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Sample records for brushbox lemon-gum eucalyptus

  1. Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eucalyptus oil is used as a fragrance in perfumes and cosmetics. It is also used as a ... hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)Eucalyptus can increase the toxicity of herbs that contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). ...

  2. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio Rogério da, Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira, Machado; Jay, Deiner; Carlito, Calil Junior.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of dist [...] illated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  3. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  4. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

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    Yalç?n ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  5. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

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    Odair Bison

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

  6. SOIL FAUNA CHARACTERIZATION IN Eucalyptus spp. PLANTATIONS

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    Juliana Garlet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810545Forest soils provide good conditions for the development and the establishment of soil fauna, manly by the deposition of litter. However, monoculture systems conducted in a single substrate by providing food, can promote the development of certain animal groups over others, causing outbreaks of pest species. The aim of this study was to characterize the soil fauna and its relationship with meteorological variables, in plantations of Eucalyptus spp. This study was conducted in six stands of Eucalyptus from three species: Eucalyptus dunni Maiden, Eucalyptus grandis Maiden and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake (clone hybrid and two ages (planted in 2006 and 2007.

  7. Eucalyptus nitens Laminated Veneer Lumber

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Heather; Gea, Luis; Gaunt, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens es una especie de rápido crecimiento pero debido a una defoliación severa causada por el insecto Paropsis charybdis el area de plantación en Nueva Zelandia era muy limitada. En 1987 ensis (anteriormente Forest Research) liberó una avispa parasítica que controló exitosamente ésta peste. Desde entonces, E.nitens ha sido plantado para la producción local de pulpa kraft y para el mercado exterior de astillas en las regiones de Bay of Plenty/Taupo y Sou...

  8. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

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    Adibe L. Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

  9. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-01-01

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons. PMID:22930432

  10. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A [ORNL; Grattapaglia, Dario [Universidade Católica de Brasília; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Li, Ting [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  11. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

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    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  12. EFFECT OF THE SAWING MODEL IN THE SAWNWOOD QUALITY OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii

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    Márcio Pereira da Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research carried out to evaluate the defects caused by growth stresses on boards produced from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii, using twodifferent sawing models. Logs tested came from fast growing plantations belonging to two diametricclasses. The first sawing model used aimed to produce mainly flat sawn boards and the second aimedto maximize the production of quarter-sawn boards. The results obtained pointed out that quartersawnboards were more prone to twist and bow. Splits were more evident in flat sawn boards. Bowwas only observed in flat sawn boards. As a result of the drying schedule used, collapse was not aproblem. Under the conditions of the study, regardless the species or log diameter, the best result isobtained when flat sawn boards are produced. Eucalyptus grandis was found to be a better species for producing sawnwood than Eucalyptus dunnii.

  13. Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species

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    Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

  14. Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii / Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Priscilla Távora, Cabral; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira, Carvalho.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB), fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específic [...] as básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³) e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³). Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) e ASTM-D 1037 (1991). Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) e CSA 0437-93 (1993). As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993). A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular) e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular), foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka) e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura). Somente a resistência à compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board). Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Po [...] nte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³) and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³). Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002) and ASTM-D 1037 (1991) norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993) and CSA 0437-93 (1993) norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993) norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular) and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular) of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalyptus grandis (Janka hardness) and Eucalyptus cloeziana mixed w

  15. Disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus / Nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Elias Frank, Araújo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar, em um plantio de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foi utilizada a técnica de litter bags para a avaliação da decomposição. Ao todo, foram utili [...] zados 648 litter bags, com coletas mensais de 18 amostras, durante o período de 36 meses. A perda de massa foliar apresentou correlação positiva com a concentração de nutrientes, indicando que, quanto maior a perda de massa, maior a concentração dos elementos no folhedo remanescente. A decomposição da serapilheira foliar apresentou inicialmente imobilização de P, Fe, Mn e Zn, e disponibilização dos demais nutrientes. O P tornou-se disponível a partir do segundo ano, enquanto o Mn e o Zn, somente a partir do terceiro ano. Abstract in english This study had the objective to evaluate the nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation, Eldorado do Sul-RS. We used the litterbags techniques to assess the decomposition. We used 648 litterbags, with 18 samples collected month [...] ly during 36 months. Mass loss leaf showed positive correlation with nutrients concentration, indicating that the higher mass loss, higher the nutrients concentration in litter remaining. Litter leaf decay initially showed P, Fe, Mn and Zn immobilization and release of the others, in the second year occurred P release and in the third year occurred Mn and Zn release, with Fe exception.

  16. Weed control and selectivity of flumioxazin in eucalyptus

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    Rafael Augusto Soares Tiburcio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flumioxazin is a registered herbicide for agricultural crops what is an important fact concerning integrated management for weeds in eucalyptus plantations. This study evaluated the efficiency of weed control and the phytotoxicity in eucalyptus plants caused by the herbicide flumioxazin applied alone or in tank mixture with sulfentrazone and isoxaflutole. The aim was to extend the use of thisherbicide in eucalyptus. The herbicide was applied to eucalyptus plants using precision backpack sprayer. It was evaluated, visually,the intoxication percentage and measured height and diameter of eucalyptus trees, the control plants and dry mass of weeds. It wasconcluded that flumioxazin is selective to the eucalyptus at the 125 g.ha-1 dosage, and its efficiency in controlling weeds pre-emergencewas better when mixed in the tank with isoxaflutole and sulfentrazone.

  17. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi Setiadji; Andriati Amir Husin

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cemen...

  18. Modeling of assortment yields in eucalyptus stands

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    Adriano Ribeiro de Mendonça

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate models to estimate the assortment yield of clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid plantations with 3 x 3 m spacing in the Paraopeba city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. To estimate basal area and volume of the assortment yield data from permanent plots was used. To estimate the volume of assortments, we analyzed the logistic model with covariates and the Clutter model. The statistical standard error [Syx (%], bias (V, average of the differences (MD, and standard deviation of the differences (DPD, as well as the graphical analysis of the residuals were used to select the most accurate model. According to the analysis, the Logistic model obtained the best results for estimation of the yield in wood volume for energy and pulpwood. The methodology to estimate assortment of forest plantations was considered easy to use and accurate.

  19. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Aulus Estevão Barbosa; Paulo Marinho

    2005-01-01

    The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs), an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis), has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX). Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y) and cytosolic (TRXh), have been found in the transcriptome. Putativ...

  20. Morfoanatomia da rizogênese adventícia em miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla / Morpho-anatomic of adventitious rhizogenesis in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Bueno, Goulart; Aloisio, Xavier; Lourdes, Iarema; Wagner Campos, Otoni.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal a caracterização morfoanatômica da rizogênese adventícia de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas de minicepas estabelecidas em minijardim clonal, conduzido em sistema semi-hidropônico [...] em canaletas com fertirrigação. Para a caracterização histológica do processo de rizogênese das miniestacas foram coletadas amostras teciduais aos 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 dias após o estaqueamento em casa de vegetação climatizada, para enraizamento. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA70%, desidratadas em série etílica e incluídas em metacrilato. Os resultados revelaram a origem endógena de primórdios radiculares a partir do câmbio vascular e, em alguns casos, a proliferação e a formação de uma massa de células desorganizadas (calos) em miniestacas dos clones avaliados, entre 8 e 12 dias de idade. Abstract in english The present work aimed to accomplish the histological analysis of the events involved in the adventitious rooting pattern of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The mini-cuttings were collected from a mini-stump and the rooting experiments were set up under mini-hedge indoor semi- [...] hydroponics by means of intermittent flooding fertirrigation. For histological analyses, the proximal ends of the mini-cuttings were collected after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days after planting them at greenhouse. After fixation with FAA70%, the samples were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and infiltrated overnight in metracrilate resin, and finally embedded in resin. It was verified the endogenous origin of adventitious root primordia from vascular cambium, and in some cases, the formation and proliferation of calli at the proximal end of the mini-cuttings within 8 to 12 days.

  1. Eucalyptus globulus plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Glória Catarina Cintra da Costa

    2007-01-01

    A embriogénese somática (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padrão de micropropagação, desde a indução à aclimatização. A propagação clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefícios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um método efectivo de conseguir ganhos genéticos num curto espaç...

  2. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O, Unsal; S, Korkut; C, Atik.

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large pl [...] antations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

  3. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  4. USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

  5. Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii / Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Ivar, Wendling; André Ebling, Brondani; Marla Alessandra, Araujo; André Luís Lopes da, Silva; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas) no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de tr [...] ês clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento total de raízes e a taxa de enraizamento por miniestaca foram avaliados a cada sete dias (0 - instante da estaquia, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias). Foram utilizadas as regressões logística e exponencial para a modelagem matemática da velocidade dos processos rizogênicos. O modelo logístico teve o melhor ajuste para o percentual de enraizamento, e o modelo exponencial para o comprimento total do sistema radicular. Os clones apresentaram diferentes velocidades de enraizamento. O tempo ideal de permanência das miniestacas dentro da casa de vegetação para o enraizamento está entre 35 a 42 dias, podendo variar em função do material genético. Abstract in english It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings) inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of t [...] hree clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting), 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.

  6. Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii=Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Natal Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of three clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento total de raízes e a taxa de enraizamento por miniestaca foram avaliados a cada sete dias (0 - instante da estaquia, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias. Foram utilizadas as regressões logística e exponencial para a modelagem matemática da velocidade dos processos rizogênicos. O modelo logístico teve o melhor ajuste para o percentual de enraizamento, e o modelo exponencial para o comprimento total do sistema radicular. Os clones apresentaram diferentes velocidades de enraizamento. O tempo ideal de permanência das miniestacas dentro da casa de vegetação para o enraizamento está entre 35 a 42 dias, podendo variar em função do material genético.

  7. Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tonimara de Souza, Cândido; André Costa da, Silva; Lúcio Mauro da Silva, Guimarães; Hélvio Gledson Maciel, Ferraz; Norton, Borges Júnior; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new foliar disease caused by Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. urophylla x E. globulus and E. nitens x E. globulus) in Brazil is described . The disease is characterized by leaf spots of variable sizes and shapes, resulting in leaf blight and premature defoliation. Base [...] d on the morphological characteristics and multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the EF-1?, ?-T and ITS-2 gene regions of five isolates, the fungus was identified as T. pseudoeucalypti. This is the first report of this pathogen outside Australia and a method for sporulation in culture is described.

  8. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

    2002-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

  9. Modeling of basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using nondestructive methods / Modelagem da densidade básica da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla por métodos não destrutivos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Allan Motta, Couto; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a precisão da utilização de variáveis não destrutivas na inferência sobre a densidade básica das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla. Foram utilizados 27 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla e 22 clones de Eucalyptus grandis oriundos de teste clon [...] al implantado em Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. Após a avaliação por técnicas não destrutivas de resistografia e penetração por um pino à pressão constante (Pilodyn®), os indivíduos foram abatidos e retirados discos a 2, 10, 30, 50 e 70% da altura comercial, além destes, foram extraídos também discos a 1,30 metros do solo. A densidade básica da madeira foi determinada pelo método de imersão em água. Os clones avaliados apresentaram valores em densidade básica variando de 0,412 a 0,609 g.cm-3 aos 42 meses e 0,408 a 0,664 g.cm-3 aos 54 meses. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram densidade básica média superior em relação aos de Eucalyptus grandis. A variável amplitude apresentou melhor relação com a densidade básica comparada a penetração por um pino à pressão constante. A avaliação não destrutiva pode ser utilizada em uma pré-seleção massal de materiais genéticos, destinando-os posteriormente a uma avaliação mais precisa e confiável. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of nondestructive variables in inferring basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. A total of 27 clones of Eucalyptus urophylla and 22 clones of Eucalyptus grandis were used, sourced from a clonal trial set up in [...] Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. After evaluation using nondestructive techniques of resistography and pin penetration at a constant pressure (Pilodyn®), individuals were felled and disks were removed from the 2%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% portions of the merchantable height section, and also from the portion 1.30 m above ground level. Basic density was determined by the water immersion method. Values of basic density ranged from 0.412 to 0.609 g.cm-3 for clones at age 42 months and from 0.408 to 0.664 g.cm-3 for clones at age 54 months. The clones of Eucalyptus urophylla provided higher values of average basic density in relation to Eucalyptus grandis. The variable 'amplitude' had better correlation with basic density in comparison with pin penetration at a constant pressure. Nondestructive evaluation can be used in mass preselection of genetic materials, prior to subjecting them to a more accurate, reliable evaluation.

  10. Resistência biológica da madeira tratada de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana a fungos apodrecedores em ensaios de laboratório / Biological resistance of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana woods treated to the decay fungi under laboratory conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magnos Alan, Vivian; Elio José, Santini; Karina Soares, Modes; Alencar, Garlet; Weslley Wilker Corrêa, Morais.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a resistência biológica da madeira tratada de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana sob a ação de organismos biodeterioradores em ensaios de laboratório. Para tanto, foram utilizadas árvores de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana, ambas com 16 [...] anos de idade, as quais foram desdobradas em tábuas e submetidas ao tratamento preservativo em autoclave com arseniato de cobre cromatado (CCA). Em seguida, confeccionaram-se os corpos de prova para condução do ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado com os fungos Trametes versicolor e Gloeophyllum trabeum, seguindo as recomendações da norma ASTM. A partir dos resultados obtidos, observou-se para o fungo Trametes versicolor que o tratamento preservativo foi eficiente na redução da degradação biológica da madeira das duas espécies, com redução da perda de massa em 35,17 e 82,31% para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectivamente, já para o fungo Gloeophyllum trabeum, a perda de massa foi reduzida em 6,79 e 96,65%, em comparação à testemunha. Com base nas condições de realização do presente estudo observou-se que o tratamento preservativo com CCA é eficiente no aumento da resistência biológica da madeira a ação dos fungos apodrecedores Trametes versicolor e Gloeophyllum trabeum. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was conver [...] ted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA). Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  11. Hydrological impact of Eucalyptus plantation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Ian R.; Hall, Robin L.; Prasanna, K. T.

    1993-10-01

    A brief review is given of the results of hydrological studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species on water resources, erosion and soil nutrients at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. New results on the impacts of the plantations on raindrop-induced erosion and preliminary results from studies that are aimed at improving the water use efficiency of the plantations are also presented. The erosion studies indicate that soil detachment resulting from net rainfall beneath Eucalyptus camaldulensis will be greater than beneath Pinus caribaea but less than that beneath the indigenous species, Tectona grandis. The water use efficiency studies, which make use of a controlled environment facility, have confirmed that in the dry zone of southern India water availability is the principal limiting factor on growth although, when water is available, nutrient limitations become important. Removal of both water and nutrient stress results typically in a fivefold increase in volume growth for the first year of growth.

  12. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kelly J; Romanel, Elisson; Jones, Rebecca C; Klocko, Amy; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Hefer, Charles A; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Naithani, Sushma; Ranik, Martin; Wesley-Smith, James; Solomon, Luke; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Myburg, Alexander A; Strauss, Steven H

    2015-06-01

    As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages, and compared these with transcriptomes of diverse vegetative tissues, including leaves, roots, and stems. A subset of 4807 genes (13% of protein-coding genes) were differentially expressed between floral buds of either stage and vegetative tissues. A similar proportion of genes were differentially expressed among all tissues. A total of 479 genes were differentially expressed between early and late stages of floral development. Gene function enrichment identified 158 gene ontology classes that were overrepresented in floral tissues, including 'pollen development' and 'aromatic compound biosynthetic process'. At least 40 floral-dominant genes lacked functional annotations and thus may be novel floral transcripts. We analyzed several genes and gene families in depth, including 49 putative biomarkers of floral development, the MADS-box transcription factors, 'S-domain'-receptor-like kinases, and selected gene family members with phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains. Expanded MADS-box gene subfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis included SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), SEPALLATA (SEP) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. These data provide a rich resource for functional and evolutionary analysis of genes controlling eucalypt floral development, and new tools for breeding and biotechnology. PMID:25353719

  13. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aulus Estevão, Barbosa; Paulo, Marinho.

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs), an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis), has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST cl [...] usters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX). Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y) and cytosolic (TRXh), have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF INBRED AND OUTBRED Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Abjaud Estopa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Inbred and outbred Eucalyptus clone were assessed aiming to check the possible loss of vigor in the initial germinationphases and growing in nursery and in t field conditions. Offsprings from two commercial clones were assessed as inbreds (C01 andC02 and as hybrids (C01 x C03 and C02 x C03. The work consisted of two phases. The first one was in the nursery, in a completelyrandom design, with 4 treatments and 6 reps, in plots with 30 tubes with only one seed. The second one, in the field, used a randomizedcomplete block design, with 4 treatments and 6 reps, with 18 plants per plots. The percentage of germination, germination speed index,survival and plant height were assessed at 35, 50, 65 and 80 days in the nursery and, in the field, the percentage of survival with 6months and plant height with 2, 4 and 6 months. It was concluded that the germination, survival and the growing of plants resultedfrom inbred were similar to the hybrid, showing that the loss of vigor is not expressive for those characters in initial developmentalphases of Eucalyptus spp.

  15. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Berenice K. de, Alcântara; Daniel, Pizzaia; Fernando A., Piotto; Lucélia, Borgo; Gilvano E., Brondani; Ricardo A., Azevedo.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A peroxidação lipídica e alongamento de raiz de Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram estudados em resposta às condições de estresse com alumínio (Al), um metal conhecido por limitar a produtividade agrícola em solos ácidos, principalmente devido à redução do crescimento radicular. No [...] Brasil, o híbrido Grancam 1277 (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis) tem sido plantado na região do "Cerrado", local com grande ocorrência de solos ácidos. O presente estudo mostra que o híbrido teve redução de crescimento das raízes e aumento dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica, após 24h de tratamento com 100 µM de Al. No entanto, um possível processo de tolerância começou após este período, uma vez que foram observadas redução na peroxidação lipídica e recuperação de alongamento da raiz após 48h de exposição Al. A compreensão da dinâmica temporal de tolerância ao Al pode ser útil principalmente para selecionar genótipos mais tolerantes e também para identificar genes de interesse para aplicação em bioengenharia. Abstract in english Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al), a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. [...] grandis × E. camaldulensis) has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  16. MECANIC PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF PLYWOOD PANELS OF Eucalyptus dunnii AND Eucalyptus dunnii/Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Jaeger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of eucalyptus has been spreading out in Brazil and in several wood processing sectors. Apprehension relatedto lack of raw material in the south of Brazil makes eucalyptus an alternative for the substitution or use together with pine for makingplywood panels. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two types of plywood panels: one that isproduced with alternate plates of Eucalyptus dunnii and Pinus taeda (T1 and the other entirely with E. dunnii (T2. The results showedthat the elasticity module (MOE in T1 was inferior to T2, but with variance presenting higher value, indicating smaller stability of thetested material. This behavior was noticed in cutting directions, perpendicular and parallel. The module of rupture (MOR showedsimilar values in both directions of cutting, but T1 showed higher variances only in the transversal direction. The resistance to cuttingin the glue line in the treatment with cool water was similar in both treatments, with T2 presenting higher variance. On the same test16% of the pieces of T1 came off during pre-treatment. When put to boil, T2 obtained better results, even though it presented a higherpercentage of pieces coming off during pre-treatment.

  17. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND OF BORON IN HYBRIDS CLONES OF Eucalyptus grandis WITH Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Luiz Vaz de Arruda Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To characterise symptoms of macronutrient and boron deficiencies in hybrid clones ofEucalyptus grandis with Eucalyptus urophylla, a trial was conducted using nutrient solution, withtreatments including complete solution and minus N, minus P, minus K, minus Ca, minus Mg, minus Sand minus B with four replicates. Descriptions of the symptoms were made monthly, 4 months afterthe establishment of the treatments. Samples of leaves were collected to determine nutrient concentrations,taking the fifth and sixth leaf as standards, counted from the tip of the branches in both upperand lower parts of the crown. Another sampling was performed, collecting only leaves with deficiencysymptoms,for N, P, K and Mg using old leaves and for Ca, S and B young leaves. The sequence of symptomsappearance was N, P, B, K, Ca, Mg and S. Nutrients concentrations in leaves of treatments withomitted nutrients were lower as compared to leaves of the complete treatment, indicating that thesymptoms described were really due to the deficiency effect. The nutrient concentration of leaves withhigh symptoms was smaller than those for the fifth and sixth leaves, except for calcium. Eventhough,these leaves appeared to be adequate to predict nutritional deficiencies in Eucalyptus. The highestintensity of symptoms occurred for boron and the lowest for sulphur.

  18. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  19. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Anna-Stiina Jääskeläinen

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The de...

  20. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Harakava

    2005-01-01

    Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family tha...

  1. Elaboração de modelo de previsão de preço da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. / Eucalyptus spp. wood price forecasting model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naisy Silva, Soares; Márcio Lopes da, Silva; José Luiz Pereira de, Rezende; João Eustáquio de, Lima; Kaio Henrique Adame de, Carvalho.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de elaborar um modelo para prever o preço da madeira em pé de Eucalyptus spp. em Itapeva (SP) e Bauru (SP), utilizando a metodologia de Box & Jenkins (1976) em observações mensais, cobrindo o período de maio de 2002 a janeiro de 2008. Os resultados obtidos in [...] dicaram que o modelo adequado para efetuar as previsões do preço da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. em Itapeva e Bauru foram, respectivamente, um ARIMA (0,1,4) e um ARIMA (2,1,2). Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to establish a price forecasting model of Eucalyptus spp. wood in Itapeva (SP) and Bauru (SP), using Box & Jenkins (1976) methodology in monthly observations, from May 2002 to January 2008. The results shows that the appropriate models for forecasting Eucalyptus spp. [...] wood price in Itapeva (SP) and Bauru (SP) were, respectively, ARIMA (0,1,4) and ARIMA (2,1,2).

  2. Avaliação de algumas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii / Evaluation of some properties of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Nicolau, Serpa; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia; Alexandre Santos, Pimenta.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o rendimento em madeira serrada, bem como a massa específica, contração volumétrica, resistência à flexão estática, resistência à compressão paralela, qualidade da linha de cola e trabalhabilidade das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus [...] elliottii. Foram colhidas três árvores de cada uma destas espécies, com idades aproximadas de 50, 40 e 40 anos, respectivamente. De cada árvore foram retiradas três toras, sendo uma na base, uma no meio e uma no topo do fuste. Foram analisadas as variações em algumas propriedades, no sentido medula-casca e no sentido longitudinal. Os resultados mostraram que todas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas variaram dentro da árvore nos sentidos radial e longitudinal. A densidade básica e as resistências à flexão e à compressão aumentaram na direção medula-casca, enquanto a contração volumétrica diminuiu. Portanto, para obtenção de madeiras mais densas, mais estáveis e com maior resistência à flexão e à compressão, é necessária a colheita de árvores mais velhas. Observou-se ainda que as toras da porção média do fuste, de modo geral, apresentaram menores valores para todas as propriedades determinadas do que as da base e do topo. A resistência da linha de cola e a porcentagem de falha na madeira para madeira juvenil e adulta apresentaram pouca diferença em todas as posições no fuste. No ensaio de confecção de espiga e furação para espiga, todas as espécies apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, sem ocorrência de defeitos. Abstract in english This work aimed to determine sawn wood yield, as well as density, volumetric shrinkage, static bending and compression parallel to grain strength, glue line quality and machining for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii wood. Three trees of each species, with approximate ages o [...] f 50, 40 and 40 years, respectively, were cut into logs on the base, middle and top. Property variations were analyzed in the pith-bark and longitudinal directions. The results showed that all the physical and mechanical properties varied inside the tree in the radial and longitudinal directions. Basic density, bending and compression strength increased in the pith-bark direction, while volumetric shrinkage decreased. Therefore, for obtaining denser, more stable wood with larger bending and compression strength it is necessary to harvest older trees. Considering the variations in the longitudinal direction, it was observed that logs from the medium portion of the tree presented smaller values than those from the base and from the top, in all the analyzed properties. Glue line strength and wood failure presented little differences in relation to adherence among juvenile wood and mature wood in all the positions. In the and mortise-and-tenon test, all the species showed satisfactory results, without occurrence of defects.

  3. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  4. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies according to species. It is 3.4% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni, 2.5% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus and 1.6% for Eucalyptus diversicolor. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx are characterized by an average yield less than 1%, i.e. 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average yields of the two hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus diversicolor are 2.9% and 1.4% respectively. The combinations Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus grandis are characterized by the lowest yields, i.e. 1%, 0.8% and 0.8% respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition shows that the hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni give 1,8-cineole rates superior to 70%, which is required by the users. Comparatively to Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the essential oils of the other crosses reveal a slight decrease in percentage of this product. However, increases of the alpha-pinene and p-cymene contents have been recorded. In general, all products detected in essential oils have average percentages intermediate between those of parental species. Hybridization of eucalyptus can improve the quality and the quantity of eucalyptus essential oils.

  5. EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS / EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán, Poblete W; Rodrigo, Burgos O.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron [...] tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se calculó el grado de correlación de las distintas propiedades del tablero con la densidad de los mismos. Las características de la madera, de las partículas y las propiedades de los tableros demuestran que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens es apta para ser utilizada en la fabricación de estos aglomerados. A medida que aumenta la densidad del tablero se provoca un aumento en las propiedades mecánicas. El hinchamiento y la absorción de agua mejoran con aumentos de la densidad. El análisis de correlación entre las propiedades dependientes (hinchamiento, absorción, flexión y tracción) y la densidad del tablero arrojó coeficientes de correlación mayores a 0,7. La propiedad crítica es el hinchamiento, por lo que se recomienda agregar una emulsión de cera y un catalizador en el adhesivo de la capa central. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate Eucalyptus nitens as raw material for the production of particleboards. Wood density and particle size, slenderness and pH-value were controlled. Bending strength, internal bond, density, thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of particleboa [...] rds with densities between 450 and 750 kg/m³, were determined. Correlations between board density and properties were calculated. The wood and particle characteristics as well as the obtained board properties proved that Eucalyptus nitens could be used for the particleboard production. As board density increases, higher mechanical properties were founded. Thickness swelling and water absorption decreased as density of particleboard increased. High correlation factors (> 0,7) between dependent variables (thickness swelling, absorption, bending strength and IB) and board density were obtained. Due to swelling is a critical property, we recommend the addition of a wax emulsion and a catalyst in the middle layer of the particleboard.

  6. EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Poblete W; Rodrigo Burgos O

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se ca...

  7. Identification and characterization of homeobox genes in Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graça Celeste Gomes, Rocha; Régis Lopes, Corrêa; Anna Cristina Neves, Borges; Claudio Bustamante Pereira de, Sá; Márcio, Alves-Ferreira.

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcriptional factors, usually involved in molecular control of plant developmental patterns. They can be divided into several classes according to conserved sequences within the homeobox region and the presence of specific additional sequences. Based on these conserved seque [...] nces, we developed a search procedure to identify possible homeobox genes in the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (FORESTs) database. We were able to identify 50 Eucalyptus sequences (EST-contigs) containing the homeodomain sequence. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to this ESTs-contigs and 44 of them were found to have similarities with one of three well-known homeobox classes: Bell, Knox and HD-Zip, and their sub-classes. However, no EST-contig grouped with the fourth important homeobox class, the PHD-finger homeobox. On the other hand, two sequences have showed pronounced similarity to the Arabidopsis thaliana Wuschel gene, considered an "atypical" homeobox gene. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression pattern of these putative Eucalyptus homeobox genes revealed the presence of ten distinct expression groups. Combining phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns for some of the Eucalyptus genes revealed interesting aspects about some of the potential homeobox genes, which might lead to a better understanding of the Eucalyptus biology and to biotechnological applications.

  8. Identification and characterization of homeobox genes in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Celeste Gomes Rocha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcriptional factors, usually involved in molecular control of plant developmental patterns. They can be divided into several classes according to conserved sequences within the homeobox region and the presence of specific additional sequences. Based on these conserved sequences, we developed a search procedure to identify possible homeobox genes in the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (FORESTs database. We were able to identify 50 Eucalyptus sequences (EST-contigs containing the homeodomain sequence. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to this ESTs-contigs and 44 of them were found to have similarities with one of three well-known homeobox classes: Bell, Knox and HD-Zip, and their sub-classes. However, no EST-contig grouped with the fourth important homeobox class, the PHD-finger homeobox. On the other hand, two sequences have showed pronounced similarity to the Arabidopsis thaliana Wuschel gene, considered an "atypical" homeobox gene. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression pattern of these putative Eucalyptus homeobox genes revealed the presence of ten distinct expression groups. Combining phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns for some of the Eucalyptus genes revealed interesting aspects about some of the potential homeobox genes, which might lead to a better understanding of the Eucalyptus biology and to biotechnological applications.

  9. Novos insetos sugadores (Hemiptera atacando Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claubert Wagner de Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. The migration of pests of plants native to eucalyptus can cause significant losses in production. Been reported to occur of the leafhopper Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae and Membracis lunata Fabricius (Hemiptera: Membracidae in Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae in the municipality of Couto de Magalhães de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The species were observed in eucalyptus plants in the vegetative stage in the field. The occurrence of these insects attacking eucalyptus indicates their migration from fruit trees to the new host and is not recommended to install eucalyptus forests near areas with fruit trees.

  10. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  11. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands. PMID:26239647

  12. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  13. Tamanho de parcelas experimentais para Eucalyptus saligna Smith Experimental plot size for Eucalyptus saligna Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, aos 15 meses de idade e aos 5 anos e meio de idade. Os experimentos foram instalados no Horto Florestal Barba Negra em área de produqdo da empresa Riocell S/A, localizada no município de Barra do Ribeiro - RS. O método utilizado para determinação do tamanho ótimo de parcelas foi o de Pimentel Gomes - ESALQ/USP. Os resultados demonstram que o tamanho ótimo de parcelas para plantas com 5 anos e meio de idade é de 9 a 25 plantas úteis medidas, e para o experimento com 15 rneses de idade a parcela ideal é de 4 plantas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the experimental plots size of Eucalyptus saligna Smith with 5.5 years old and for fifteen months old. The experiment were stablished in Barba Negra Garden Market located in Barra do Ribeiro District, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Pimentel Gomes - E S ALQ/USP method's was used. It was observed that the optimal experimental plots size may range from 9 to 25 plantas for five year old trees and four plants to 15 m onths old.

  14. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ? 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  15. Toxidez de zinco no crescimento e nutrição de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de doses excessivas de Zn no crescimento e nutrição do eucalipto, em casa de vegetação. Mudas de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla foram crescidas em vasos contendo 2 L de solução nutritiva de Clark, adicionando-se doses crescentes de Zn: 0, 400, 800, 1.200 e 1.600 miM fornecidas como ZnSO4. Após cinco semanas, as plantas exibiram clorose internerval, escurecimento das raízes e inibição do crescimento, mesmo nas doses mais baixas do metal. A dose crítica de Zn na solução (para redução de 10% na matéria seca da parte aérea em E. maculata foi de 170,3 miM, e em E. urophylla, 73,0 miM. Os níveis críticos de toxidez de Zn na planta foram de 853 mg kg-1 em E. maculata, e 697,8 mg kg-1 em E. urophylla. Esses resultados indicam que E. maculata é mais tolerante ao Zn do que E. urophylla. Altas doses de Zn reduziram as concentrações de Fe e Ca na matéria seca da parte aérea a níveis considerados deficientes para o crescimento das duas espécies. A translocação de Fe das raízes para a parte aérea foi reduzida, independentemente da espécie, de 21% no controle para apenas 2% em 1.600 miM de Zn, indicando forte relação entre a queda na produção de matéria seca e a ocorrência da deficiência induzida de Fe nas plantas.

  16. A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    D. TAMILVENDHAN; ILANGOVAN.V

    2011-01-01

    A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that...

  17. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Setiadji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

  18. Identification and frequency of transposable elements in Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício, Bacci Jr.; Rafael B.S., Soares; Eloíza, Tajara; Guilherme, Ambar; Carlos N., Fischer; Ivan R., Guilherme; Eduardo P., Costa; Vitor F.O., Miranda.

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TE) are major components of eukaryotic genomes and involved in cell regulation and organism evolution. We have analyzed 123,889 expressed sequence tags of the Eucalyptus Genome Project database and found 124 sequences representing 76 TE in 9 groups, of which copia, MuDR and FA [...] R1 groups were the most abundant. The low amount of sequences of TE may reflect the high efficiency of repression of these elements, a process that is called TE silencing. Frequency of groups of TE in Eucalyptus libraries which were prepared with different tissues or physiologic conditions from seedlings or adult plants indicated that developing plants experience the expression of a much wider spectrum of TE groups than that seen in adult plants. These are preliminary results that identify the most relevant TE groups involved with Eucalyptus development, which is important for industrial wood production.

