moment estimator method. The mainauthorized functions were adjusted to the experimental semi variogrammes, by The Minimum Square Method. The behavior of thespatial continuity was evaluated through the degree of spatial dependence and of the assigned semi variogrammes for the fourcharacteristics, in the appraised sampling methods, respectively. All appraised characteristics presented spatially structured,independently of the appraised sampling procedure. The continuity structure of the four characteristics was isotropic, i.e., thevariance among pairs of points depends on the separation vector h. Therefore, unidirectional semi variogrammes can be built forall appraised characteristics. The results suggest that, in forest inventory, the spatial component should be considered, i.e., plotsshould not be treated separately.

José Marcio de Mello; João Luís Ferreira Batista; Marcelo Silva de Oliveira; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Júnior

2005-01-01

278

Essential oils composition and antibacterial activities of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.  

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Full Text Available To determine chemical composition of essential oil and its antibacterial effects, E. camaldulensis Dehn, leaves were harvested from Caspian seashore and Ghalegardan regions in Mazandaran province of Iran and were dried. The essential oils were isolated by hydro- distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Results showed that oxygenate to hydrocarbon compounds ratios (MO to MH and SO to SH) were higher in the essential oil of Ghalegardan sample. In Ghalegardan sample 37 compounds were identified. The major components of Ghalegardan were Eucalyptol (29.2%), ?-Phellanderene (17.43%), ?-Pinene (7.1%), Arommadenderene(allo) (5.75%), Terpineol-4-ol (4.92%). In Seashore sample 36 compounds were identified. The major components of Seashore were Eucalyptol (46.74%), Arommadenderene(allo) (12.1%), Terpineol-4-ol (7.6%), ?-Pinene (6.35%). In antibacterial experiment, results showed that essential oil of both samples possessed antibacterial activity and it is more effective against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Also, antibacterial activity of Ghalegardan sample is slightly higher than Seashore sample one. In conclusion, antibacterial activity of the Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils suggested it’s clinically useful potentials, although further studies are required.

Lida Mohammadpour LIMA; Babak BABAKHANI; Seyed Afshin Hosseini BOLDAJI; Mahmood ASADI; Razieh Moghimi BOLDAJI

2013-01-01

279

CREEP IN STRUCTURAL-SIZED BEAMS OF ARGENTINEAN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS  

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Full Text Available The results presented in this paper were obtained from a test carried out during the last series of a research project regarding the creep behaviour of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis loaded in dry condition. A test with a sample containing 15 structural-sized beams was carried out during 470 days. 7 pieces were free of pith and another 8 contained it. The results allow to compare the creep behaviour of these beams with previous data reported for both structural-sized and small-clear specimens of this timber species and also with those reported for other species. The effectiveness of the criteria adopted by overseas standards as well as those of Latin-American countries for calculating the creep deflections of this timber species under a long-term loading is analysed. The creep deflections obtained in the present research are higher than those calculated by means of the procedures of the Brazilian standard NBR 7190, the European standard Eurocode 5, the American standard National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the Peruvian standard. On the contrary, creep results obtained in this test are lower than those calculated according to the New Zealand standard NZS 3603, the Chilean standard NCh 1198 and the former German standard DIN 1052

J. C Piter; C. F Calvo; A. G Cuffré; V. C Rougier; M. A Sosa Zitto; E.A Torrán

2007-01-01

280

Bioactive compounds from the bark of Eucalyptus exserta F. Muell.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new phenolic compound, 1,3,8,9-tetrahydroxydibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (6), was isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Eucalyptus exserta F. Muell. by activity-guided isolation method, along with nine known compounds, ?-sitosterol (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2), sideroxylin (3), 3,3?-di-O-methylellagic acid (4), 1-monopalmitin (5), (?)-catechin (7), yangambin (8), (24R)-24-ethyl-5?-cholestane-3?,5?,6?-triol (9) and ?-sitosterol xyloside (10). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4–6 and 8 exhibited moderate molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck). Compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura Fabricius cells. Compounds 2, 4–6 and 8 also exhibited nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White). The results demonstrated that the bark of E. exserta is a promising source of valuable compounds. Some of these chemical constituents showed the potential for their molluscicidal and nematicidal applications.

Li J; Xu H

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Elongation of Eucalyptus roots during day and night.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Root elongation was measured in mature Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel subsp. pauciflora trees in a high-elevation stand, and in seedlings of E. pauciflora and E. nitens (Deane & Maiden) grown in a glasshouse. Elongation of non-mycorrhizal roots (>10 mm long) was measured at 0600 and 1800 h on several consecutive days. Root elongation of seedlings of both species in the glasshouse was greater than that of mature E. pauciflora trees in the forest. For seedlings of comparable size, roots of E. nitens elongated faster than roots of E. pauciflora. Root elongation was always greater during the night than during the day in both species, in both the glasshouse and forest environment. Both water and osmotic potentials of root tips of E. pauciflora seedlings were lower during the night than during the day. The derived turgor pressure value of root tips was greater during the night than during the day and there was no difference in turgor pressure above the yield threshold.

Halter R; Sands R; Sadanandan Nambiar EK; Ashton DH

1996-11-01

282

Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C) and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass), bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume), heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV), energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density) and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock). The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues; Patrick Louis Albert Rousset

2009-01-01

283

Influence of temperature on products yield of Eucalyptus microcorys carbonization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During charcoal production different products are formed. These products are influenced primarily by the temperature of carbonization. Given that charcoal is the main input in the production of pig iron in Brazil, this study evaluated the influence of final temperature of carbonization of the products generated and also the influence of the radial and longitudinal sampling on the yield of each product. Samples were taken from internal and external position along the radius and also from three different heights from four Eucalyptus microcorys trees. The samples were carbonized in an electric furnace with an experimental water-cooled condenser and a collecting bottle of condensable volatile materials. The final temperatures of carbonization were 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900°C. The gravimetric yield, tar and non-condensable gases were calculated. The results showed no difference in the gravimetric yield in the longitudinal and radial positions studied, while the tar yield and non-condensable gases showed temperature variations of 700°C and 800°C and the variation of the gravimetric yield temperatures between 500°C to 900°C was 15%, the change of yield of tar from the radial direction of sampling was on average 8%, the variation of the yield of non-condensable gases in a radial sampling was on average 16%.

Renato da Silva Vieira; José Tarcísio Lima; Thiago Campos Monteiro; Thaisa de Sousa Selvatti; Edy Eime Pereira Baraúna; Alfredo Napoli

2013-01-01

284

PITH ECCENTRICITY IN Eucalyptus CLONE STEMS CULTIVATED ON DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIES  

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Full Text Available This work evaluated the pith eccentricity in stems of four Eucalyptus clone trees, with two years of age, cultivated on flat,soft slopped and high slopped land. From each stem, a 5 cm disc was cut at 1.10 m of height above ground. With a standard placedon the wood disc, it was marked its geometrical centre and, consequently, the distance from the pith (D). The eccentricity of the pith wasdetermined by the relationship between D and the average diameter of the disc. The results showed that: i) the eccentricity of the pithoccurred in all clones, changing from 2.53% to 4.55%; ii) upright trees, planted on flat land, soft and on heavy slopped terrainspresented eccentric pith; iii) for the trees planted on slopped terrains it was observed a tendency of the piths to be positioned at the sideof the discs opposite to the slope of the terrain; iv) the occurrence of the eccentric piths into the stems of all clones and topographiesstudied suggests the formation of tension wood.

Sérgio Ferreira; José Tarcísio Lima; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Thiago Campos Monteiro

2008-01-01

285

Measurements of transpiration from Eucalyptus plantations, India, using deuterium tracing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of transpiration from individual trees in Eucalyptus plantations at four different sites in Karnataka, southern India, are presented. These show large (as much as tenfold) differences in the transpiration between pre and post monsoon periods; a reflection of the effects of soil moisture stress in the pre monsoon periods. For trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) less than 10 cm the transpiration rate of individual trees is proportional to the square of the DBH. For trees which are not experiencing soil water stress the daily transpiration rate of individual trees, q, is well represented by the relation: q= (6.6 {+-} 0.3)g m{sup 3}d{sup {minus}1} where g (m{sup 2}) is the tree basal area. On a unit ground area basis the transpiration rate, expressed as a depth per day, is given by the relation: E{sub t}= (0.66 {+-} 0.03)G (mm d{sup {minus}1}) where G (m{sup 2} ha{sup {minus}1}) is the total basal area per hectare. For all the sites studied, although there is evidence for the mining of soil water as roots penetrate deeper depths in the soil each year, there is no evidence for direct abstraction from the watertable.

Calder, I.R. [Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Swaminath, M.H. [Karnataka Forest Dept., Bangalore (India); Kariyappa, G.S.; Srinivasalu, N.V.; Murthy, K.V. [Mysore Paper Mills, Karnataka (India); Mumtaz, J. [Karnataka Forest Dept., Bangalore (India)

1992-12-31

286

Inibidor de tripsina em raízes de Eucalyptus urophylla  

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Full Text Available As raízes de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla) podem estar associadas a fungos como Pisolithus tinctorius, formando uma simbiose conhecida como ectomicorriza, mas também podem estar colonizadas por fungos patogênicos, como Rhizoctonia solani, agente causal do tombamento de plantas em viveiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de atividade inibitória de tripsina, uma serino-protease, em raízes de E. urophylla e a atividade de tripsina em filtrados desses fungos. Alíquotas de extrato protéico bruto de raízes de E. urophylla e frações protéicas parcialmente purificadas por cromatografia de exclusão molecular, do tipo Sephacryl S-100-HR, foram testadas para atividade inibitória de tripsina. Proteínas do extrato ou das frações, quando incubadas com o substrato BAPNA (a-benzoil-arginina-p-nitroanilida) e tripsina comercial na presença de tampão Tris-HCl 0,1 M (pH 8,0), resultou em atividade de inibidor de tripsina ao redor de 80%. Filtrados de meios de cultura de P. tinctorius e R. solani foram parcialmente purificados em cromatografia de exclusão molecular, porém atividade de tripsina sobre o substrato BAPNA não foi verificada em nenhuma das frações. Portanto, não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação direta entre o inibidor da planta e proteases dos fungos. Os resultados apresentados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo dessas proteínas nas interações entre patógenos e simbiontes para espécies de eucalipto.

Tremacoldi Célia R.; Pascholati Sérgio F.

2004-01-01

287

Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25-0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (Q(ST) = 0.34-0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (F(ST) = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R(2) = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

Stackpole, Desmond J; Vaillancourt, René E; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M

2011-07-01

288

Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25-0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (Q(ST) = 0.34-0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (F(ST) = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R(2) = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors.

Stackpole DJ; Vaillancourt RE; Alves A; Rodrigues J; Potts BM

2011-07-01

289

CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) PLANTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid) and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass detection (MS). The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated pla (more) nts. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol) and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin). In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide), borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

TRONCOSO, CHRISTIAN; BECERRA, JOSÉ; BITTNER, MAGALIS; PEREZ, CLAUDIA; SÁEZ, KATIA; SÁNCHEZ-OLATE, MANUEL; RÍOS, DARCY

2011-01-01

290

CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid) and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass detection (MS). The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol) and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin). In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide), borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

CHRISTIAN TRONCOSO; JOSÉ BECERRA; MAGALIS BITTNER; CLAUDIA PEREZ; KATIA SÁEZ; MANUEL SÁNCHEZ-OLATE; DARCY RÍOS

2011-01-01

291

MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP  

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Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage) consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp) and may originate from various sources, including (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

Marcos S. Rabelo; Jorge L. Colodette; Vera M. Sacon; Marcelo R. Silva; Marco A. B. Azevedo

2008-01-01

292

Genetically based resistance of Eucalyptus marginata to Phytophthora cinnamoni.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sixteen half-sib families of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) seedlings were screened for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi using soil inoculation and stem inoculation in pot experiments, and soil inoculation in a P. cinnamomi-infested field site. Low mortality following soil inoculation and short lesion lengths following stem inoculation were used as indicators of P. cinnamomi resistance. Resistance levels varied continuously across families from high to low values in all experiments, but family rankings were consistent among experiments. The narrow-sense heritability of the resistance character was high at both family (0.74-0.85) and individual-tree (0.43) levels. The resistance of jarrah to P. cinnamomi is under strong genetic control. Selection of lines with high levels of resistance is feasible, and such lines can be used in rehabilitation plantings of jarrah forest sites. Selection of resistant parent trees in the forest based on a single assessment of crown health met with little success. Seedlings of five healthy parent trees in diseased forest exhibited a wide range of resistance levels and were only marginally more resistant than seedlings of trees with symptoms of root rot. Stem-inoculation of jarrah seedlings at least 9 mo old is recommended as the standard screening test to be used in selecting families and individuals resistant to P. cinnamomi based on lesion size.

Stukely MJC; Crane CE

1994-06-01

293

Four rotations of a Eucalyptus fuel yield trial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an experiment carried out between 1955 and 1977 at the former East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organization's estate, now Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, at Muguga. The object of the experiment was to compare long-term fuel production potential of the Kenya provenance of Eucalyptus saligna Sm. with that of Australian provenances of E. saligna and E. grandis Hill ex. Maiden. The trial was grown for five years as a seedling crop, two five year rotations and a final seven years eight months rotation from coppice. Combined results of the four rotations show that E. grandis yielded 2% and 19% more stacked volume than E. saligna (Kenya) and E. saligna (Australia) respectively. In the final rotation, production of E. saligna (Kenya) was greater than that of E. saligna (Australia) and E. grandis by 9% and 15% respectively. For long-term rotations this experiment indicates that Kenya E. saligna, is more reliable than E. grandis. (Refs. 2).

Kaumi, S.Y.S.

1983-03-01

294

Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood/ Perda de volume como ferramenta para avaliação da secagem da madeira de eucalipto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus dunnii, em termos de perda de volume. A madeira das três espécies foi seca conjuntamente, com o mesmo programa de secagem e condições ambientais, em uma câmara-piloto de secagem convencional. Foram avaliados três tipos de perda de volume: total - da condição saturada (inicial) até a aplainada (final); contração - da condição saturada (more) até 10% de umidade; usinagem - da condição saturada até a aplainada. A madeira de Eucalyptus grandis foi a mais estável dimensionalmente e apresentou a menor perda de volume na contração. Embora tenham comportamentos diferentes de estabilidade dimensional, as madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram a mesma qualidade de secagem, levando-se em consideração as perdas de volume no aplainamento e total. Estas espécies podem ser consideradas a mesma para a secagem convencional. A madeira de Eucalyptus dunnii apresentou a pior qualidade de secagem e não deve ser seca na mesma carga que as demais. Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial) to machined (final) condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from (more) 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

Batista, Djeison Cesar; Klitzke, Ricardo Jorge; Rocha, Márcio Pereira da; Muñiz, Graciela Inez Bolzon de; Batista, Tharcia Ribeiro

2013-06-01

295

Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by Eucalyptus grandis glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate. Veneer combinations with higher shear strength were pith/outer, intermediary/outer and outer/outer wood.

Benedito Rocha Vital; Antônio da Silva Maciel; Ricardo Marius Della Lucia

2006-01-01

296

Germination of Eucalyptus sieberi, L. Johnson seeds. I. Response to substrate and atmospheric moisture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consistent germination of Eucalyptus sieberi L. Johnson seeds required a low vapor pressure deficit (< 5 x 10(-6) MPa) and a high matric water potential (> -5 x 10(-3) MPa). Eucalyptus sieberi seeds, under moist but less favorable conditions, were unable to germinate but underwent changes that enabled them to germinate more rapidly when suitable conditions occurred. Such pregerminative development was interrupted but not reversed by a dry period as long as eight months. This may explain how seeds of this species germinate successfully on the surface of exposed seedbeds subject to intermittent drying.

Gibson A; Bachelard EP

1986-06-01

297

Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft  

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Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF) de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang”) con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica), propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera) y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density), Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption) and basic papermaking properties were evaluated. Upon these results, they were considered as potential mixed base material for Kraft cooking. In previous research, significant differences were found between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus maidenii Kraft pulping behavior and no mixture was recommended. New results indicate a similar performance for each studied Eucalyptus species. However, the comparable demand in active alkali charges among them, suggests that mixtures could be successfully employed.

Javier Doldán; Ismael Fariña; Felipe Tarigo

2011-01-01

298

Nouvel extrait d'eucalyptus, son procede de preparation et ses utilisations therapeutiques  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to the use of a Eucalyptus extract for preparation of a drug or a dietary supplement intended for treatment and/or prevention of affections or pathologies caused by neuromediator recapture disorder. The present invention also relates to a new enriched extract of Eucalyptus characterized in that it contains at least one compound having the formula (I) or any one of its diastereoisomers in which Rl forms a C=CH2 substituent with the carbon to which it is joined, a formula (II) substituent and R2 which represents an isobutyl, alpha-isobutyl or beta-isobutyl substituent and the method of preparation thereof.

BERNARD FABRE; CECILE CHAUVIN; PHILIPPE JOULIA

299

Influence of carbonization conditions on the pyrolytic carbon deposition in acacia and eucalyptus wood chars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon (resulting from the cracking of volatile matter) was found to depend on wood species and carbonization conditions, such as temperature and heating rate. Maximum pyrolytic carbon deposition in both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars has been observed at a carbonization temperature of 800 C. Rapid carbonization (higher heating rate) of wood significantly reduces the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in resulting chars. Results also indicate that the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in acacia wood char is less than that in eucalyptus wood char.

Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India)

1997-04-01

300

Elastic Cloud Computing Infrastructures in the Open Cirrus Testbed Implemented via Eucalyptus  

Science.gov (United States)

Cloud computing realizes the advantages and overcomes some restrictionsof the grid computing paradigm. Elastic infrastructures can easily be createdand managed by cloud users. In order to accelerate the research ondata center management and cloud services the OpenCirrusTM researchtestbed has been started by HP, Intel and Yahoo!. Although commercialcloud offerings are proprietary, Open Source solutions exist in the field ofIaaS with Eucalyptus, PaaS with AppScale and at the applications layerwith Hadoop MapReduce. This paper examines the I/O performance ofcloud computing infrastructures implemented with Eucalyptus in contrastto Amazon S3.