  19. Structural characterization of residual hemicelluloses from hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Li, Han-Ying; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, an environmental-friendly hydrothermal pretreatment of Eucalyptus fiber followed with alkali post-treatment was developed to produce bioethanol efficiently. This biorefinery process allowed all major components of biomass being converted into high value-added products. The chemical and structural features of the residual hemicelluloses isolated with alkali from the hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber, were comparatively investigated. Sugar and spectral analyses indicated that the hemicelluloses were mainly composed of glucuronoxylans, and especially hemicelluloses prepared at higher temperature (180°C) contained higher contents of glucomannans and ?-glucan. Hydrothermal pretreatment resulted in a significant hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages in xylan backbone, and thus the molecular weight of the hemicelluloses was significantly reduced from 56,520 to 7780g/mol with the increase of temperature. This suggested that a combination of hydrothermal pretreatment at low temperatures (100-140°C) and alkali post-treatment was an effective technique for isolating of hemicelluloses from Eucalyptus fiber. PMID:24867208

  20. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (?g/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 ?m by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  1. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  2. Selección de funciones de distribución de frecuencias diamétricas, para Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus dunnii en Uruguay / Selecting diametric frequency distribution functions for Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés, Hirigoyen; Cecilia, Rachid.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la precisión de las distribuciones de Weibull, Weibull reversa, S B de Johnson, Gamma y Beta, ajustadas por método de los momentos y máxima verosimilitud, para describir distribuciones diamétricas de Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus dunnii en Uru [...] guay. Se utilizaron datos de un total de 429 parcelas permanentes de P. taeda, 185 parcelas de E. globulus y 271 parcelas de E. dunnii. Para compararla calidad del ajuste de las funciones de densidad de probabilidad (fdp) se utilizaron la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y el índice de error de Reynolds. La función S B de Johnson presentó un mejor ajuste en las parcelas de P. taeda, mientras la función Weibull reversa fue más precisa para las especies de Eucalyptus. El método de los momentos resultó con mayor precisión que el método de máxima verosimilitud. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of Weibull, reverse Weibull, S B Johnson, Gamma and Beta distributions, fitted with the method of moments and maximum likelihood, for describing diameter distributions in stands of Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus globulus, and Eucalyptus dunnii in Uruguay. D [...] ata from 429 permanent plots of P. taeda, 185 plots of E. globulus and 271 plots of E. dunnii were used. To compare the quality of fit for the probability distribution function (pdf), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Reynolds error indices were used. The function S B Johnson presented a better fit on the plots of P. taeda, while the inverted Weibull function was more accurate for Eucalyptus species. The method of moments was more accurate than maximum likelihood.

  3. Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei-Ghomi Javad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 ?g/disk and rifampin (5 ?g/disk were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and nystatin (100 ?g/disk for antifungal studies. The results of MIC study revealed that the essential oil has a stronger activity and broader spectrum than those of methanol extracts. It is interesting to point out that the oils had even greater potential of antimicrobial activities than those of 1,8-cineole as their main component.

  4. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  5. Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus / In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvano Rodrigues, Borges; Aloisio, Xavier; Leandro Silva de, Oliveira; Aline Pontes, Lopes; Wagner Campos, Otoni.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 [...] clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina) e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético). Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three [...] in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS culture media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

  6. Dendroenergetical characterization of Eucalyptus benthamii trees Caracterização dendroenergética de árvores de Eucalyptus benthamii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Alves de Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Eucalyptus benthamii has shown to be the most proeminent specie for regions with frost incidence. The objective of this work was to classify selected Eucalyptus benthamii trees for breeding by importance ordening dendrometric and energetic characteristics, useful for this work 91 disks of DBH were collected, from three plantations at Guarapuava municipality, Parana state, with geographical coordinates 25º 23’ 26’’ S e 51º 27’ 15” E and 1,120 m high. Wood basic density, volume, mass, superior calorific power, energertic density and energetic potential were evaluated. Charcoal yield, condensed and non-condensable gases, fixed carbon, volatiles, ashes, superior calorific power and energetic potential were also evaluated. From the measured characteristics, at the field and laboratory for each individual, multivariable analysis were performed using the main compounds and factorial analysis with the aim of identifying those variables which presented larger contribution for total variance. At E. Benthamii tree selection for energy production, most of the attention should be driven to the variables mass, volume, wood energetic potential and charcoal energetic potential.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.31.65.09

    Eucalyptus benthamii é a espécie que mais tem se destacado para finalidade energética em áreas de ocorrência de geadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi classificar por ordem de importância as características dendroenergéticas de matrizes selecionadas para melhoramento dessa espécie. Foram coletados discos do DAP de 91 árvores de três áreas de plantio no Município de Guarapuava, PR, de coordenadas geográficas 25º 23’ 26’’ S e 51º 27’ 15’’ E, e 1.120 m de altitude. Na madeira avaliaram-se densidade básica, volume, massa, poder calorífico superior, densidade energética e potencial energético, e no carvão avaliaram-se rendimento, gases condensáveis e não condensáveis, carbono fixo, voláteis, cinzas, poder calorífico superior e potencial energético. A partir das características mensuradas, no campo e laboratório para cada indivíduo, efetuou-se a análise multivariada dos componentes principais e de fator com o objetivo de identificar as variáveis que apresentam maior contribuição para a variância total. Com vistas à obtenção de energia, deve-se dar maior importância para as variáveis: massa, volume, potencial energético da madeira e potencial energético do carvão.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.31.65.09

  7. Produção e decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii / Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Robson Schaff, Corrêa; Márcio, Viera; Elias Frank de, Araújo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção continuada de madeira em plantios comerciais exige conhecimento do processo de ciclagem de nutrientes, que envolve, entre outros aspectos, a produção e a decomposição de serapilheira. Assim, neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar a influência das variáveis climáticas na produção de serapilh [...] eira e de seus componentes, além de avaliar a taxa de decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. Para a execução do estudo, foram instaladas 4 parcelas de 20 m x 20 m, em cada uma foram instalados 4 coletores para as frações folhas, galhos finos e miscelânea da serapilheira e 3 subparcelas para a coleta da fração galhos grossos. O tecido vegetal coletado foi utilizado para o cálculo da deposição e da correlação existente entre variáveis climáticas e deposição. As variáveis climáticas utilizadas, com base mensal, foram temperatura média, temperatura máxima média, temperatura mínima média, precipitação pluviométrica, umidade relativa média, velocidade média do vento, evapotranspiração e radiação solar média, ambas fornecidas por uma estação experimental. Já, para a avaliação da decomposição da serapilheira foram coletadas aleatoriamente 4 amostras quadradas de 0,25 m de lado em cada parcela, utilizadas para a determinação do coeficiente de decomposição (K), meia vida (t0,5) e tempo de decomposição de 95% da serapilheira (t0,95). A produção mensal de serapilheira foi fracamente correlacionada com variáveis climáticas e apresentou média anual de 7,4 Mg ha-1, sendo composta predominantemente pela fração folhas (60%). A decomposição de serapilheira foi considerada lenta. Abstract in english The sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposi [...] tion in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K), half life (t0,5 ) and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 ). The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%). The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  8. Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis / Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.R.R, Pereira; D, Martins; A.C.P, Rodrigues; G.S.F, Souza; L.A, Cardoso.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufen [...] acil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v), 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA). Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or wit [...] hout the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA). Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

  9. Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.R Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v, 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA. Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto.Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or without the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v, 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA. Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

  10. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii, E-mail: rich@cs.ucsb.ed [Computer Science Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States) and Eucalyptus Systems Inc., 130 Castilian Dr., Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  11. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  12. In silico survey of resistance (R) genes in Eucalyptus transcriptome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano, Barbosa-da-Silva; Ana C., Wanderley-Nogueira; Raphaela R.M., Silva; Luiz C., Berlarmino; Nina M., Soares-Cavalcanti; Ana M., Benko-Iseppon.

    Full Text Available A major goal of plant genome research is to recognize genes responsible for important traits. Resistance genes are among the most important gene classes for plant breeding purposes being responsible for the specific immune response including pathogen recognition, and activation of plant defence mech [...] anisms. These genes are quite abundant in higher plants, with 210 clusters found in Eucalyptus FOREST database presenting significant homology to known R-genes. All five gene classes of R-genes with their respective conserved domains are present and expressed in Eucalyptus. Most clusters identified (93) belong to the LRR-NBS-TIR (genes with three domains: Leucine-rich-repeat, Nucleotide-binding-site and Toll interleucine 1-receptor), followed by the serine-threonine-kinase class (49 clusters). Some new combinations of domains and motifs of R-genes may be present in Eucalyptus and could represent novel gene structures. Most alignments occurred with dicots (94.3%), with emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) sequences. All best alignments with monocots (5.2%) occurred with rice (Oryza sativa) sequences and a single cluster aligned with the gymnosperm Pinus sylvestris (0.5%). The results are discussed and compared with available data from other crops and may bring useful evidences for the understanding of defense mechanisms in Eucalyptus and other crop species.

  13. Biological Activity of Eucalyptus Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topia?, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Machalová, Zde?ka; Karban, Jind?ich; Pavela, R.

    Marseille : International Society for Advancement of Supercritical Fluids, 2014, s. 60. ISBN 978-2-37111-002-1. [European Meeting on Supercritical Fluids /14./. Marseille (FR), 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SFE * eucalyptus * fractionation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Termorretificação e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / Heat treatment and color of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; Elias de Sá, Farias; Teodorico Alves da, Silveira.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação pode ser utilizada na alteração da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante às madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações colorimétricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 °C, por três, cinco e sete ho [...] ras. Corpos de prova de 2 × 2 × 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliação de claridade (L), matriz vermelho (a*), matriz amarelo (b*), saturação (C) e ângulo de tinta (H). A claridade (L*) reduziu-se a partir de 140 °C; a matriz vermelho (a*), a partir de 140 °C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*), a saturação e o ângulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 °C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alteração da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificação escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliação do uso do material. Abstract in english Heat treatment can be used to change the color of timber, adding value to it. In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in color of Eucalyptus grandis wood subjected to 140, 170, 200, and 230 °C for three, five, and seven hours. Samples of 2 × 2 × 2 cm were dried and heat treated to evaluate light [...] ness (L), a* coordinate (green-red coordinate), b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H). Lightness (L *) decreased as from 140 °C. a* coordinate (green-red coordinate) decreased as from 140 °C for five hours. b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H), saturation, and ink angle reduced as from 170 °C. Temperature was more effective than time to change the color of timber. Heat treatment darkened the wood and can be an alternative to add value to this material.

  15. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  16. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between ?3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  17. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  18. Anti-trypanosomal Potential of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Kabiru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis in both the human and animal forms has been confronted with multidimensional problems that include paucity of drugs, resistance, high cost, prolonged treatment protocol and adverse side effects. The main objective of this study was to explore alternative sources of antitrypanosomal agents from the leaves, stem and root barks of Eucalyptus camaldulensis The plant parts were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water; and the extracts screened for antitrypanosomal activity. Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei were administered intraperitoneally doses ranging from 200-600 mg/kg body weight/day of the extracts for 21 consecutive days. One control group was treated with 3.5mg/kg bodyweight of berenil while the other control group was left untreated. The methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf produced complete cure for the animals in the different dose groups and survived as long as those treated with the standard drug, berenil, although the clearance time was faster for the standard drug. Sub inoculation of healthy mice with the blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF of the cured mice did not result in infection, thus indicating a complete and permanent cure. Acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf confirmed the safety of the extract because no mortality was recorded even at 5000 mg/kg bodyweight. However, the extract had no prophylactic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of E. camaldulensis leaf gave 10 fractions, with only fractions 8 and 9 exhibiting minimal antitrypanosomal activities that were not comparable to those of the crude extract and the standard drug (p?0.05. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenes, steroids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and fatty acids in both the crude extract and fraction 9; while fraction 8 contained only terpenes, steroids and fatty acids. Data from GC-MS analysis of the two fractions indicated likely components to be methyl esters, amides, long chain alkenes and alcohols. The result of this study shows that the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf has immense potential for the development of drugs against African trypanosomiasis.

  19. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Callisto, M.; F. A. R. Barbosa; Moreno, P.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

  20. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Emilie; Klopp Christophe; Noirot Céline; Novaes Evandro; Kirst Matias; Plomion Christophe; Gion Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during t...

  1. The green-leaved variant of Eucalyptus largiflorens: a story involving hybridization and observant local people

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Robert F.; Zubrinich, Tatia M.

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus largiflorens (Black Box) is the most common tree in the Chowilla anabranch system on the Murray River floodplain. It typically has dull, glaucous, grey-green leaves. Occasional trees with smaller, glossy green leaves (Green Box) occur scattered amongst the Black Box. In areas with increasing salinity, they usually appear much healthier than adjacent, normal Black Box trees. Green Box plants are intermediate between normal Eucalyptus largiflorens plants and Eucalyptus gracilis plant...

  2. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method / Transformação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evânia Galvão, Mendonça; Vanessa Cristina, Stein; Flávia Pereira, Balieiro; Carolina Delfin Fernandes, Lima; Breno Régis, Santos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenário silvicultural mundial devido à sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rápido e produção de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gênero é dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformação genética impor [...] tante ferramenta para esse propósito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagação in vitro para indução, regeneração e seleção que permita a obtenção de plantas transgênicas a partir de grupos de células transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formação de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformação genética de folhas e calos através da infecção por A. tumefaciens. Para a formação de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentração de nitrogênio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e água de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformação genética de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas à técnica de agrobiobalística, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartículas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferência do gene, enquanto para a transformação genética dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influência de diferentes períodos de infecção. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformação genética de folhas através da técnica de agrobiobalística foi efetiva, sendo possível observar a expressão transiente do gene gus, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os períodos de infecção (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens também apresentaram expressão transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regeneração e seleção e apresentaram formação de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for th [...] is purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  3. Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2 apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66. Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3.Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated from coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2 presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66. Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

  4. Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entre 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento.

  5. Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis / Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jussara Bertho, Fantinatti; Roberto, Usberti.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entr [...] e 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 a [...] nd 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.

  6. Colorimetria de madeiras dos gêneros Eucalyptus e Corymbia e sua correlação com a densidade / Colorimetry of woods from Eucalyptus and Corymbia genus and its correlation with density

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Nathalia Silveira de, Oliveira; Alexandre Miguel do, Nascimento; Natália Dias de, Souza.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se, este estudo, com os objetivos de caracterizar a cor da madeira de Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson, Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, Eucalyptus paniculata Sm. e Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden; e determinar sua correlação com a densidade da madeira, visando a avaliar [...] o potencial da colorimetria como uma ferramenta para a identificação e qualificação da madeira. As análises colorimétricas foram realizadas segundo o sistema CIE L*a*b* com o auxílio do espectrofotômetro portátil CM 2600d da Konica Minolta. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas entre as densidades das espécies estudadas, sendo a madeira de Eucalyptus paniculata a mais densa e a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis a menos densa. As análises de correlação entre acor e a densidade monstraram que as madeiras mais densas, para as espécies do gênero Eucalyptus estudadas, são mais escuras (menor L*) e apresentam mais pigmento vermelho (a*) e amarelo (b*). Entretanto, o comportamento foi diferente para o Corymbia citriodora, cuja madeira apresentou alta densidade, cor clara e pouco pigmento vermelho, indicando que a combinação das variáveis colorimétricas e da densidade apresenta potencial para segregar a espécie Corymbia citriodora das demais espécies de Eucalyptus estudadas. As madeiras mais densas de Eucalyptus pellita são mais escuras na seção radial, enquanto que as madeiras de Eucalyptus paniculata apresentaram mais pigmento amarelo na seção tangencial. Cada espécie apresentou uma coloração específica, dada pelas variáveis colorimétricas, mostrando o potencial da colorimetria na identificação de madeiras Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to characterize the wood color of Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson, Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, Eucalyptus paniculata Sm. and Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden; and to determine its correlationship with wood density in order to evaluate the po [...] tential of colorimetry as a tool for identification and qualification of wood. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using the CM 2600d spectrophotometer from Konica Minolta. Theresults indicated significant differences between wood densities of all species. Eucalyptus paniculata wood presented the highest density while Eucalyptus grandis wood presented the lowest density. Correlation analysis between color and density showed that the denser woods, considering the species from the Eucalyptus genus studied, are darker (lower L*) and present redder (a*) and more yellow (b*) hues. However, the behavior was different for Corymbia citriodora, whose wood had high density, light color and little red hue, indicating that color variables and density combination has potential to segregate the Corymbia citriodora species from other Eucalyptus species studied. The denser woods of Eucalyptus pellita are darker in the radial section, while woods of Eucalyptus paniculata presented more yellow hue (b*) in the tangential section. Each species presented a specific color, given by colorimetric variables, showing the potential of colorimetry for wood identification.

  7. The post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway in Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio Tetsuo, Sassaki; Tiago, Campos-Pereira; Ivan de Godoy, Maia.

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a conserved surveillance mechanism that identifies and cleaves double-stranded RNA molecules and their cellular cognate transcripts. The RNA silencing response is actually used as a powerful technique (named RNA interference) for potent and specific inhi [...] bition of gene expression in several organisms. To identify gene products in Eucalyptus sharing similarities with enzymes involved in the PTGS pathway, we queried the expressed sequence tag database of the Brazilian Eucalyptus Genome Sequence Project Consortium (FORESTs) with the amino acid sequences of known PTGS-related proteins. Among twenty-six prospected genes, our search detected fifteen assembled sequences encoding products presenting high level of similarity (E value

  8. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Harakava.

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported i [...] n other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

  9. PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD HYBRIDS AND CHARCOAL AT THREE AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vássia Carvalho Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present studied was investigated hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in three different ages. Wood and charcoal characteristics as well as the influence of wood characteristics on the charcoals produced were evaluated. Chemical analyzes (extractives, lignin, ash, elemental analysis, basic density and calorific value - PCS were performed for wood. The charcoals were produced in a muffle type furnace with a heating rate of 1.67 °C.min-1 and an end temperature of 450 °C. Volatile material content, ash content, fixed carbon content, elemental analysis and gravimetric yield of the pyrolysis process were performed for the charcoals. An increase in density values , extractives content, carbon content and C/H rate were observed with the maturity of the tree. Other features such as ash content and S/G ratio decreased with the age of the tree. Greater gravimetric yield in charcoal and non-condensable gases were found in more mature materials.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Private Clouds Eucalyptus versus CloudStack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz M.Ali AL-Mukhtar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available the number of open source cloud management platforms is increasing day-by-day. The features of these software vary significantly and this creates a difficulty for the cloud consumers to choose the software based on their business and scientific requirements. This paper evaluates Eucalyptus and CloudStack, the two most popular open source platforms used to build private Infrastructure as a service (IaaS clouds. The performance of virtual machines (VMs initiated and managed by Eucalyptus and CloudStack are evaluated in terms of CPU utilization, memory bandwidth, disk I/O access speed, and network performance using suitable benchmarks. Different VM management operations such as add, delete and live migration are also assessed to determine which cloud solution is more suitable than other to be adopted as a private cloud solution. As a further performance testing, a simple web application has been implemented on the both clouds to evaluate their suitability in web application hosting.

  11. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Harakava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

  12. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fe...

  13. Stress hídrico e recuperação em Eucalyptus: perfis fisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Barbara dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Em Portugal, cerca de 700,000 ha foram já plantados com clones de Eucalyptus globulus, selecionados pelas suas elevadas taxas de crescimento, alta produção de polpa e adaptabilidade ambiental. Contudo, a produtividade das plantações de E. globulus tem enfrentado sérias limitações, principalmente devido à fraca disponibilidade de água. A seca é um importante stress abiótico que afeta negativamente o crescimento e o desenvolvimento das plantas, causando um conjunto de respostas fisiológicas, bi...

  14. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes.

  15. Dinâmica de decomposição e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus no sul do Brasil / Litter decomposition and nutrients in Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus Hybrid Stand in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Marcos Vinicius Winckler, Caldeira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada, sua decomposição e a taxa de disponibilização de nutrientes em um plantio híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram demarcadas quatro parcelas (20 m Ã- 20 m) e, em cada uma delas, [...] foram coletadas estacionalmente (entre março de 2007 e dezembro de 2010) quatro amostras de forma aleatória. A quantidade de serapilheira estocada sobre o solo foi, em média, de 14,0 Mg ha-1.O coeficiente de decomposição foi de 0,54, com tempo médio para a renovação (1/K) de 1,86 anos e tempo médio para decomposição de 50 e 95% da serapilheira em 1,29 e 5,59 anos, respectivamente. O potássio apresentou o maior coeficiente de devolução (0,52), seguido por B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu; consequentemente, o potássio apresentou menor tempo médio de residência na serapilheira (0,91 anos). Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to determine the litter accumulation stock, its decomposition and nutrient release in an Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state. Four plots were demarcated (20 m Ã- 20 m) and four samples w [...] ere seasonally sampled (from March 2007 to December 2010) at random. Average litter accumulation on soil was 14.0 Mg ha-1. Litter accumulated showed 0.54 decomposition coefficient with average renewal time (1/K) of 1.86 years and average time to litter decomposition of 50, and 95% of litter in 1.29 and 5.59 years, respectively. Potassium presented the highest turnover (0.52), followed by B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu and consequently the lowest average residence time in the litter (0.91 years).

  16. Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus globulus por embriogénese somática

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Glória Catarina Cintra da Costa

    2007-01-01

    A embriogénese somática (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padrão de micropropagação, desde a indução à aclimatização. A propagação clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefícios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um método efectivo de conseguir ganhos genéticos num curto espaç...

  17. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ??of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  18. Individual tree growth models for eucalyptus in northern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter and height growth model is one of three submodels used for simulating individual tree growth. In Brazil, there are few studies on the dimensional growth of individual trees be they native or exotic species, despite their potential. This study aimed to evaluate diameter and height growth [...] models for individual trees for eucalyptus stands and to validate the best fitting model. Tree diameter and height data were obtained from 48 permanent plots of unthinned stands of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid located in northern Brazil. The evaluation of the diameter and height growth models was based on adjusted coefficient of determination, standard error of estimate as a percentage, trend, root mean square error and Akaike Information Criterion. Analysis also included distribution of residual percentage, statistical significance and signs of the coefficients. The Lundqvist-Korf model provided the most accurate estimates for diameter and height growth, in comparison with the other models, providing better statistical values, greater proximity to observed values and better distribution of residual percentages. The use of this type of model is feasible and can result in significant improvements in the accuracy of yield estimates.

  19. Deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. wood by xylophagous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to test the deteriorating ability of fungi isolated from Eucalyptus spp. wood and perform chemical analysis of wood deteriorated, to verify which components of wood suffered major changes in the light of the attack. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratório de Biodeterioração da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil. A total of 12 fungi were used, and nine of these came from pure cultures isolated from fragments of stumps of eucalypt woods deteriorated, collected in three distinct locations, and three with recognized capacity of deterioration that were used as the standard of comparison. The Basidiomycetous fungi 1 and 2 showed high capacity of deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. The heartwood of eucalypt showed a greater natural resistance than the sapwood, but the fungi were able to degrade both them. In general, there were, an increase in the content of extractives in wood damaged (heartwood and sapwood, for Basidiomycetous 1 and Basidiomycetous 2. The heartwood of Eucalyptus grandis there was a decrease in extractives content for both Basidiomycetes. To the holocelulose (cellulose and hemicelluloses, there were small differences between the healthy and damaged wood (mean variations around 1 %. The Fungi, Basidiomycetous 2 caused a greater degradation of lignin as compared to the Basidiomycetous 1.

  20. Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Araújo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

  1. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Yasodha; R. Sumathi; P. Chezhian; S. Kavitha; M. Ghosh

    2008-04-01

    Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. Recently, many genomic programmes are underway leading to the accumulation of voluminous genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences in public databases. These sequences can be utilized for analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) available in the transcribed genes. In this study, in silico analysis of 15,285 sequences representing partial and full-length mRNA from Eucalyptus species for their use in developing SSRs or microsatellites were carried out. A total of 875 EST-SSRs were identified from 772 SSR containing ESTs. Motif size of 6 for dinucleotide and 5 for trinucleotide, tetranucleotide, and pentanucleotides were considered in locating the microsatellites. The average frequency of identified SSRs was 12.9%. The dinucleotide repeats were the most abundant among the dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide motifs and accounted for 50.9% of the Eucalyptus genome. Primer designing analysis showed that 571 sequences with SSRs had sufficient flanking regions for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer synthesis. Evaluation of the usefulness of the SSRs showed that EST-derived SSRs can generate polymorphic markers as all the primers showed allelic diversity among the 16 provenances of E. tereticornis.

  2. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

  3. Characterization of abiotic stress genes from different species of eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)

  4. SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rozas; Reinaldo Sánchez; Paula Pinedo

    2005-01-01

    Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con te...

  5. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.

  6. Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis / Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a [...] ientes do Horto Florestal de Mandurí, SP, pertencente ao Instituto Florestal de São Paulo. Em cada uma das toras foi inserido um termopar próximo ao seu centro. Posteriormente, as toras foram vaporizadas a 90 ºC e 100% de umidade relativa, durante 20 horas. Um coletor de dados registrou as temperaturas, no interior do material, durante o tratamento térmico. Conclui-se que o modelo de Steinhagen et al. (1980) não pode ser diretamente aplicado à espécie em estudo, e propõem-se fatores de correções para a utilização do modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, desenvolvido por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to [...] e `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980) model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

  7. Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrício Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Robert Cardoso, Sartório.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptu [...] s grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2) apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66). Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3. Abstract in english Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated fro [...] m coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2) presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66). Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

  8. LEVANTAMENTO DE SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA EM PLANTAÇÕES DE Eucalyptus spp. EM CUIABÁ, ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Nunes Marques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento populacional de espécies da família Scolytidae em plantios de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Dehnh. Dehnh., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com auxílio de armadilhas etanólicas, modelo escolitídeo-Curitiba, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso, de março de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas, sendo seis por talhão/espécie de Eucalyptus. As coletas foram quinzenais e divididas em dois períodos: seco (maio-outubro e chuva (novembro-abril. Foram coletados um total de 19.153 indivíduos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 42 espécies. Nos períodos seco e chuvoso foram coletados 9.865 e 9.288 indivíduos respectivamente. Nos talhões de Eucalyptus pellita e de Eucalyptus urophylla, foram coletados as maiores quantidades de indivíduos em ambos os períodos analisados. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912; Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801 e Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934 foram, quantitativamente, as espécies mais importantes nos plantios das quatro espécies de Eucalyptus.

  9. Ceratocystis species, including two new taxa, from Eucalyptus trees in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nkuekam, Gilbert Kamgan; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

    2013-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Ceratocystis (Microascales, Ceratocystidaceae) includes important fungal pathogens of trees, including Eucalyptus species. Ceratocystis species and their Thielaviopsis asexual states are typically associated with insects, such as nitidulid beetles, that spread them over long distances. Eucalyptus trees comprise a substantial component of the forestry industry in South Africa, however, limited information is available regarding Ceratocystis species that infect ...

  10. Primeros estudios sobre asociaciones tróficas de interés para la sanidad forestal en Eucalyptus spp. / Preliminary studies on trophic associations of interest for forest health in Eucalyptus spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana M., Cuello; Andrea V., Andorno; Carmen M., Hernández; Vicente, Dell' Arciprete; Eduardo N., Botto.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo muestreos sobre las principales plagas de eucaliptos y sus enemigos naturales en dos sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se cuantificó la abundancia de las plagas sobre diversas especies de eucaliptos y se registraron los insectos entomófagos asociados, con el fin de identific [...] ar las interacciones que podrían ser utilizadas en estrategias de control biológico de las plagas estudiadas. Se presenta una red trófica cualitativa Eucalyptus - plaga - enemigo natural. Abstract in english Main eucalyptus pests and their entomophagous natural enemies were surveyed in two localities of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Pest abundance was quantified on different Eucalyptus species and the entomophagous insects associated were registered in order to identify interactions which can be use [...] d in biological control strategies. A preliminary qualitative trophic web Eucalyptus - pest - natural enemy is presented.

  11. Compatibility and ectomycorrhiza formation among Pisolithus Isolates and Eucalyptus spp Compatibilidade e formação de Ectomicorrizas entre Isolados de Pisolithus e Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Olinto Liparini Pereira; Maurício Dutra Costa; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Elza Fernandes Araújo; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-nine isolates of the ectomycorrhiza fungus Pisolithus sp. from different geographical and host origins were tested for their ability to form ectomycorrhizae on Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The ectomycorrhiza-forming capacity of isolates varied greatly from one eucalypt species to the other. All isolates from Eucalyptus, nine from Pinus spp. and two isolates from unknown hosts formed mycorrhizae with E. grandis and E. urophylla. Root coloniz...

  12. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    OpenAIRE

    C.M.M. Silva; FERREIRA, L. R.; Ferreira, F.A.; G.V. Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid), GE 463 (E. ur...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITY, CONTENT AND NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY IN GENOTYPES OF Eucalyptus spp. IN JEQUITINHONHA VALLEY, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Erli de Faria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization of eucalyptus species can provide more productive hybrids and with a high efficiency of nutrient absorption and, or, nutrient use, depending on the combined species. In this context, the present work was undertaken in the Jequitinhonha Valley region, Minas Gerais, and its objectives were: to determine the productivity, content and use efficiency of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in interspecific hybrids of Eucalyptus spp. In each plot, the diameters were measured at breast height (DBH in all the trees, and three trees with diameter similar to the average mean were felled. The volume of the trees was estimated by the Smallian method, using the height, diameter and the bark thickness at the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The fresh weight of the wood, bark, leaves and branches was determined in the field, and samples from them were collected for the determination of dry matter. The log samples consisted of collected disks with bark, from the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The samples of vegetable tissues were analyzed for: N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The results obtained did not show significant differences for the production of crown biomass between the eucalyptus hybrids of the same age. However, the production of log biomass presented significant differences and the naturally pollinated hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla were 50.0 % and 69.0 % more productive compared with the hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Also, these hybrids allocated larger amount of biomass in the log (92.3 % in relation to the crown (7.7 %, and they were more efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The conclusions were that: 1 same aged hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural or controlled pollinations did not differ in their crown biomass; 2 log biomass was reduced in the hybrids from controlled pollination between Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis; 3 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural pollination were more productive and more efficient in the absorption and efficiency of use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and 4 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis are less productive and less efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg.

  14. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  15. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gez.garcia@gmail.com [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

  16. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ? The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ? Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. ? Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. ? Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

  17. Influência do sistema de corte basal de miniestacas na propagação clonal de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii / Influence of basal cutting system of minicutings in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii hybrid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alan Ferreira, Batista; Glêison Augusto dos, Santos; Luciana Duque, Silva; Franco Freitas, Quevedo; Teotônio Francisco de, Assis.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de miniestaquia permitiu o estabelecimento de florestas clonais em larga escala. Porém, pouco se avançou no seu manejo em viveiro para genótipos recalcitrantes. Assim, esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sistema de cortes na base de miniestacas na produção de mudas de um [...] clone híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii. Desta forma, foram realizadas três avaliações: 1) sobrevivência aos 30 dias em casa de vegetação; 2) enraizamento aos 45 dias em casa de sombra; e 3) aproveitamento final aos 60 dias na área de rustificação. O índice de enraizamento foi determinado com base no percentual de sobrevivência. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados constituído de três tratamentos: 1) miniestacas com corte na base perpendicular (testemunha); 2) miniestacas com corte na base em bisel (corte diagonal) e 3) miniestacas cortadas perpendicularmente, com três incisões longitudinais na base. Foram avaliadas quatro blocos de 228 plantas por bloco. Os resultados de enraizamento foram superiores a 80% nos melhores tratamentos e indicam que a propagação do clone via miniestaquia é viável, não apresentando comportamento recalcitrante. Os sistemas de corte basal das miniestaca em bisel e as incisões não favoreceram a formação de raízes. Abstract in english Mini-cutting technique has allowed establishing large scale clonal forests. However small progress has been observed in nursery management practices for recalcitrant genotypes. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of different base cut systems in mini-cuttings for seedlings production of [...] a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii. Three evaluations were performed: 1) survival in the greenhouse at the 30th day; 2) number of rooted seedlings in the shade house at the 45th day; and 3) viable seedlings in the hardening area at the 60th day. Rooting evaluation was based on survival rate. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replications and three treatments: 1) perpendicular cut at the base of mini-cuttings (control); 2) bevel cut at the base of mini-cuttings (diagonal cut); 3) perpendicular cut at the base of mini-cuttings with three longitudinal incisions in the base. Four blocks were assessed, each block was composed by 228 plants. The results of rooting were over 80% in the best treatments, indicating that the clone propagation is feasible using mini-cutting technique, and it does not show a recalcitrant behavior. The basal cut system in bevel and in longitudinal incisions did not favor rooting.

  18. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

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    Couloux Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

  19. Occurrence of proscopiidae in Eucalyptus spp.: analysis of the infestations and spatial distribution

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    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to report the occurrence of proscopiidae and to quantify its infestation and spatial distribution in one experimental plantation of eucalypt clones. The study was conducted in an experimental field with eucalypt hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (clones GG100, Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (H13 and of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (VM01. The plantation was established in three continuous blocks with 512 plants with 3 m x 2 m, in Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Infestation of proscopiidae insects was detected two months after planting . The insects were collected for identification. The attacked trees were geo-referenced and the injuries were quantified. The spatial pattern of proscopiidae he attack was determinated using the location information of the damaged plants, which have been submitted to a quadrats analyses using Morisita and binomial dispersion indexes. All the collected insects have been identified as Tetanorhynchus smithi Rehn, 1904 (Orthoptera, Proscopiidae. The infestation differed significantly among the three eucalypts clones and aggregated spatial pattern of attack was observed. This is the first report of this species of proscopiidae in eucalyptus in Mato Grosso State.

  20. Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances

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    Fábio Akira Mori

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed better. In themechanical tests, MOE presented itself above the demands of the norm with the exception of provenance 7785 of Eucalyptus saligna,in which stress was performed parallel to the cover fibers. For parallel MOR, only the provenances 9789 and 10695 of Eucalyptusgrandis and 97852 of Eucalyptus cloeziana managed to reach the demands of the norm ABNT 31:000.05-001/2. For shearing stressand failure in wood, all the provenances and species showed themselves above the demands, with the exception of 10634; 48 and 9753of Eucalyptus grandis.