Baun, Christian; Kunze, Marcel

 
 
 
 
301

LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL STRAIN IN DIFFERENT SPACING AND AGES IN HYBRID CLONE OF Eucalyptus  

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Full Text Available The utilization of Eucalyptus as supplier of raw-material for sawmills has been progressively increased. Trees of bothbest quality and dimensions represent an important market requirement. Therefore, the effects of forestry treats on the woodcharacteristics must be evaluated. This work veriied the influence of the spacing and of the age in the longitudinal residual strain(LRS), associated to the growth stresses, in clones of Eucalyptus. For determining LRS it was utilised an extensometer CIRADForêt. The experiment indicated a linear reduction in LRS with the enlargement of the spacing and a tendency of quadratic variationfor the age factor.

Antônio Américo Cardoso Junior; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcísio Lima; Sebastião Carlos da Silva Rosado; Lourival Marin Mendes

2005-01-01

302

Efeito acaricida de óleos essenciais e concentrados emulsionáveis de Eucalyptus spp em Boophilus microplus/ Acaricide effect of Eucalyptus spp essential oils and concentrated emulsion on Boophilus microplus  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Realizou-se um estudo sobre a ação biocida de Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus staigeriana no carrapato Boophilus microplus, buscando-se a produção de acaricidas menos agressivos ao meio ambiente. Os óleos essenciais das três espécies e os concentrados emulsionáveis de E. globulus e E. staigeriana foram testados em cinco concentrações diferentes contra larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus. Os óleos foram submetidos à análise po (more) r cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM), a fim de se investigar sua composição. O citronelal é o principal componente do óleo de E. citriodora, sendo responsável por sua ação acaricida. O mesmo ocorre com o 1,8-cineol em E. globulus. Em E. staigeriana existem várias substâncias que agem sinergicamente contra B. microplus. O óleo essencial de E. citriodora matou 100% dos carrapatos a uma concentração média de 17,5%, o de E. globulus a 15% e o de E. staigeriana a 12,5%. Os concentrados emulsionáveis de E. globulus mataram 100% dos carrapatos a uma concentração média de 9,9% e o de E. staigeriana a uma concentração de 3,9%. O desenvolvimento de produtos que possam ser testados a campo e comercializados a preços competitivos serão passos a serem seguidos. Os biocarrapaticidas têm um apelo comercial grande, permitindo controlar B. microplus de um modo menos agressivo ao meio ambiente. Abstract in english Biocide action of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus staigeriana were studied against Boophilus microplus tick, aiming the production of an environmentally and ecologically conect and len harmpol acaricide. Essential oil emulsion of three Eucaliptus species were tested in five different concentrations against larvae and engorged female of B. microplus. Oils were submitted to gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis looking for (more) its composition. Citronelal is the major component of E. citriodora essential oil, being responsible for its acaricide action. The same happens with 1.8-cineole in E. globulus. In E. staigeriana, there are many substances involved in a synergic action against B. microplus. E. citriodora essential oil killed all ticks in an average concentration of 17.5% as compared to E. globulus with 15% and E. staigeriana with 12.5%. E. globulus concentrated emulsion killed all ticks in an average concentration of 9.9% and E. staigeriana in a concentration of 3.9%. Further steps will be pursued to make those essential oils to be tested under field conditions and available to the farmers, since bioacaricides has commercial appeal, allowing B. microplus control in a less aggressive way to the environment.

Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Passos, Wanderley Mascarenhas; Prates, Hélio Teixeira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Furlong, John; Fortes, Isabel Cristina Pereira

2002-01-01

303

Densidad de la madera en clones de eucalyptus por densitometría de rayos X/ Wood Density in eucalyptus clones by X-Rays Densitometry  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el Brasil y en diversos países se han verificado avances significativos en la silvicultura clonal intensiva con diferencias marcadas entre clones de especies e híbridos de eucalyptus en lo referente a los parámetros de crecimiento y desarrollo. Al mismo tiempo, en los últimos años, se introdujo el concepto de uso múltiplo del leño de los árboles con la utilización de la madera como fuente de celulosa y papel, madera sólida y otras aplicaciones como estrategia (more) de aumento de la rentabilidad del emprendimiento forestal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el índice de uniformidad de la madera y la variación de la densidad en el sentido radial por densitometría de rayos X de árboles de 8 años de edad de clones de eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, buscando posibilitar la optimización de su uso. Por sus características silviculturales se seleccionaron los 5 mejores clones de la especie e híbrido de las plantaciones clonales localizadas en el municipio de San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP de la Cia Suzano de Celulosa y Papel. Se caracterizaron 3 modelos de variación radial de la densidad y la formación de 3 tipos de madera (juvenil, de transición y adulta); el valor medio de densidad aparente de la madera en los clones fue de 0,46 y 0,54 g/cm³, para el eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, respectivamente. Abstract in english In Brazil, as in many other countries significant advances have been verified in intensive clonal silviculture with remarkable differences on parameters of growth and development between species clones and hybrids of eucalyptus. At the same time, during recent years the concept of multiple uses of tree logs to increase the yield of the forest enterprise as cellulose and paper and solid wood has been introduced. The present paper studies the wood uniformity index and radia (more) l variability of density using x-rays densitometry of 8 year clones eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla in order to optimize their use. This experiment was performent at Suzano Cellulose and Paper Company Clone Plantation in San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP-Brazil. The best five clones of the species and hybrid by their silviculture characteristics were selected. Three models of radial density variation were found and the formation of three different types of wood were characterized (youthful, of transition and adult); the average value of wood apparent density in clones was 0.46 and 0.54 g/cm³ for eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla, respectively.

Arango, Bibiana; Tamayo, Lida

2008-09-01

304

Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna/ Discount Rate and Timber Rotation: the Case of Eucalyptus Saligna/ Taux d'escompte et rotation forestière: le cas de l'Eucalyptus Saligna  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El Eucalipto es una de las especies de mayor importancia económica y ambiental en Colombia. El objetivo de este artículo es observar la relación existente entre la tasa de descuento y el año de corte del Eucalyptus Saligna, mediante el método de Fisher y Hotelling. La metodología consiste en calcular el máximo Valor Actual Neto y realizar un análisis del comportamiento del año de corte con respecto a la tasa de descuento. La región de estudio es el oriente antio (more) queño, de donde se tomaron datos suministrados por la reforestadora Doña María para una hectárea típica. Se encontró que el año de corte tiene una relación inversamente proporcional con la tasa de descuento, y que éste disminuye para tasas altas. Abstract in english Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling's method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern reg (more) ion of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

Restrepo, Camilo; Alviar, Mauricio

2010-12-01

305

Eucalyptus essential oil action on mycorrhizal colonization and the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis in soil contaminated by copper Ação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na micorrização e no estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis em solo contaminado por cobre  

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Full Text Available The use of eucalyptus essential oil can optimize the growth of ectomycorrhizal isolates, which aid the establishment of forest species in soils contaminated by copper. The study aimed to determine the best application of eucalyptus essential oil in the formation of mycorrhizal seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis and its influence on the establishment of these seedlings in soil contaminated by copper. It was used the ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECM) Pisolithus microcarpus. The application forms of the essential oil were evaluated in a greenhouse, by means of six treatments. Subsequently, the seedlings were transplanted and evaluated in soil contaminated by copper, greenhouse and field. It was determined height, diameter, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, copper content in plant, colonization and survival in the field. The essential oil of E. grandis supports the growth of mycorrhizal of eucalyptus seedlings, particularly when applied to the substrate. The application of essential oil increases the colonization, promoting growth and survival of seedlings under greenhouse conditions and field.doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245A utilização do óleo essencial de eucalipto pode otimizar o crescimento de isolados ectomicorrízicos, os quais auxiliam o estabelecimento de essências florestais em solos contaminados por cobre. O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a melhor forma de aplicação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis micorrizadas e sua influência no estabelecimento dessas mudas em solo contaminado por cobre. Utilizou-se o fungo ectomicorrízico (fECM) Pisolithus microcarpus. As formas de aplicação do óleo essencial foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio de seis tratamentos. Posteriormente, as mudas foram transplantadas e avaliadas em solo contaminado por cobre, em condições de casa de vegetação e campo. Determinou-se altura, diâmetro, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raízes, teor de cobre na planta, colonização micorrízica e sobrevivência no campo. O óleo essencial de E. grandis favorece o crescimento de mudas de eucalipto micorrizadas, principalmente quando aplicado diretamente no substrato. A aplicação do óleo essencial aumenta a colonização micorrízica, favorecendo o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em condições de casa de vegetação e campo.doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245

Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

2011-01-01

306

Aplicação de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden/ IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importância no setor florestal e muitos avanços na área do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns genótipos promissores ainda não possuem protocolos de multiplicação com técnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se avaliar concentrações de IBA na sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinação da dose de máxima efici (more) ência técnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropônico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca em soluções hidroalcoólicas, cujas concentrações foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por três clones e cinco concentrações de IBA, com cinco repetições, contendo dez miniestacas por repetição. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizogênicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram até a maior concentração de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Abstract in english Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. M (more) inistumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the minicutting basal portion was plunged in hydro-alcoholic solutions, whose concentrations were: 0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1 of IBA. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with the factors consisting of three clones and five IBA concentrations, with five replications, containing 10 minicuttings per replication. IBA positively influenced the minicutting rooting processes, with differentiated behavior between the clones, with 30.32 to 55.45% rooting variation. The positives increments occurred until the highest IBA concentration for H12 and H19 clones. However, the range between 4,000 and 6,000 mg L-1 of IBA treatments promoted the best rooting results for the H20 clone.

Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Grossi, Fernando; Wendling, Ivar; Dutra, Leonardo Ferreira; Araujo, Marla Alessandra

2010-12-01

307

Recovering of carbon fixation in a eucalyptus site after felling  

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Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an ultrasonic Gill anemometer R2, an open path analyzer IRGA LI-7500 and a microclimate unit at its top. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. For the 2002-2006 period, mean annual values of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross production(GPP) and ecosystem respiration(Reco) were -533.3 gCm-2, 1628.6 gCm-2 and 1095.2 gCm-2. Seasonal patterns of carbon fixation for the five years showed a decrease in July-August periods due to highest air temperatures, atmospheric water vapour deficits and stomata partial closure to prevent water transpiration losses. For the period 2002-2006, the dry year of 2005 with a precipitation of about 390 mm, corresponded to the smaller carbon fixation of 390 gCm-2. Similarly, values of Reco, GPP and estimated leaf area index (less than three) were also minimal in 2005. Water use efficiency, WUE (ratio GPP/precipitation) was maximum in summer periods and in driest years, reaching values of about 12g/L-1. Recovery of carbon sink capacity, after the felling, begun after August 2007. The 2007 and 2008 annual NEE values were respectively 105.8 gCm-2 and -35.78 gCm-2. This negative value of NEE for 2008 is indicative of a carbon sink recovery. Annual Reco values for 2007 and 2008 were respectively 1059.03 gCm-2 and 1148.21 gCm-2. For GPP the annual values of 2007 and 2008 were respectively 953.24 gCm-2 and 1148.10 gCm-2. After the felling, stems rapidly grew and monthly GPP increased from 32 gCm-2 to 114 gCm-2 from January to October 2007. In November and December 2007, GPP decreased as a consequence of less solar radiation and frost in the young plants. In 2008 monthly GPP increased again till September. In the last three months of 2008, GPP diminished as a consequence of lack of water loss by evapotranspiration and the thinning. The results showed a chronological tendency for carbon fixation of the eucalyptus site according to physiological status of plants, concerning age and physical environmental factors.

Rodrigues, A. M.; Pita, G. P. A.; Mateus, A.; Santos Pereira, J.

2009-04-01

308

Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus/ Efeito da idade e da classe diamétrica nas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus clonal  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da idade e da classe diamétrica sobre as características físicas, térmicas e químicas de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla. O material utilizado neste estudo com 34, 48, 61, 74 e 86 meses de idade, foi proveniente de área de reflorestamento, de propriedade da GERDAU S.A., sendo selecionadas duas árvores em cada idade por classe diamétrica, respeitando a proporção de cada parce (more) la lançada nos locais amostrados. As características físicas: densidade básica da madeira, massa seca e o estoque de carbono; químicas: holocelulose, teor de extrativos totais, lignina total, cinzas; análises elementar e térmica da madeira foram determinadas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a maioria das características da madeira foi influenciada pela idade e classe diamétrica. A espécie estudada apresentou grande potencial para produção de massa seca e geração de energia na forma de calor, que pode ser convertida em energia mecânica e eletricidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included (more) wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

Santana, Wilma Michele Santos; Calegario, Natalino; Arantes, Marina Donária Chaves; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando

2012-03-01

309

Alterações morfológicas em Eucalyptus grandis sob aplicação de biorreguladores no período juvenil (Nota Científica). Morphological modifications in Eucalyptus grandis with application of bioregulators at juvenile stage (Scientific Note)  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo a aplicação dos biorreguladores vegetais paclobutrazol, ácido giberélico e ethefon em mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, com o intuito de acompanhar as modificações promovidas pelos hormônios sintéticos durante a fase juvenil. Foram efetuadas avaliações morfológicas como altura (cm) e diâmetro do colo (mm) e medições indiretas do índice de clorofila. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. A aplicação de paclobutrazol (PBZ) promoveu alterações morfológicas nas folhas dos indivíduos como: redução no tamanho, modificação da cor e limbo coriáceo. Foram também verificadas redução no comprimento dos internódios, quebra de dormência de gema e desenvolvimento de ramos laterais, redução do porte das plantas (68%) e aumento da quantidade de clorofila (29%).Já o ácido giberélico (GA3) demonstrou ser substância importante relacionada ao desenvolvimento vegetativo, estimulando o crescimento em altura das plantas (41%), mostrando-se inadequado em promover alterações que indicassem o amadurecimento dos tecidos vegetais. O ethefon não promoveu nenhuma alteração significativa na espécie Eucalyptus grandis. This aim of this study was the application of plant bioregulators: paclobutrazol, giberelic acid, and ethefon in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Morphologic evaluations were done, as plant height (cm) and stem diameter (mm) and indirect measurement of chlorophyll index. The statistical design was in randomized blocks, through split-plot schedule, with three replications. The paclobutrazol (PBZ) have promoted leaf morphological variations as: accentuation of central nervures, reduction in size, modification in color and coriaceous leaves. We also verified reduction in internode lengths; overcoming seed dormancy, and development of lateral branches, reduction of plant height (68%), increasing of chlorophyll amount (29%). Giberelic acid (GA3) have shown to be important chemical related to vegetative development, stimulating plant height growth (41%), showing an inapropriate chemical to promote the maturation in plant tissue. Ethephon did not cause any sgnificant change in Eucalyptus grandis.

Cristiano Bueno de MORAES; Glaucia UESUGI; Léo ZIMBACK; Iraê Amaral GUERRINI; Edson Seizo MORI

2012-01-01

310

Seasonal prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii inhabiting Eucalyptus terreticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees in Jabalpur City of Madhya Pradesh, Central India.  

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This study presents a two-year retrospective analysis of the work done during 2003-2005 on the distribution population density and isolation frequency of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii recovered from different parts of Eucalyptus tree spp., at Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Of the 1000 samples collected from bark, flowers, fruits, buds and leaves of Eucalyptus trees E. terreticornis and E. camaldulensis, 32 (3.2%) were found to be positive for C.n var. grubii and 28 (2.8%) for C. gattii respectively. While both the pathogens were isolated through all the seasons, no significant difference was found in prevalence of the two species (P>0.05) from different Eucalyptus tree samples. For C. neoformans var. grubii the highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in spring followed by autumn, summer, winter and rainy season. For C. gattii, highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in summer, followed by autumn, spring, winter and rainy season. Significant difference was seen in the isolation frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii during autumn and rainy season (P<0.01), spring and rainy season (P<0.001) and summer and rainy season (P<0.001). Population density and isolation frequency of the both pathogens were significantly lower in rainy season. Bark of the Eucalyptus tree yielded the highest frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii followed by flower, fruits, buds and debris. Trees located in the densely populated area of the city yielded highest frequency of the pathogens followed by trees located in sparsely populated area on the outskirt of the city and areas near the river Narmada. Further comprehensive study is suggested to assess the overall impact of seasonal prevalence in the isolation frequency and population density of both the pathogens and their clinical significance across climatically divergent region of India. PMID:23518169

Bedi, N G; Nawange, S R; Singh, S M; Naidu, J; Kavishwar, A

2012-11-02

311

Seasonal prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii inhabiting Eucalyptus terreticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees in Jabalpur City of Madhya Pradesh, Central India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study presents a two-year retrospective analysis of the work done during 2003-2005 on the distribution population density and isolation frequency of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii recovered from different parts of Eucalyptus tree spp., at Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Of the 1000 samples collected from bark, flowers, fruits, buds and leaves of Eucalyptus trees E. terreticornis and E. camaldulensis, 32 (3.2%) were found to be positive for C.n var. grubii and 28 (2.8%) for C. gattii respectively. While both the pathogens were isolated through all the seasons, no significant difference was found in prevalence of the two species (P>0.05) from different Eucalyptus tree samples. For C. neoformans var. grubii the highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in spring followed by autumn, summer, winter and rainy season. For C. gattii, highest isolation frequency of the pathogen was in summer, followed by autumn, spring, winter and rainy season. Significant difference was seen in the isolation frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii during autumn and rainy season (P<0.01), spring and rainy season (P<0.001) and summer and rainy season (P<0.001). Population density and isolation frequency of the both pathogens were significantly lower in rainy season. Bark of the Eucalyptus tree yielded the highest frequency of C. neoformans var. grubii followed by flower, fruits, buds and debris. Trees located in the densely populated area of the city yielded highest frequency of the pathogens followed by trees located in sparsely populated area on the outskirt of the city and areas near the river Narmada. Further comprehensive study is suggested to assess the overall impact of seasonal prevalence in the isolation frequency and population density of both the pathogens and their clinical significance across climatically divergent region of India.