  1. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels / Avaliação do potencial de uso de nove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus para produção de lâminas e compensados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski; Leandro Soares da, Silva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espécies de Eucalyptus na produção de lâminas e painéis compensados multilaminados. As lâminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em t [...] rês classes de qualidade para as nove espécies estudadas. Os painéis compensados foram produzidos em laboratório, com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído, com gramatura de 360 g/m² (linha dupla). Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 140ºC e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminação indicaram que, com exceção de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espécies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento médio em laminação acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexão estática paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parâmetros estudados neste trabalho para produção de lâminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield a [...] ccording to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m² (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm², a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  2. Produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis em substratos orgânicos alternativos / Seedling production of Eucalyptus grandis on alternative organic substrates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da, Silva; Mateus Tonini, Eitelwein; Maurício Roberto, Cherubin; Cristiano, Fabbris; Sidinei, Weirich; Renes Rossi, Pinheiro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos referentes ao descarte de resíduos orgânicos urbanos e agroindustriais tornaram-se imprescindíveis pela possibilidade de seu uso na produção de mudas florestais e pelo impacto ambiental que seria provocado pelo descarte inadequado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de [...] Eucalyptus grandis submetidas a diferentes tipos e combinações de substratos orgânicos urbano e agroindustriais. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos constituídos por diferentes substratos e proporções de combinação dos mesmos (100% Composto Orgânico de Lixo Urbano (COLU); 100% Composto Orgânico de Resíduo Agroindustrial (CORA); 100% Substrato Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Comercial; 25% CORA + 75% Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Solo; 50% COLU + 50% Comercial; 50% CORA + 50% Comercial; 50% Comercial + 50% Solo e 100% Solo) e 12 repetições. Avaliaram-se altura da planta, diâmetro do colo, número de folhas, comprimento entre nós, massa fresca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca total, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento do sistema radicular, volume do sistema radicular, raio médio das raízes, área superficial específica do sistema radicular e estabilidade de torrão. Os substratos contendo composto orgânico de lixo urbano apresentam grande potencialidade de uso como substratos alternativos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de substrato comercial ao composto orgânico de lixo urbano possibilita crescimento do sistema radicular e parte aérea das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de 50% de substrato comercial e 50% composto orgânico de resíduo agroindustrial proporciona maior crescimento de diâmetro de caule em relação aos tratamentos contendo solo ou em relação ao composto orgânico de resíduos agroindustriais. Abstract in english Studies regarding the disposal of urban and agro-industries waste have become essential for the possibility of their use in forest seedling production and the environmental impact that would be caused by improper disposal. The study was developed to evaluate the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedling [...] s submitted to different types and combinations of urban and agro-industrial organic substrates. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 10 treatments consisting of different substrates and proportions combinations of them (100% organic compost urban waste (COLU), 100% organic compost of the agro-industrial residue (CORA); 100% commercial substrate; 25% (COLU)+ 75% Commercial; 25% CORA +75% Commercial; 25% COLU + 75% soil; 50% COLU +50% Commercial; 50% CORA +50% Commercial; 50% Commercial + 50% soiland 100% Soil) and 12 repetitions. It was evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, length between node, fresh weight of shoot and root dry mass of shoots and roots, total dry weight, main root length, root system length, root volume, average root radius, specific surface area of the root system and stability of clod.The substrates containing organic compost urban show great potential for use as alternative substrates for the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of commercial substrate to organic compost allows the urban growth of root and the shoot of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of 50% commercial substrate and 50% organic compound of agro-industrial waste provide more stem diameter growth compared to treatments containing soil or over the organic compound of agro-industrial waste.

  3. Deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. por fungos xilófagos / Deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. wood by xylophagous fungi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Ferreira da, Silva; Juarez Benigno, Paes; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Edson Luiz, Furtado; Fábio Ramos, Alves.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade de deterioração de fungos isolados de madeiras de Eucalyptus spp. e realizar a análise química da madeira deteriorada, para verificar quais dos seus componentes sofreram maiores alterações em consequência do ataque. O experimento foi [...] conduzido no Laboratório de Biodeterioração da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, no município de Jerônimo Monteiro, ES. Doze fungos foram utilizados, destes, nove foram provenientes de culturas puras isoladas a partir de fragmentos de cepas de madeiras de eucalipto deterioradas, coletadas em três localidades distintas, e três culturas puras com reconhecida capacidade de deterioração que foram utilizadas como padrão de comparação. Dos fungos testados, os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2 exibiram boa capacidade de deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. O cerne de eucalipto teve maior resistência natural que o alburno, mas os fungos foram capazes de degradar ambas as madeiras. De modo geral, houve um incremento no teor de extrativos totais na madeira deteriorada (cerne e alburno), para os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2. Nas madeiras de cerne de Eucalyptus grandis houve decréscimo no teor de extrativos para ambos Basidiomicetos. Com relação à holocelulose (celulose + hemiceluloses), ocorreram pequenas diferenças entre as madeiras sadias e deterioradas (variações médias em torno de 1%). Dos fungos testados, o Basidiomiceto 2 causou maior degradação da lignina quando comparado ao Basidiomiceto 1. Abstract in english This research aimed to test the deteriorating ability of fungi isolated from Eucalyptus spp. wood and perform chemical analysis of wood deteriorated, to verify which components of wood suffered major changes in the light of the attack. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratório de Biodeterioraç [...] ão da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil. A total of 12 fungi were used, and nine of these came from pure cultures isolated from fragments of stumps of eucalypt woods deteriorated, collected in three distinct locations, and three with recognized capacity of deterioration that were used as the standard of comparison. The Basidiomycetous fungi 1 and 2 showed high capacity of deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. The heartwood of eucalypt showed a greater natural resistance than the sapwood, but the fungi were able to degrade both them. In general, there were, an increase in the content of extractives in wood damaged (heartwood and sapwood), for Basidiomycetous 1 and Basidiomycetous 2. The heartwood of Eucalyptus grandis there was a decrease in extractives content for both Basidiomycetes. To the holocelulose (cellulose and hemicelluloses), there were small differences between the healthy and damaged wood (mean variations around 1 %). The Fungi, Basidiomycetous 2 caused a greater degradation of lignin as compared to the Basidiomycetous 1.

  4. Alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / In vitro elongation of minicutings of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira; Aline Ritter, Curti; Aline Ferreira, Paim.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brotações com pequeno alongamento poderão apresentar reduzida formação de raízes se forem diretamente cultivadas em meios de enraizamento ou, ainda, resultar em mudas de baixa qualidade para aclimatização. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dun [...] nii sob diferentes concentrações de Ácido Giberélico (GA3). Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio nutritivo MS reduzido à metade da concentração de sais (¹/2 MS) suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de Ácido alfa-Naftaleno Acético (ANA), 0,1 mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP), e variando-se o GA3, conforme tratamentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo bifatorial 6 x 4, resultante da combinação de seis genótipos e quatro concentrações de GA3 (0,0; 0,2; 0,4 e 0,8 mg L-1). Após 30 dias de cultivo in vitro, foram efetuadas as avaliações. Para a maioria dos genótipos, a ausência de GA3 resultou no maior número de brotações alongadas por explante e maior comprimento de gemas alongadas. Em geral, os genótipos que apresentaram maior número de brotações também tiveram brotações maiores. Com o emprego da maior concentração testada de GA3, observou-se mais de 50% de calogênese em um dos genótipos e intensidade diferenciada nos demais. GA3 não apresenta efeito no alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii e, inclusive, em sua presença os genótipos reduzem o número de brotações alongadas e o comprimento das brotações, aumentando a formação de calos. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii avaliados apresentam desempenho in vitro diferenciado em relação ao alongamento, o qual é passível de seleção. Abstract in english Shoots that have short lengths may present low percentage of survival if they are directly grown on rooting media, or give rise to low quality seedlings for the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii minicuttings under differen [...] t concentrations of giberellic acid. Minicuttings were prepared and inoculated under aseptic conditions on MS nutritive medium with half of the salt concentration (¹/2 MS). We used fixed concentrations of NAA (0.5 mg L-1) and BAP (0.1 mg L-1) varying GA3 according to the treatment. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design, using a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, where the levels of factor "A" refer to different genotypes and the levels of factor B, the concentrations of GA3 (0.0; 0.2; 0.4, and 0.8 mg L-1), each replicate was composed of a flask containing three explants. Thirty days after in vitro culture, evaluations were performed. For most genotypes, the absence of GA3 produced the highest number of elongated shoots for explant and a longer length of elongated shoots. In general, genotypes with the highest number of shoots also had larger shoots. The non-addition of GA3 to the nutritive medium did not promote calli formation, reaching over 50% in the use of higher concentration of GA3 tested (0.80 mg L-1). The calli formation was different in different genotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has no effect on in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii. In the presence of GA3 genotypes reduce the number of elongated shoots and shoot length, increasing the formation of calli. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii evaluated present differently in relation to in vitro elongation, which is able to be selected.

  5. Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita

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    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

  6. Seleção de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de compensados / Selection of clones of Eucalyptus urophylla for plywood production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Bárbara Maria Ribeiro, Guimarães; Stefânia Lima, Oliveira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a avaliação de 6 clones oriundos da Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) para a confecção de painéis compensados multilaminados. Foram produzidos 6 painéis para cada clone estudado. Utilizou-se adesivo fenol-formaldeído com gramatura de 320g/m². O c [...] iclo de prensagem seguiu os seguintes parâmetros: pressão de 1,47MPa, temperatura de 150ºC e tempo de 10 minutos. A partir dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla se apresentam com grande potencial para a produção de painéis compensados multilaminados, uma vez que apresentaram valores de suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima dos referenciados em literatura e, significativamente, superiores aos exigidos pelas normas ABNT 31:000.05-00/2 (flexão estática) e EN 314-2 (resistência ao cisalhamento), sendo considerados para uso como forma de concreto (FOR). O clone que se destacou em todas as propriedades físico-mecânicas, com melhores resultados, foi o 36. Abstract in english This work aimed at the evaluation of six (6) Eucalyptus urophylla clones of Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) for making particleboard panels. Six (6) panels to each clone studies were produced. About 320g/m² of Phenol phormol aldehyde adhesives Were utilized. The pressing c [...] ycle parameters were: pressure of 1.47MPa, temperature of 150ºC and 10 minutes of pressing time. It was concluded that clones of Eucalyptus urophylla show a great potential for production of particleboard panels, since they presented values of physical and mechanical properties above the ones referenced in literature and highly superior to those required by the ABNT Standards 31:000.05-00/2 (static bending) and EN 314-2 (shearing resistance), the tested clones can be used for producing concrete mold (FOR). The clone which stood out the most in all the properties tested was the clone 36.

  7. Evaluation of Eucalyptus sawmill log to obtain structural parts

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    Thiago Campos Monteiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The control over the products of the sawing of logs is important for the management of the sawmill and also to reduce environmental impacts. The yield and the time study are parameters for the assessment of unfolding in a sawmill. This study aimed to evaluate the yield and the time study of the sawing of Eucalyptus logs during the production of structural parts. This work used ten logs of Eucalyptus grandis from a plantation with 15 years of age, taken from an area of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. In the experimental sawmill of UFLA the logs were sawn using a band saw and the planks were resawn in a circular saw. The structural parts followed the dimensions laid down in the NBR 7190 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 1997. The parts produced were measured and calculated yield. The times of all stages of the process were obtained using a stopwatch and then analyzed the time actually sawing and the processing time of logs and planks. The average of yield for the production of main parts was 20.9% and secondary part was 22.9%. Average yield of sawing was satisfactory if compared with the values ??obtained in other studies. The circular saw compared to band saw showed higher percentage of effective time sawing of wood. The effective time of sawing was less than half the total processing time of the logs.

  8. Favorable conditions for Xanthomonas axonopodis infection in Eucalyptus spp.

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    Daniela A., Neves; Lúcio M. S., Guimarães; Hélvio G. M., Ferraz; Acelino C., Alfenas.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Xanthomonas axonopodis is one of the main foliar pathogens for Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil. It induces leaf blight and defoliation of seedlings in the nursery and young plants in the field. However, little is known about thefavorable conditions for infection. The establishment and developme [...] nt of bacterial leaf blight caused by X. axonopodis in eucalyptus was studied for different leaf ages, temperatures and leaf wetness durations. Disease severity increased with leaf age, and the highest severity was observed on the fourth pair of completely expanded leaves (from the apex to the base). A higher level of bacterial colonization was also observed on the fourth pair of leaves quantified as bacterial cells/cm2 of leaf area. Twelve hours of free water on the leaf surface, prior to inoculation, was essential to promote a severe infection. However, with the increase in the leaf wetness duration, a decrease in disease severity was observed. The optimal temperature for disease development was 26-30ºC.

  9. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

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    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  10. Effect of Albino ophiostoma strains on Eucalyptus nitens extractives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana, Coloma; Laura, Reyes; José, Navarrete; Julio, Alarcón; Lilian, Delgado; Renato, Vera; Priscilla, Ubilla; Karen, Vásquez; José, Becerra.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood extractives promote pitch formation during pulp and paper manufacturing. To date, this problem has been controlled by extended storage of the chips and/or chemical additives. Biotreatment of the wood prior to pulping provides an alternative that not only decreases the negative impact of the ext [...] ractives but may also improve the kraft pulping efficiency. This initiative seeks to verify the quantity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus nitens wood extractives following biotreatment with three albino fungi species (Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum). Eucalyptus nitens wood chips were sprayed with spore suspensions of Ophiostoma piliferum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma floccosum albino strains (1 × 10(8) spore concentration). After 7 and 21 days of fungal treatment, the extractive content was determined via Soxhlet extraction with an 80:20% n-hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture. The Ophiostoma floccosum F1A94, Ophiostoma piliferum F2D8 and Ophiostoma piceae F2A68 strains proved to be most capable of bioreduction with reductions of 35,1%, 33,2% and 29,3%, respectively. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which demonstrated that most of the tested strains could reduce the ?- sitosterol content.

  11. Effect of Albino ophiostoma strains on Eucalyptus nitens extractives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana, Coloma; Laura, Reyes; José, Navarrete; Julio, Alarcón; Lilian, Delgado; Renato, Vera; Priscilla, Ubilla; Karen, Vásquez; José, Becerra.

    Full Text Available Wood extractives promote pitch formation during pulp and paper manufacturing. To date, this problem has been controlled by extended storage of the chips and/or chemical additives. Biotreatment of the wood prior to pulping provides an alternative that not only decreases the negative impact of the ext [...] ractives but may also improve the kraft pulping efficiency. This initiative seeks to verify the quantity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus nitens wood extractives following biotreatment with three albino fungi species (Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum). Eucalyptus nitens wood chips were sprayed with spore suspensions of Ophiostoma piliferum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma floccosum albino strains (1 × 10(8) spore concentration). After 7 and 21 days of fungal treatment, the extractive content was determined via Soxhlet extraction with an 80:20% n-hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture. The Ophiostoma floccosum F1A94, Ophiostoma piliferum F2D8 and Ophiostoma piceae F2A68 strains proved to be most capable of bioreduction with reductions of 35,1%, 33,2% and 29,3%, respectively. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which demonstrated that most of the tested strains could reduce the ?- sitosterol content.

  12. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

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    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  13. WOOD VAPORIZATION EFFECT ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus dunnii

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    Clóvis Roberto Haselein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaporization effects on the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression, crushing strength and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction on logs and sawn wood of two sources of Eucalyptus dunnii. The mechanical attempts were performed under the Copant standards in the  climatized conditions (12%. To do so, about two thirds of the logs, with a diameter between 20-30 cm, were vaporized at 100o C and 100% of relative humidity for 20 hours, while  the  remaining  logs  were  kept  as  control.  From  each  log,  a  central plank radially directed with eight centimeter of thickness was taken, from which small beams of 8 cm x 8 cm were taken. Half of the small beams from the vaporized logs were once again submitted to vaporization under the same previously described conditions for a period of 3 hours, thus obtaining three different levels of comparison (control, vaporized on logs and presteaming wood. The results showed a remarkable reduction on the crushing strength in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction with the vaporization on the two conditions and sources of Eucalyptus dunnii used. On the other hand, the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression did not show any change with the vaporization.

  14. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

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    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  15. Effects of Cadmium on Some Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus occidentalis

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    A. Shariat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals including cadmium produced as a result of urban, industrial and agricultural activities lead to the water pollution. Also, considering the growing need for silviculture in Iran, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive research on fast growing and evergreen species of Eucalyptus and their role in heavy metals' absorption. To achieve this goal, Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were grown in pots containing silica and irrigated with a mixture of nutrient solution and cadmium chloride in 5, 10 and 15 m M for 10 months. Root and leaf samples were harvested and the amount of cadmium in stem, root and leaf organs was measured. Also, some morphological and physiological characteristics were determined including soluble sugar and praline. The analysis indicated that the cadmium concentrations of 15 mM treatment in the root, leaf and stem were 585, 142 and 87 mg/kg D.W., respectively. Proline content increased with the increase of Cadmium concentration while the content of pigments decreased. The result of this research shows that eucalypt has the potential of cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. Therefore, the plant can be used to decrease the environmental pollutions.

  16. Efecto del laboreo sobre la eficacia de herbicidas y el crecimiento de Eucalyptus spp. / Effect of Tillage Intensity on Herbicide Efficacy and Eucalyptus spp. Productivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana, Villalba; Cristian, Montouto; Julio, Cazaban; Pablo, Caraballo; Oscar, Bentancur.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La eliminación de la competencia de malezas en el cultivo de Eucalyptus es fundamental en las etapas iniciales de crecimiento hasta el cierre de copa. En el Uruguay, el control de malezas en el surco de plantación se realiza básicamente con herbicidas premergentes, los cuales se asocian a una prepar [...] ación de suelo muy estricta en relación al afinado para mejorar así la efectividad de los herbicidas, con el consecuente incremento de los costos de producción y de los riesgos de erosión. Se estudió el efecto del tipo de laboreo en la fila (una pasada de excéntrica; dos pasadas de excéntrica, la última con una rastra de dientes; igual al anterior, seguido de acamellonado) sobre la efectividad de los herbicidas premergentes y sobre el crecimiento del clon Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus. Los tratamientos herbicidas fueron oxifluorfen 240 g/ha, oxifluorfen 480 g/ha, isoxaflutole 150 g/ha, sulfentrazona 300 g/ha, sulfentrazona 400 g/ha, diclosulam 42 g/ha + acetoclor 1800 g/ha, acetoclor 1800 g/ha, oxifluorfen 240 g/ha+ acetoclor 1800 g/ha. La mayor intensidad en el laboreo disminuyó la infestación inicial de malezas. La eficiencia de los herbicida premergentes sobre la cobertura total de malezas no interaccionó con el tipo de laboreo. Los tratamientos selectivos de mayor control de malezas fueron isoxaflutole y oxifluorfen + acetoclor. Abstract in english Weed interference in Eucalyptus must be eliminated early before treetop closure. In Uruguay, weed control in the planting rows is done with preemergent herbicides. This practice, that is performed in conjunction with rigorous soil preparation to ensure herbicide effectiveness, entails high productio [...] n costs and erosion risks. We studied the effect of the type of within-row tillage (1) one pass of a heavy offset disk harrow, 2) two offset disk passes including a tooth harrow in the second pass, and 3) the same treatment followed by mounding of the rows) on preemergent herbicide efficacy and growth of Eucalyptus (a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globules). The herbicides evaluated were: oxifluorfen 240 g/ha; oxifluorfen 480 g/ha; isoxaflutole 150 g/ha; sulfentrazone 300 g/ha; sulfentrazone 400 g/ha; diclosulam 42 g/ha + 1800 acetochlor g/ha; acetochlor 1800 g/ha; oxifluorfen 240 g/ha + acetochlor 1800 g/ha. There was no interaction between preemergent herbicide effectiveness and tillage on total weed cover. The best treatments for selective weed control on the Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clone were isoxaflutole (150g/ha) and oxifluorfen (240g/ha) + acetochlor (1800g/ha).

  17. Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota

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    A. Duarte

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation of C. neoformans var. gattii in our country. A total of 100 Eucalyptus trees, distributed among 13 zones, located in the center, northeast, east and west of Santafé de Bogotá, were studied. Flowers, fruits, leaves, barks and Eucalyptus debris were collected. The samples were processed by extraction with saline solution containing antibiotics, cultured in selective media and the isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Twenty-seven isolates of 9 Cryptococcus sp. were recovered from 21 Eucalyptus trees, from 5 zones. One C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A was recovered. The Cryptococcus associated with Eucalyptus is important because this is the first study done in our country.

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden AND Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, AS A SUPPLY FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY

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    Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out at Universidade de Brasília at the Wood Products of Forestry Laboratory (IBAMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Two species of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana were studied to supply the furniture making industry. The wood of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden shows physical properties (density and retractibility and mechanical properties (static bending and hardness very suitable for the industry of wood furniture. Such characteristics are complemented by its excellent behaviour in machining and also good finishing with varnishes. The colour and patterns the wood bring to the consumers a good feeling as well as for the furnitures built with such a species. The wood of Eucalyptus cloeziana, in spite of its mechanical and physical properties higher than those of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, presents good characteristics for the manufacture of furniture. Its grey-olive colouring is consistent with a good choice and taste for the consumers. However, some precaution must be observed during the machining of the wood. This wood’s hardness makes it suitable for parquetry.

  19. Miniestaquia seriada no rejuvenescimento de clones de Eucalyptus / Serial minicuttings technique as a rejuvenation method for Eucalyptus clones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivar, Wendling; Aloisio, Xavier.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da técnica de miniestaquia seriada em quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto à sobrevivência, ao enraizamento e ao crescimento em altura e diâmetro de colo das mudas. Foram realizados sete subcultivos pela miniestaquia seriada, por enraizamento [...] sucessivo de brotações de minicepas, em casa de vegetação durante 25 dias, seguido de aclimatação por dez dias em casa de sombra e avaliação final das mudas aos 50 dias de idade, em pleno sol. A miniestaquia seriada mostrou efeito positivo, principalmente em relação aos clones que apresentaram menor potencial de enraizamento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of serial minicuttings technique in four clones of Eucalyptus grandis, regarding to survival, rooting and growth in height and diameter of the seedlings. Seven subcultures, by serial minicuttings technique, through successive rooting of the s [...] prouts were accomplished. Rooting was carried out in a greenhouse during 25 days, followed by ten days acclimatization at shadow house, and final evaluation of the seedlings at 50 days, in the sun. The serial minicuttings technique showed positive effect, mostly for difficult rooting clones.

  20. Miniestaquia seriada no rejuvenescimento de clones de Eucalyptus Serial minicuttings technique as a rejuvenation method for Eucalyptus clones

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    Ivar Wendling

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da técnica de miniestaquia seriada em quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto à sobrevivência, ao enraizamento e ao crescimento em altura e diâmetro de colo das mudas. Foram realizados sete subcultivos pela miniestaquia seriada, por enraizamento sucessivo de brotações de minicepas, em casa de vegetação durante 25 dias, seguido de aclimatação por dez dias em casa de sombra e avaliação final das mudas aos 50 dias de idade, em pleno sol. A miniestaquia seriada mostrou efeito positivo, principalmente em relação aos clones que apresentaram menor potencial de enraizamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of serial minicuttings technique in four clones of Eucalyptus grandis, regarding to survival, rooting and growth in height and diameter of the seedlings. Seven subcultures, by serial minicuttings technique, through successive rooting of the sprouts were accomplished. Rooting was carried out in a greenhouse during 25 days, followed by ten days acclimatization at shadow house, and final evaluation of the seedlings at 50 days, in the sun. The serial minicuttings technique showed positive effect, mostly for difficult rooting clones.

  1. Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii: (II sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas em função das coletas e estações do ano

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    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a técnica de miniestaquia na clonagem de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii ao longo das estações do ano quanto à sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas. As minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas durante 352 dias em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico em leito de areia com solução nutritiva fornecida por gotejamento, efetuando-se 27 coletas sucessivas de brotações durante as quatro estações do ano (primavera, verão, outono e inverno. Mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca durante 10 segundos em solução hidroalcoólica (1:1 v/v de concentração de 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco repetições e vinte miniestacas por repetição. O enraizamento das miniestacas variou conforme o clone e mostrou-se muito sensível às estações do ano e às oscilações da temperatura. Os melhores índices de enraizamento foram registrados nas estações mais frias onde variou de 19,59% a 56,20% e os menores nas estações mais quentes, com 4,62% a 8,50%. Os clones H19 e H20 apresentaram os maiores índices de enraizamento nas quatro estações do ano.

  2. Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

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    Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  3. Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids

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    Eder, Marques; Carlos H., Uesugi; Marisa A.S.V., Ferreira; Denise V. de, Rezende.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utiliz [...] ation assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T). From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

  4. Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids

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    Eder Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T. From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

  5. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

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    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it was the most dimensionally instable clone, whereas considering maximum volumetric shrinkage, clone 1 was the most stable. Eucalyptus grandis presented the least basic density and was the most stable, while Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density and was the most dimensionally instable.

  6. PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of Eucalyptus globulus bark: a promising approach for triterpenoid production

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carlos M.; Silvestre, Armando J.D.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Neto, Carlos P.; Pedro C. Simões; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Eduardo L. G. Oliveira; Rui M. A. Domingues

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obta...

  8. Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS Carla; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food o...

  9. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a ...

  10. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    José Cola Zanuncio; Pedro Guilherme Lemes; Germi Porto Santos; Marcus Alvarenga Soares; Carlos Frederico Wilcken; José Eduardo Serrão

    2014-01-01

    Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests ...

  11. Energy performance of a production system of eucalyptus Desempenho energético de uma produção de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago L. Romanelli; Marcos Milan

    2010-01-01

    Maximizing yields is opposed to the goal of minimizing the use of inputs. In the context of system rationalization, the addition of non-economic parameters in the decision making and the magnitude of eucalyptus plantation in Sao Paulo State, Brazil led to this study. The objective was to establish the flows and to evaluate the performance of energy transformations on eucalyptus production. The evaluated system presented three alternatives of soil acidity management: lime, ash and sludge appli...

  12. Effect of fiber wall chemistry on pulping processes of novel Eucalyptus hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Muguet Soares, Marcelo Coelho dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates relevant issues regarding the use of Eucalyptus wood: the factors affecting energy consumption during wood defibration, with focus on fiber wall chemistry and the assessment of wood quality from a wide range of novel Brazilian Eucalyptus hybrids. The obtained results are reflected to mechanical and traditional chemical processes. Wood refining experiments were carried out in laboratory scale, with and without chemical pretreatment: alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp...

  13. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. C. C., PINHEIRO; T. J., RAAD; M. I., YOSHIDA.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The [...] kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

  14. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. C. PINHEIRO

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG. The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

  15. Efecto de los sistemas de riego en la rentabilidad de plantaciones de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus) / Effect of irrigation system type on profitability of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emilio, Guerra; Miguel Á., Herrera; Fernando, Drake.

    2010-02-15

    Full Text Available El riego es utilizado con mayor frecuencia para establecer plantaciones, con el fin de aumentar el crecimiento y la productividad por superficie. Se estudió el efecto de tres sistemas de riego: microaspersión (T1), goteo (T2) y surco (T3), en la rentabilidad de una plantación de eucalipto (Eucalyptu [...] s globulus), en el Valle Central de la Región del Bío Bío, Chile. La variable proyectada a la edad de cosecha fue el incremento volumétrico de los árboles. Para calcular costos de T1 y T2 se usó una base de datos de 200 predios agrícolas de diferentes superficies con instalación e implementación de estos sistemas. Para T3 se aplicaron costos actualizados de construcción y mantención de las estructuras requeridas para la evaluación financiera. La rentabilidad se determinó mediante el valor actual neto (VAN), valor económico del suelo (VES), y tasa interna de retorno modificada (TIRm). La rentabilidad para T1 y T2 tuvo valores negativos, es decir, estas técnicas de riego no generaron beneficios económicos. El riego por surco (T3) fue rentable para el volumen proyectado a los ocho y diez años de edad de cosecha, obteniéndose con los tres indicadores los mayores retornos al usar una tasa de descuento de 8 % y a un precio de la madera pulpable de 32 US$ m-3 ssc. El VAN fue 989 US$ ha-1 y 1106 US$ ha-1, el VES fue 2152 y 2406 US$ ha-1, y la TIRm 10.4 % y 10.1 %. Estos resultados justifican la utilización del riego por surco (T3) como una técnica eficiente del manejo integrado para una plantación de eucalipto de alta productividad. Abstract in english Irrigation is used increasingly in establishment of forest plantations in order to increase growth and productivity. The effect on profitability of a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation in the Central Valley of the Bío Bío Region, Chile, of three irrigation systems was studied: microsprinkle [...] rs (T1), drip irrigation (T2) and surface irrigation (T3). The variable projected to harvest age was the volumetric increase of the trees. To calculate costs of T1 and T2, a database was used of 200 agricultural operations of varying size where these systems were installed and implemented. For T3, current costs of construction and maintenance of the structures required were used for financial evaluation. Profitability was determined using net present value (NPV), potential land value (PLV) and modified internal return rate (MIRR). Profitability with Tl and T2 had negative values; that is, these irrigation techniques did not generate economic benefits. Surface irrigation (T3) was profitable for the volume projected to eight and ten years harvest age. The greatest returns were obtained with the three indicators using a discount rate of 8 % and a price of pulp wood of US$ 32 m-3 ssc. NPV was US$ 989 ha-¹ and US$ 1106 ha-1; PLV was US$ 2152 and 2406 ha-1, and MIRR was 10.4 % and 10.1 %. These results justify the use of surface irrigation (T3) as an efficient technique in the integrated management of a high-producing eucalyptus plantation.

  16. Implicações nutricionais com base em diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus / Nutritional implications based in different intensities of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus biomass harvesting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Peter, Trüby; Elias Frank, Araújo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de nutrientes para futuros plantios em um sítio florestal está relacionada principalmente à, intensidade de colheita aplicada. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar as implicações nutricionais causadas pelas diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de um povoamento de Eucal [...] yptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus com dez anos de idade, em Eldorado do Sul - RS. A avaliação das implicações nutricionais conforme a intensidade de colheita florestal foi analisada levando em consideração: o estoque de nutrientes entre o sistema solo - planta; os efeitos da colheita dos diferentes componentes da biomassa acima do solo na remoção dos nutrientes; o número de rotações e a taxa de remoção de nutrientes conforme o sistema de colheita utilizado e o coeficiente de utilização biológica dos nutrientes. Com a colheita da madeira com casca, todos os nutrientes teriam uma remoção superior a 45% de sua quantidade acumulada na biomassa total acima do solo. Entretanto, removendo apenas a madeira comercial, que apresenta o maior coeficiente de utilização de nutrientes, a porcentagem de remoção para os nutrientes, com exceção do Cu e Zn, seria inferior a 50%, chegando até 10% no caso do Ca, em relação ao total contido na biomassa. O fósforo e o cálcio poderão ser os principais nutrientes a tornarem-se limitantes na produtividade nas próximas rotações, pois as estimativas de rotações potenciais estão próximas a um, quando realizada a colheita da madeira com casca Abstract in english Nutrients available for future plantation is mainly related to the harvest system applied. Based on this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional implications caused by difference biomass harvest intensities in the Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus 10 years-old in Eldorado do Sul - RS. N [...] utritional implications assessment was analyzed and taken into account: nutrients balance between soil-plant system; harvest effects of the different aboveground components in the nutrients removal; rotation numbers and nutrients removal rate in relation to harvest system used and nutrients biological utilization rate. With the harvest of wood with the bark all the nutrients removal would suffer more than 45% of the total amount accumulated in aboveground biomass. However, removing just the wood, which has the highest nutrients utilization rate, the nutrients removed percentage, except by Cu and Zn, will be less than 50% and up to 10% in the case of Ca in relation to the total biomass contained. Phosphorus and calcium can be the main nutrients which become limited in the next rotation productivity, because the potential rotation estimates are close to one, when wood with bark are harvested. Key words: forestry production; nutrients stock; nutrients available

  17. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), ?-pinene (5%), and ?-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), ?-pinene (8.87%), and ?-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50?mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9?mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  18. Production cost of biomasses from eucalyptus and elefant grass for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marie Roger Quéno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work established the unit energy cost generated from biomass of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp. and elephant grass (Pennisetum sp. and applied a sensitivity analysis to verify the influences of factors such as the silviculture of eucalyptus, production volume of each species, the cost of land and the interest rate. It was shown that the treatment of eucalyptus in very short rotation of 2 years with reform of stand every 6 years has a average cost of production higher than the traditional treatment of short rotation of 6 years with reform only at the age of 18. It was also observed that eucalyptus has a Production Cost on average of R$ 4,41 /Gj, lower than the elephant grass which is on average of R$ 5,44/Gj, which however has a higher annual capacity of dry matter production. The elephant grass has the possibility to compete with eucalyptus when a set of conditions is met: discount rate higher than or equal to 8%, High price of land, and elephant grass high volume production, greater than or equal to 35 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and year.

  19. Eucalyptus (gracilis, oleosa, salubris, and salmonophloia) essential oils: their chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Marzoug, Hajer Naceur; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Couderc, François; Abderraba, Manef; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2010-08-01

    Essential oils of four different Eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus salmonophloia, Eucalyptus oleosa, and Eucalyptus gracilis) grown in southern Tunisia were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as well as their chemical compositions. According to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, chemical compositions of the Eucalyptus species E. salubris (27 compounds; 99.2%), E. salmonophloia (31 compounds; 99.2%), E. oleosa (32 compounds; 97.6%), and E. gracilis (18 compounds; 97.7%) were identified. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 12.0-52.8 mg/mL, whereas in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay, E. oleosa (176.5 +/- 3.1 mg/L) gave the best inhibition result. To evaluate antimicrobial activity, all essential oils were tested against bacteria (two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative), two yeast, and two fungi. Essential oils exhibited an interesting antibacterial activity against all microorganisms tested (activity was better against Gram-positive bacteria) except for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Correlations between chemical composition and biological and antioxidant activities were studied. PMID:20482281

  20. Effect of eucalyptus wood vinegar on rubberwood infestation by Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasin, M

    2013-01-01

    Wood degradation caused by fungi, termites, and insects, is a major problem for the rubberwood industry. The potential of wood vinegar as rubberwood preservative was studied. The infestation rates of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on rubberwood samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar for 24 hours were observed in laboratory conditions. Both non-choice and choice experiments were included. The effects of eucalyptus wood vinegar treatment depended on its concentration. In the non-choice experiments, rubberwood samples treated with 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar had the highest resistance to C. gestroi infestation, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 50% and 25% treatments. However, in the choice experiments the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the treatments with varied wood vinegar concentration. Untreated control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi in both non-choice and choice experiments, but their relative loss of mass in the non-choice experiments was not significantly different from samples treated with 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar. Hence, 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar was not effective as rubberwood preservative against C. gestroi attack. The results suggest that eucalyptus wood vinegar acts as a rubberwood preservative against termites, provided the treatment is done without dilution. About 50% dilution still has some efficacy, while lower concentrations are not effective. PMID:25145252

  1. MICROPROPAGACIÓN DE EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN EL SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden micropropagation in a temporary immersion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Castro R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo procedimiento para la multiplicación in vitro mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal de plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden procedentes de árboles elite. La mayor eficiencia de multiplicación se estableció a una frecuencia óptima de inmersión cada 12 h con una duración de 3 min. La aplicación adicional de un flujo de aire fresco cada 6 h durante 3 min disminuyó la hiperhidratación de las plantas durante el proceso. Este procedimiento comprendió dos pasos: la brotación o multiplicación múltiple y la elongación de brotes. El mejor tratamiento para la inducción de brotes axilares o multiplicación se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS con los nitratos reducidos a la mitad + 0,5 mg L-1 de benciladenina (BA, con volúmenes de 55,5 mL por grupo de brotes durante tres semanas. La elongación tuvo lugar en el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS más ácido indolbutírico (AIB 1,0 g L-1, durante tres semanas. La utilización de este protocolo permitió obtener un promedio de 260 plantas competentes de E. grandis. Las plantas con tamaño mayor a 2 cm se relacionaron positivamente con una mayor supervivencia durante la fase de aclimatización.A new procedure is described for in vitro multiplication using the temporary immersion system for plants (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden coming from elite trees. The optimum multiplication frequency was established at every 12 h with a duration of 3 min. The additional application of a stream of fresh air every 6 h for 3 min diminished the hyper-hydration of the plants during the process. The procedure involved two steps: shooting and elongation of buds. The best treatment for induction of axillary buds was obtained in the culture medium MS (Murashige and Skoog with the nitrates reduced to half strength plus 0.5 benciladenin (BA mg L-1, with volumes of 55.5 mL per group of buds for three weeks. The elongation took place in the MS culture medium plus indol butiric acid (IBA 1.0 g L-1 for three weeks. The use of this protocol allows producing an average of 260 competent plants of E. grandis. Shoots taller than 2 cm were positively related with higher survival during the acclimatization phase.

  2. Virulência de estirpes (biovar 1 e 2T) de Ralstonia solanaceraum a Eucalyptus spp. / Virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum strains (biovar 1 and 2T) to Eucalyptus spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eder, Marques; Carlos Hidemi, Uesugi; Luiz Eduardo Bassay, Blum.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana do eucalipto (Raça 3 biovar 2T de Ralstonia solanacearum) foi descrita em 2009 em campo com o híbrido de eucalipto urograndis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a virulência de duas estirpes de R. solanacearum a dezessete espécies de Eucalyptus, através do teste de microbioli [...] zação de sementes. A análise estatística dentre espécies mostrou que a virulência variou entre as estirpes estudadas. A virulência da R3bv2T foi significativamente maior em: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei e E. phaeotricha; e maior para R1bv1 somente na espécie E. pellita. Entre espécies de eucalipto, observou-se maior suscetibilidade em "urograndis", E. grandis e E. paniculata para R3bv2T; e em E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua e E. resinifera devido a R1bv1. Abstract in english The bacterial wilt of Eucalyptus (Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 biovar 2T) was reported in field of Eucalyptus hybrid urograndis. The objective of this research was to evaluate the virulence of two R. solanacearum strains to 17 Eucalyptus species, using the seed microbiolization method for pathogen [...] inoculation. The results of the statistical analyses showed that virulence varied between the two R. solanacearum strains. The R3bv2T virulence was higher than the one in R1bv1 in the following Eucalyptus species: urograndis, E. urophylla, E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, E. microcorys, E. deanei, and E. phaeotricha. The virulence of the R1bv1 strain was higher only in E. pellita. Among species of Eucalyptus the following ones were more susceptibles: to R3bv2T strain - urograndis, E. grandis and E. paniculata, and to R1bv1 strain - E. cloeziana, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. pellita, E. propinqua and E. resinifera.

  3. Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production / Análise multivariada aplicada à avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Allan Motta, Couto; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se selecionar clones de Eucalyptus com finalidades energéticas, utilizando as técnicas multivariadas de componentes principais e de agrupamento. Foram avaliados 25 clones de Eucalyptus aos 54 meses de idade. Foram determinados os teores dos componentes elementares (C, H e O [...] ), de lignina, extrativos totais e cinzas, a densidade básica, o poder calorífico superior e a densidade energética. As duas técnicas multivariadas empregadas para a avaliação e seleção dos clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia foram eficientes, sendo observadas similaridades entre os grupos de biomassa formados por elas. Pela análise de agrupamento, foram obtidos cinco grupos distintos, sendo que o grupo um, formado pelo clone U060, possui maior potencial como fonte de energia. Os clones G084, G122, G023 e U108 possuem menor desempenho energético. Abstract in english This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, [...] H and O), lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

  4. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence. PMID:26013018

  5. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  6. Population genetic analysis and phylogeny reconstruction in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) using high-throughput, genome-wide genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Dorothy A; Nicolle, Dean; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, César D; Carling, Jason; Kilian, Andrzej; Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Vaillancourt, René E

    2011-04-01

    A set of over 8000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers was tested for its utility in high-resolution population and phylogenetic studies across a range of Eucalyptus taxa. Small-scale population studies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus urophylla demonstrated the potential of genome-wide genotyping with DArT markers to differentiate species, to identify interspecific hybrids and to resolve biogeographic disjunctions within species. The population genetic studies resolved geographically partitioned clusters in E. camaldulensis, E. cladocalyx, E. globulus and E. urophylla that were congruent with previous molecular studies. A phylogenetic study of 94 eucalypt species provided results that were largely congruent with traditional taxonomy and ITS-based phylogenies, but provided more resolution within major clades than had been obtained previously. Ascertainment bias (the bias introduced in a phylogeny from using markers developed in a small sample of the taxa that are being studied) was not detected. DArT offers an unprecedented level of resolution for population genetic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies across the full range of Eucalyptus species. PMID:21310251

  7. Role of extractives in soda pulping of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olm, L.; Wearne, R.; Nelson, P.J.

    1981-09-01

    The effect of extractives on the rate of delignification of Eucalyptus diversicolor wood during soda pulping and on the pulp yield has been investigated. The kinetics of delignification of extracted and unextracted wood was studied in model pulping experiments in which woodmeal samples and chips were heated with soda liquors containing large excesses of alkali. The results showed that the extractives do not accelerate the rate of delignification or increase the selectivity of lignin removal. Soda pulping of unextracted wood gave pulps in higher yields than from extracted wood (compared at the same lignin content) but required longer times to produce pulps with particular lignin contents. The rate of delignification of Pinus radiata wood increased when it was pulped together with Tectona grandis (teak) wood which contained extractives known to increase the rate of lignin removal during soda pulping. A similar effect was not observed when the pine wood was pulped together with E. diversicolor wood. (Refs. 16).

  8. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning, with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

  9. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabricio Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Mario, Tomazelo Filho.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da mad [...] eira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste), com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas. Abstract in english Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla [...] x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning), with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

  10. Estabelecimento, multiplicação e alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Establishment, multiplication and elongation in vitro of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cloro ativo (NaOCl na assepsia de explantes para o estabelecimento in vitro, bem como benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA para a multiplicação e alongamento de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. As minicepas fornecedoras de propágulos para introdução in vitro foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram desinfestados com 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0% (v/v de cloro ativo durante 10 min e inoculados em meio de cultura MS. Na obtenção de brotações múltiplas, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS suplementado com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Na fase de alongamento, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de ANA. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados, obtendo-se 45%, 46% e 66% de estabelecimento do clone H12, H19 e H20, respectivamente. A concentração de BAP que resultou na maior proliferação de gemas axilares para o clone H12 aos 60 dias foi estimada na faixa de 0,25 e 0,30 mg L-1. Aos 60 dias, a faixa entre 0,25 e 0,75 mg L-1 de ANA promoveu o maior número de brotações alongadas do clone H12.This work aimed to evaluate different concentrations of active chlorine (NaOCl in explant asepsis for the establishment in vitro as well as of benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA in the multiplication and elongation of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Ministumps, which supply shoots for introduction in vitro, were cultivated in a clonal mini garden under semi-hydroponic system. Nodal segments of clones H12, H19 and H20 were disinfested with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v of active chlorine during 10 minutes and inoculated in MS medium. In the multiplication phase, culture ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of BAP was used. In the elongation phase, ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of NAA was used. No interaction occurred between the studied levels, with 45%, 46% and 66% of establishment of clones H12, H19 and H20, respectively. The BAP concentration that resulted in the highest axillary's bud proliferation for clone H12 at 60 days was estimated in the range of 0.25 to 0.30 mg L-1. At 60 days, the range between 0.25 to 0.75 mg L-1 of NAA, promoted the highest number of elongated shoots for H12 clone.

  11. QUALITY OF SAWN TIMBER DRYING OF Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DE Eucalyptus paniculata Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração natural de Eucalyptus paniculata, originada por semeadura natural, foi avaliada com o objetivo de identificar o potencial desse método de regeneração. Foram instaladas amostras de 4 m2, sistematicamente distribuídas na área regenerada, nas quais foram avaliadas a quantidade de plantas, diâmetro das plantas e a distância de um ponto a árvore mais próxima. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que nenhuma parcela estava vazia e que 70% desses espaços vazios apresentavam área de até 1 m2. Em 56% das parcelas encontrou-se de 2 a 5 plantas. Na idade de 6 a 7 anos, em 55% das parcelas, o diâmetro da maior planta foi superior a 10 cm. A distribuição das árvores possibilita realizar desbastes seletivos no povoamento, garantindo sua produtividade futura.

  13. Características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake / Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a variabilidade existente nas características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla aos 6 anos, plantado no município de Martinho Campos, MG. As árvores foram distribuídas em três classes de diâmetro e a amostragem consistiu na ret [...] irada de discos, de 2,5 cm de espessura, a 2%, 10%, 30% e 70% da altura comercial, além de um a 1,30 m do solo (DAP) e, a partir deste ponto, de metro em metro até a altura comercial. Foram tomadas amostras ao longo do raio nos discos, considerando os dois lados em relação à medula. As amostras foram carbonizadas em forno elétrico de laboratório, sendo determinados os rendimentos e a qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que para a primeira carbonização, a classe diamétrica influenciou significativamente o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão vegetal, em líquido pirolenhoso e o teor de cinza do carvão vegetal produzido, e que o rendimento em gás não condensável, o teor de materiais voláteis e o de carbono fixo não foram influenciados pela classe diamétrica; para a segunda carbonização o rendimento gravimétrico aumentou da casca para a medula, para todas as classes diamétricas e ocorreu redução dessa característica com a diminuição das classes diamétricas e que os valores de densidade relativa aparente tenderam a aumentar no sentido medula-casca, em todas as classes diamétricas. Abstract in english This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted [...] of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH) and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  14. Estresse hídrico em plantio de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla, em função do solo, substrato e manejo hídrico de viveiro / Water stress in the planting of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, due to soil, substrate and water management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane Luísa Wadas, Lopes; Iraê Amaral, Guerrini; Magali Ribeiro da, Silva; João Carlos Cury, Saad; Cristiano Freitas, Lopes.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar em campo os níveis de estresse hídrico das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla selecionado para tolerância ao déficit hídrico, em função dos substratos, do manejo hídrico e dos solos. As mudas foram produzidas em dois viveiros distintos do Estad [...] o de São Paulo: com o substrato Plantmax estacas® (PLX) em Bofete (SP) e com a mistura em partes iguais de casca de arroz carbonizada e vermiculita (CAC), em Ibaté (SP). A partir dos 60 dias após a estaquia (DAE), durante a rustificação as mudas foram manejadas com cinco frequências de irrigação por subsuperfície: F1 - irrigado uma vez ao dia, F2 - irrigado duas vezes ao dia, F3 - irrigado três vezes ao dia, F4 - irrigado quatro vezes ao dia e FD - mantido em irrigação, restabelecendo a capacidade de campo até o plantio aos 90 DAE, em um solo argiloso e outro arenoso. Foram realizadas avaliações dos níveis de estresse (brando, moderado e severo), que afetaram a sobrevivência nos dois solos, por meio de censo aos 15 e aos 30 dias após o plantio. Com relação aos níveis de estresse avaliados, verificou-se pouca influência do substrato, porém onde ocorreu o PLX proporcionou menores percentuais de plantas afetadas. Independentemente do tipo de solo onde as mudas foram plantadas, os sintomas de estresse nas plantas, de modo geral, foram semelhantes. O manejo de viveiro não influenciou na sobrevivência das mudas, embora tenham ocorrido algumas diferenças estatísticas quando se usaram CAC e plantio no solo arenoso, porém sem tendência clara de comportamento. Os critérios relativos à implantação foram mais determinantes na sobrevivência das mudas no campo até os 30 dias após o plantio, indicando a necessidade de replantio. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of water stress in Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings selected for water deficiency, considering substrate water management and types of soil. The seedlings were produced in two distinct nurseries: the Plantmax estacas® substrate [...] (PLX) in Bofete(SP) and in a mix with equal proportions of rice carbonized husks and vermiculite (CAC) in Ibaté (SP). Sixty days after cutting (DAE) and farther, during hardening, the seedlings were managed with five underwater irrigations, restoring the field conditions: F1: irrigated once a day, F2: irrigated twice a day, F3: irrigated three times a day, F4: irrigated four times a day and FD: maintained under irrigation, until water saturation until planting at 90 DAE, in a clayie soil and in a sandy soil. Evaluations on the low, moderate and high water stress levels that affect survival in the two types of soil at 15 and 30 days after planting. Little influence of substrates to the water stress levels was observed. However, a lesser percentual of affected seedlings was observed in PLX. Independent of the type of similar symptoms of water stress was observed, independently of type of soil. Nursery management does not affect seedling survival, even though statistical differences were detected when CAC and sandy soil were tested, however, without clear seedlings performance. Factors related to the planting process were more important on the field seedlings survival, until 30 days after planting, exhibiting the necessity of planting again.

  15. Nodule culture and regeneration of Eucalyptus grandis hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrag, E; Lesney, M S; Rockwood, D J

    1991-02-01

    Callus of three superior Eucalyptus grandis hybrids was induced from immature inflorescences, floral parts, shoot tips, zygotic embryos, and hypocotyl explants on various auxin (2,4-D or NAA) and cytokinin (kinetin) supplemented media. Hypocotyl callus initiated on 4 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin formed massive nodular structures, and shoots and roots after four weeks on hormone free-medium. Callus from all other expiants turned brown and died upon transfer to hormone free or reduced hormone media. The nodular structures originating from hypocotyl-callus were maintained by subculture for over three years and retained the ability to form thousands of shoots. Shoots were successfully rooted (98% rooting) and plantlets developed were transferred to mist-greenhouse and then to greenhouse conditions with 95% survival. Plantlets were grown for six months in the greenhouse without sign of abnormal growth. PMID:24220718

  16. Qualidade de painéis aglomerados homogêneos produzidos com a madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla / Quality of homogeneous particleboard produced with Eucalyptus urophylla clone wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Lilian Lima, Mendonça; José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Fábio Akira, Mori.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de painéis aglomerados homogêneos de baixa densidade. Foram avaliados seis clones de Eucalyptus urophylla com 94 meses de idade, plantados no municipio de Paracatu-MG, sendo utilizada como parâmetro de [...] comparação a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Para cada clone de Eucalyptus urophylla e também para o Pinus oocarpa foram produzidos seis painéis com o adesivo uréia-formaldeido no teor de 6%, densidade nominal de 0,60 g/cm³, pressão especifica de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de 8 minutos. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram potencial para produção de painéis aglomerados convencionais de baixa densidade. Os clones 62 e 28 obtiveram os melhores resultados em todas as propriedades fisico-mecânicas avaliadas, apresentando propriedades iguais ou superiores as obtidas para os painéis produzidos com a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Com relação à norma de comercialização CS 236/1966 apenas o clone 28 atendeu a todos os requisitos. Nenhum dos clones avaliados atendeu a norma EN 312/2003. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla clones to produce homogeneous particleboard of low-density. Six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla were evaluated, at 94 months of age and planted in Paracatu-MG. Pinus oocarpa wood was used as a reference. For each Eucalyptus urophylla c [...] lone and also for Pinus oocarpa, six panels were produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive in the concentration of 6%, nominal density of 0.60 g/cm³, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm², temperature of 160ºC and a time of 8 minutes. Eucalyptus urophylla clones presented potential for production of conventional particleboard of low density. Clones 62 and 28 showed the best results for all physical and mechanical properties evaluated, presenting properties equal or superior to those obtained for the panels produced with Pinus oocarpa wood. In relation to CS 236/1966 standard, only the clone 28 met all the requirements. None of the clones meets EN 312/2003 standard.

  17. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for this purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1 and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2. To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun, to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS, for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes. The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  18. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. PMID:22960456

  19. Efeito dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla / Effect of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Bueno, Goulart; Aloisio, Xavier; Narcisio Zeferino, Cardoso.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento exper [...] imental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, constituído de dois reguladores de crescimento (AIB e ANA), cinco doses de AIB e ANA e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram feitas avaliações em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e pleno sol, quanto ao porcentual de sobrevivência, altura, diâmetro de colo e massa seca da parte aérea e radicular das miniestacas enraizadas. Conclui-se que a utilização do AIB nas doses entre 500 e 2.000 mg L-1 mostrou-se mais eficiente do que o ANA nos quatro clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden under a hydro phonic system in small gutters. The experimen [...] t was arranged in a randomized design with plots in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial constituted of two growth regulators (IBA and ANA), five doses of each growth regulator and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. The evaluations were carried out in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun for survival rate, height, stem diameter and dry mass of the aerial and root parts of the rooted minicuttings. It was concluded that using IBA in doses between 500 and 2,000 mg L-1 was more efficient than using ANA for the four clones studied.

  20. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  1. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality.

  2. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  3. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neimar de Freitas, Duarte; Decio, Karam; Elizabeth Uber, Bucek; Maria Rita Scotti, Muzzi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence [...] of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  4. Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edival Ângelo Valverde Zauza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculação. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto.Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4 urediniospores /mL and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

  5. Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus / Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edival Ângelo Valverde, Zauza; Michele Margarido Fonseca, Couto; Luiz Ântonio, Maffia; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculaç [...] ão. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin) against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4) [...] urediniospores /mL) and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

  6. Resistance of Eucalyptus pellita to rust (Puccinia psidii) / Resistência à ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) em Eucalyptus pellita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marisângela Rodrigues, Santos; Lúcio Mauro da Silva, Guimarães; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende; Leonardo Novaes, Rosse; Karina Carnielli, Zamprogno; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) é atualmente uma das principais enfermidades em plantios comerciais de eucalipto no Brasil. Dentre as diferentes espécies de eucalipto, Eucalyptus pellita é apontada como uma promissora fonte de resistência. Neste trabalho estudou-se o controle genético da r [...] esistência à ferrugem em E. pellita por meio de inoculações em condições controladas de 441 plantas oriundas de quatro progênies. As inoculações foram realizadas com o isolado monopostular UFV-2, raça 1. Todas as progênies segregaram para resistência à ferrugem, sendo o número de plantas resistentes superior em todos os cruzamentos. Modelos de herança baseados em poucos genes não explicaram totalmente os padrões de segregação obtidos. A herdabilidade no sentido restrito da resistência à ferrugem foi estimada entre 32,7% a 37,3%. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a resistência à ferrugem em E. pellita é complexa, sendo governada por genes de efeito maior e menor. Abstract in english Eucalypts rust (Puccinia psidii) is currently one of the major diseases in commercial eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The primary method of disease control is the use of resistant genotypes, and, among the different species of Eucalyptus, E. pellita is indicated as a promising source of resistance. [...] In this work, the genetic control of rust resistance in E. pellita through inoculations under controlled conditions of 441 plants from four full-sibling families was studied. Inoculations were performed using the monopostular isolate UFV-2, race 1. All families tested segregated for rust resistance, and the number of resistant plants was higher than susceptible in all crosses. Inheritance models based on few genes did not fully explain the observed segregation patterns, and the narrow-sense heritability of rust resistance was estimated between 32.7% and 37.3%. The results suggested that rust resistance in E. pellita is complex and is controlled by major- and minor-effect genes.

  7. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass of Hybrid Eucalyptus Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Latifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.  The present investigation was carried out to determine carbon sequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical validity and accuracy in predicting biomass and carbon, based on determination coefficient (R and correlation coefficient (r, aggregative deviation percentage (AgD, and the average deviation percentage (AvD. The best general model to estimate the biomass of hybrid Eucalyptus was Y = 1351,09x^0,876. e^(0,094.  Results showed that hybrid Eucalyptus had an average above-ground biomass in year 0 (the land without the eucalyptus trees up to year 3 as large as 1.36, 11.56, 43.18, and 63.84 t ha. The carbon content of hybrid Eucalyptus were 0.61, 5.2, 19.43 t^(-1, and 28,73  t^(-1 C ha while the carbon sequestration potential were 2.23, 19.08, 71.31, and 105.43 t^(-1 CO  ha^(-1 respectively.Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, model, hybrid Eucalyptus, plantation forest

  8. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil / Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., CALLISTO; F. A. R., BARBOSA; P., MORENO.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a composição e a estrutura de comunidades de macroinvertebrados associados à macrófita aquática Salvinia auriculata Aublet, em um lago de altitude, margeado por Mata Atlântica secundária e plantações de Eucalyptus. Comparando a diversidade [...] de larvas de Chironomidae (Díptera, Insecta) entre as duas margens, foi evidenciada maior diversidade na margem com Eucalyptus. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a predominância de taxa carnívoros entre a macrofauna pode ser o principal fator controlador da diversidade de organismos nas áreas circundadas por plantações de Eucalyptus. Abstract in english The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the d [...] iversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  9. Influência da miniestaquia seriada no vigor radicular de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Influence of the serial minicutting technique on rooting vigor of Eucalyptus grandis clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da técnica de miniestaquia seriada no vigor radicular das mudas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis. Após a realização de sete subcultivos de miniestaquia, as miniestacas foram enraizadas em condições de casa de vegetação (25 dias, com aclimatação de 10 dias em casa de sombra e avaliação final das mudas realizada aos 50 dias de idade, em pleno sol. De modo geral, os subcultivos de miniestaquia seriada promoveram aumento no número de raízes e proporcionaram maior vigor radicular inicial nos clones de menor potencial de enraizamento, indicando efeito positivo da miniestaquia seriada em clones de Eucalyptus com relação às características.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the serial minicutting technique on the rooting vigor of seedlings of four Eucalyptus grandis clones. Following seven minicutting subcultures, the minicuttings were rooted under greenhouse conditions (25 days, with acclimatization for 10 days in the shade and final seedling evaluation at 50 days old, under full light. In general, the serial subcultures promoted an increase in the number of roots and provided greater initial root vigor for clones with less rooting potential, suggesting a positive effect of the serial minicutting technique on Eucalyptus clones for these characteristics.

  10. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

  11. Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis / Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Murillo-Arango; Pedronel, Araque Marín; Beatriz, Henao Murillo; Carlos A, Peláez Jaramillo.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de u [...] na emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B). Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico. Abstract in english Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent) of an oil/water [...] emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B). Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

  12. Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Murillo-Arango

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B. Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico.Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B. Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study / Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo de Eucalyptus globulus, xilitol e papaína: estudo piloto / Actividad antimicrobiana del aceite de Eucalyptus globulus, xilitol y papaína: estudio piloto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valéria de Siqueira, Mota; Ruth Natalia Teresa, Turrini; Vanessa de Brito, Poveda.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus e das substâncias xilitol e papaína, frente aos micro-organismos: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli e Candida albicans. MÉTODO Utilizou-se a av [...] aliação antimicrobiana in vitro, por meio do teste da difusão em ágar e avaliação do diâmetro do halo de inibição das substâncias testadas. A clorexidina 0,5% foi utilizada como controle. RESULTADOS Observou-se que o óleo de Eucalyptus globulus apresentou inibição superior à da clorexidina quando aplicado ao Staphylococus aureus, e inibição idêntica quando aplicado aos micro-organismos Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris e Candida albicans. A papaína 10% apresentou efeito antimicrobiano inferior ao da clorexidina em relação à Candida albicans. O xilitol não apresentou inibição dos micro-organismos testados. CONCLUSÃO O óleo de Eucalyptus globulus possui atividade antimicrobiana contra diferentes micro-organismos e parece ser uma alternativa viável como agente germicida, portanto, recomendam-se novas investigações. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus y las sustancias xilitol y papaína, ante los microorganismos: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli y Candida albicans. MÉTODO Se utilizó la eva [...] luación antimicrobiana in vitro, por medio de la prueba de la difusión en agar y evaluación del diámetro del halo de inhibición de las sustancias probadas. La clorhexidina al 0,5% fue utilizada como control. RESULTADOS Se advirtió que el aceite de Eucalyptus globulus presentó inhibición superior a la de la clorhexidina cuando aplicado al Staphylococus aureus, e inhibición idéntica cuando aplicado a los microorganismos Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris y Candida albicans. La papaína al 10% presentó efecto antimicrobiano inferior al de la clorhexidina con relación a la Candida albicans. El xilitol no presentó inhibición de los microorganismos probados. CONCLUSIÓN El aceite de Eucalyptus globulus tiene actividad antimicrobiana contra diferentes microorganismos y parece ser una alternativa viable como agente germicida, por lo que se recomiendan nuevas investigaciones. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. ME [...] THOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  14. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution / Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M.M., Silva; L.R., Ferreira; F.A., Ferreira; G.V., Miranda.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materia [...] is cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark), em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp.), GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis) e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.) e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla) x Eucalyptus sp.) e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.). Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado. Abstract in english Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under g [...] reenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid), GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis), and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid) were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla) x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid) and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids) in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.

  15. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp. seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid, GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis, and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materiais cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark, em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp., GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.. Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado.

  16. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF) / Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benedito Rocha, Vital; Antônio da Silva, Maciel; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF) cujas densidades foram iguai [...] s a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF we [...] re equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

  17. Spacing and Genotype on Height and Diameter Growth of Four Eucalyptus under Short Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balozi B Kirongo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic change in tree height, diameter at breast height (dbh, and ground line diameter (gld at different density was studied. Trial sites were established in Chepkoilel and Nangili areas of western Kenya.  Eight tree species (2 hybrid eucalyptus clones; GC 10 and GC 167, 1 eucalyptus local landrace, 2 agroforestry (Grevillea robusta and Markhamia lutea, 1 pure eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis, and 2 preferred local species (Maesopsis eminii and Khaya nyasica were planted on each site. This paper however focuses on the effect of spacing  on the height, dbh, and  gld growth of the 4 eucalyptus genotypes viz (2 eucalyptus hybrid clones, 1 eucalyptus local landrace, and 1 pure Eucalyptus grandis. These were planted at 10 different spacings (0.6-, 0.8-, 1.0-, 1.2-, 1.4-, 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.0-, 2.2-, and 2.4-by-1.0 m; these being some of the most common spacings used by farmers in a Nelder radial experimental design in 4 replications. Measurements of height, dbh, and gld were taken at intervals of 6 months over 3 years. The data was subjected to an analysis of variance to determine if there were statistically significant (p = 0.05 differences in tree growth with spacing levels.  The results showed that tree growth  was significantly  influenced  by spacing  and genotype  with  the  best  spacing being  2.4-by-1.0 m, indicated that the relative growth rates of height dbh, gld, and increased with increasing the distance between trees but decreased with age. After 3 years the best spacing for optimal overall tree growth was 2.4-by-1.0 m and GC10 being the outstanding genotype. Of the 2 sites, trees performed better in Nangili. The results from this study further pinpoint the importance of species-site-matching using improved germplasm and planting trees at the correct spacing for optimal growth.Keywords: tree growth, spacing, eucalyptus hybrid clones, short rotation forestry, species site matching

  18. Selitrichodes neseri n. sp, a new parasitoid of the eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Janine; La Salle, John; Harney, Marlene; Dittrich-Schroder, Gudrun; Hurley, Brett P.

    2012-01-01

    Selitrichodes neseri Kelly & La Salle n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as a parasitoid of the invasive eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), which is causing substantial damage particularly in commercial Eucalyptus plantations. Selitrichodes neseri was originally collected in Australia in 2010 when searching for biological control agents of L. invasa. It has since been reared in quarantin...

  19. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  20. Substituição parcial de fosfato solúvel por natural na implantação de Eucalyptus benthamii e Eucalyptus dunnii no Planalto Sul catarinense / Partial substitution of soluble phosphate by rock phosphate in the planting of Eucalyptus benthamii and Eucalyptus dunnii in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Patrícia Rosa, Dias; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Paulo Roberto, Ernani; David José, Miquelluti; Djalma Miler, Chaves; Gustavo, Brunetto.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A adubação fosfatada é importante para o crescimento inicial do eucalipto, porque suplementa o solo na fase de maior demanda da cultura. O fosfato solúvel (FS) é a fonte comumente utilizada para esse fim, pois apresenta dissolução rápida no solo; contudo, tem custo mais elevado que os fosfatos natur [...] ais (FNs), que por sua vez têm dissolução mais lenta. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de FN como substituinte parcial do FS para o fornecimento de P para Eucalyptus benthamii e E. dunnii. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no campo, um com cada espécie, no município de Otacílio Costa, SC, no período de novembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela principal, testou-se a presença ou ausência do FN (0 ou 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte FN de Bayovar) e nas subparcelas testaram-se as doses de FS (0, 75; 150; e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte superfosfato triplo). Foram realizadas medidas de diâmetro à altura do colo e altura das árvores aos 340 dias, após a aplicação das fontes de P. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adubação fosfatada aumentou o crescimento em diâmetro e altura e incrementou o volume das plantas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, durante o primeiro ano de cultivo. O E. benthamii foi mais exigente à adubação fosfatada, mas permitiu a substituição parcial da dose de fosfato solúvel por fonte de menor solubilidade. Não houve resposta do E. dunnii à aplicação de fosfato natural, devendo a adubação ser realizada com fosfato solúvel. Abstract in english Phosphorus fertilization is important for the initial growth of eucalyptus. Soluble phosphate (SP) sources are commonly used for this purpose because they offer fast dissolution in the soil, but these sources have higher costs than rock phosphate (RP), which has lower solubility. The aim of this stu [...] dy was to evaluate the use of RP as a partial substitute for SP for the initial supply of P to Eucalyptus benthamii and E. dunnii. Two field experiments were carried out (one with each species) in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, SC, Brazil, from November 2010 to December 2011. A randomized block experimental design in a split plot arrangement with three replications was used. In the main plot, the presence or absence of RP (0 or 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 using Bayovar as a P source) was tested, and in the subplots, application rates of SP (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 P2O5, using triple superphosphate) were tested. The diameter was measured at the root collar as well as tree height at 340 days after applying the P sources. The results showed that P fertilization promoted plant growth in diameter and height, increasing the volume of E. benthamii and E. dunnii during the first year of cultivation. E. benthamii was more demanding in P, but allowed partial replacement of soluble phosphate by a source with lower solubility. There was no response from E. dunnii to the application of rock phosphate, and fertilization should be performed only with soluble phosphates.