Bedi NG; Nawange SR; Singh SM; Naidu J; Kavishwar A

2012-12-01

312

Plantio misto de Eucalyptus spp. com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio/ Mixed plantation of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A revisão relata os principais benefícios do plantio misto de eucalipto com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico. Buscou-se analisar as interações ecológicas das espécies envolvidas no sistema, a arquitetura espacial utilizada e o possível aumento de produtividade do sistema consorciado. Com base nisso, observa-se que o cultivo misto de eucaliptos com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico só deve ser realizado em locais (more) onde os processos e as interações entre espécies aumentarão o crescimento, a produção de biomassa ou a qualidade do produto final desejado. De forma geral, os estudos indicam que o interplantio de leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio proporciona incremento na produtividade das plantas de eucalipto. Contudo, devem-se analisar as interações dos plantios mistos até a sua idade de rotação, para que, com isso, possam ser verificados os possíveis efeitos da fixação biológica de nitrogênio atmosférico pela leguminosa na produtividade do eucalipto. Abstract in english In this paper, we aimed to review the main benefits of the mixed plantation of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees. To this end, the ecological interactions of the species involved in the system was analyzed, as well as the space architecture used and the possible increase in productivity caused by the intercropping. On this basis, it was possible to observe that the mixed cropping of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees should be implemented only in loca (more) tions where the processes and interactions between species will increase the growth, biomass production or quality of desired product. In general, studies indicate that mixed plantation provides an increase in productivity in eucalyptus stand. However, it is important to analyze the interactions of mixed stand until the age of rotation, so that the possible effects of atmospheric nitrogen fixation by legume trees on the productivity of eucalyptus can be verified.

Viera, Márcio; Schumacher, Mauro Valdir; Liberalesso, Edenilson; Caldeira, Marcos Vinícius Winckler; Watzlawick, Luciano Farinha

2013-03-01

313

BEHAVIOR OF GLUED JOINTS OF EUCALYPTUS sp. SAWN WOOD  

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Full Text Available This research evaluated eucalypt wood adhesion capacity. The material evaluated was a commercial sawn wood composed by a blend of species of the genus Eucalyptus. The adhesives used were resorcinol-formaldehyde and polyvinila acetate (PVAc). The wood was segregated in three density with 0% of moisture content: class 1; 2 and 3 that, when combined (class1 x class1; 2x2; 3x3; 1x2; 1x3; 2x3) resulted in six treatments. The performance of the adhesion was evaluated by the shear strength to parallel compression and by wood failure in the glue line. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the adhesion of the combinations of wood/adhesive presented satisfactory performance. The average shear strength of the joints were shown equivalent to the shear strength of the solid wood with similar performance of adhesion in the two adhesives. In general, resorcinol-formaldheyde adhesive presented higher values (74.41%) for wood failure in the joints, but similar to all treatments. The adhesion of samples of higher density presented lower performance probably when only the values of wood failure are considered. The values for the strength of glued joints, in general, were similar when analyzed the results achieved with the resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive- base 140,56 Kgf/cm2. To polyvinila acetate the values of wood failure decrease when the density increase (65.94%), but the resistance in the glue line was positively affected (140.25 Kgf/cm2). In general, the density influenced the adhesion of the joints for the employed adhesives.

Octávio Barbosa Plaster; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Christóvão Pereira Abrahão; Rafael Leite Braz

2008-01-01

314

Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

Soares, P.; Tome, M.

2012-11-01

315

Spacing at planting of short-rotation Eucalyptus in Karnataka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A clinical spacing experiment established with a local provenance of Eucalyptus tereticornis at Devabal in the Shimoga District of Karnataka, southern India, in July 1987 is analyzed using estimates of the area potentially available (APA) to each tree. Provisional results of the tree and stand growth after three and four years are presented and compared with those of a randomized block spacing trail established one year later on an adjacent site. Original stand densities tested in the clinal design range from 30,000 to 375 stems per hectare (s ha{sup {minus}1}) in the clinal, and from 10,000 to 400 s ha{sup {minus}1} in the block experiment. The relationship between tree volume and the reciprocal of growing space (as an estimate of s ha{sup {minus}1}) suggests three zones of response: a self-thinning zone, an intermediate zone, and a zone of free growth. Provisional estimates of the limits of these zones are made the basis of a simple model to be used as the hypothesis to be tested by further assessments of the trial. Maximum volume increment occurred at higher stand densities with some evidence of a maximum at 2500 to 3000 s ha{sup {minus}1} at the age of four years. Mean stem diameter was three times as great at the widest spacing compared with the closest. Height/diameter ratios of over 190 at close spacing indicates an unstable stand condition. The provisional analysis presented leads to a recommendation for wider spacing within rows than is currently applied in many plantations. The nature of growing space in spacing designs is discussed.

Adlard, P.G. [Oxford Forestry Inst. (United Kingdom); Kariyappa, G.S.; Srinivasalu, N.V. [Mysore Paper Mills, Karnataka (India)

1992-12-31

316

Comparative genetic linkage maps of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus globulus and their F1 hybrid based on a double pseudo-backcross mapping approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative genetic mapping in interspecific pedigrees presents a powerful approach to study genetic differentiation, genome evolution and reproductive isolation in diverging species. We used this approach for genetic analysis of an F(1) hybrid of two Eucalyptus tree species, Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden.) and Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.). This wide interspecific cross is characterized by hybrid inviability and hybrid abnormality. Approximately 20% of loci in the genome of the F(1) hybrid are expected to be hemizygous due to a difference in genome size between E. grandis (640 Mbp) and E. globulus (530 Mbp). We investigated the extent of colinearity between the two genomes and the distribution of hemizygous loci in the F(1) hybrid using high-throughput, semi-automated AFLP marker analysis. Two pseudo-backcross families (backcrosses of an F(1) individual to non-parental individuals of the parental species) were each genotyped with more than 800 AFLP markers. This allowed construction of de novo comparative genetic linkage maps of the F(1) hybrid and the two backcross parents. All shared AFLP marker loci in the three single-tree parental maps were found to be colinear and little evidence was found for gross chromosomal rearrangements. Our results suggest that hemizygous AFLP loci are dispersed throughout the E. grandis chromosomes of the F(1) hybrid. PMID:12838392

Myburg, A A; Griffin, A R; Sederoff, R R; Whetten, R W

2003-07-01

317

Analysis of the Impact of the Use of Eucalyptus Biomass for Energy on Wood Availability for Eucalyptus Forest in Portugal: a Simulation Study  

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Full Text Available In the scope of energy diversification and profitable forest resource exploitation, increasing the use of biomass residues for energy can play an important role by using local sources of energy, reducing carbon emissions and fossil-energy use, providing additional revenue for the forest sector, and also reducing the risk of forest wildfires. Regional simulators can help forecast available wood and biomass and allow evaluation of possible future conflicts of interest and their consequences for society. This paper focuses on improving an existing regional forest simulator (SIMPLOT) so that it can be applied to study research questions related to increasing the use of eucalyptus biomass for bioenergy and the related consequences for wood available for pulp. Biomass modules were integrated into SIMPLOT so that different sources of biomass used for energy could be accounted for. The updated version of the simulator was used to assess the impact of different biomass demands for bioenergy, combined with different afforestation alternatives on the wood available for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal. SIMPLOT's forecasts indicated that the eucalyptus forest is unable to satisfy wood demand even when pulp afforestation areas are doubled, regardless of the biomass demand considered. Also, the simulation results showed that, with the tested afforestation rates, eucalyptus forest cannot meet high increases in demand for wood.

Susana Barreiro; Margarida Tomé

2012-01-01

318

Physiological Responses of Eucalyptus Under Saline Environment I: Ionic Composition in Selected Salt Tolerant and Salt Sensitive Provenances of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis  

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Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the two provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (tolerant = SL2 and sensitive = SL4) selected from the previous studies to scruntinize the ionic content and growth under saline environments using gravel technique. It was observed the plant height, shoot and root fresh and dry weight and stem diameter decreased with the increase in salinity level in both the provenances upto 2% NaCl. However reduction was more clear in salt sensitive provenance of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The chemical analysis for different ion showed that Na+ increased in shoot and root in both the provenances of Eucalyptus. However root contain more Na+ in both provenances under all treatments. The other ions such as K+, Ca+ decreased with the application of salinity. The reduction was more pronounced in sensitive provenance. In case of P reduction was observed with the salinity but it was not up to the deficient mark. The N contents severely decreased with salinity in shoot and root of both the provenances, however N contents are less in salt sensitive provenance under all treatment in shoot as well as root.

Tariq Mahmood Qureshi; M.Yasin Ashraf; Asghari Bano; Faqir Hussain

2000-01-01

319

Identification of Mycosphaerella species associated with Eucalyptus nitens leaf defoliation in South Africa  

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Eucalyptus nitens is an important plantation tree species in South Africa, where it is grown for paper and pulp production. The growth and performance of E. nitens in South Africa is, however, reduced substantially by Mycosphaerella leaf blotch (MLB) disease. The aim of this study was to determine w...

Hunter, G.C.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

320

[Ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial Eucalyptus grandis stand].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to find out the ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial Eucalyptus grandis stand, the amount and distribution of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in Hongya County of Sichuan Province were investigated in 2004. The results showed that soil microbial population under Eucalyptus grandis stand varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn, fewer in spring, and the minimum in summer. The numbers were decreased in order of bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, which were mainly concentrated in 0-20 cm soil layer, and rapidly decreased with increasing soil depth. In 0-60 cm soil layer, the numbers of aerobic bacteria were 0. 31 x 10(6) - 14.39 x 10(6), actinomycetes were 0.06 x 10(6) - 0.79 x 10(6), fungi were 0.06 x 10(6) - 0.79 x 10(6), and anaerobes were 0.05 x 10(6) - 3.22 x 10(6) CFU x g(-1). Comparing with artificial C. glauca stand and farming land, Eucalyptus grandis stand had a larger number of soil microbes, suggesting that Eucalyptus grandis was benefit for soil microbial activity. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener index of the physiological groups of bacteria was 0.773 and 1.896, respectively.

Feng J; Zhang J

2005-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Power of microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and parentage analysis in Eucalyptus grandis breeding populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the genetic analysis of 192 unrelated individuals of an elite breeding population of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden) with a selected set of six highly polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for species of the genus Eucalyptus. A full characterization of this set of six loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate parameters of genetic information content of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), power of exclusion, and probability of identity. The number of detected alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 33, with an average of 19.8 +/- 9.2. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.86 +/- 0.11 and the average PIC was 0.83 +/- 0.16. Using only three loci, it was possible to discriminate all 192 individuals. The overall probability of identity considering all six EMBRA microsatellite markers combined was lower than 1 in 2 billion. An analysis of the sample size necessary to estimate expected heterozygosity with minimum variance indicated that at least 64 individuals have to be genotyped to characterize this parameter with adequate accuracy for most microsatellites in Eucalyptus. The high degree of multiallelism and the clear and simple codominant Mendelian inheritance of the set of microsatellites used provide an extremely powerful system for the unique identification of Eucalyptus individuals for fingerprinting purposes and parentage testing. PMID:15601907

Kirst, M; Cordeiro, C M; Rezende, G D S P; Grattapaglia, D

2004-12-15

322

Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

2007-10-05

323

Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

2007-10-05

324

[Ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial Eucalyptus grandis stand].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to find out the ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial Eucalyptus grandis stand, the amount and distribution of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in Hongya County of Sichuan Province were investigated in 2004. The results showed that soil microbial population under Eucalyptus grandis stand varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn, fewer in spring, and the minimum in summer. The numbers were decreased in order of bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, which were mainly concentrated in 0-20 cm soil layer, and rapidly decreased with increasing soil depth. In 0-60 cm soil layer, the numbers of aerobic bacteria were 0. 31 x 10(6) - 14.39 x 10(6), actinomycetes were 0.06 x 10(6) - 0.79 x 10(6), fungi were 0.06 x 10(6) - 0.79 x 10(6), and anaerobes were 0.05 x 10(6) - 3.22 x 10(6) CFU x g(-1). Comparing with artificial C. glauca stand and farming land, Eucalyptus grandis stand had a larger number of soil microbes, suggesting that Eucalyptus grandis was benefit for soil microbial activity. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener index of the physiological groups of bacteria was 0.773 and 1.896, respectively. PMID:16262052

Feng, Jian; Zhang, Jian

2005-08-01

325

Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

Mateus, Natalina de Fatima [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: natalina.mateus@edunet.sp.gov.br; Yamashita, Marcelo Takeshi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yamashita@itapeva.unesp.br; Madi Filho, Tufic [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br

2007-07-01

326

Identification and pathogenicity of Chrysoporthe cubensis on Eucalyptus and Syzygium spp. in South China  

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The genus Chrysoporthe includes important pathogens of plantation-grown Eucalyptus spp. and has been reported from several tree genera in the order Myrtales in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. During disease surveys in South China, fruiting structures typical of Chrysoporthe spp. were ob...

Chen, ShuaiFei; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Roux, Jolanda; Xie, YaoJian; Wingfield, Michael J.; Zhou, Xu Dong

327

Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Thyrinteina arnobia, é umas das mais importantes lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução desse lepidóptero em folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava) e Eucalyptus grandis, na 15º geração, após criar essa espécie por 14 gerações em folhas de goiabeira. T. arnobia apresentou menor período larval, maior viabilidade de lagartas e de pupas, maior peso pupal, maior número de ovos totais por (more) fêmea e viabilidade de ovos e menor longevidade de fêmeas com folhas de goiabeira. Além disso, teve melhor desempenho e reprodução com P. guajava, do que com folhas de E. grandis, mostrando que esse inseto pode ser criado com folhas de goiabeira em laboratório. Abstract in english Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava) or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better (more) egg viability and shorter longevity of females in guava leaves than in Eucalyptus leaves. The better development and reproduction with P. guajava showed that this insect could be reared in laboratory with guava leaves.

Oliveira, Harley Nonato de; Zanuncio, José Cola; Pedruzzi, Eder Pin; Espindula, Marcelo Curitiba

2005-09-01

328

Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described. PMID:17625678

Bernardino, Aline S; Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Serrão, José E

2007-06-01

329

Taxonomy and pathogenicity of two novel Chrysoporthe species from Eucalyptus grandis and Syzygium guineense in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae, Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, and Chrysoporthe spp., inducing stem cankers and death of plantation-grown Eucalyptus spp., constitute some of the most important tree pathogens. During a survey to determine diseases and related pa...

Chungu, Donald; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Muimba-Kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

330

Solid-phase microextraction of volatile compounds from the chopped leaves of three species of Eucalyptus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography and ion-trap mass spectrometry has been used to identify biogenic volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of chopped leaves of Eucalyptus (E.) dunnii, E. citriodora, and E. saligna. A simple HS-SPME method entailing 30 min of extraction at 30 degrees C was developed for this purpose. Thirty compounds were identified in the headspace of 60 juvenile chopped Eucalyptus leaves, and another 30 were tentatively identified. The presence of compounds such as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMNT), (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, (E,E,E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-1,3,6,10,14-hexadecapentaene (TMHP), beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, germacrene D, and beta-cubebene in the headspace of the leaves but not in the essential oils from the same Eucalyptus trees and information about the infochemical roles of some of these compounds in other living plant systems suggest they might play a bioactive role in Eucalyptus leaves.

Zini CA; Zanin KD; Christensen E; Caramão EB; Pawliszyn J

2003-04-01

331

Regioselective hydroxylation and glucosylation of alpha- and beta-pinenes with cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana regioselectively hydroxylated (+)- and (-)-alpha-pinenes to the corresponding (+)- and (-)-verbenols. In addition, (+)- and (-)-verbenols were converted into mono-beta-D-glucosides. On the other hand, (+)- and (-)-beta-pinenes were transformed into (+)- and (-)-pinocarveol 3-O-beta-D-glucosides via (+)- and (-)-pinocarveols.

Shimoda K; Kubota N; Hamada M; Suwada K; Hamada H; Hamada H

2013-07-01

332

Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing...

Calder, I. R.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Prasanna, K. T.; Parameswarappa, S.

333

Genome Sequence of Pantoea ananatis LMG20103, the Causative Agent of Eucalyptus Blight and Dieback?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pantoea ananatis is a Gram-negative plant pathogen that causes disease on a broad range of host plants, including pineapple, maize, rice, onion, melons, and Eucalyptus, and has been implicated in several cases of human disease. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. ananatis LMG20103 isolated fro...

De Maayer, Pieter; Chan, Wai Yin; Venter, Stephanus N.; Toth, Ian K.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Joubert, Fourie; Coutinho, Teresa A.

334

Leachates of Eucalyptus globulus in Intermittent Streams Affect Water Parameters and Invertebrates  

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Low order streams running through Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Central Portugal are frequently reduced to isolated permanent or temporary summer pools with darkly stained water due to leaf leachates. Here we assess the toxicity of such leachates to the shredder Sericostoma vittatum. Leachates ...

Canhoto, Cristina; Laranjeira, Celia

335

A new shoot and stem disease of Eucalyptus species caused by Erwinia psidii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A serious disease of green, actively expanding stems of young Eucalyptus grandis, E. dunnii, E. globulus and E. globulus subsp. maidenii has been observed in plantations in Uruguay and Argentina during the course of the past 10 years. The symptoms of the disease are unlike those previously observed ...

Coutinho, Teresa A.; Brady, Carrie Louise; Van der Vaart, Melanie; Venter, S.N. (Stephanus Nicolaas); Telechea, Nora

336

Structural features and properties of soluble products derived from Eucalyptus globulus hemicelluloses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to double hydrothermal processing to remove extractives in the first stage, and to cause the selective solubilisation of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan in the second stage. The hemicellulose-derived products present in the liquors from the second hydrotherma...

Gullon, P.; González-Muñoz, M.J.; Gool, M.P., van; Schols, H.A.; Hirsch, J.; Ebringerová, A.; Parajo, J.C.

337

Development of root biomass in an Eucalyptus globulus plantation under different water and nutrient regimes  

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The distribution along the soil profile of Eucalyptus globulus root biomass was followed in a plantation in central Portugal at 1, 2 and 6 years after planting, using an excavation technique. The experimental design consisted of a control (C)and 3 treatments: application of solid fertilizers twice a...

Fabião, António; Madeira, M.; Steen, E.; Katterer, T.; Ribeiro, C.; Araújo, C.

338

A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS: A MULTIPURPOSE TREE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus globulus. The results of the above studies support the use of these plants for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethnobotanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

Hardel Danendra kumar; Sahoo Laxmidhar

2011-01-01

339

Eucalyptus globulus leaves : morphological and chemical barriers to decomposition in streams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Ecologia) apresentada à Fac. de Ciências e Tecnologia de Coimbra , Os efeitos da monocultura de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. em áreas ripícolas portuguesas (original e maioritariamente povoadas por floresta mista caducifólia) foram, durante muito tempo, ignorados. A pre...

Canhoto, Cristina Maria Moreira Monteiro Leal

340

Effects of Eucalyptus globulus Wood Autohydrolysis Conditions on the Reaction Products  

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Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were reacted in aqueous media (hydrothermal treatments) at 160 °C for 30¿66 min. Liquors from the several experiments were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry for monosaccharides, oligosacchar...

Garrote, G.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Falque, E.; Domingues, H.; Parajo, J.C.