  1. Supressão da atividade saprofítica de Rhizoctonia spp. em solos de jardim clonal de Eucalyptus Suppression of Rhizoctonia spp. saprophytic activity in Eucalyptus clonal hedge soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIO A. SANFUENTES

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de Trichoderma longibranchiatum (UFV-1, de T. inhamatum (UFV-2 e UFV-3, compostos de casca e folhas de eucalipto contra Rhizoctonia spp., aplicados em solo de jardim clonal de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.. Em solos artificialmente infestados com Rhizoctonia spp., sob condições controladas, os antagonistas UFV-2 e UFV-3 apresentaram níveis elevados de supressividade, quando se aumentou a fonte alimentar na formulação, de 5 a 50 g de farelo de trigo por litro. No campo, o antagonista UFV-3 não teve efeito significativo na redução do inóculo de Rhizoctonia spp. Compostos de casca de eucalipto apresentaram diferentes graus de supressão a Rhizoctonia spp., dependendo da origem e do lote do composto. A incorporação de folhas de eucalipto ao solo favoreceu o aumento do inóculo de Rhizoctonia spp.The effectiveness of Trichoderma longibranchiatum (UFV-1, T. inhamatum (UFV-2 and UFV-3, eucalyptus bark compost and leaves of eucalyptus was tested for the suppression of Rhizoctonia spp. in the soil of a clonal hedge of eucalyptus under controlled conditions. Soils artificially infested with Rhizoctonia spp., the antagonists UFV-2 and UFV-3 showed high levels of suppression of the pathogen when the feeding formulation rose from 5 to 50 g wheat bran per liter. However, in the field, the antagonist UFV-3 did not show a significant effect in reducing the inoculum of Rhizoctonia spp. Eucalypt us bark compost resulted in different levels of suppression of the pathogen depending on the compost pile and source. Adding eucalyptus leaves to the soil favored the inoculum of Rhizoctonia spp.

  2. Biological Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Camendulensis on Some Fungi and Bacteria

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    Mehani Mouna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. These Eucalyptus camendulensis: has been selected for screening antibacterial. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum. The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determin the fungic activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

  3. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  4. Automation of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry extraction of eucalyptus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Cláudia A; Lord, Heather; Christensen, Eva; de, Assis Teot?nio F; Caramão, Elina B; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2002-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) is employed to analyze fragrance compounds from different species of eucalyptus trees: Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis, and hybrids of other species. The analyses are performed using an automated system for preincubation, extraction, injection, and analysis of samples. The autosampler used is a CombiPAL and has much flexibility for the development of SPME methods and accommodates a variety of vial sizes. For automated fragrance analysis the 10- and 20-mL vials are the most appropriate. The chromatographic separation and identification of the analytes are performed with a Varian Saturn 4D GC-ITMS using an HP-5MS capillary column. Several compounds of eucalyptus volatiles are identified, with good reproducibility for both the peak areas and retention times. Equilibrium extraction provides maximal sensitivity but requires additional consideration for the effect of carryover. Preequilibrium extraction allows good sensitivity with minimal carryover. PMID:11954651

  5. Aplicação de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden = IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importância no setor florestal e muitos avanços na área do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns genótipos promissores ainda não possuem protocolos de multiplicação com técnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se avaliar concentrações de IBA na sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinação da dose de máxima eficiência técnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropônico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca em soluções hidroalcoólicas, cujas concentrações foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por três clones e cinco concentrações de IBA, com cinco repetições, contendo dez miniestacas por repetição. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizogênicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram até a maiorconcentração de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. Ministumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the minicutting basal portion was plunged in hydro-alcoholic solutions, whose concentrations were: 0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1 of IBA. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with the factors consisting of three clones and five IBA concentrations, with five replications, containing 10 minicuttings per replication. IBA positively influenced the minicutting rooting processes, with differentiated behavior between the clones, with 30.32 to 55.45% rooting variation. The positives increments occurred until the highest IBA concentration for H12 and H19 clones. However, the range between 4,000 and 6,000 mg L-1 ofIBA treatments promoted the best rooting results for the H20 clone.

  6. Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares

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    Roberson Dibax

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tissues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plantas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes quanto o meio completo (47%. O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas.

  7. Tipos de Ruptura em Madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Modificada Termicamente / Types of Failures in Thermally-Modified Eucalyptus grandis Wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo; Aline Fernanda de, Brito.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os tipos de ruptura durante os ensaios mecânicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis modificada termicamente. Para tanto, tábuas centrais de 19 árvores de E. grandis com 5,9 anos de idade foram utilizadas nesse estudo. As tábuas foram secas até 10% de umid [...] ade, aplainadas com 32 mm de espessura e seccionadas em peças com 0,60 m de comprimento. Posteriormente, uma das peças foi mantida em seu estado original e as demais foram modificadas termicamente à 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC e 220ºC por 2,5 horas. De cada peça foram produzidos corpos-de­prova para os ensaios de compressão paralela às fibras e de flexão estática. O material foi aclimatizado em câmara climática com 21ºC e 65% de umidade relativa, no Laboratório de Secagem e Preservação da Madeira da FCA, UNESP, de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Após os ensaios mecânicos, os tipos de ruptura foram caracterizados pela norma ASTM D-143 (2007). Os resultados mostraram que: (1) existe uma relação direta, pelo teste qui-quadrado, entre a temperatura do tratamento térmico e a ruptura frágil da madeira de E. grandis; e (2) a madeira dessa espécie quando modificada termicamente à 220ºC apresentou 100% de ruptura caracterizada como frágil. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the types of failures after the mechanical tests of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood. The present study utilized boards that contained the pith from 5 years and 11 months old Eucalyptus grandis trees. The boards were dried up to 10.0% moisture content, planing [...] to 32-mm thick, and cutted into smaller pieces measuring 0.60 m in length. Subsequently, one piece was kept in its original condition and others pieces were thermally-modified at 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC and 220ºC over a period of 2.5 hours. Specimens were obtained for the compression-parallel­to-grain and static-bending tests. All of the specimens were placed in a climatic chamber (21ºC and 65% relative humidity) in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation in the Department of Natural Resources/Forest Sciences, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP, in Brazil. After the mechanical tests the types of failures were classified as recommended by ASTM D-143 (2007). The results show that: (1) there is a direct relationship between the heat treatment temperature and brittle wood by chi-square test; and (2) the E. grandis wood when thermally-modified at 220ºC presented 100% of fragile failure.

  8. Pre- and post-harvest vegetation changes in Eucalyptus (hybrid) plantation in Bettahalli (GKVK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Data are given on the tree, shrub and herb and grass flora found in the undergrowth of a 9-year-old coppice Eucalyptus hybrid (E. tereticornis) plot and an adjoining plot clear felled of Eucalyptus in 1974 and allowed to regenerate for 9 years with no shrub cutting or weeding. The total number of species (especially herb) in the clear felled area was greater (53 compared with 28); Phyllanthus lawii, Erythroxylon (Erythroxylum), Ziziphus and sandal were dominant, and grasses luxuriant. Before eucalypts were grown in the area there was no vegetation (including grasses) which suggests that eucalypt establishment improves soil fertility and the chances for natural regeneration. In contrast, in farm woodlots of Eucalyptus in which leaf litter is swept and removed for fuel, soil quality remains poor and there is no natural regeneration.

  9. Consumo Foliar de Eucalyptus spp. por Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Wagner Calixto Morais

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. The productive potential of forest stands is reduced by pest occurrence among other factors. In Brazil, leaf-cutting ants are the most severe eucalypt pests. Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr is prevalent in the south east Brazil. However, scarce information about its potential damage for Eucalyptus forests is available. This work deals to quantifying the eucalypt leaf-consumption by such specie of leaf-cutting ant. Fresh leaves were taken from trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and served to different colonies of A. disciger, during 24 hours period, over eight different times. Leaf-consumption was calculated throughout fresh weights of leaves, before and after ants foraging. Each colony of A. disciger consumed 38.8 ± 3.2 g e 22.0 ± 2.3 g of eucalypt leaves, per day.

  10. Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production

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    Allan Motta Couto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, H and O, lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

  11. POLIAMINAS COMO MARCADORES BIOQUÍMICOS DE SALINIDADE EM CALOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis

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    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores bioquímicos têm sido usados na análise de plantas submetidas a vários tipos de estresse, entre eles a salinidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o estresse salino em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis em relação ao conteúdo de poliaminas. Explantes (hipocótilos obtidos de sementes foram inoculados em meio indutivo de calos e foram submetidos a diferentes níveis de NaCl e analisados aos 10, 20 e 30 dias de inoculação. As poliaminas livres foram extraídas, isoladas e quantificadas usando TLC (Cromatografia de Camada Delgada. O conteúdo de putrescina foi maior, enquanto que o conteúdo de espermidina apresentou decréscimo, em calos submetidos a condições salinas. Os resultados mostram que o acúmulo de putrescina está relacionado com a exposição a NaCl em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis. A diminuição do conteúdo de espermina pode ser usada como marcador bioquímico de calos de Eucalyptus sujeitos à salinidade.

  12. PLANT-AND MICROBIAL-DERIVED BIOMARKERS IN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS CULTIVATED WITH EUCALYPTUS AND ACÁCIA

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    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987554Changes in the management system for the cultivation of different forest populations and the use of crop rotation can lead to changes in the quality of soil organic matter (SOM and vegetable residue deposition. This study evaluated the stage of decomposition and the contribution of plant and microbial compounds of microbial origin for SOM through biomarkers, such as phenols-derived lignin, carbohydrates and amino sugars in monoculture of eucalyptus of short-cycle (Eucalyptus urograndis (seven years compared to crop rotation system with acacia (Acacia mangium Willd. after eucalyptus monoculture; monoculture of eucalyptus of long-cycle (24 years and native vegetation (Atlantic Forest, as a condition of the original soil of the north coast of Espírito Santo state. To do so, it was estimated in samples of soil and litter the content of total organic C (TOC, total N (TN and the contents of lignin-derived phenols (VSC, the carbohydrates and the amino sugars derived from soil microbial activity and relationships acids and aldehyde groups vanilil ((Ac/Alvanilil and syringyl ((Ac/Alsyringyl of the lignin, relations hexoses/pentoses (H/P of the carbohydrates,  glucosamine/muramic acid (Gluc/Ac. Mur and glucosamine/galactosamine (Gluc/Gal of the amino sugars. The results indicated that litter of the monoculture of eucalyptus short-cycle has greater deposition of dry matter, lignin content (VSC and carbohydrates, C/N and VSC/N ratio; similar proportion of coarse litter, fine litter and C content and; lower N content in comparison to the crop rotation system with acacia. In the soil, acacia cultivation increases C, N and carbohydrates content, enlarge the acid/aldehyde ratio of vanilil grouping and the glucosamine/muramic acid ratio of amino sugars derived from microbial activity. The increase in time of eucalyptus cultivation (24 years increased C content and decreased the VSC/N ratio in SOM compared to the monoculture of eucalyptus short-cycle, but still having C and N content lower than in soil of acacia and native forest. The smallest Ac/Al ratio of phenol derived from lignin in soils cultivated with eucalyptus (in long and short-cycle indicates that the SOM is in lower stage of decomposition (oxidation than in the soil cultivated with acacia, and that under native forest. In the soils under acacia, followed by that of eucalyptus short-cycle, the highest glucosamine/muramic acid ratio suggested a greater contribution of fungi in SOM cycling, whereas in the native forest and eucalyptus long-cycle soils there is greater abundance of bacteria-derived compounds. In this sense, there was recovery in the quality of the soil cultivated with eucalyptus long-cycle and rotated with acacia in respect to the monoculture eucalyptus short-cycle.

  13. Eucalyptus urograndis stem proteome is responsive to short-term cold stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela de Almeida, Leonardi; Natália Aparecida, Carlos; Paulo, Mazzafera; Tiago Santana, Balbuena.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus urograndis is a hybrid eucalyptus of major economic importance to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. Although widely used in forest nurseries around the country, little is known about the biochemical changes imposed by environmental stress in this species. In this study, we evaluated [...] the changes in the stem proteome after short-term stimulation by exposure to low temperature. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protein identification, 12 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and successfully identified after stringent database searches against a protein database from a closely related species (Eucalyptus grandis). The identification of these proteins indicated that the E. urograndis stem proteome responded quickly to low temperature, mostly by down-regulating specific proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and signaling. The results of this study represent the first step in understanding the molecular and biochemical responses of E. urograndis to thermal stress.

  14. Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

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    VOIGT EDUARDO LUIZ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolithus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R. nigrescens decreased the level of these substances. The isolates from Eucalyptus seem to be more compatible towards E. dunnii than those from Pinus. The mechanisms involved could be related, at least in the cases of Pisolithus and Suillus, to the concentration of phenolics in roots.

  15. Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four eucalyptus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David R; Masic, Dino; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Guy, Jonathan H

    2009-06-01

    The results of this study suggest that certain eucalyptus essential oils may be of use as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in the management of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. At a level of 0.21 mg/cm(2), the essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora achieved 85% mortality in D. gallinae over a 24 h exposure period in contact toxicity tests. A further two essential oils from different eucalyptus species, namely E. globulus and E. radiata, provided significantly (P essential oils regarding their chemical compositions. There appeared to be a trend whereby the essential oils that were composed of the fewer chemical components were the least lethal to D. gallinae. It may therefore be the case that the complexity of an essential oil's chemical make up plays an important role in dictating the toxicity of that oil to pests such as D. gallinae. PMID:19089590

  16. Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management

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    João Batista Rezende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

  17. Selection of fungi for accelerated decay in stumps of Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Frederico Aguirre de; Calonego, Fred Willians; Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Furtado, Edson Luiz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to select decay fungi for biological degradation of stumps and roots from Eucalyptus spp. in forest stands. Five fungal isolates were cultured. Subsequently, inoculated in accelerated-decay tests and field tests with tree stumps of Eucalyptus spp. present in a stand belonging to Votorantim Company were conducted. The results showed that: (1) the decay of stumps by Pycnoporus sanguineus and Ganoderma applanatum increased by up to 49.2% and 48.9%, respectively; (2) the enclosing stumps in a polyninyl chloride resulted in a reduced on the resistance due to enhanced decay as measured by an inpact penetrometer in the forest stands at Luiz Antônio, Capão Bonito, and Jacareí, SP, Brazil; and (3) the selected fungi did not show any pathogenic potential toward seedlings and adult trees. This study presents the foundation for the development of a biological system for stump removal in forest stands comprising Eucalyptus spp. PMID:22336745

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COLOR OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD CLONES

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    Cláudia Lopes Selvati de Oliveira Mori

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of wood characterization and standardization, this research evaluated the variability of woodcolor inside and among Eucalyptus spp clones, as well as radially and longitudinally inside the trunk through the quantitativecolorimetric color determination of clones of Eucalyptus wood., using CIELAB 1976 system, , through chromatic coordinates L*, a*,b*, C* e h. Eleven clones of natural Eucalyptus clones hybrids, cultivated at the Northwest of Minas Gerais State, were used. Theresults showed that: all colorimetric parameters were statistically different among clones, and among radial position of samples; itwas possible to identify both clones and samples position along the ray, producing wood of different colours, but tending to yellowishand reddish tonalities.

  19. Nutritional content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stump leaves / Teor nutricional foliar em minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Francisco José Benedini, Baccarin; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves; Marcílio de, Almeida.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os teores foliares nutricionais de minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii em relação a diferentes concentrações de Zn e B ao longo de sucessivas coletas de brotações. As brotações foram oriundas de minicepas fertirrigadas com soluções nutritivas variando nas concentrações de Zn e B ( [...] S1 - isento de Zn e B, S2 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn, S3 - 0,5 mg L-1 de B, S4 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S5 - 1,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S6 - 2,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B), sendo realizadas oito coletas de brotações do minijardim clonal. Ao longo do experimento foram determinados o teor nutricional foliar de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Considerou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes variaram significativamente em relação aos tratamentos avaliados, sendo que as soluções S5 e S6 apresentaram as melhores respostas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the foliar nutrient content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stumps treated with different Zn and B concentrations during successive shoot collections. Shoots were collected from mini-stumps fertigated with nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of Z [...] n and B (S1 - free of Zn and B; S2 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn; S3 - 0.5 mg L-1 B; S4 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn and B; S5 - 1.0 mg L-1 Zn and B; S6 - 2.0 mg L-1 Zn and B). Eight shoot collections from the clonal mini-garden were performed. For each shoot collection, the nutritional content of the leaf was determined (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The experiment was conducted using a randomized design with a split plot and included three replications. The foliar macro and micronutrient contents varied significantly in relation to the treatments, and the S5 and S6 nutritive solutions presented the best responses.

  20. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus

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    Leonardo David Tuffi Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature and localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinação da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies.

  1. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus / Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo David Tuffi, Santos; Marcela, Thadeo; Lourdes, Iarema; Renata Maria Strozi Alves, Meira; Francisco Affonso, Ferreira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinaçã [...] o da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies. Abstract in english This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature an [...] d localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.

  2. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

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    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in response to 200 mg L-1 of BAP treatment, during 1 and 2 hours. The use of the pulse on in vitro multiplication of E. grandis is feasible.

  3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD WITH IMPREGNATED CHEMICALS

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    Guofeng Wu,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylolurea and carbamide were used to impregnate eucalyptus wood to improve its physical and chemical properties. The physical properties and dimensional stability were examined. TGA was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the wood. FTIR was used to state the changes of functional groups. The changes of wood structure were observed by SEM. The results showed the bending strength and compressive strength parallel to the grain increased by 15.10% and 16.78%, respectively. The basic density of modified wood was improved by 14.29%. The shrinkage of volume and swelling of volume were significantly decreased compared to the untreated wood. The TGA results indicated that the mass loss was around 8% during the second stage, from 120°C up to 280°C, while the mass loss of treated wood was around 4%. The treated wood exhibited LOI (limited oxygen index values of about 42%, while the natural wood exhibited a LOI value of 22%. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that chemical bond was produced between wood and methylolurea as a result of chemical reaction between wood and methylolurea. The SEM results indicated that the transverse and tangential sections of the treated specimens were filled with the reaction products, which can prevent the absorption of moisture.

  4. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  5. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

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    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  6. CREEP IN STRUCTURAL-SIZED BEAMS OF ARGENTINEAN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. C, Piter; C. F, Calvo; A. G, Cuffré; V. C, Rougier; M. A, Sosa Zitto; E.A, Torrán.

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper were obtained from a test carried out during the last series of a research project regarding the creep behaviour of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis loaded in dry condition. A test with a sample containing 15 structural-sized beams was carried out during 470 days. 7 [...] pieces were free of pith and another 8 contained it. The results allow to compare the creep behaviour of these beams with previous data reported for both structural-sized and small-clear specimens of this timber species and also with those reported for other species. The effectiveness of the criteria adopted by overseas standards as well as those of Latin-American countries for calculating the creep deflections of this timber species under a long-term loading is analysed. The creep deflections obtained in the present research are higher than those calculated by means of the procedures of the Brazilian standard NBR 7190, the European standard Eurocode 5, the American standard National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the Peruvian standard. On the contrary, creep results obtained in this test are lower than those calculated according to the New Zealand standard NZS 3603, the Chilean standard NCh 1198 and the former German standard DIN 1052

  7. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell.

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    Gilmara A. C. Fortes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated glycoside, 4-O-( 4’,6’-di-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-trans-p-coumaric acid, named microcoryn ( 1 , together with sixteen known phenolic compounds, 5-O-(6'-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-gentisic acid (2, ellagic acid (3, gallic acid (4, kaempferol (5, quercetin (6, 3-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (7, 2,3,6-tri-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (8, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (9, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (10, 4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl- b - D -glucose (11, gemin D (12, tellimagrandin I (13, tellimagrandin II (14, isocoriariin F (15, oenothein C (16, and oenothein B (17 were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys . The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data, especially by 2D NMR techniques. This is the first phytochemical investigation of this plant’s leaf extract.

  8. Lignificação em calo de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

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    Hulda Rocha e Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810538Este estudo objetivou verificar o processo de lignificação em calos de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, desenvolvidos em meio Murashige e Skoog (1962 (MS, com diferentes concentrações dos reguladores de crescimento: ácido 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D (4,53; 11,32; 22,65; 45,30; 90,60 ?M e cinetina (KIN-6-furfurilaminopurina (0; 2,32; 4,65; 11,62; 23,25 ?M. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 (cinco repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental constituída por 5 (cinco frascos, contendo cada um três segmentos clonais, perfazendo-se 25 tratamentos. Os resultados foram estatisticamente avaliados e indicaram que concentrações mais altas de lignina foram associadas a uma concentração maior de 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D em relação à cinetina (KIN-6- furfurilaminopurina e que o 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, quando usado na ausência de cinetina (KIN- 6-furfurilaminopurina, em concentrações mais baixas, pode estimular de forma mais intensa a lignificação, do que quando usado na ausência de cinetina em concentrações mais altas. Os resultados indicaram, ainda, que calos muito oxidados e menos friáveis, estão relacionados a tratamentos onde a concentração de lignina é de mediana a alta.

  9. Eucalyptus nitens: nanomechanical properties of bark and wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Freddy; Valenzuela, Paulina; Gacitúa, William

    2012-09-01

    In this study, Eucalyptus nitens species was nano-characterized to determine variability in nanomechanical properties within the cellular ultra-structure between the bark and wood fibers. Three factors, including site (2 levels), family (2 levels) and fiber type (bark and wood) were analyzed using three response variables, including the elastic modulus ( E), hardness ( H) and ductility ratio ( E/ H) in the middle lamella ( ML) and the cell wall within the S2 layer. The results indicated significant differences for E S2 and H S2 when comparing fiber types: E S2?12.52 GPa and H S2?0.31 GPa for wood fiber and E S2?10.81 GPa and H S2?0.26 GPa for bark fiber. There is not statistically significant difference in ductility ratio ( E/ H) in S2 and ML between fiber types. These results indicate that bark and wood fibers can be used together or separately in the development of new composite materials and engineering products.

  10. BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, ?-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Khaled, Sebei; Fawzi, Sakouhi; Wahid, Herchi; Mohamed Larbi, Khouja; Sadok, Boukhchina.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte [...] (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms includingStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). RESULTS: The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain ?-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata(arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSION: The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and ?-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostatashowed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  12. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter-specific competition.

  13. Características palinológicas de mieles de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.) y tréboles (Trifolium sp.) provenientes de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina / Palynological characteristics of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) and clover (Trifolium sp.) honeys from Argentinean Pampean Phytogeographic Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Cristina, Ciappini; María Susana, Vitelleschi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el perfil polínico de mieles de tréboles y de eucalipto de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina, con el fin de contribuir a su caracterización palinológica. Se realizó un análisis polínico cualitativo y se aplicaron técnicas estadísticas descriptiva [...] s y multivariadas, para conocer la distribución de frecuencia de los pólenes y caracterizar cada origen floral, según los pólenes acompañantes y los años de cosecha. Se analizaron 81 muestras de miel, de cuatro cosechas diferentes. Se encontraron 41 tipos morfológicos de polen, cuya variación por muestra osciló entre dos y ocho. El taxón presente en más del 80% de las mieles fue Eucalyptus sp. Los principales pólenes acompañantes encontrados pertenecieron a los tipos Helianthus annuus y Carduus sp., para ambos orígenes florales estudiados, y a la familia de las Brassicaceae, para las mieles de tréboles. Los años de cosecha estudiados mostraron diferentes espectros polínicos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the pollen profile of clover and eucalyptus honeys from the Phytogeographic Pampean Province of Argentina, in order to contribute to its palynological characterization. Qualitative pollen analysis was performed. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques we [...] re applied to determine the frequency distribution of pollen and characterize each floral origin by pollen and year of harvest. 81 samples of honey from four different harvests were analyzed. 41 morphological types of pollen were found, which variation per sample ranged from two to eight. Eucalyptus sp. was the taxon present in over 80% of the honeys. There were pollen of Helianthus annuus and Carduus sp. in clover and eucalyptus honeys but pollen of Brassicaceae was only present in clover honeys. Pollen spectra showed differences between the studied years.

  14. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Kumar Tyagi; Danka Bukvicki; Davide Gottardi; Giulia Tabanelli; Chiara Montanari; Anushree Malik; Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), ?-pinene (5%), and ?-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8...

  15. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations Balanço de N em solos sob plantações de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto; Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Félix de Barros

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: M...

  16. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

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    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption and basic papermaking properties were evaluated. Upon these results, they were considered as potential mixed base material for Kraft cooking. In previous research, significant differences were found between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus maidenii Kraft pulping behavior and no mixture was recommended. New results indicate a similar performance for each studied Eucalyptus species. However, the comparable demand in active alkali charges among them, suggests that mixtures could be successfully employed.

  17. Compaction and soil fertility after eucalyptus harvesting using Feller Buncher and Skidder

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    Ana Lúcia Piedade Sodero Martins Pincelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, the impact of Feller Buncher and Skidder traffic in harvesting areas of eucalyptus in Mogi Guaçu, considering the compaction and fertilization effects in the range of soil next to the carrier during the cycle of forest growth. An increase in soil compaction, caused by machinery traffic in topsoil (0-10 cm, was observed in the area recently harvested. The soils of the study areas, with eucalyptus 1.4 and 6.0 years old, showed good fertility conditions, especially the older area, where decomposition of forest residues possibly contributed to such fertility.

  18. Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis / Bioprospectionof Bacillus spp. as potential growth promoters in Eucalyptus urograndis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Ligia de Lima, Moreira; Fabio Fernando de, Araújo.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bact [...] érias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical characteristics of agronomic interest and correlation with the promotion of plant grow thin isolates of Bacillus sp. originating from the eucalyptus rhizosp here. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse. From the bacteria isol [...] ation from the rhizo sp here of plants from different cities of the western region of São Paulo, were obtained 127 isolates of Bacillus sp.. Biochemical testswere performed to characterize thebacterial isolateson the antagonism of pathogenic fungi, the production of auxin, ammonia and enzymatic activity. In the final ste pwe evaluated thepotentialof the isolates, previous lycharacterizedin laboratory conditions, to promote plant growth, using bacteria inoculation in eucalyptus seedling sand growing plants in a green house for 90 days. Eucalyptus growth were evaluated aiming to select the best strain sand to correlate the different variables asses sed. The bio prospecting protocol for Bacillus sp. Rhizosp here was valid to find promising rhizobacteria in increasing eucalyptus growth. Five isolates were selected as promising foracti on on growing eucalyptus. The antagonistic to pathogenic fungi and ammonia production found in isolate so frhizobacteria help fulin the initial selection of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria eucalyptus as significantly correlated with plant growth.

  19. Densidad de la madera en clones de eucalyptus por densitometría de rayos X / Wood Density in eucalyptus clones by X-Rays Densitometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bibiana, Arango; Lida, Tamayo.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Brasil y en diversos países se han verificado avances significativos en la silvicultura clonal intensiva con diferencias marcadas entre clones de especies e híbridos de eucalyptus en lo referente a los parámetros de crecimiento y desarrollo. Al mismo tiempo, en los últimos años, se introdujo e [...] l concepto de uso múltiplo del leño de los árboles con la utilización de la madera como fuente de celulosa y papel, madera sólida y otras aplicaciones como estrategia de aumento de la rentabilidad del emprendimiento forestal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el índice de uniformidad de la madera y la variación de la densidad en el sentido radial por densitometría de rayos X de árboles de 8 años de edad de clones de eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, buscando posibilitar la optimización de su uso. Por sus características silviculturales se seleccionaron los 5 mejores clones de la especie e híbrido de las plantaciones clonales localizadas en el municipio de San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP de la Cia Suzano de Celulosa y Papel. Se caracterizaron 3 modelos de variación radial de la densidad y la formación de 3 tipos de madera (juvenil, de transición y adulta); el valor medio de densidad aparente de la madera en los clones fue de 0,46 y 0,54 g/cm³, para el eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, respectivamente. Abstract in english In Brazil, as in many other countries significant advances have been verified in intensive clonal silviculture with remarkable differences on parameters of growth and development between species clones and hybrids of eucalyptus. At the same time, during recent years the concept of multiple uses of t [...] ree logs to increase the yield of the forest enterprise as cellulose and paper and solid wood has been introduced. The present paper studies the wood uniformity index and radial variability of density using x-rays densitometry of 8 year clones eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla in order to optimize their use. This experiment was performent at Suzano Cellulose and Paper Company Clone Plantation in San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP-Brazil. The best five clones of the species and hybrid by their silviculture characteristics were selected. Three models of radial density variation were found and the formation of three different types of wood were characterized (youthful, of transition and adult); the average value of wood apparent density in clones was 0.46 and 0.54 g/cm³ for eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla, respectively.

  20. Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna / Taux d'escompte et rotation forestière: le cas de l'Eucalyptus Saligna / Discount Rate and Timber Rotation: the Case of Eucalyptus Saligna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo, Restrepo; Mauricio, Alviar.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Eucalipto es una de las especies de mayor importancia económica y ambiental en Colombia. El objetivo de este artículo es observar la relación existente entre la tasa de descuento y el año de corte del Eucalyptus Saligna, mediante el método de Fisher y Hotelling. La metodología consiste en calcula [...] r el máximo Valor Actual Neto y realizar un análisis del comportamiento del año de corte con respecto a la tasa de descuento. La región de estudio es el oriente antioqueño, de donde se tomaron datos suministrados por la reforestadora Doña María para una hectárea típica. Se encontró que el año de corte tiene una relación inversamente proporcional con la tasa de descuento, y que éste disminuye para tasas altas. Abstract in english Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling's method. The methodology consists of ca [...] lculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

  1. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood / Perda de volume como ferramenta para avaliação da secagem da madeira de eucalipto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Djeison Cesar, Batista; Ricardo Jorge, Klitzke; Márcio Pereira da, Rocha; Graciela Inez Bolzon de, Muñiz; Tharcia Ribeiro, Batista.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da secagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus dunnii, em termos de perda de volume. A madeira das três espécies foi seca conjuntamente, com o mesmo programa de secagem e condições ambientais, em uma câmara-piloto de sec [...] agem convencional. Foram avaliados três tipos de perda de volume: total - da condição saturada (inicial) até a aplainada (final); contração - da condição saturada até 10% de umidade; usinagem - da condição saturada até a aplainada. A madeira de Eucalyptus grandis foi a mais estável dimensionalmente e apresentou a menor perda de volume na contração. Embora tenham comportamentos diferentes de estabilidade dimensional, as madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram a mesma qualidade de secagem, levando-se em consideração as perdas de volume no aplainamento e total. Estas espécies podem ser consideradas a mesma para a secagem convencional. A madeira de Eucalyptus dunnii apresentou a pior qualidade de secagem e não deve ser seca na mesma carga que as demais. Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Thr [...] ee kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial) to machined (final) condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  2. Eucalyptus essential oil action on mycorrhizal colonization and the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis in soil contaminated by copper Ação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na micorrização e no estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis em solo contaminado por cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of eucalyptus essential oil can optimize the growth of ectomycorrhizal isolates, which aid the establishment of forest species in soils contaminated by copper. The study aimed to determine the best application of eucalyptus essential oil in the formation of mycorrhizal seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis and its influence on the establishment of these seedlings in soil contaminated by copper. It was used the ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECM Pisolithus microcarpus. The application forms of the essential oil were evaluated in a greenhouse, by means of six treatments. Subsequently, the seedlings were transplanted and evaluated in soil contaminated by copper, greenhouse and field. It was determined height, diameter, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, copper content in plant, colonization and survival in the field. The essential oil of E. grandis supports the growth of mycorrhizal of eucalyptus seedlings, particularly when applied to the substrate. The application of essential oil increases the colonization, promoting growth and survival of seedlings under greenhouse conditions and field.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245

    A utilização do óleo essencial de eucalipto pode otimizar o crescimento de isolados ectomicorrízicos, os quais auxiliam o estabelecimento de essências florestais em solos contaminados por cobre. O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a melhor forma de aplicação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis micorrizadas e sua influência no estabelecimento dessas mudas em solo contaminado por cobre. Utilizou-se o fungo ectomicorrízico (fECM Pisolithus microcarpus. As formas de aplicação do óleo essencial foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio de seis tratamentos. Posteriormente, as mudas foram transplantadas e avaliadas em solo contaminado por cobre, em condições de casa de vegetação e campo. Determinou-se altura, diâmetro, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raízes, teor de cobre na planta, colonização micorrízica e sobrevivência no campo. O óleo essencial de E. grandis favorece o crescimento de mudas de eucalipto micorrizadas, principalmente quando aplicado diretamente no substrato. A aplicação do óleo essencial aumenta a colonização micorrízica, favorecendo o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em condições de casa de vegetação e campo.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245

  3. EFFECT OF FREQUENCY OF IMMERSION AND AIR INJECTION ON IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813321The objectives of this study were to evaluate different immersion frequencies (2, 4, 8 and 16 h andexplants supports (filter paper and foam of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clone insideRITA® bioreactors; and a ventilation system with additional air input coupled to the bioreactor containers.It was evaluated the explants fresh weight, number of shoots and hyperhydricity and in vitro axillary budmultiplication. The immersions every two and four hours and the filter paper showed higher growth andnumber of shoots, but caused a greater percentage of hyperhydric shoots. Under the conditions and systemtested, the additional air injection in the RITA® bioreactor did not influence the culture growth.

  4. RENEWABLE SUBSTRATES IN THE SEEDLING PRODUCTION OF Eucalyptus benthamii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagma Kratz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812345The pressing need to increase the number of seedlings planted annually, as well as the reduced availabilityof traditional raw materials for the composition of substrates have led to a need of developing studiesaimed to evaluate and to provide new materials for the composition of substrates, technically andeconomically efficient. On this basis, the present study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of usingcomponents based on renewable coconut fiber (FC, rice hulls (CAC in different grain sizes, biosolids(BIO and semi-decomposed pine bark in the composition substrates for the production of seedlings ofEucalyptus benthamii, as well as to assess the correlation between physical and chemical properties ofsubstrates formulated with the quality of seedlings produced. For this, we formulated 41 treatments, whichhad their physical and chemical properties evaluated, and sowing in tubes made from 55 cm ³. We evaluatedthe height of the shoot and the stem diameter every 30 days, as well as the dry biomass of shoots and radicialareas, the ease of removal of the cartridge and the aggregation of the roots to the substrate at 90 days. It was found that all renewable materials examined were suitable for the production of seedlings. However,the screening of CAC is not justified when compared with the CAC in its entirety. Measurements of heightand diameter prior to final evaluation are unreliable for predicting the outcome. BIO different particle sizeand CAC had low root aggregation to the substrate. The high levels of salinity, conductivity and pH did notharm the growth of seedlings. Concerning to the physical properties, it was observed that substrates withhigher densities and smaller micro-porosity root aggregation provided to the substrate and provided withgreater macro-porosity increased growth of shoots and radicial.

  5. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  6. BEHAVIOR OF GLUED JOINTS OF EUCALYPTUS sp. SAWN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated eucalypt wood adhesion capacity. The material evaluated was a commercial sawn wood composed by a blend of species of the genus Eucalyptus. The adhesives used were resorcinol-formaldehyde and polyvinila acetate (PVAc. The wood was segregated in three density with 0% of moisture content: class 1; 2 and 3 that, when combined (class1 x class1; 2x2; 3x3; 1x2; 1x3; 2x3 resulted in six treatments. The performance of the adhesion was evaluated by the shear strength to parallel compression and by wood failure in the glue line. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the adhesion of the combinations of wood/adhesive presented satisfactory performance. The average shear strength of the joints were shown equivalent to the shear strength of the solid wood with similar performance of adhesion in the two adhesives. In general, resorcinol-formaldheyde adhesive presented higher values (74.41% for wood failure in the joints, but similar to all treatments. The adhesion of samples of higher density presented lower performance probably when only the values of wood failure are considered. The values for the strength of glued joints, in general, were similar when analyzed the results achieved with the resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive- base 140,56 Kgf/cm2. To polyvinila acetate the values of wood failure decrease when the density increase (65.94%, but the resistance in the glue line was positively affected (140.25 Kgf/cm2. In general, the density influenced the adhesion of the joints for the employed adhesives.

  7. Micropropagation of eucalyptus saligna sm. from cotyledonary nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus saligna is an important woody plant used to lumber and cellulose. The aim of this research was to establish a protocol for micropropagation of this species from cotyledonary nodes. Plantlets with 16 days old were used as a donor explants. The induction of cotyledonary nodes consisted of two parts: a dark culture followed by a light culture. Basal medium was MS added with 30g.L-1 sucrose, 10% coconut water and solidified with 7g.L-1 agar. For the dark culture the media were supplemented with 3.6 micro M NAA (Naftalenoacetic acid) and 4.4 micro M BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and for the light culture the media were supplemented with 2.7 micro M NAA and 1.1 micro M BAP. The period for dark and light culture was 20 days. Shoots were multiplied on MS medium, 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 1.1 micro M BAP. Shoots were elongated on MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Shoots were rooting on half-strength MS salts. Acclimatization was performed in a hydroponics floating system. Moreover, the shoot multiplication in liquid medium with different CaCl/sub 2/ levels was carried out under agitation. Organogenesis of cotyledonary nodes was characterized by simultaneous occurrence of shoot and callus. Shoots presented hyperhydricity under liquid medium, however, the CaCl/sub 2/ reduces the hyperhydricity in liquid medium; nevertheless, it had been not effective in eliminating hyperhydricity due to toxicity of chlorine. The hydroponics acclimatization results in 90% plant survival. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of E. saligna was suitable established and can be used for clonal propagation or genetic transformation. (author)

  8. Fertirrigação na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis nos períodos de inverno e verão / Fertirrigation in production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis during winter and summer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Fernandes, Ciavatta; Magali Ribeiro da, Silva; Danilo, Simões.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas correlacionando o parcelamento da fertirrigação com o desenvolvimento e qualidade de mudas florestais, em diferentes sistemas de produção e períodos do ano são fundamentais para a otimização de insumos e minimização do ciclo de produção. Dessa forma conduziu-se esse estudo com o objetivo d [...] e verificar a influência do parcelamento da fertirrigação no desenvolvimento e qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis nos períodos de inverno e verão. As fertilizações por meio do sistema de irrigação por capilaridade foram parceladas em: uma, duas, três ou seis vezes por semana, sendo mantida a quantidade total de nutrientes aplicados. Concluiu-se que, as fertirrigações mais eficazes para o desenvolvimento e a qualidade de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis foram de seis e uma vez na semana, para o período de inverno e verão, respectivamente, demonstrando-se a necessidade de adequação dos manejos de fertirrigação em função do período do ano. Abstract in english Studies correlating the splitting of fertigation with the development and quality of tree seedlings in different production systems and periods of the year are fundamental to optimize inputs and minimization of the production cycle. Thus we conducted this study aimed to check the influence of the sp [...] lit of fertigation in the development and quality of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in winter and summer periods. The fertilization through the irrigation system by capillarity was split on: one, two, three or six times in the week, maintaining the total amount of nutrients applied. We concluded that the most effective fertigation for the development and quality of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis were six and one times in the week for the period of winter and summer, respectively, demonstrating the need for adequacy of fertigation managements according to the period of year.

  9. Vesicular-arbuscular-/ecto-mycorrhiza succession in seedlings of. Eucalyptus spp. Sucessão de micorrizas vesicular-arbuscular e ectomicorrizas em mudas de Eucalyptus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lúcia dos Santos; Rosa Maria Muchovej; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Júlio César L. Neves; Maria Catarina M. Kasuya

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) and ectomycorrhizae (ECM) in the same root system was observed when species of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, E. citriodora Hook f., E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. cloeziana F. Muell. and E. camaldulensis Dehnh were simultaneously inoculated with Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gederman and Pisolithus tinctorius (Per.) Cocker & Couch, isolate Pt 90A. The succession between the two fungi was observed. In general ectomycorrhizal colonizatio...

  10. Plantio misto de Eucalyptus spp. com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio / Mixed plantation of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Edenilson, Liberalesso; Marcos Vinícius Winckler, Caldeira; Luciano Farinha, Watzlawick.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A revisão relata os principais benefícios do plantio misto de eucalipto com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico. Buscou-se analisar as interações ecológicas das espécies envolvidas no sistema, a arquitetura espacial utilizada e o possível aumento de produtividade do sistema cons [...] orciado. Com base nisso, observa-se que o cultivo misto de eucaliptos com leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico só deve ser realizado em locais onde os processos e as interações entre espécies aumentarão o crescimento, a produção de biomassa ou a qualidade do produto final desejado. De forma geral, os estudos indicam que o interplantio de leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio proporciona incremento na produtividade das plantas de eucalipto. Contudo, devem-se analisar as interações dos plantios mistos até a sua idade de rotação, para que, com isso, possam ser verificados os possíveis efeitos da fixação biológica de nitrogênio atmosférico pela leguminosa na produtividade do eucalipto. Abstract in english In this paper, we aimed to review the main benefits of the mixed plantation of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees. To this end, the ecological interactions of the species involved in the system was analyzed, as well as the space architecture used and the possible increase in productivity c [...] aused by the intercropping. On this basis, it was possible to observe that the mixed cropping of eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing legume trees should be implemented only in locations where the processes and interactions between species will increase the growth, biomass production or quality of desired product. In general, studies indicate that mixed plantation provides an increase in productivity in eucalyptus stand. However, it is important to analyze the interactions of mixed stand until the age of rotation, so that the possible effects of atmospheric nitrogen fixation by legume trees on the productivity of eucalyptus can be verified.

  11. Site Productivity of Clone and Seed Raised Plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis in Southeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Pérez-Sandoval; Armando Gómez-Guerrero; Aurelio Fierros-González; William R. Horwath

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between soil variables and forest productivity of Eucalyptus urophylla (Eu) and E. grandis (Eg) was studied in commercial forest plantations (CFP) in Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. The group of Eu included seed and clone raised plantations and the Eg group included only seed raised plantations. Tree measurements and soil sampling were carried out at 56 500-m2 plots. Two soil depths (0 - 20 and 20 - 40 cm) were sampled and analyzed for phy...

  12. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus / Efeito da idade e da classe diamétrica nas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus clonal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilma Michele Santos, Santana; Natalino, Calegario; Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da idade e da classe diamétrica sobre as características físicas, térmicas e químicas de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla. O material utilizado neste estudo com 34, 48, 61, 74 e 86 meses de idade, foi proveniente [...] de área de reflorestamento, de propriedade da GERDAU S.A., sendo selecionadas duas árvores em cada idade por classe diamétrica, respeitando a proporção de cada parcela lançada nos locais amostrados. As características físicas: densidade básica da madeira, massa seca e o estoque de carbono; químicas: holocelulose, teor de extrativos totais, lignina total, cinzas; análises elementar e térmica da madeira foram determinadas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a maioria das características da madeira foi influenciada pela idade e classe diamétrica. A espécie estudada apresentou grande potencial para produção de massa seca e geração de energia na forma de calor, que pode ser convertida em energia mecânica e eletricidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, [...] 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  13. Deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × E. globulus / Deposition of nutrients and litter in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. globulus plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Elias Frank, Araújo; Robson Schaff, Corrêa; Marcos Vinicius Winckler, Caldeira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar a deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram alocadas sistematicamente quatro parcelas de 20 m × 20 m, cada uma com quatro coletores de serapilheira de 1 m². A serapilheira f [...] oi coletada quinzenalmente, entre janeiro/2007 e dezembro/2010. A produção de serapilheira foi crescente, com o aumento da idade do povoamento, sendo 6,9 Mg ha-1 aos seis e 8,5 Mg ha-1 aos nove anos. A fração folhas correspondeu, em média, a 66,9% da serapilheira total, seguida pelos galhos finos (14,7%), miscelânea (10,5%) e galhos grossos (7,9%). A deposição apresentou padrão sazonal, sendo maior no período de aumento da temperatura do ar. A fração folhas foi responsável por maior parte do retorno de nutrientes via serapilheira, variando de 58,2 a 81,8% da quantidade de Cu e N, respectivamente. Abstract in english In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the deposition of nutrients and litter in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus stands, in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Four plots (20 m × 20 m) were systematically allocated and four 1 m² litter traps were inst [...] alled in each plot. Litterfall was collected from the traps fortnightly between January 2006 and December 2010. Litter deposition increased proportionally to stand age: 6.9 Mg ha-1 at six and 8.5 Mg ha-1 at nine years of age. Leaf fraction represented 66.9% of the total litter on average, followed by twigs (14.7%), miscellaneous (10.5%), and thick branches (7.9%). Litter deposition showed seasonal behavior, increasing as the air temperature increased. The leaf fraction produced the highest nutrient release through litter, with average values of 58.2 and 81.8% for Cu and N, respectively.

  14. Tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: pelo método de substituição de seiva / Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: juvenile wood by sap displacement method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo Marcel de Arruda, Torres; Juarez Benigno, Paes; José Augusto de, Lira Filho; José Wallace Barbosa do, Nascimento.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, analisar a qualidade do tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e verificar a influência da inversão das peças na solução preservativa, na distribuição, na penetração e na retenção do CCB, ao longo das peças tratadas pelo método [...] de substituição de seiva. Árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram coletadas na Zona Rural do Município de Rio Tinto - PB, de um povoamento com quatro anos. No povoamento foram escolhidas, aleatoriamente, cinco árvores, sendo três de maior diâmetro. Para o tratamento da madeira, empregou-se o método de substituição de seiva por transpiração radial utilizando-se uma solução de 2% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado (CCB) e comparou-se o efeito da inversão das peças na solução preservativa. A distribuição, a penetração e a retenção foram melhores nas peças invertidas, quando comparadas àquelas não-invertidas na solução preservativa. Abstract in english The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulen [...] sis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB) and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

  15. Paneles unidos de canto y contrachapados fabricados con madera juvenil de Eucalyptus nitens Edge-glued panels and plywoods manufactured with juvenile Eucalyptus nitens wood

    OpenAIRE

    JUSTO LISPERGUER M; CARLOS ROZAS M

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo evalúa la calidad de la unión adhesiva en madera sólida de Eucalyptus nitens de 11 años. Con esta finalidad se fabricaron paneles unidos de canto utilizando PVA (acetato de polivinilo) como adhesivo. Se midieron las propiedades físico-mecánicas de estos paneles y se compararon con las propiedades de paneles unidos de canto fabricados con madera de Pinus radiata de 25 años. Como resultado de estos ensayos se encontró que los paneles a base de E. nitens presentan valores pro...

  16. NANOINDENTACIONES Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA EN MADERA DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS CON MICRO Y MESO GRIETAS NANOINDENTATIONS AND ULTRASTRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS NITENS WITH MICRO AND MESOCRACKS

    OpenAIRE

    William Gacitua E; Aldo Ballerini A; Jean Pierre Lasserre; David Bahr

    2007-01-01

    Se desarrolló una metodología basada en nanoindentaciones y análisis de la ultraestructura de células de madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) para explorar los factores que generan la aparición de fallas en la madera debido a tensiones de crecimiento. Se estudió madera normal y madera con mesogrietas. Existieron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de vasos y módulo de elasticidad de la pared S2 entre los dos tipos de madera estudiadas. Se identificó como causa de la fractura ...

  17. Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation Utilización del agua, limitación hídrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantación de Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    JOSE LUIZ STAPE; DAN BINKLEY; Ryan, Michael G; ANTONIO DO NASCIMENTO GOMES

    2004-01-01

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeastern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall). We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water) in control and irrigated treatments. W...

  18. Entomofauna polinizadora de Eucalyptus nitens en huertos semilleros del centro sur de Chile Pollinator insects of Eucalyptus nitens in a clonal seed orchard in South Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    María-José Sanzana; Luis E. Parra; Hugo A Benítez; Jaime Espejo

    2012-01-01

    Las variaciones que se pueden observar en los ensambles de polinizadores de especies exóticas, en respuesta a cambios en las variables ambientales o florales, no han recibido mucha atención. Este trabajo constituye la primera aproximación sobre la abundancia de especies polinizadoras, asociadas al Eucalyptus nitens en un huerto semillero clonal de la hacienda Rucamanqui, localidad de Huépil (37º 15' S y 71º 55' O), región del Biobío. Entre octubre y noviembre de 2010, se examinó la variación ...

  19. Analysis of the Impact of the Use of Eucalyptus Biomass for Energy on Wood Availability for Eucalyptus Forest in Portugal: a Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Tomé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of energy diversification and profitable forest resource exploitation, increasing the use of biomass residues for energy can play an important role by using local sources of energy, reducing carbon emissions and fossil-energy use, providing additional revenue for the forest sector, and also reducing the risk of forest wildfires. Regional simulators can help forecast available wood and biomass and allow evaluation of possible future conflicts of interest and their consequences for society. This paper focuses on improving an existing regional forest simulator (SIMPLOT so that it can be applied to study research questions related to increasing the use of eucalyptus biomass for bioenergy and the related consequences for wood available for pulp. Biomass modules were integrated into SIMPLOT so that different sources of biomass used for energy could be accounted for. The updated version of the simulator was used to assess the impact of different biomass demands for bioenergy, combined with different afforestation alternatives on the wood available for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal. SIMPLOT's forecasts indicated that the eucalyptus forest is unable to satisfy wood demand even when pulp afforestation areas are doubled, regardless of the biomass demand considered. Also, the simulation results showed that, with the tested afforestation rates, eucalyptus forest cannot meet high increases in demand for wood.

  20. Produção, Estoque e Retenção Hídrica da Serrapilheira em Encosta Sob Plantio de híbridos de Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus grandis: Médio Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Coelho Netto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As áreas de Eucalyptus têm se espalhado rapidamente no médio vale do rio Paraíba do Sul e seus efeitos ambientais ainda são ambivalentes e pouco documentados (Vianna et al., 2007. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a produção e o estoque de serrapilheira em encostas sob plantio de Eucalyptus e verificar sua capacidade de retenção hídrica, como suporte ao entendimento das respostas hidrológicas as entradas de chuvas. A área de estudo está localizada na bacia do rio Sesmarias, numa área coberta por Eucalyptus grandis x urophyla, com espaçamento 3 x 2 m (1666 árvores.ha-1, plantadas em abril de 2004. A serrapilheira foi coletada em quatro diferentes posições usando quadrados de 0,5m para medição de produção, e quadrados de 0,25m para medição do estoque. As amostras foram secas, pesadas, separadas em frações (folhas, galhos, gramínea e raízes + material fino, as quais também eram pesadas. A produção apresentou aumento com a diminuição das chuvas, e foi maior no divisor (10,2 Mg.ha-1 que na encosta(6,6 Mg.ha-1. O estoque de serrapilheira apresenta uma tendência de aumento, com acúmulo anual de 2,2 Mg.ha-1, e é composto principalmente por folhas. A capacidade de retenção hídrica de 235% aproxima-se dos valores encontrados em Floresta Tropical Chuvosa de Encostas (200% - 259%.

  1. Productividad de la cosechadora forestal en plantaciones comerciales de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) / Productivity of a forest harvester in commercial eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Imelda, Vargas Abasolo; Leonardo, Sánchez Rojas; Rigoberto, Vargas Carballo; Enrique, Serrano Gálvez; Diego Ernesto, Lira González.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la productividad de una cosechadora en plantaciones de eucalipto en Huimanguillo, Tabasco. En el trabajo de campo se realizó un estudio de tiempos y movimientos de jornadas completas durante nueve días, se registraron las actividades que involucraron a la cosechadora forestal y a su operad [...] or. En particular, se identificaron actividades improductivas causadas por fallas en la cosechadora y la falta de capacitación del operador. Al considerar las ocho horas efectivas laborales, la cosechadora trabaja 75.9% de su capacidad, mientras que 21% del tiempo total por turno corresponde a mantenimiento correctivo, de manera principal, por rompimiento de mangueras del aceite hidráulico; así mismo, el afilado de la sierra es el que más repercute en dicho mantenimiento. Se determinó que se carece de un programa de mantenimiento preventivo y en la cosecha se identificaron actividades improductivas. Para el análisis de productividad, se aceptó el modelo de la forma y = a + bx + cx². Los modelos de regresión usados son válidos cuando el volumen de producción mínimo es igual o mayor a 0.0126 m³, lo cual corresponde al volumen de una troza de 8 cm de diámetro por 2.5 m de largo. La información se evaluó con y sin tiempos improductivos (TI). La productividad máxima se obtiene cuando hay un volumen promedio del arbolado de 0.5534 m³ y se genera una productividad de 25.4147 m³h-1; para el segundo caso, ocurre con un volumen promedio del arbolado de 0.56627 m³ y una productividad de 27.7661 m³h-1. Abstract in english The evaluation of productivity of a forest harvester was conducted in Eucalyptus plantations in Huimanguillo, Tabasco state. Field work included a full-time study of time and movements for nine days, where all activities that involved forest harvesting and its operator were registered. Unproductive [...] activities were identified as caused by the harvester´s failures and the operator´s lack of training. Considering the eight effective working hours, the harvester works at 75.9% of its capacity, 21% of the total time per shift corresponds to corrective maintenance, mainly due to the breaking of the hydraulic oil hoses. It was concluded that no preventive maintenance program exists. At harvest, unproductive activities were detected, as well as a lack of a preventive maintenance program. For the productivity analysis, a model of the y = a + bx + cx² form was accepted. The regression models used are valid when the minimum volume of production is equal to or greater than 0.0126 m³, which corresponds to the volume of a log of 8 cm in diameter and 2.5 m long. The information was evaluated with and without unproductive activities (IT). The maximum productivity is obtained when there is an average volume of 0.5534 m³ generating a productivity of 25.4147 m³h-1. For the second case, the maximum profit occurs with an average volume of 0.56627 m³ and productivity per hour of 27.7661 m³h-1. A lower profit was generated when including unproductive activities compared with the ideal way that harvester should work.

  2. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Yameen, Muhammad; Kiran, Shumaila; Kamal, Shagufta; Jalal, Fatima; Munir, Bushra; Saleem, Sadaf; Rafiq, Naila; Ahmad, Aftab; Saba, Iram; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%), ?-pinene (31.4%), citrinyl acetate (13.3%), eugenol (11.8%) and terpenene-4-ol (10.2%) were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively) followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively). The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications. PMID:26593893

  3. Mass spore production and inoculation of Calonectria pteridis on Eucalyptus spp. under different environmental conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael F., Alfenas; Olinto L., Pereira; Rodrigo G., Freitas; Camila S., Freitas; Miguel A.D., Dita; Acelino C., Alfenas.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Calonectria pteridis is one of the most important causal agents of Calonectria leaf blight (CLB) of Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil, which is a limiting factor for growth of Eucalyptus plantations. In this study we developed standard procedures for in vitro mass spore production and inoculation of C. pter [...] idis for screening plant species and clones for resistance to CLB. The isolates used in this study were identified using similarity in DNA sequence to reference strains. Among six media tested, glucose asparagine agar induced the highest sporulation production and a significantly enhanced sporulation was found by scraping the aerial mycelium and temporarily submersing the cultures in tap water, followed by drying and additional incubation of the culture. We also demonstrated that the severity of CLB on excised leaves of two Eucalyptus spp. clones increased significantly when the inoculated leaves were incubated in the dark. The optimal temperature for infection was 26ºC when plants were incubated for 48 hours post-inoculation in a mist chamber and then maintained in a greenhouse (25ºC±5ºC) for 50 days. This study identifies environmental conditions to improve spore production and inoculation procedures of C. pteridis for selection of resistant Eucalyptus spp.

  4. Effects of Eucalyptus globulus Wood Autohydrolysis Conditions on the Reaction Products

    OpenAIRE

    Garrote, G.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Falque, E.; Domingues, H.; Parajo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were reacted in aqueous media (hydrothermal treatments) at 160 °C for 30¿66 min. Liquors from the several experiments were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry for monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide substituents (arabinose moieties, uronic acids, and acetyl groups), acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and dichloromethane-soluble compounds. Individual components ...

  5. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  6. Does Diatomaceous Earth Control Leaf-Cutter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Eucalyptus Plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Wilcken, Carlos F; Neves, Daniela A; Pogetto, Mario H F A D; Carmo, Janaina B; Guerreiro, Julio C; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-06-01

    Genus Atta includes some of the most important Formicidae leaf cutter ants which cause extensive damage to the eucalyptus plantations. Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, one of the chief pests in Brazilian reforestation, can restrict and reduce forest productivity by its intense and constant leaf-cutting activities on plants at all stages. Therefore, the demand for new products to control A. sexdens rubropilosa indicates the study of the utilization of the dry powder formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE) against this pest in the eucalyptus cultivars. The study was conducted using 120 colonies of A. sexdens rubropilosa in Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla Blake (Myrtaceae) (urograndis) stand. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments (1, 10, 25, and 50?g/m2 of DE, 6.0?g/m2 sulfluramid bait per square meter of loose soil, and the control) with five replications, each with four colonies of this ant. Diatomaceous earth was applied to the active A. sexdens rubropilosa ant holes, and the sulfluramid bait was applied in bulk in a localized manner. The control efficacy of A. sexdens rubropilosa with DE was low, showing values similar to that of the control, and, for this reason, it cannot be used to control this ant. The bait with sulfluramid showed higher efficacy than those of the other treatments. PMID:26470237

  7. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  8. Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: natalina.mateus@edunet.sp.gov.br; Yamashita, Marcelo Takeshi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yamashita@itapeva.unesp.br; Madi Filho, Tufic [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  9. Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  10. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topia?, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zde?ka

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210. ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.371, year: 2014

  11. Production and development of eucalyptus seedlings in function of doses of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Tertulino Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P on the survival in the nursery and early development in the field of clonal Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and five replicates of 30 plants per replicate. At the end of the cycle (90 days, 15 seedlings were used for determining the dry matter accumulation and nutrient concentration in the shoot. The rest was planted in the field to determine the percentage of survival and early development. The treatments consisted of four doses of P fertilization (0.0, 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 mg plant-1. To obtain high quality seedlings in conditions similar to this experiment it is required doses of P in the range from 3.6 to 3.8 mg plant-1. Doses greater than 4 mg plant-1 affect the development and quality of eucalyptus seedlings. An adequate phosphorus fertilization of eucalyptus seedlings increase, by about 30%, the percentage of surviving seedlings in the field.

  12. Superkritická extrakce a frakcionace t?kavých látek z listu eukalyptu (Eucalyptus grandis L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topia?, Martin

    Praha : Ústav chemických proces? AV ?R, v. v. i, 2013 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 36-37 ISBN 978-80-86186-46-7. [Bažantova konference doktorand? 2013. Praha (CZ), 14.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SFE * fractionation * Eucalyptus grandis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. Correlations between pulp properties of eucalyptus clones and leaf volatiles using automated solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Cláudia A; De Assis, Teotônio F; Ledford, Edward B; Dariva, Claudio; Fachel, Jandyra; Christensen, Eva; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2003-12-31

    Analysis of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) of 14 Eucalyptus clones has been performed using an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography (GC)/ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) method. Correlations between pulp properties of Eucalyptus clones and the BVOC of their leaf headspaces were studied. The compounds alpha-terpineol and the sesquiterpene beta-eudesmol were positively correlated with S5, a property related to the hemicelluose content in the pulp. Qualitative results obtained with automated HS-SPME were sufficient to group together the same species and related hybrids through cluster analysis and were confirmed through principal component analysis. A preliminary separation of the essential oils of Eucalyptus dunnii through comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) showed approximately 580 peaks compared to approximately 60 in a typical GC/ITMS first-dimension chromatogram. The potential of HS-SPME coupled to GC x GC to improve the separation of Eucalyptus volatiles and other plant essential oils looks extremely promising for new applications of unsupervised learning methods. PMID:14690363

  14. Maternal inheritance of the chloroplast genome in Eucalyptus globulus and interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnon, A E; Vaillancourt, R E; Tilyard, P A; Potts, B M

    2001-10-01

    The utility of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in Eucalyptus, either as a molecular marker for genetic studies or as a potential vehicle for genetic manipulation, is based on knowledge of its mode of inheritance. Chloroplast inheritance in angiosperms can vary among and within species, and anomalous inheritance has been reported in some interspecific-hybrid combinations. In Eucalyptus, abnormalities of pollen-tube growth occur in a number of interspecific-hybrid combinations, and this might increase the likelihood of anomalous chloroplast transmission. We used a rapid PCR technique to determine chloroplast heritability in 425 progeny of Eucalyptus, comprising 194 progeny of the premier pulpwood species E. globulus and 231 interspecific hybrids between E. globulus and E. nitens (F1, F2, and backcrosses). At this sampling intensity, no pollen-mediated transmission of cpDNA was found in any of the 40 families tested. The results are discussed with reference to chloroplast engineering and the use of cpDNA as a seed-specific marker in phylogeographic studies of Eucalyptus. PMID:11681607

  15. Distribución Radial de Polifenoles en Troncos de Eucalyptus grandis: Radial Distribution of Polyphenols in the Stems of Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E., Núñez.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los polifenoles colorean las pulpas y pueden interferir en los procesos de pulpado. No se conocen trabajos sobre su distribución en Eucalyptus grandis. Se midió la variación radial de concentración de polifenoles en cinco individuos de E. grandis de 7 y 18 años de edad. Se utilizó etanol azeotrópico [...] para la extracción de la madera reducida a virutas. Los resultados concuerdan con el patrón general citado en la bibliografía. En los árboles de 7 años hubo en proporción más polifenoles en la albura que en los de 18. No se notaron diferencias significativas en los espectrogramas de absorción UV entre los anillos de los árboles de 18 años. Un espectrograma diferente en uno de 7, indicaría la existencia de hibridación. La concentración de polifenoles alrededor de un nudo dio cuatro veces más alta que en la madera de la misma edad. Abstract in english Polyphenols color pulps and may interfere in the pulping process. No research works on the distribution in E. grandis are known. The radial variation of polyphenol concentration in five E. grandis individuals aged 7 and 18 years old was measured. Azeotropic ethanol was used for the extraction of the [...] wood reduced to shaving. Results are in accordance with the general pattern cited in the bibliography. In 7 year old trees, there were relatively more polyphenols in the sapwood than in those of 18. No significant differences were noticed in the UV absorption spectrograms among the rings of the 18 year-old trees. A different spectrogram in one aged 7 would indicate the existence of hybridation. The concentration of poliphenols around one of the knots was four times as high than in the wood of the same age.

  16. Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile / Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Ide M; Cecilia, Ruiz G; Ariel, Sandoval C; Juan, Valenzuela E.

    Full Text Available La presencia del chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus, fue reportada por primera vez en el país en junio de 2009, como resultado del Programa de Vigilancia Forestal del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Insecto succionador cuyo daño lo ocasionan tanto ninfas como adultos al alimentarse [...] de la savia de sus hospederos desde las hojas. Cuando las poblaciones aumentan, se produce una fuerte reducción de la tasa fotosintética de las hojas, lo que puede provocar una disminución del crecimiento y en ocasiones producir la defoliación completa del árbol. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la detección de T. peregrinus, delimitar su área de distribución y establecer el rango de hospederos dentro de las especies del género Eucalyptus presentes en Chile. Para esto se instalaron trampas amarillas pegajosas en la región Metropolitana, comuna de Til-Til, y en la región de Valparaíso y se realizó una prospección nacional que abarcó las regiones con presencia de especies del género Eucalyptus. Se detectaron nueve puntos positivos (= presencia) en la región Metropolitana y uno en la región de Valparaíso. La detección de estados inmaduros y adultos de T. peregrinus sobre E. camaldulensis indica que el insecto se encuentra establecido en las regiones Metropolitana y de Valparaíso, Chile. Se dan a conocer las acciones a seguir dentro de las labores de control oficial ejecutadas por el SAG. Abstract in english The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was first reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When pop [...] ulations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims of this study were to confirm the detection of T. peregrinus, define its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence) were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the official control tasks performed by SAG.

  17. Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ide M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus, fue reportada por primera vez en el país en junio de 2009, como resultado del Programa de Vigilancia Forestal del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG. Insecto succionador cuyo daño lo ocasionan tanto ninfas como adultos al alimentarse de la savia de sus hospederos desde las hojas. Cuando las poblaciones aumentan, se produce una fuerte reducción de la tasa fotosintética de las hojas, lo que puede provocar una disminución del crecimiento y en ocasiones producir la defoliación completa del árbol. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la detección de T. peregrinus, delimitar su área de distribución y establecer el rango de hospederos dentro de las especies del género Eucalyptus presentes en Chile. Para esto se instalaron trampas amarillas pegajosas en la región Metropolitana, comuna de Til-Til, y en la región de Valparaíso y se realizó una prospección nacional que abarcó las regiones con presencia de especies del género Eucalyptus. Se detectaron nueve puntos positivos (= presencia en la región Metropolitana y uno en la región de Valparaíso. La detección de estados inmaduros y adultos de T. peregrinus sobre E. camaldulensis indica que el insecto se encuentra establecido en las regiones Metropolitana y de Valparaíso, Chile. Se dan a conocer las acciones a seguir dentro de las labores de control oficial ejecutadas por el SAG.The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was first reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG. Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When populations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims of this study were to confirm the detection of T. peregrinus, define its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the official control tasks performed by SAG.

  18. Índices de competição em árvores individuais de eucalipto / Competition indexes for individual eucalyptus trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Helio Garcia, Leite; Agostinho Lopes de, Souza; Renato Vinícius Oliveira, Castro.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cinco índices de competição independentes da distância, em árvores individuais de plantios comerciais de eucalipto, e verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para o crescimento em diâmetro e altura, bem como a probabilidade de mortalidade para t [...] rês classes de produtividade. Foram avaliados dados de 30 parcelas permanentes de plantios clonais híbridos, não desbastados, de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Os índices de competição foram avaliados por meio do coeficiente de correlação simples e o teste F?parcial, juntamente com o teste de identidade, para verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para três classes de produtividade. O índice de área basal foi o que apresentou o melhor desempenho. Ao contrário do observado quanto ao crescimento em diâmetro e altura, para a probabilidade de mortalidade, foi possível o ajuste de uma única equação para as três classes de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate five distance?independent competition indexes, in individual trees of an eucalyptus commercial plantation, and to verify the possibility of fitting a single equation for growth and height, as well as the probability of mortality for three yield classes. Dat [...] a from 30 permanent plots of unthinned clonal hybrids of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla forest, were analyzed. The competition indexes were evaluated through the simple correlation coefficient and the partial?F test, together with an identity test to verify if a single equation could be adjusted for the three yield classes. The basal area index performed better than other competition indexes. Contrarily to what was found for diameter and height, it was possible to adjust a single equation for the three yield classes for the probability of mortality.