 
 
 
 
341

Effect of water and nutrient supply on root distribution in an Eucalyptus globulus plantation  

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Water and nutrients were supplied to an Eucalyptus globulus plantation in a controlled experiment in west central Portugal. The trees were planted in a sandy soil at a spacing of 3x3 m. The experiment consisted of four treatments: irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, fertilization without irri...

Fabião, António; Madeira, M.; Steen, E.

342

TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON AND FRACTIONS OF ORGANIC MATTER IN DIFFERENT DISTANCES OF EUCALYPTUS STUMP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The knowledge concerned to the horizontal and vertical distribution of organic carbon and organic matter fractions on remaining eucalyptus stumps in the field leads to a better comprehension about the changes that may occur in these features along the cultivation. This work aimed at determining the variation of total organic carbon in soil and organic matter fractions at different horizontal distances from remaining eucalyptus stump, at different ages, in the direction of the stump line. So, soil samples were collected around the eucalyptus’s stump from the previous rotation, with 31 and 54 months-aged, and at the distances of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 cm, at 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm depth layers. The soil samples were analyzed about: total organic carbon (COT) and carbon concentration on humic substances (SH) and on the light free fraction (FLL). The results indicated variation on organic carbon concentration from several fractions of soil organic matter as long as it hold off from the remaining eucalyptus’s stump (CRE) with 31 and 54 months-aged. The C concentrations of the fulvic acids fraction, humic fraction, SH and COT get variable with CRE’s age. The major C concentrations of the several soil organic matter fractions on the surface layer reflect the deposition and maintenance of forest residues on the soil surface, mainly after forest harvesting.

Geraldo Erli de Faria; Nairam Felix de Barros; Ivo Ribeiro da Silva; Roberto Ferreira de Novais; Artur Orelli Paiva

2008-01-01

343

THE EFFECT OF Eucalyptus APMP FIBERS REINFORCEMENT ON Pinus radiata KRAFT PULP PROPERTIES  

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Full Text Available Kraft pulps derived from pine species are largely used for high strength paper products. The quality of such pulps hasbeen improved significantly in the last decades through advances in wood quality and adequate choice of pine species. The quality ofpine fibers can be further improved by incorporating other fibers to them. In fact, the mixture of pine fibers with hardwood fibers iscommon practice around the world. An alternative to further improve the quality of pine fibers is by mixing them with wood fibersproduced by modern techniques. This study evaluated the impact of mixing 10-40% of eucalyptus wood fibers produced by the P-RCAPMP process on the Pinus radiata fiber properties. The pulp mixes were beat in a PFI mill and evaluated for the main physicalproperties. It was observed that the eucalyptus wood fibers improve the bonding capacity of the Pinus radiata fibers. At a given tensilestrength, the properties of tear index and opacity of the pulp mix increase with increasing proportion of eucalyptus wood fibers. It isconcluded that addition of up to 30% eucalyptus wood fibers to Pinus radiata kraft pulp is viable alternative to improve some of itsproperties.

Mauro Manfredi; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Flaviana Reis Milagres; Rubens Chaves de Oliveira; Eric Chao Xu

2008-01-01

344

Distribución Radial de Polifenoles en Troncos de Eucalyptus grandis: Radial Distribution of Polyphenols in the Stems of Eucalyptus grandis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los polifenoles colorean las pulpas y pueden interferir en los procesos de pulpado. No se conocen trabajos sobre su distribución en Eucalyptus grandis. Se midió la variación radial de concentración de polifenoles en cinco individuos de E. grandis de 7 y 18 años de edad. Se utilizó etanol azeotrópico para la extracción de la madera reducida a virutas. Los resultados concuerdan con el patrón general citado en la bibliografía. En los árboles de 7 años hubo en pro (more) porción más polifenoles en la albura que en los de 18. No se notaron diferencias significativas en los espectrogramas de absorción UV entre los anillos de los árboles de 18 años. Un espectrograma diferente en uno de 7, indicaría la existencia de hibridación. La concentración de polifenoles alrededor de un nudo dio cuatro veces más alta que en la madera de la misma edad. Abstract in english Polyphenols color pulps and may interfere in the pulping process. No research works on the distribution in E. grandis are known. The radial variation of polyphenol concentration in five E. grandis individuals aged 7 and 18 years old was measured. Azeotropic ethanol was used for the extraction of the wood reduced to shaving. Results are in accordance with the general pattern cited in the bibliography. In 7 year old trees, there were relatively more polyphenols in the sapwo (more) od than in those of 18. No significant differences were noticed in the UV absorption spectrograms among the rings of the 18 year-old trees. A different spectrogram in one aged 7 would indicate the existence of hybridation. The concentration of poliphenols around one of the knots was four times as high than in the wood of the same age.

Núñez, Carlos E.

2009-07-01

345

Índices de competição em árvores individuais de eucalipto/ Competition indexes for individual eucalyptus trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cinco índices de competição independentes da distância, em árvores individuais de plantios comerciais de eucalipto, e verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para o crescimento em diâmetro e altura, bem como a probabilidade de mortalidade para três classes de produtividade. Foram avaliados dados de 30 parcelas permanentes de plantios clonais híbridos, não desbastados, de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus uro (more) phylla. Os índices de competição foram avaliados por meio do coeficiente de correlação simples e o teste F?parcial, juntamente com o teste de identidade, para verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para três classes de produtividade. O índice de área basal foi o que apresentou o melhor desempenho. Ao contrário do observado quanto ao crescimento em diâmetro e altura, para a probabilidade de mortalidade, foi possível o ajuste de uma única equação para as três classes de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate five distance?independent competition indexes, in individual trees of an eucalyptus commercial plantation, and to verify the possibility of fitting a single equation for growth and height, as well as the probability of mortality for three yield classes. Data from 30 permanent plots of unthinned clonal hybrids of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla forest, were analyzed. The competition indexes were evaluated through (more) the simple correlation coefficient and the partial?F test, together with an identity test to verify if a single equation could be adjusted for the three yield classes. The basal area index performed better than other competition indexes. Contrarily to what was found for diameter and height, it was possible to adjust a single equation for the three yield classes for the probability of mortality.

Martins, Fabrina Bolzan; Soares, Carlos Pedro Boechat; Leite, Helio Garcia; Souza, Agostinho Lopes de; Castro, Renato Vinícius Oliveira

2011-09-01

346

First report of Endoclita signifer (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) as a new pest on Eucalyptus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endoclita signifier Walker (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) has become a new wood borer pest in Eucalyptus plantations in southern China. This article documents survey results of its geographic distribution and host plant range in Guangxi and its morphological measurements, life cycle and behavior. In total, 83 Eucalyptus growing counties were surveyed. E. signifier was found in 59 counties. Host plants included 31 species in 16 families and 24 genera. Four Eucalyptus hybrid species were recorded as its host plant with E. grandis x E. urophylla and E. urophylla x E. grandis infested the heaviest. The infestation of Eucalyptus trees 1-2 yr old was heavier than that of older trees. Most individuals of E. signifier took 1 yr to complete a generation, overwintering as larvae in tunnels in wooden stems, and pupating in February of the following year. Adults emerge, mate, and lay eggs in April, and the eggs hatch in late April or early May. Adult emergence peaks between 17:00-18:59 hours. Mating flights last under 30 min at dusk and the copulation duration was 24 h. Moths were large, weighting and average of 3.4 g. Eggs and newly hatched larvae were very small, weighing only 0.127 +/- 0.001 mg and 0.093 +/- 0.017 mg, respectively. The larvae have two distinct development stages. One stage spends 1-2 mo living in the forest litter, the second stage then moves to woody stems where it feeds for approximately 10 mo. Larvae start boring into hosts between June and November, mainly in July and August. This study indicated that E. signifier, a highly polyphagous native species, has shifted host to exotic Eucalyptus and can cause significant damage to plantations.

Yang XH; Yu YH; Wu YJ; Qin JL; Luo YQ

2013-04-01

347

Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

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Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto.

Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio; José Cola Zanuncio; Dirceu Pratissoli; Marcelo Teixeira Tavares

2008-01-01

348

Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucocerae (more) a em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto. Abstract in english Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia (more) and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.

Pereira, Fabricio Fagundes; Zanuncio, Teresinha Vinha; Zanuncio, José Cola; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Tavares, Marcelo Teixeira

2008-04-01

349

Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae from plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in South China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Botryosphaeriaceae is a species-rich family that includes pathogens of a wide variety of trees, including Eucalyptus species. Symptoms typical of infection by the Botryosphaeriaceae have recently been observed in Eucalyptus plantations in South China. The aim of this study was to identify the Botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms. Isolates were collected from branch cankers and senescent twigs of different Eucalyptus spp. All isolates resembling Botryosphaeriaceae were separated into groups based on conidial morphology. Initial identifications were made using PCR-RFLP fingerprinting, by digesting the ITS region of the rDNA operon with the restriction enzymes CfoI and KspI. Furthermore, to distinguish isolates in the Neofusicoccum parvum/N. ribis complex, a locus (BotF15) previously shown to define these species, was amplified and restricted with CfoI. Selected isolates were then identified using comparisons of DNA sequence data for the ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1?) gene regions. Based on anamorph morphology and DNA sequence comparisons, five species were identified: Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae, Neofusicoccum parvum, N. ribis sensu lato and one undescribed taxon, for which the name Fusicoccum fabicercianum sp. nov. is provided. Isolates of all species gave rise to lesions on the stems of an E. grandis clone in a glasshouse inoculation trial and on the stems of five Eucalyptus genotypes inoculated in the field, where L. pseudotheobromae and L. theobromae were most pathogenic. The five Eucalyptus genotypes differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species suggesting that breeding and selection offers opportunity for disease avoidance in the future.