  19. Estimating biophysical properties of eucalyptus plantations using optical remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joao V.; Xavier, Alexandre C.; de Almeida, Auro C.; da Costa Freitas, Corina

    1998-12-01

    The feasibility of the inversion of optical remote sensing products to measure critical biophysical properties of Eucalyptus Forests at regional scales is investigated here. The biophysical variables used were leaf area Index, LAI, Diameter at Breast Height, DBH, Height and Age of Eucalyptus stands pertaining to a combination of different genetic materials (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrids) and propagating systems (seeds or cuttings) and management system (planting and coppicing). The field sampling was done daily during 3 months, from April to June 1997, and covered 130 stands of minimum sizes of 9 hectares, within an Eucalyptus farming area of about 800 km2, centered at 19 degrees South, 42 degrees West, Brazil. The stands ranged from 12 to 84 months old. The measurements of LAI were done using two pairs of LAI-2000 (LICOR) under conditions of diffuse light. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, SAVI, were derived from a LANDSAT-TM image acquired on June 5, 1997. Furthermore, a mixture model technique was applied to derive three new parameters: fraction of green vegetation, FGV, fraction of shadow, FSH, and fraction of soil, FS. Regression analysis were done between biophysical variables and remote sensing products. Linear correlation with coefficients of determination, R2, as high as 0.8 were found between LAI versus FGV and LAI versus SAVI, on all genetic materials. In general, SAVI was shown to give better estimates of LAI than NDVI, which is explained by the openings in the canopy as the Eucalyptus grow older. The correlation with the other biophysical variables (Height and DBH) were also shown to be significant, although the R2 ranged from 0.4 to 0.6. The correlation between FGV and SAVI was higher than 90% such that they can be used to estimate Eucalyptus biophysical parameters with the same statistical significance.

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE SITIO FORESTAL PARA Eucalyptus camaldulensis MEDIANTE ÍNDICES EDÁFICOS EN ARGIUDOLES Y ARGIACUOLES, ARGENTINA Evaluation of the quality forest site for Eucalyptus camaldulensis through edaphic indexes in Argiudolls and Argiacuolls, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    J.E. Baridón; J.W. Lanfranco; R.M. Marlats; Vázquez, M.

    2001-01-01

    La introducción de Eucalyptus sp. en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, debido a factores económicos y de mercado, hace necesario conocer el potencial productivo de los diferentes sitios. En zonas sin indicadores biológicos, la elaboración de modelos de pronóstico de rendimientos basados en indicadores edáficos podría ser una alternativa metodológica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la calidad de sitio forestal para Eucalyptus camaldulensis mediante una metodología de índices ed...

  1. Adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus ao Estado do Rio Grande do Sul / Adaptability for Eucalyptus multi species hybrids in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gleison Augusto, Santos; Marcos Deon Vilela, Resende; Luciana Duque, Silva; Antônio, Higa; Teotônio Francisco, Assis.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus em quatro ambientes do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os ensaios foram realizados nas áreas da empresa CMPC Celulose Riograndense, nos Municípios de Minas do Leão (Horto Florestal Cambará), Encruzilhada do Su [...] l (Horto Florestal Capivara), Dom Feliciano (Horto Florestal Fortaleza) e Vila Nova do Sul (Horto Florestal São João). No ano 2007 foi implantada uma rede de testes clonais com 146 clones de Eucalyptus, pertencentes a 34 diferentes espécies e, ou híbridos, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 30 repetições e uma planta por parcela (Single Tree Plot). Aos 3 anos de idade, foram mensurados o diâmetro à altura do peito (dap) e a altura total (Ht) das árvores dos experimentos. O incremento médio anual (IMA) foi calculado de acordo com o volume individual por clone e o estande de plantas no hectare na idade de avaliação do teste clonal. Concluiu-se que em um programa de melhoramento do eucalipto a análise simultânea de produtividade, estabilidade e adaptabilidade deve ser preferida em relação ao simples ordenamento de valores genotípicos. Na seleção simultânea, destacaram-se entre os melhores materiais genéticos do ordenamento, híbridos do tipo "three-way cross", formados por três diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus. Os híbridos mais promissores para a geração de clones superiores foram E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) e E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) e E. grandis x E. urophylla. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the adaptability multi species hybrid of Eucalyptus in four environments in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The tests were conducted in the areas of CMPC Celulose Riograndense in the municipalities of Minas do Leão (Cambará farm), Encruzilhada do Sul (C [...] apivara farm), Dom Feliciano (Fortaleza farm) and Vila Nova do Sul (São João farm). A network of clonal tests was established in 2007with 146 clones of Eucalyptus, belonging to 34 different species and, or hybrids, in a randomized block design with 30 replications in single tree plot). The diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height (Ht) of trees at three years of old were measured. The mean annual increment (MAI) was calculated according to the volume per individual clone and plant stand in hectare at the evaluation age of the clonal test. It was concluded that in a breeding program for Eucalyptus, the simultaneous analysis of productivity, stability and adaptability should be done rather than the simple ordering of genotypic values. "Three-way cross" Hybrid-type made up of three different species of Eucalyptus stood out among the best genetic materials in the simultaneous selection. The most promising hybrids for the generation of higher clones were E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) and E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) and E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  2. Lignin isolated from steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips by phase separation and its affinity to Trichoderma reesei cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ai; Funaoka, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus lignin without steam explosion. Clearly, the steam explosion process depolymerized native lignin, and simultaneously, promoted polymerization via labile benzyl positions. The steam-exploded eucalyptus lignin adsorbed more Trichoderma reesei cellulase; however, its enzymatic activity was less than that of eucalyptus lignin that did not undergo steam explosion. It is evident that pretreatment potentially affects the affinity between lignin and cellulase and the resultant saccharification efficiency. PMID:23711881

  3. Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi / Colonização e acumulação de compostos fenólicos em raízes de Eucalyptus dunnii maiden infectadas com fungus ectomicorrízicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EDUARDO LUIZ, VOIGT; VETÚRIA LOPES DE, OLIVEIRA; ÁUREA MARIA, RANDI.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a compatibilidade entre Eucalyptus dunnii e os fungos ectomicorrízicos Hysterangium gardneri e Pisolithus sp. - isolados de Eucalyptus spp.-, Rhizopogon nigrescens e Suillus cothurnatus - isolados de Pinus spp.-, in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus colonizaram as raízes [...] . As micorrizas de Pisolithus sp. apresentaram manto e rede de Hartig; as de H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus apresentaram apenas manto. S. cothurnatus provocou aumento de fenóis nas raízes; Pisolithus sp. e R. nigrescens provocaram diminuição dessas substâncias. Os fungos isolados de Eucalyptus parecem mais compatíveis em relação a E. dunnii do que os de Pinus. A concentração de fenóis nas raízes parece estar envolvida nesse fenômeno, particularmente em relação a Pisolithus sp. e S. cothurnatus. Abstract in english Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolit [...] hus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R. nigrescens decreased the level of these substances. The isolates from Eucalyptus seem to be more compatible towards E. dunnii than those from Pinus. The mechanisms involved could be related, at least in the cases of Pisolithus and Suillus, to the concentration of phenolics in roots.

  4. Effects of harrowing and fertilisation on understory vegetation and timber production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation in central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Fabião, António; Carneiro, M.; Martins, M C; Silva, M. A.; Hilário, L.; Lousã, M.; Madeira, M.

    2008-01-01

    Harrowing and fertilisation are common practices at middle rotation in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Central Portugal. In order to clarify the effects of such practices on understory vegetation and timber production, a field trial was installed in a 5-year-old first rotation eucalyptus plantation, in a region with mixed oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. Four treatments that involved harrowing (H), fertilisation (F), harrowing and fertilisation (HF), and cont...

  5. Development and Testing of New Gene-Homologous EST-SSRs for Eucalyptus gomphocephala (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Bradbury; Ann Smithson; Siegfried L. Krauss

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: New microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) primers were developed from Eucalyptus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and optimized for genetic studies of the southwestern Australian tree E. gomphocephala, which is severely impacted by tree health decline and habitat fragmentation. Methods and Results: A total of 133 gene-homologous EST-SSR primer pairs were designed for Eucalyptus, and 44 were screened in E. gomphocephala. Of these, 17 produced reliable amplificati...

  6. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Vitor Farago; Tomoe Nakashima; Josiane Padilha de Paula; Adilson Sartoratto; Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales Maia; Patrícia Mathias Döll-Boscardin; Carla Cristine Kanunfre

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related t...

  7. Patterns of hybridization and asymmetrical gene flow in hybrid zones of the rare Eucalyptus aggregata and common E. rubida

    OpenAIRE

    Field, D. L.; Ayre, D. J.; Whelan, R. J.; Young, A G

    2010-01-01

    The patterns of hybridization and asymmetrical gene flow among species are important for understanding the processes that maintain distinct species. We examined the potential for asymmetrical gene flow in sympatric populations of Eucalyptus aggregata and Eucalyptus rubida, both long-lived trees of southern Australia. A total of 421 adults from three hybrid zones were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. We used genealogical assignments, admixture analysis and analyses of spatial genetic...

  8. Genetic dissection of growth, wood basic density and gene expression in interspecific backcrosses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Kullan Anand Raj; van Dyk Maria M; Hefer Charles A; Jones Nicoletta; Kanzler Arnulf; Myburg Alexander A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background F1 hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla are widely grown for pulp and paper production in tropical and subtropical regions. Volume growth and wood quality are priority objectives in Eucalyptus tree improvement. The molecular basis of quantitative variation and trait expression in eucalypt hybrids, however, remains largely unknown. The recent availability of a draft genome sequence (http://www.phytozome.net) and genome-wide genotyping platforms, combined wit...

  9. Microthia, Holocryphia and Ursicollum, three new genera on Eucalyptus and Coccoloba for fungi previously known as Cryphonectria

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Michael J.; Brenda D. Wingfield; Hodges, Charles S.; Henrietta Myburg; Marieka Gryzenhout

    2006-01-01

    Cryphonectria havanensis is a fungus associated with Eucalyptus species in Cuba and Florida (U.S.A.). Until recently, there have been no living cultures of C. havanensis and it has thus not been possible to assess its taxonomic status. Isolates thought to represent this fungus have, however, emerged from surveys of Eucalyptus in Mexico and Hawaii (U.S.A.). Results of this study showed that these isolates represent C. havanensis but reside in a genus distinct from C...

  10. Effect of the plantation age on the use of Eucalyptus stands by medium to large-sized wild mammals in south-eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Timo TPC; Lyra-Jorge MC; Gheler-Costa C; Verdade LM

    2014-01-01

    In São Paulo State, in Southeastern Brazil, the Eucalyptus plantations have been replacing large areas which were formerly occupied by pastures used for livestock production. Such land use change may affect the habitat use by wildlife in these anthropic landscapes. In this region, the commercial Eucalyptus plantations of the paper and cellulose industry usually take from 6 to 7 years to be harvested. During its production cycle, the Eucalyptus stands vary from an open savanna-like environment...

  11. SILVICULTURAL BEHAVIOR OF CLONES AND SPECIES/PROVENANCES OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus sp. IN NORTHWEST OF MINAS GERAIS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Massote Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the behavior of clone seedlings of natural hybrid of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh-Eucalyptusurophila S. T. Blake, identified as clones 8, 9, 11, and 12. Eucalyptus species/provenance were: APS-V (Eucalyptus camaldulensis,Zimbabue Africa provenance, USA (Eucalyptus urophylla, Avaré, Brazil provenance, EpK (Eucalyptus pellita Kuranda, Australiaprovenance and EcP (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Petford, Autrália provenance. The Experiment was established in four plantingspacing (3x2m; 6x2m; 6x3m and 6x4m. The experimental design was the entirely casualized block in a factorial outline (8x4x3, witheight genetic materials (four clones and four species/provenances, four spacing and three repetitions totaling 96 parcels. Thecollection of data was accomplished at 9.4 years of age. The survival, DAP, was evaluated the total height, the individual volume andfor hectare. The obtained data were submitted to the of Scott-Knott average test at 5% of probability. The results showed that, for DBHand volume per plant the interaction clones/provenance x spacing was significant; the volume per hectare decreased as the spacingincreased; the height was not affected by spacing, but was affected by the genetic material; for survival, the interaction clones/provenances x spacing was significant.

  12. Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira / Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Odete Alves de, Souza; José de Castro, Silva; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Wescley Viana, Evangelista.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de [...] plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a conso [...] rtium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during parallel-to-the-grain and mortising sawing. Woods from the clones tested seem very appropriate for furniture production. In fact, the samples did not show any difficulties during machining.

  13. Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Alves de Souza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira.The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a consortium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during parallel-to-the-grain and mortising sawing. Woods from the clones tested seem very appropriate for furniture production. In fact, the samples did not show any difficulties during machining.

  14. Seleção de genitores de Eucalyptus grandis e de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de híbridos interespecíficos utilizando REML/BLUP e informação de divergência genética Selection of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla parents for the production of interespecific hybrids using REML/BLUP and genetic diversity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças de Barros Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 363 progênies de meios-irmãos de Eucalyptus urophylla e de 245 progênies de meios-irmãos de E. grandis, visando à seleção de genitores para a produção de híbridos interespecíficos em cruzamentos controlados em dialelo circulante, com base em seus valores genéticos preditos. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em Guanhães, MG, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, parcelas lineares de seis plantas para E. urophylla e oito plantas para E. grandis, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 2,0 m. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados adotando-se modelos mistos com uso do procedimento REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viesada para diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, altura total (ALT e volume individual (VOL. A predição dos valores genéticos foi feita somente para (DAP, característica que foi utilizada para seleção. Em E. urophylla, foram obtidas as estimativas de herdabilidade no sentido restrito de 0,2785 e de acurácia da ordem de 61%, e em E. grandis, herdabilidade de 0,2247 e acurácia de 53%. A seleção dos 100 genitores de cada espécie individualmente proporcionará ganhos genéticos na ordem de 20,6% em E. urophylla e de 16,4% em E. grandis. Ganho genético para DAP em torno de 35,0% poderá ser obtido com o cruzamento dos 10 indivíduos selecionados para cada espécie, portadores das maiores estimativas de divergência genética.Predicted parental genetic values of 363 half-sib Eucalyptus grandis and 245 half-sib E. urophylla progenies were evaluated for selection to produce interspecific hybrids in controlled crosses in a circulating diallel. The essays were conducted in Guanhães, Minas Gerais, in a complete randomized block design in five replications, row plots of six E. urophylla and eight E. grandis plants in 3.0 x 2.0 m spacing. The genetic parameters were estimated by mixed models using the REML / BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood / best linear unbiased prediction procedure for diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (TH and individual volume (VOL traits. The genetic values were only predicted for diameter at breast height (DBH, to which the selection was performed. The estimated heritability values in the restricted sense for Eucalyptus urophylla were 0.2785 and for accuracy 61%, and 0.2247 and 53% in Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Selection of 100 parents of each species individually will provide genetic gains of 20.6 % in Eucalyptus urophylla and of 16.4 % in Eucalyptus grandis. A genetic gain for diameter at breast height around 35.0% can be obtained by crosses among the first 10 selected individuals of each species and carriers of the greatest genetic divergences.

  15. In vitro establishment and multiplication of genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden

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    Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Maristela Machado, Araújo; Aline Ritter, Curti; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii no estabelecimento in vitro e a influência de genótipos cultivados em diferentes concentrações de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP) na multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram oriundos de 10 matrizes, seleciona [...] das a campo em função de características fenotípicas superiores. Para o estabelecimento in vitro foram avaliados 10 genótipos, e, para a multiplicação in vitro, 30 tratamentos, que corresponderam às combinações de seis genótipos que obtiveram sucesso no estabelecimento in vitro com cinco concentrações de BAP (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1). Constatou-se comportamento diferenciado dos genótipos em relação ao estabelecimento in vitro, sendo que os genótipos 3, 6 e 7 apresentaram estabelecimento superior a 70%, enquanto para os demais as médias variaram entre 40 e 6,6%. Os genótipos 1, 5, 8 e 9 foram, posteriormente, descartados em virtude do número reduzido de explantes estabelecidos. A contaminação microbiana e a oxidação fenólica constituíram fatores que comprometem o estabelecimento in vitro. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii interagem de maneira diferenciada com BAP na multiplicação in vitro, porém a concentração 0,50 mg L-1 influencia positivamente a formação de gemas por explante na maior parte dos genótipos estudados. A hiperhidricidade é relativamente baixa na presença de 0,50 mg L-1 de BAP, não comprometendo a multiplicação in vitro de segmentos nodais de Eucalyptus dunnii. Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the effect of genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii on in vitro establishment and also the influence of genotypes grown in different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on in vitro multiplication. Explants were obtained from 10 parent plants selected in the field as a [...] function of their superior phenotype characteristics. For in vitro establishment, 10 genotypes were evaluated, while in vitro multiplication consisted of 30 treatments which corresponded to combinations of six genotypes found to succeed in the in vitro establishment and five BAP concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 mg L-1). Different behaviors were observed regarding the genotypes as to in vitro establishment rates, in which genotypes 3, 6 and 7 had establishment rates of over 70%, against 40% to 6.6% for the other genotypes. Genotypes 1, 5, 8 and 9 were later discarded due to the reduced number of explants successfully established. Factors such as microbial contamination and phenol oxidation posed a threat to in vitro establishment. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii interacted differently with BAP in in vitro multiplication, noting that the concentration 0.50 mg L-1 positively influenced bud formation on the explants in most genotypes. Hyperhydricity was relatively low when 0.50 mg L-1 BAP was used and thus does not pose a threat to in vitro multiplication of nodal segments of Eucalyptus dunnii.

  16. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada / Chemical and color changes in heat treated Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden wood

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    Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; João Rodrigo Coimbra, Nobre; Javan Pereira, Motta; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lig [...] nina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a*) e matriz amarelo (b*) da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos. Abstract in english The heat treatment aims to improve the features to add value to the wood through the application of heat. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and colorimetric changes in Eucalyptus grandis wood heat treated at 170, 200 and 230 °C for three, five and seven hours. The content of ex [...] tractives, lignin, holocellulose, elemental composition and colorimetric parameters were determined. The extractives content increased in treatments at 170 °C and decreased from 200 °C, while total lignin increased and holocellulose decreased from 200 °C. The carbon content increased and oxygen content decreased at 230 °C for five and seven hours. The heat treatment reduced lightness, a* coordinate (red coordinate) and b* coordinate (yellow coordinate) of eucalyptus wood in all treatments.

  17. Crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Eremanthus erythropappus sob diferentes formulações de substrato / Growth of Eucalyptus grandis and Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings under different substrate formulas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas Amaral de, Melo; Gabriel de Assis, Pereira; Edson Júnio Costa, Moreira; Antonio Claudio, Davide; Eduardo Vinícius da, Silva; Luís Antônio Fonseca, Teixeira.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Eremanthus erythropappus, além de analisar o custo do substrato produzido, em função de diferentes formulações utilizadas. Dessa forma, para cada espécie, foi utilizado um experimento instalado em [...] delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com as dez formulações de substrato contendo esterco de curral curtido, casca de arroz carbonizada, fibra de coco - estes variando nas proporções de 0, 30, 60 e 90% - e vermiculita média (10%). Ao final do processo de produção, foram quantificados: o percentual de sobrevivência, a altura da parte aérea e o diâmetro do coleto das mudas. Além disso, foi calculado o custo para produzir um metro cúbico de cada um dos dez substratos analisados. Verificou-se que os substratos influenciam significativamente o crescimento de ambas as espécies, sendo que o esterco influenciou de forma negativa no crescimento das mudas de candeia, enquanto, para o eucalipto, influenciou positivamente. O aumento de proporções de esterco diminuiu o custo por metro cúbico de substrato. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival and growth of Eucalyptus grandis and Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings, besides analyzing the cost of the substrate produced according to the different formulas used. To this end, for each species, a completely randomized experimental design was ca [...] rried out with ten substrate formulas containing cattle manure, carbonized rice husk, coconut fiber (at the proportions of 0, 30, 60 and 90%), and vermiculite (10%). At the end of the production process, the following variables were quantified: survival percentage, shoot height, and stem diameter of seedlings. Moreover, the cost to produce one m³ of each of the ten substrates analyzed was calculated. It was verified that the substrates significantly influenced the growth of both species: cattle manure negatively affected the growth of candeia seedlings and positively influenced the growth of eucalyptus seedlings. Increasing proportions of cattle manure reduced the cost per m³ of substrate.

  18. Prediction of the modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus grandis through two nondestructive techniques / Predição do módulo de elasticidade de Eucalyptus grandis por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas

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    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de, Cademartori; André Luiz, Missio; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou estimar o módulo de elasticidade à flexão estática da madeira de cerne e alburno de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas: ultrassom e ondas de tensão. Para tal, 60 amostras de cerne e alburno foram preparadas. Os testes não destrutivos foram reali [...] zados por meio de um equipamento de ultrassom e um de ondas de tensão, enquanto que os testes destrutivos de flexão estática foram realizados em uma máquina universal de ensaios. Os principais resultados mostraram que a madeira de cerne apresentou melhor comportamento nos ensaios não destrutivos, quando comparada à madeira de alburno. No entanto, o melhor modelo matemático foi obtido considerando-se cerne e alburno, quando estes foram analisados por meio da técnica ultrassônica. Dessa maneira, concluiu-se, no presente estudo, que as técnicas de ondas de tensão e ultrassom podem ser empregadas com o intuito de estimar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to estimate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) at static bending of Rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) heartwood and sapwood through two nondestructive techniques: ultrasound and stress wave. Sixty samples of heartwood and sapwood were prepared. Nondestructive tests were performed us [...] ing ultrasound and stress wave timer equipment, while destructive tests were carried out in a universal machine through static bending tests. The main results showed that the heartwood presented better behavior than the sapwood in the non-destructive tests. However, the best model was obtained considering both wood types through the ultrasonic technique. Therefore, stress wave and ultrasonic techniques could be employed to estimate the modulus of elasticity of Rose gum wood.

  19. Vergamento da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis plasticizada por vaporização e cozimento / Solid wood bending of Eucalyptus grandis wood plasticized by steam and boiling

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    Matheus Lemos, Peres; Rafael de Avila, Delucis; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O vergamento de madeira foi utilizado ao longo dos séculos para a produção de objetos grandes, como estruturas de embarcações ou pequenos utensílios. Mesmo com constantes estudos de vergamento, há carência de melhorias de processo e inclusão de madeiras de baixo valor comercial. Assim, o presente tr [...] abalho analisou a madeira vergada de Eucalyptus grandis tratada por diferentes tempos de exposição à vaporização e ao cozimento. Foram analisados o número de tipos de defeitos por peça vergada (Nºdef), a variação no teor de umidade perante os tratamentos (?Tu), a pressão de extremidade (Pe) e a perda de forma circular (Pf). Verificou-se que as variáveis diferem significativamente entre os tipos de tratamento de vaporização e cozimento, exceto para o Nºdef. Os tempos de tratamento não apresentaram efeito significativo. Concluiu-se que a espécie é aceitável para vergamentos em raios inferiores ao utilizado no presente estudo. Adicionalmente, a vaporização mostrou ser o melhor tratamento, por apresentar melhores parâmetros de qualificação. Abstract in english Wood bending has been used for centuries in the manufacturing not only of large objects, such as boat structures, but also small objects, like musical instruments. Despite a large number of studies on bending, process improvements and inclusion of low added-value timber are still insufficient. Hence [...] , this study proposes a bent wood analysis of Eucalyptus grandis treated with different steam and boiling exposure times. We analysed the number of failure types per sample (N.of f), moisture content variation in the treatments (?Tu), end pressure (Pe) and spring back (Pf). The variables showed significant differences between steaming and boiling, except for N.of f. Different treatment times did not show significant effects. We conclude that Eucalyptus grandis timber is suitable for bending at smaller radius than the one adopted in this study. Furthermore, steaming is better than boiling due to its higher qualification parameters.

  20. Determinação da densidade básica da madeiras de Eucalyptus por diferentes métodos não destrutivos / Determination of Eucalyptus basic density by different non-destructive methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana de Fátima Gomes, Gouvêa; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Lívio, Gomide; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade; Isabel Cristina Nogueira, Alves.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos não destrutivos vêm se tornando importante alternativa para predições das características da madeira. A facilidade e precisão das predições têm feito com que muitas empresas adotem estes novos métodos. A avaliação da qualidade da madeira por técnicas mais simples e rápidas é uma necessida [...] de fundamental na qualificação de florestas de Eucalyptus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar diferentes métodos de avaliação não destrutiva da madeira, a saber: (1) Resistógrafo, (2) Pilodyn e (3) Espectroscopia de Infravermelho Próximo-NIRS para predição da densidade básica da madeira. Neste estudo foram utilizados seis clones de eucalipto, com 3 anos de idade, plantados comercialmente com espaçamentos de 3,0 x 3,3m. As amostras foram coletadas no Estado de Minas Gerais, em diferentes regiões (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce e Santa Bárbara). Foram utilizadas cinco árvores por clone. A técnica para estimativa da densidade básica que apresentou maior precisão foi a resistografia, seguida do NIR e, finalmente, do Pilodyn. Abstract in english Non-destructive methods are becoming an important alternative for predicting the wood characteristics. The predictions ease and accuracy have led many companies to adopt these new methods. Assessing the wood quality by simpler and faster techniques is a fundamental need in the Eucalyptus forests qua [...] lification. This study aimed to investigate some different methods of wood nondestructive evaluation, namely: "(1) Resistograph, (2) Pilodyn, and (3), and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)" to predict the wood basic density. Six different three-year-old eucalyptus clones, planted commercially in the spacing of 3.0 x 3.3, were used for this study. The samples were collected in Minas Gerais, from different regions (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce, and Santa Bárbara). We used five trees per clone. The technique to estimate the basic density with the highest accuracy was resistograph followed by the NIR and finally Pilodyn..

  1. Avaliação da superfície da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden tratada termicamente / Surface evaluation of the heat treated wood of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmara Pires de Moura, Palermo; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca; Alexandre Monteiro de, Carvalho; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estudar a qualidade da superfície usinada da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, submetida ao processo de tratamento térmico. As operações de usinagens realizadas nas tábuas obtidas a partir do processamento de mecânico de seis árvores foram: desempeno, desengrosso, rasgo na f [...] uradeira horizontal, furação, furação para dobradiça e lixamento. Foram selecionadas 208 tábuas de 125 x 25 x 500 mm, sendo 104 não tratadas e 104 tratadas termicamente a uma temperatura final de 190ºC. A avaliação da superfície foi feita de acordo com a norma ASTM D-1666/87. O resultado mostrou que a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis apresenta um bom comportamento durante os testes de usinagem, obtendo notas 1 e 2 (excelente e bom), exceto para os testes de furação para a dobradiça no furo passante e furação com broca de 12, 8 e 6 mm, pois alcançaram notas entre 2 e 4 (bom, regular e ruim). O tratamento térmico diminuiu a quantidade de defeitos nas amostras usinadas, com exceção para o defeito grã arrancada, em algumas operações de usinagem. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge a [...] nd sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good), except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad). The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  2. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (sugar gum) using ISSR markers / Análise da diversidade genética de Eucalyptus cladocalyx usando marcadores ISSR.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulina, Ballesta; Freddy, Mora; Rodrigo Ivan, Contreras-Soto; Eduardo, Ruiz; Sandra, Perret.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell é distribuída em quatro regiões isoladas do sul da Austrália: Kangaroo Island, Flinders Ranges e em duas zonas da Eyre Peninsula. A espécie tem a capacidade de crescer em condições ambientais extremas como ambientes secos e solos salinos. O objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi examinar a diversidade genética em 45 famílias de meio-irmãos cultivadas no norte do Chile, as quais são originarias de cinco localidades diferentes (procedências). A variabilidade genética foi avaliada usando marcadores moleculares ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat). Os resultados mostraram baixo nível de diversidade genética dentro de populações (He = 0,113 a 0,268) em contraste com outras espécies de Eucalyptus. Adicionalmente, houve uma significativa diferenciação genética entre procedências (?st = 0.14), coincidindo com a reportada em estudos anteriores. Kangaroo Island é a procedência mais diferenciada. O presente estudo evidenciou que os recursos existentes no Chile são uma amostra representativa das populações Australianas e, portanto, o germoplasma cultivado no norte do Chile seria suficiente para os programas de melhoramento. A tecnologia de marcadores ISSR poderia ser uma alternativa para identificar genótipos de interesse no processo de seleção. Abstract in english Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell is a tree endemic to southern Australia and is distributed across four isolated regions: Kangaroo Island, southern Flinders Ranges, and two geographical zones in Eyre Peninsula. E. cladocalyx is capable of growing under extreme environmental conditions, including dry a [...] nd saline soils. The objective of this study was to analyze genetic diversity in 45 half-sib families planted in northern Chile that are distributed across five different zones (provenances). Genetic variability was assessed using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) molecular markers. The results showed low levels of genetic diversity within populations (He = 0.113 to 0.268) in contrast with other Eucalyptus species. In addition, there was a significant genetic differentiation among provenances (?st = 0.14); populations from the Kangaroo Island provenance showed more differentiation than any other population. These results are in agreement with previous studies of the species. Our study revealed that Chilean resources are a representative sample of Australian populations; therefore, the germplasm planted in northern Chile would be sufficient for the development of improvement programs. ISSR-Marker technology could be an alternative to identify genotypes of interest in material selection.

  3. Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different places seeking to the production of vegetal charcoal Avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus em diferentes locais visando à produção de carvão vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Andrade Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This research aim to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of three Eucalyptus clones planted at different places and to verify the existent functional relations between the basic density and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. Three Eucalyptus clones were evaluated and four trees were sample for each clone and place. It was determined the depth of penetration of a Pilodyn pin at 1.30 m of height of the soil (DBH, average basic density (DBm, the basic density at DBH, the calorific value, lignin, total extractive, ashes and holocellulose contents and elemental chemical analysis (C, H, N and O. The wood was carbonized and the charcoal produced was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In the evaluation of the wood characteristics a completely randomized design disposed in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 was used. A linear model was adjusted between DBm and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. It was possible to conclude that the clones present potential to be used for energy. The charcoal produced may be used in siderurgy. The linear model adjusted between DBm and the penetration of the Pilodyn pin was satisfactory.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a qualidade da madeira e do carvão vegetal de três clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais e verificar a relação funcional existente entre a densidade básica e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foram avaliados três clones de Eucalyptus e amostradas quatro árvores por clone em cada local. Determinou-se a profundidade de penetração de um pino de aço do Pilodyn a 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP, a densidade básica média (DBm, a densidade básica no DAP, o poder calorífico superior e os teores de lignina, extrativos totais, cinzas, holocelulose e a análise química elementar (C, H, N e O. A madeira foi carbonizada e o carvão produzido foi avaliado quantitativamente e qualitativamente. Na avaliação das características da madeira, utilizou-se um DIC em um esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Foi ajustado um modelo linear entre a DBm e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foi possível concluir que os clones apresentaram potencial para o uso energético. O carvão vegetal produzido pode ser utilizado na siderurgia. O modelo linear ajustado entre a DBm e a penetração do pino do Pilodyn mostrou-se satisfatório.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

  4. Simulação em uso dos pisos de madeira de Eucalyptus sp e Corymbia maculata / Simulation of the use of wooden floors of Eucalyptus sp and Corymbia maculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Martins; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; José Tarcísio, Lima; Marcos Tadeu Tiburcio, Gonçalves; Alexandre Petusk, Filipe.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização anatômica, física, mecânica e química da madeira fornece informações importantes para sua melhor utilização. Contudo, para que madeiras se tornem boa opção para o mercado de pisos, adicionalmente é necessária a realização de ensaios que simulem suas reais condições em serviço. Esses [...] ensaios simulam o pisoteio executado pelos sapatos de salto com pequenas áreas de pressão, o arraste e a queda de objetos, a resistência à abrasão da superfície e o atrito oferecido durante o deslocamento de pessoas que caminham sobre ele. Grande dificuldade da seleção de novas madeiras para pisos está na ausência de valores de referência físico-mecânicos. O presente trabalho visou a caracterizar as madeiras de Eucalyptus clöeziana F. Muell, de Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell e de Corymbia maculata Hook, para as propriedades de densidade básica, retratibilidade, aplicação de carga rolante, de atrito estático e dinâmico, endentação causada por cargas aplicadas em pequenas áreas, impacto da esfera de aço cadente e resistência à abrasão. Foi observado que as madeiras estudadas podem ser utilizadas para a confecção de pisos, de acordo com seus resultados obtidos e por meio de comparações com resultados de literatura. Abstract in english The anatomic, physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of wood provides important information for the indication of its best usage. However, to make these woods possible to become a good option in the wooden floors market, it is necessary to perform tests that simulate the real conditions [...] of their practical use. These tests simulate the stomping of high-heeled shoes with small pressure areas, the dragging and falling of objects, the resistance to the surface abrasion and the friction offered during the walking of people. The difficulty of selection of new wood to manufacture floors is in the absence of specific physical-mechanical reference values. The present work intended to characterize the Eucalyptus clöeziana F. Muell, Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell and Corymbia maculata Hook woods, regarding the properties of basic density, shrinkage, application of rolling roll, of static and dynamic friction, denting caused by loads applied on small areas, impact of falling steel sphere and resistance to abrasion. It was noticed that the woods may be used to the manufacturing of floors, according to results obtained and through comparisons with literature results.