Chen SF; Pavlic D; Roux J; Slippers B; Xie YJ; Wingfield MJ; Zhou XD

2011-08-01

350

Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many species in the Cryphonectriaceae cause diseases of trees, including those in the genera Eucalyptus and Syzygium. During disease surveys on these trees in southern China, fruiting structures typical of fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae and associated with dying branches and stems were observed. Morphological comparisons suggested that these fungi were distinct from the well known Chrysoporthe deuterocubensis, also found on these trees in China. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi and evaluate their pathogenicity to Eucalyptus clones/species as well as Syzygium cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were included in the study. Isolates were characterized based on comparisons of morphology and DNA sequence data for the partial LSU and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA, ?-tubulin and TEF-1? gene regions. After glasshouse trials to select virulent isolates field inoculations were undertaken to screen different commercial Eucalyptus clones/species and S. cumini trees for susceptibility to infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously identified South African Celoporthe isolates. Based on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons, four new Celoporthe spp. were identified and they are described as C. syzygii, C. eucalypti, C. guangdongensis and C. indonesiensis. Field inoculations indicated that the three Chinese Celoporthe spp., C. syzygii, C. eucalypti and C. guangdongensis, are pathogenic to all tested Eucalyptus and S. cumini trees. Significant differences in the susceptibility of the inoculated Eucalyptus clones/species suggest that it will be possible to select disease-tolerant planting stock for forestry operations in the future. PMID:21700641

Chen, Shuaifei; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Roux, Jolanda; Xie, Yaojian; Wingfield, Michael J; Zhou, Xudong

2011-06-23

351

Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many species in the Cryphonectriaceae cause diseases of trees, including those in the genera Eucalyptus and Syzygium. During disease surveys on these trees in southern China, fruiting structures typical of fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae and associated with dying branches and stems were observed. Morphological comparisons suggested that these fungi were distinct from the well known Chrysoporthe deuterocubensis, also found on these trees in China. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi and evaluate their pathogenicity to Eucalyptus clones/species as well as Syzygium cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were included in the study. Isolates were characterized based on comparisons of morphology and DNA sequence data for the partial LSU and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA, ?-tubulin and TEF-1? gene regions. After glasshouse trials to select virulent isolates field inoculations were undertaken to screen different commercial Eucalyptus clones/species and S. cumini trees for susceptibility to infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously identified South African Celoporthe isolates. Based on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons, four new Celoporthe spp. were identified and they are described as C. syzygii, C. eucalypti, C. guangdongensis and C. indonesiensis. Field inoculations indicated that the three Chinese Celoporthe spp., C. syzygii, C. eucalypti and C. guangdongensis, are pathogenic to all tested Eucalyptus and S. cumini trees. Significant differences in the susceptibility of the inoculated Eucalyptus clones/species suggest that it will be possible to select disease-tolerant planting stock for forestry operations in the future.

Chen S; Gryzenhout M; Roux J; Xie Y; Wingfield MJ; Zhou X

2011-11-01

352

Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile/ Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La presencia del chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus, fue reportada por primera vez en el país en junio de 2009, como resultado del Programa de Vigilancia Forestal del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Insecto succionador cuyo daño lo ocasionan tanto ninfas como adultos al alimentarse de la savia de sus hospederos desde las hojas. Cuando las poblaciones aumentan, se produce una fuerte reducción de la tasa fotosintética de las hojas, lo que puede provoc (more) ar una disminución del crecimiento y en ocasiones producir la defoliación completa del árbol. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la detección de T. peregrinus, delimitar su área de distribución y establecer el rango de hospederos dentro de las especies del género Eucalyptus presentes en Chile. Para esto se instalaron trampas amarillas pegajosas en la región Metropolitana, comuna de Til-Til, y en la región de Valparaíso y se realizó una prospección nacional que abarcó las regiones con presencia de especies del género Eucalyptus. Se detectaron nueve puntos positivos (= presencia) en la región Metropolitana y uno en la región de Valparaíso. La detección de estados inmaduros y adultos de T. peregrinus sobre E. camaldulensis indica que el insecto se encuentra establecido en las regiones Metropolitana y de Valparaíso, Chile. Se dan a conocer las acciones a seguir dentro de las labores de control oficial ejecutadas por el SAG. Abstract in english The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was first reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When populations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims (more) of this study were to confirm the detection of T. peregrinus, define its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence) were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the official control tasks performed by SAG.

Ide M, Sandra; Ruiz G, Cecilia; Sandoval C, Ariel; Valenzuela E, Juan

2011-01-01

353

Fertilization during the establishment of a Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation in the northern Brazilian Amazon = Adubação no estabelecimento de um plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis na Amazônia setentrional brasileira  

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Full Text Available Forestry plantations should be regarded as an alternative sustainable land-use system in degraded savannah areas. They contribute to the maintenance of productive processes in degraded soils that are of economic importance for local inhabitants; in addition, in the ecological sense, timber and non-timber products from planted forests reduce the exploitation pressure on native forests. Eucalyptus plantations on degraded savannahs in the northern Brazilian Amazon may help to reduce exploitation pressure on native forests. However, there is no information regarding the nutrients rates that would allow faster eucalyptus growth in that region. A trial was installed in an Yellow Latosol (Oxisol) soil type adopting a one-half-type fractionalfactorial design with four rates of N, P, and K. Functions were adjusted for the dependent variables height, diameter at breastheight (DBH), leaf tissue nutrient content, and soil-chemical attributes. Interaction N versus K was observed on tree heightwith a maximum of 7.8 m recorded at 200 kg ha-1 of N and 50 kg ha-1 of K. Phosphorus fertilization promoted greater DBH growth with maximum value at 120 kg ha-1 of P; however, the highest gain was obtained at 30 kg ha-1 of P. The NPK rates that maximized Eucalyptus camaldulensis growth were 200, 30, and 50 kg ha-1, respectively. Plantações de eucalipto, em áreas de lavrado degradadas na Amazônia Setentrional brasileira, devem contribuir para diminuir a pressão de exploração em florestas nativas. Porém, não há informações sobre as doses de nutrientes que permitem o rápido crescimento do eucalipto nesta região. Um experimento para avaliar a resposta à adubação do Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi instalado em Latossolo Amarelo, adotando o delineamento fatorial fracionário com quatro doses de nitrogênio (N), fósforo (P) e potássio (K). Funções foram ajustadas para as seguintes variáveis dependentes: altura, diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP), conteúdo de nutrientes nas folhas e atributos químicos do solo. Foi observada interação NxK para a altura, com um máximo de 7,8 metros registrados com a dose de 200 kg ha-1 de N e 50 kg ha-1 de K. A adubação fosfatada promoveu o maior crescimento do DAP com o valor máximo obtido com a dose de 120 kg ha-1 de P; O maior ganho, entretanto, foi obtido com a dose de 30 kg ha-1 de P. As doses de NPK que maximizaram o crescimento do Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram 200, 30 e 50 kg ha-1, respectivamente.

Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa; Hélio Tonini; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias; Bruna de Freitas Iwata

2012-01-01

354

Lignin isolated from steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips by phase separation and its affinity to Trichoderma reesei cellulase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus lignin without steam explosion. Clearly, the steam explosion process depolymerized native lignin, and simultaneously, promoted polymerization via labile benzyl positions. The steam-exploded eucalyptus lignin adsorbed more Trichoderma reesei cellulase; however, its enzymatic activity was less than that of eucalyptus lignin that did not undergo steam explosion. It is evident that pretreatment potentially affects the affinity between lignin and cellulase and the resultant saccharification efficiency.

Nonaka H; Kobayashi A; Funaoka M

2013-07-01

355

The Cultivation of Plants for Their Essential Oils: Java Citronella; Eucalyptus Citriodora Hook; Davana; Geranium; and French Basil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is a compilation of five pamphlets on the cultivation of various plants for their essential oils. The plants are Java citronella, Eucalyptus citriodora, Davana, Geranium, and French Basil. For each plant the following topics are covered: Botany;...

O. P. Virmani P. Singh M. R. Narayana M. Sarwar A. K. ivastava

1980-01-01

356

Short-rotation management of Eucalyptus: Guidelines for plantations in Hawaii. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 10-year research and development program was conducted on the island of Hawaii, where nearly 230,000 acres are suitable for growing biomass in short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations. Successful techniques are described for seedling production, plantation establishment (site preparation, weed control, planting), maintenance (weed control, fertilization), biomass yield estimation, and harvest. Basic biological relationships are described to aid decisions on site selection, initial spacing, fertilizer schedules, and rotation length. Environmental issues likely to be faced by growers of Eucalyptus plantations are discussed, including soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and monocultures. Continuing programs for tree improvement, monitoring, and silviculture research are recommeded. Production costs for biomass yields are estimated for three promising management regimes, representing pure Eucalyptus plantings at dense and wide spacings and a mixed species plantation where Albizia is used as a nurse crop to provide nitrogen needed for optimum Eucalyptus growth.