  5. Utilização do pó de basalto em substratos para mudas de Eucalyptus grandis / Use of basalt dust in substrates for Eucalyptus grandis seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tiago, Ehlers; Guilherme Oliveira Santos Ferraz de, Arruda.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O pó de rocha basáltica é um resíduo de mineração com potencial para ser reutilizado como um componente de substratos florestais, por conter elementos minerais importantes, como os macronutrientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do pó de basalto, adicionado em diferentes dosagens a m [...] isturas com vermiculita e composto comercial de turfa, no desenvolvimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, aos 180 dias após a semeadura. Analisados os dados morfológicos indicadores de qualidade de mudas florestais - como altura da parte aérea (h), diâmetro do coleto (d) e relação entre altura da parte aérea e diâmetro do coleto (h/d) - , concluiu-se que o pó de basalto, em dosagens de 10 a 20%, adicionado a substratos com misturas de vermiculita e composto à base de turfa, é um componente com potencial favorável ao desenvolvimento da altura da parte aérea e do diâmetro do coleto, nas mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. Observou-se também a emergência da parte aérea e a sobrevivência das mudas, cujo percentual, para ambas, foi 100%. Abstract in english Basalt rock dust is a residue of basaltic rock mining with potential to be reused as a component of forestry substrates because of its important mineral elements, such as the macronutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of residual basalt dust, mixed in different strengths with vermiculi [...] te and organic compound made from peat, in seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, 180 days after sowing. After analysis of the morphological indicators of quality forest seedlings, such as aerial part height (h), stem diameter (d), and aerial part height/stem diameter ratio (h/d), it was possible to conclude that basalt dust, in doses of 10 to 20% added to the substrates with mixtures of vermiculite and peat compost, is a component with favorable potential to the development of aerial part height and stem diameter in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. It was also possible to observe that both the emergence of the aerial part and the seedling survival reached 100%.

  6. Estudo da degradação térmica da madeira de Eucalyptus através de termogravimetria e calorimetria / Study of thermal degradation of Eucalyptus wood by thermogravimetry and calorimetry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bárbara Luísa Corradi, Pereira; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira, Carneiro; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira, Carvalho; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves, Melo; Aylson Costa, Oliveira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradação térmica da madeira de diferentes clones de Eucalyptus, por meio de análises termogravimétrica (TG/DTG) e de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC), estabelecendo-se suas relações com a produção de carvão vegetal. Foram utilizados seis clones de [...] Eucalyptus spp. aos 7,5 anos de idade, provenientes de um teste clonal pertencente a uma empresa florestal. Foram realizadas as análises TG/DTG e DSC, sob atmosfera de gás nitrogênio. As curvas TG/DTG mostraram três faixas de degradação térmica, atribuídas à secagem da madeira e à degradação de hemiceluloses e celulose. Não foi detectada faixa específica de degradação de lignina. As curvas DSC evidenciaram um pico endotérmico entre as temperaturas de 50 e 100 ºC, o que pode ser atribuído à perda de água da madeira. A liberação de calor iniciou-se em temperaturas acima de 275 ºC, para todos os clones avaliados, sendo observados dois picos exotérmicos. As análises térmicas da madeira (TG/DTG e DSC) não apresentaram variações expressivas entre os clones. Conclui-se que, através das técnicas estudadas, é possível identificar as principais fases das reações de liberação ou absorção de energia e perda de massa, que estão diretamente ligadas à qualidade do carvão vegetal. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the wood thermal degradation of different Eucalyptus clones by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) by establishing their relationships with charcoal production. Six clones of Eucalyptus spp. were evaluated. Such [...] clones were from a clonal test of a forest company. The analyses of TG/DTG and DSC were carried out in nitrogen atmosphere. The TG/DTG curves showed three bands of thermal degradation attributed to the drying of wood, cellulose and hemicelluloses degradation. A specific range of lignin degradation was not detected. DSC curves showed an endothermic peak between 50 and 100ºC, which can be attributed to water loss. The heat release started at temperatures above 275 º C, for all clones, in which two exothermic peaks were found. The thermal analysis of wood (TG / DTG and DSC) showed no significant variations among the clones. It can be concluded that by using the studied techniques, it is possible to identify the major stages of release or absorption of energy, and weight loss, which are directly related to the quality of charcoal.

  7. Aporte de la hojarasca al ciclo biogeoquímico en plantaciones de Eucalyptus nitens, X Región, Chile Litter contribution to biogeochemical cycle in Eucalyptus nitens plantations, X Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN E. SCHLATTER; Víctor Gerding; Sigrid Calderón

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo evalúa el flujo de hojarasca en una plantación de Eucalyptus nitens establecida en un andisol (comuna de Fresia, X Región, Chile), en un área con diferentes tratamientos de fertilización, desde el cierre de copas hasta el inicio de la edad fustal (4-7 años de edad). Al cierre de copas se alcanzó la máxima caída de hojarasca (7-11 t ha-1), siendo menor en los años siguientes (5-6 t ha-1); la mayor proporción (45-60%) cayó en verano. Con esta biomasa regresaron al suelo 20-5...

  8. Promoção de enraizamento de microestacas de um clone de Eucalyptus sp. por Trichoderma spp. Root induction from microcutting of an Eucalyptus sp. clone by Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Oliveira Fortes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o emprego de isolados antagonistas de fungos visando à promoção do enraizamento de microestacas de um clone de Eucalyptus sp. Utilizaram-se no teste de promoção de enraizamento de microestacas um isolado não-patogênico de Cylindrocladium spp. e mais três isolados antagonistas de Trichoderma spp. (E15, S2 e St, os quais apresentaram as melhores notas de antagonismo em teste in vitro, pelo método de confrontação direta contra isolado patogênico de Cylindrocladium spp., sendo inoculados no substrato de desenvolvimento das microestacas sob condições de estufa. Observou-se aumento de sobrevivência das microestacas na presença dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. e Cylindrocladium spp., em comparação com a testemunha, em ambiente naturalmente infestado por Botrytis cinerea. O tratamento com os isolados ST, E15 e S2 de Trichoderma spp. e Cyl de Cylindrocladium spp. aumentou a sobrevivência de microestacas de Eucalyptus sp. O isolado E15 promoveu o enraizamento de microestacas, apresentando aumento significativo na porcentagem de enraizamento (62,25% em relação ao tratamento-testemunha (28,77%.The purpose of this research was to apply antagonistic isolates of fungi to induce microcutting rooting of an Eucalyptus sp. clone. One non-pathogenic isolate of Cylindrocladium spp. and three antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp (E15, S2 and St were used for the microcutting rooting experiment. The latter gave better results in the antagonistic in vitro test using the method of direct confrontation against the pathogenic isolate of Cylindrocladium spp, being inoculated in the microcutting rooting substrate, in greenhouse conditions. Increase of microcutting survival was observed in the presence of isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Cylindrocladium spp. when compared with control in an environment naturally infested with Botrytis cinerea. The treatments with the isolates ST, E15 and S2 of Trichoderma spp. and Cyl of Cylindrocladium spp. increased the survival of Eucalyptus sp. microcuttings. The E15 isolate promoted a significant increase in the rooting percentage (62.25% compared to the control treatment (28.77% .

  9. Azafenidin: novo herbicida para o controle de plantas daninhas em Eucalyptus camaldulensis Azafenidin: a new herbicide for weed control in Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Constantin; R.S. Oliveira JR; C.D.G. Maciel

    2000-01-01

    Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Presidente Castelo Branco-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade do herbicida azafenidin para a cultura de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, assim como sua eficácia no controle de algumas plantas daninhas infestantes nessa cultura. Azafenidin foi aplicado nas doses de 300, 400, 500 600 e 800 g i.a. ha-1, em pré-emergencia das plantas daninhas. Tratamentos adicionais, incluindo oxyfluorfen (720 g i.a. ha-1), uma testemunha capinada e outra testemunha sem ...

  10. Influência da arquitetura foliar de miniestacas na propagação clonal de Eucalyptus / Influence of leaf architecture of minicuttings in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alan Ferreira, Batista; Glêison Augusto dos, Santos; Luciana Duque, Silva; Franco Freitas, Quevedo; Teotônio Francisco de, Assis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do progresso da silvicultura clonal alcançado por meio da técnica de miniestaquia, pouco se avançou em relação às espécies recalcitrantes, sobretudo com relação ao manejo empregado em miniestacas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da arquitetura de miniestacas na produção de mudas de qua [...] tro clones de Eucalyptus, foram realizadas avaliações nas três fases de produção de mudas: 1) Sobrevivência aos 30 dias em casa de vegetação, 2) Enraizamento aos 45 dias em casa de sombra; e 3) Aproveitamento final aos 60 dias na área de rustificação. A taxa de enraizamento foi determinada com base na taxa de sobrevivência aos 30 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com arranjo de tratamento em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, sendo três tipos de arquitetura de miniestaca: 1) folha inteira (100%); 2) folha cortada (50%); e 3) miniestaca cortada em "árvore de natal" (folhas subapicais cortadas em ¾ e basais inteiras) e quatro clones de (Eucalyptus E. dunnii , E. saligna e dois de E. urophylla x E. globulus), com quatro repetições e 100 plantas por bloco. De acordo com os resultados, a produção de mudas foi afetada pelo tipo de arquitetura de miniestacas. A arquitetura que apresentou os melhores resultados nas avaliações foi "árvore de natal" e folha inteira. Abstract in english Despite the advances on minicutting techniques for clonal silviculture, little progress has been made considering recalcitrant species, especially for the handling in minicuttings practices. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the architecture of minicuttings in the production of four clo [...] nes of Eucalyptus seedlings. Evaluations in the three phases of seedlings production were performed: 1) Survival at 30 days in the greenhouse; 2) Rooting at 45 days in the shade house; and 3) Final exploitation at 60 days in the rustication area. The rooting rates was calculated based on the surviving rates at 30 days. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatment in a factorial scheme 3 x 4, with three types of minicutting architecture: 1) whole leaf (100%); 2) cut leaf (50%); and 3) minicutting in the form of a "christmas tree" (sub apical leaves cut in ¾ and basal leaves left uncut) and four clones of Eucalyptus (E. dunnii, E. saligna), and two clones of E. urophylla x E. globulus. We used 100 plants per block with four replications. The results have shown that the production of seedlings was affected by the type of architecture adopted in the minicuttings. The architecture that showed the best results in the evaluations were "christmas tree" and whole leaf.

  11. Deriva simulada de triclopyr e fluroxypyr + triclopyr no desenvolvimento de mudas de clones de Eucalyptus / Simulated drift of triclopyr and fluroxypyr + triclopyr on development Eucalyptus clones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislean Pereira, Carvalho; André Amaral da, Silva; Thomas Vieira, Nunes; Fernando Araújo, Barbosa; José Iran Cardoso da, Silva; Fernando Barnabé, Cerqueira; Eduardo Andrea Lemus, Erasmo; Renato Almeida, Sarmento.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O Estado do Tocantins tem-se destacado nos últimos anos como promissor em reflorestamentos com eucalyptus . Um dos problemas com grande destaque na silvicultura tocantinense é o amplo número de espécies infestantes (conhecidas comumente como rebrotas de Cerrado), resultantes de áreas recém-desmatada [...] s. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da deriva simulada do herbicida triclopir e da mistura formulada triclopir + fluroxipir em mudas de clones de eucalipto, ambos em duas doses, correspondentes a 50 e 25% da dose de 7 L ha-1 p.c, recomendados tradicionalmente em pastagem. Foram avaliadas as variações em altura de plantas, variações de diâmetro do caule, relação altura/diâmetro, acúmulo de massa de matéria seca: de folhas, de caules, de ramos, de raízes e total. Os herbicidas afetaram negativamente o crescimento dos clones de eucalipto até os 28 dias após a aplicação. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que o efeito da deriva é menor quando os herbicidas triclopir e fluroxipir + triclopir são aplicados, ambos na dose de 25%, diminuindo, assim, o risco de perdas. Abstract in english Recently, Tocantins State, Brazil, has been noticed in the field of reforestation by using eucalyptus species. One of the main problems of forestry in this State is the wide range of weed species (commonly known as regrowth of savanna), resulting from newly deforested areas. Thus, the aim of this st [...] udy was to evaluate the effect of simulated drift auxin of two herbicides on growth of seedlings of eucalyptus clones. We used the herbicide fluroxypyr + triclopyr and triclopyr at two doses, corresponding to 50 and 25% of the dose of 7 L ha-1 pc, traditionally recommended for pasture. We evaluated the variation in plant height, stem diameter increment, height / diameter ratio, dry matter accumulation on leaves, stems, branches, roots and total. The herbicides studied negatively affected the growth of eucalyptus clones untill the 28th day after the application. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the derived effect was lower when the herbicides triclopyr and fluroxypyr + triclopyr were applied, both at the dose of 25%, thus decreasing the risk of yield losses at this dose.

  12. Propriedades de painéis aglomerados fabricados com partículas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla), paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) e vassoura (Sida spp.) / Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla), parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) and vassoura (Sida spp.) particles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Jerásio, Bianche; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira, Carneiro; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Flávia Alves, Pereira; Rosimeire Cavalcante dos, Santos; Déborah Nava, Soratto.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Sida pode se tornar uma fonte alternativa bastante promissora para a produção de painéis de madeira aglomerada, uma vez que é utilizado na fabricação de cordas, em razão da qualidade de suas fibras, porém, são inexistentes pesquisas relacionadas à produção de painéis de aglomerado, utilizan [...] do este material lignocelulósico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de painéis aglomerados de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla) e paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) em associação com vassoura (Sida spp.). Para a produção dos painéis de aglomerado foram utilizadas misturas em 4 proporções (25, 50, 75 e 100%) de partículas de vassoura em associação com partículas de eucalipto e paricá, e associação de partículas de eucalipto em associação com paricá, sendo adicionadas a essas partículas dois teores de adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído (6% e 8%). Os ensaios físicos e mecânicos foram realizados segundo a norma NBR/ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002). Os resultados experimentais mostraram que o aumento no teor de adesivo na produção dos painéis de aglomerado contribuiu para melhorar algumas propriedades físicas e mecânicas. Concluiu-se que o incremento de partículas de vassoura nos painéis teve efeito diferenciado em função das espécies utilizadas. O incremento da porcentagem de partículas de vassoura aos painéis produzidos com eucalipto não afetou a resistência à tração perpendicular, arrancamento de parafuso e dureza Janka. O incremento da porcentagem de partículas de vassoura aos painéis produzidos com paricá não afetou a resistência à dureza Janka e ao arrancamento de parafuso. Os painéis produzidos com partículas de vassoura absorveram mais água e, por consequência, o inchamento em espessura aumentou, sendo, portanto não recomendados para uso em ambientes com alto teor de umidade. Concluiu-se que o gênero Sida, de modo geral, apresentou potencial para produção dos painéis de aglomerado. Abstract in english The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed t [...] o evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla), paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) and vassoura (Sida spp.) on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8%) amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002). It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  13. Crescimento e nutrição mineral de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla em solução nutritiva com concentração crescente de cobre / Growth and mineral nutrition of Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalypts urophylla in nutrient solution with increasing concentration of copper

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CLÁUDIO ROBERTO FONSÊCA SOUSA, SOARES; JOSÉ OSWALDO, SIQUEIRA; JANICE GUEDES DE, CARVALHO; FÁTIMA MARIA SOUZA, MOREIRA; PAULO HENRIQUE, GRAZZIOTTI.

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de concentrações crescentes de Cu no crescimento, teores e translocação de metais pesados e nutrientes no eucalipto em solução nutritiva. Mudas de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla foram crescidas em vasos de 2L contendo solução nutritiva de Clark, adicionando-se 0, 32, [...] 64, 128 e 192 m M de Cu fornecido como CuSO4. Após cinco semanas de exposição aos tratamentos, as plantas exibiram sintomas típicos de toxidez de Cu como manchas aquosas foliares, clorose e necrose internerval, além do escurecimento das raízes e inibição do crescimento mesmo nas menores concentrações do elemento. A concentração crítica de Cu na solução para reduzir em 10% a matéria seca da parte aérea foi de 8,3 miM e 3,3 miM para E. urophylla e E. maculata, respectivamente. O nível crítico de toxidez na matéria seca da parte aérea foi muito baixo, entre 12 e 13 mg Kg-1 para ambas espécies. E. urophylla mostrou-se menos sensível do que E. maculata, sendo isso relacionado à capacidade dessa em restringir a translocação do Cu das raízes para a parte aérea. Além disso, E. urophylla absorveu mais Fe na presença do excesso de Cu. A translocação de Fe das raízes para a parte aérea foi reduzida, independentemente da espécie, de 27% no controle para apenas 12% na concentração de 192 m M Cu, evidenciando a alta interferência do Cu na translocação do Fe, podendo ser uma das causas da fitotoxidez do Cu para o eucalipto. Altas concentrações de Cu não causaram redução na absorção e translocação de P, K, S, Ca e Mg, não representando, portanto, mecanismo de fitotoxidez desse metal pesado para essas espécies. Abstract in english The effects of increasing concentrations of Cu in nutrient solution on growth, content and translocation of heavy metals and mineral nutrients in eucalyptus were evaluated. Seedlings of Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalypts urophylla were grown in pots containing 2 L of Clark’s nutrient solution, amende [...] d with 0, 32, 64, 128 and 192 m M Cu supplied as CuSO4. After five weeks of growth in the treatments, plants exhibited typical symptoms of Cu toxicity characterized by aqueous stains, interveinal leaf chlorosis and tissue necrosis. In addition to inhibition of growth, roots were dark even at lower Cu concentrations. The critical Cu toxicity concentrations which decreased shoot dry matter by 10%, were 8,3 muM and 3,3 muM for E. urophylla and E. maculata, respectively, whereas plant tissue critical toxicity concentration was between 12 and 13 mg kg-1 for both species, therefore indicating the high sensitivity of the Eucalyptus spp. to Cu. E. urophylla was less sensitive to Cu than E. maculata and this was related to the capacity of this species to restrict Cu translocation to shoots. Fe translocation was reduced by increasing Cu in both species. Translocation index was, on average, 27% in the control and 12% with 192 muM Cu in nutrient solution. However, E. urophylla exhibited higher Fe uptake under excessive Cu. This effect could be one of the causes of the eucalypts sensitivity to Cu. Toxic concentrations of Cu did not reduce uptake or translocation of P, K, S, Ca e Mg. Therefore reduced nutrient uptake does not account for the Cu toxicity effects observed.

  14. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Inácio de, Campos; Francisco Antonio Rocco, Lahr.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard), in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from al [...] ternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  15. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  16. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  17. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Z. Groenewald

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even tree death. In the present study, numerous isolates of Mycosphaerella species were collected from leaf litter, living leaves exhibiting leaf spot symptoms or severe Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptoms. Isolates were compared based on DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 & ITS2 and the 5.8S gene. These data, together with characteristics of the fungal growth on three different media, morphology of the anamorph and teleomorph structures as well as ascospore germination patterns were used to describe 21 new species.

  18. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LEAF-CUTTING ANT NESTS (Hymenoptera: Formicidae IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Araújo Caldeira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Programs of integrated pest management in forest plantation require a sampling plan. Therefore, it is important todetermine the spatial distribution these pests, because it makes the decision process more precise, given that it takes into accounttheir local and regional spatial distribution variations. This work was carried out for evaluating the spatial distribution of antnests in eucalyptus plantations. Twelve eucalyptus stands belonging to V&M Florestal Ltd., in Bocaiúva county, Minas Gerais,were used. They were divided into 6m x 20m sub parcels, totalizing 120m2. The nests were identified, counted and measured ineach parcel. Both found and expected frequency of nests were calculated according to Poisson’s distribution, in order todetermine the type of spatial distribution of nests. The found and the expected frequency (x2; p>0.01 were similar. The result was a randomized distribution.

  19. Influences of different control periods and coexistence with weed in eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kneipp Londero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the periods of control and coexistence of weeds with eucalyptus culture. The experiment was led in Candiota, RS, in the period from January to December, 2006. The treatments consisted of different control times and coexistence of the culture, these periods were divided in two groups; one was to determine the Period Previous to the Interference (PPI and the other to define the Total Period of Prevention of the Interference (TPFI. In the two groups the tested periods were: 00, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 210, 252, 294 and 336 days. The young trees of eucalyptus were susceptible to weed, presenting a period previous to the interference of 56 days. In order to guarantee its largest production, the total period of prevention of the interference was 140 days and the period previous to the interference was of 56 days.

  20. Adjusting the log-Pearson type III function to even-aged eucalyptus stands data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the log-Pearson tipo III function to describe the diameter structure of even-aged stands, and propose a diameter distribution model using the function. The modeling function performed by the log-Pearson tipo III was compared with the modeling performed with the Weibull function. For this we used data from permanent plots of eucalyptus, located in the Midwestern region of Minas Gerais. Adherence to the functions of the data was confirmed by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS. The diameter distribution models used were based on models proposed by Nogueira et al. (2005 and were evaluated in terms of RMSE (% and the correlation coefficient between estimated and observed values. All fitting to the data presented adherence by the KS test. All equations fitted for the recovery of the diameter distribution showed high correlation coefficients and can be used for modeling the diameter distribution of eucalyptus.

  1. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  2. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Michele Santos Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  3. Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. juvenile wood by sap displacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Marcel de Arruda Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

  4. Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Restrepo Estrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling’s method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

  5. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. PMID:26255602

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF NIRS CALIBRATION MODELS FOR MINIMIZATION OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Chagas de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to select Eucalyptus spp. wood samples for development of NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy calibration models aiming to minimize number of samples but maintaining the model precisions. A large number of Eucalyptus spp. wood samples (3369 samples were used to develop NIRS calibration models for the wood basic density, the lignin content and the ethanol-toluene extractives. The models developed with the total number of samples were compared with models developed using only 1000, 500, 200 and 100 samples, which were selected using the Kennard-Stone algorithm. Analysis of the models statistics parameters confirmed the similarity of all models, with exception of the 100 sample models, demonstrating the possibility of substantial savings in time and costs for wood laboratory analysis.  

  7. Methods of asepsis for in vitro establishment and germination of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical and scientific studies have been conducted for the cultivation of Eucalyptus, with special attention tolarge-scale clonal propagation. However, in some studies are necessary to obtain aseptic material from seeds, andas far as we are aware efficient protocols of asepsis for this purpose are still not available. Therefore, this studyaimed to define a protocol for sterilization of seeds of Eucalyptus grandis for in vitro establishment andgermination. Four methods of sterilization were tested using different application sequences of the disinfectants, asbenomyl fungicide, hydroalcoholic solution (70% v/v and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. The experiment wasconducted in completely randomized design with five repetitions. The percentage of establishment andcontamination were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Washing with sterile water and 70% alcohol for 30 s,2.5% sodium hypochlorite for 20 min, 1% benomyl for 20 min and three washes with sterile water was the bestmethod found, accounting to 87.5% of establishment.

  8. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred W., Calonego; Elias T.D., Severo; Antonio R., Cunha; Daiane C., Gaia.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábu [...] as mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1) o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2) as toras com 20 a Abstract in english The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1) the [...] logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2) the logs with diameter of 20 to

  9. Regeneration of plants from leaf explants of micropropagated clonal Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainé, E; David, A

    1994-05-01

    Callus production along with caulogenesis was obtained from leaf explants of micropropagated clonal Eucalyptus grandis after six to twelve weeks of culture. Out of eight clones tested, six were amenable to shoot production using simple media containing naphthaleneacetic acid and either 6-benzyladenine or zeatin. Differences in growth regulator requirements for organogenesis were observed between different clones. These shoots were then elongated on a medium containing gibberellic acid and rooted using media derived from the micropropagation medium. Light conditions were also found to be important for regeneration. This protocol is the first published on regeneration from nonseedling material and it will facilitate the Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of selected clonal Eucalyptus grandis. PMID:24194029

  10. SUPERVISED PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES FROM LEAVES NIR SPECTRA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROSARIO, CASTILLO; DAVID, CONTRERAS; JUANITA, FREER; JOSE, RUIZ; SOFÍA, VALENZUELA.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three supervised pattern recognition methods (SPRM) were evaluated to discriminate between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens species applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy on leaves. The methods used were k-nearest neighbor (KNN), soft modeling class analogy (SIMCA) and discriminant parti [...] al least squares (PLS-DA). First and second derivatives were used as transform techniques and mean-center (MC) and autoscaling (AS) as preprocessing techniques. The training set was constitued by 288 samples and 20 samples were used as validation set. A significant difference between the assayed methods was not observed, however best results for separation of classes and prediction rate were obtained when first derivative and MC were used for all the recognition pattern methods. Use of leaves and NIR spectroscopy avoids the destructive usual wood analysis in forest industries and facilities the fast classification of these species for forest applications.

  11. CERAMBYCIDAE BEETLES ASSOCIATED TO Eucalyptus spp. IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect, identify and carry out a faunistic characterization of Cerambycidae occurring in a forest of Eucalyptus spp., on São Manoel farm, in the municipality of Pinheiro Machado, RS. In the period from February 2006 to October 2007, collections of insects were performed every 15 days, with three ethanol traps. After selection procedures, the Cerambycidae were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. We collected 692 insects, distributed among 29 genera and 40 species. The most abundant species were Acanthoderes jaspidea, Chlorida costata, Compsocerus barbicornis, Eburodacrys sp., Eurysthea hirta, Neoclytus curvatus and Nyssodrysina lignaria, which represented 81.17% of the total individuals. Cerambycidae were collected during practically the entire sampling period, but the largest number at a single collection occurred in the month of December. Several species demonstrate potential for damaging Eucalyptus spp., of which Neoclytus curvatus deserves the most attention, because it represented almost half of the insects collected.

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing of Two Phenotypic Mosaic Eucalyptus Trees Reveals Large Scale Transcriptome Re-Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Padovan, Amanda; Patel, Hardip R; Chuah, Aaron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Krause, Sandra T; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J; Külheim, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic mosaic trees offer an ideal system for studying differential gene expression. We have investigated two mosaic eucalypt trees from two closely related species (Eucalyptus melliodora and E. sideroxylon), which each support two types of leaves: one part of the canopy is resistant to insect herbivory and the remaining leaves are susceptible. Driving this ecological distinction are differences in plant secondary metabolites. We used these phenotypic mosaics to investigate genome wide pa...

  13. Effects of inbreeding on population mean performance and observational variances in Eucalyptus globulus

    OpenAIRE

    Costa E Silva, João; Hardner, Craig; Tilyard, Paul; Pires, Ana M.; Potts, Brad M.

    2010-01-01

    * Mean performance and variances were studied in self (SELF), open pollinated (OP) and unrelated polymix (POL) crosses of common parentage in Eucalyptus globulus.* Inbreeding depression for survival (SURV) and basal area per hectare (BAH) was the highest reported for a SELF eucalypt population, increasing with age to reach 74 and 77%, respectively, over 10 years.* Inbreeding depression in the OP was 36% for SURV and 32% for BAH at age 10 years, and estimates of outcrossing rate from BAH were ...

  14. Effect of surface sizing on the surface chemistry of paper containing eucalyptus pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Isabel Maria Teixeira; Kleen, Anne Marjatta; Figueiredo, Maria Margarida Lopes; Ferreira, Paulo Jorge Tavares

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different surface sizing formulations on the chemical features of surfaces of the papers produced from Eucalyptus kraft pulp was studied. The surface analysis techniques, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spec- trometry were applied. An uncoated base paper, the ref- erence material, was sized with blends of cationic starch with either co-acrylonitrile-acrylate or co-styrene-acry- late. The results of both te...

  15. Location of O-acetyl substituents in xylo-oligosaccharides obtained from hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood

    OpenAIRE

    Kabel, M.A.; de Waard, P.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of techniques was used to localise the O-acetyl substituents in xylo-oligosaccharides, which are present in hydrolysates of hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood. Reversed-phase (RP)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to both a mass spectrometer and an evaporating light scattering (ELS) detector provided data about the order of elution of the various O-acetylated oligomers. The retention of the oligomers on the column depended on the number and positi...

  16. Complex xylo-oligosaccharides identified from hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrolysates from two hydrothermally treated xylan-rich agrobased materials, Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain were fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Hereby, several pools were obtained and they were characterised by their sugar composition. Additionally, the oligosaccharides in the pools described were further identified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry. The hydrothermally treated brewery's spent gr...

  17. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Liposomes Containing Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Handali; Eskandar Moghimipour; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Zahra Ramezani; Nasrin Aghel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The increased incidence of fungal resistance has necessitated the need to search for new antifungal agents..Objective: The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on dermatophytes growth and to formulate and characterize a liposomal gel loaded with the essential oil..Materials and Methods: The essential oil extracted from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was analyzed by GC-MS. The antifungal activity...

  19. Phylogeny of the Quambalariaceae fam. nov., including important Eucalyptus pathogens in South Africa and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Michael J; Crous, Pedro W.; Geoff S. Pegg; Robert Bauer; Dominik Begerow; Z. Wilhelm de Beer

    2006-01-01

    The genus Quambalaria consists of plant-pathogenic fungi causing disease on leaves and shoots of species of Eucalyptus and its close relative, Corymbia. The phylogenetic relationship of Quambalaria spp., previously classified in genera such as Sporothrix and Ramularia, has never been addressed. It has, however, been suggested that they belong to the basidiomycete orders Exobasidiales or Ustilaginales. The aim of this study was thus to consider the ordinal relations...

  20. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-05-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (900 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  1. Changes in carbon stocks in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations induced by different water and nutrient availability

    OpenAIRE

    Fabião, António; Madeira, M.; Pereira, J. S.; Araújo, M.C.; Ribeiro, C.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the carbon stocks under different soil water and nutrient conditions were studied in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. stands in a field experiment, at O ´ bidos (central Portugal). The treatments were irrigation plus a complete fertiliser solution to simulate ‘near optimal’ nutrition (IF), irrigation only (I), and fertilisers added to rain-fed plots (F). The control (C) received neither water nor fertilisers (except a small amount at planting). The production of biomass (aboveg...

  2. Life-cycle assessment of eucalyptus short-rotation coppices for bioenergy production in Southern France

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Nguyen The, Nicolas; Maupu, Pauline; Vial, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRCs) are considered prime candidates for biomass production, yielding good-quality feedstock that is easy to harvest. Besides technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are important to take into account when developing SRCs. Here, we evaluated the environmental impacts of delivering 1 GJ of heat from eucalyptus SRC using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on management scenarios involving different rotations lengths, fertilizer input rates, stem ...

  3. Characterization of lipophilic wood extractives from clones of Eucalyptus urograndis cultivate in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomide, J. L.; Pilo-Veloso, D.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Maltha, C. R. A.; L.C.A Barbosa; Siverio, F. O.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the lipophilic extractives from four clones of Eucalyptus urograndis cultivated in Brazil were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) before and after alkaline hydrolysis. The four E. urograndis clones showed similar amounts of dichloromethane soluble (lipophilic) extractives (0.38-0.55% w/w). The major groups of compounds identified in the lipophilic fraction of extractives consisted mainly of fatty acids (mainly palmitic linoleic and oleic acids...

  4. Immunostimulant Effects of Essential Oils of Peppermint and Eucalyptus in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. H. Awaad*, G. A. Abdel-Alim, K. S. S. Sayed, Kawkab, A. Ahmed1, A. A. Nada2, A. S. Z. Metwalli and A. N. Alkhalaf3

    2010-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of peppermint and eucalyptus essential oils on cell mediated and/or humoral immunity in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) were investigated. The HI titers against both ND and AI vaccines were higher in volatile oils treated group as compared to the untreated control. The protection percentage reached 35% in volatile oils treated group as compared to 25% in untreated control group and 0% in unvaccinated negative control gr...

  5. Modelagem da produção de sortimentos em povoamentos de eucalipto / Modeling of assortment yields in eucalyptus stands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Ribeiro de, Mendonça; Natalino, Calegario; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva; Agostinho Lopes de, Souza; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Samuel Pádua Chaves e, Carvalho; Ernani Lopes, Possato.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar modelos para estimar a produção de sortimentos de plantios clonais do híbrido Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus urophylla com espaçamento 3 x 3 m, localizados em Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Para estimar a produção em área basal e volume dos sortim [...] entos de povoamentos, foram utilizados dados parcelas permanentes. Para estimar o volume dos sortimentos, foram analisados o modelo logístico com adição de covariáveis e o modelo de Clutter. Para a seleção do modelo mais preciso, foram utilizadas as estatísticas erro padrão relativo [Syx (%)], viés (V), média das diferenças (MD), desvio padrão das diferenças (DPD) e análise gráfica dos resíduos. De acordo com as análises, o modelo Logístico obteve o melhorresultado para estimar a produção em volume de madeira para energia e celulose. A metodologia de estimação da produção de sortimentos de plantações florestais analisada foi de fácil aplicação e precisa. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate models to estimate the assortment yield of clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid plantations with 3 x 3 m spacing in the Paraopeba city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. To estimate basal area and volume of the assortment yield data from permanent p [...] lots was used. To estimate the volume of assortments, we analyzed the logistic model with covariates and the Clutter model. The statistical standard error [Syx (%)], bias (V), average of the differences (MD), and standard deviation of the differences (DPD), as well as the graphical analysis of the residuals were used to select the most accurate model. According to the analysis, the Logistic model obtained the best results for estimation of the yield in wood volume for energy and pulpwood. The methodology to estimate assortment of forest plantations was considered easy to use and accurate.

  6. Vesicular-arbuscular-/ecto-mycorrhiza succession in seedlings of. Eucalyptus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Vera Lúcia dos; Muchovej Rosa Maria; Borges Arnaldo Chaer; Neves Júlio César L.; Kasuya Maria Catarina M.

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) and ectomycorrhizae (ECM) in the same root system was observed when species of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, E. citriodora Hook f., E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. cloeziana F. Muell. and E. camaldulensis Dehnh were simultaneously inoculated with Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gederman and Pisolithus tinctorius (Per.) Cocker & Couch, isolate Pt 90A. The succession between the two fungi was observed. In general ectomycorrhizal colonizatio...

  7. Supercritical Fluid Fractionation for Enhancement of Insecticidal Activity of Eucalyptus Extract.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topia?, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Maixnerová, Lucie; Pavela, R.

    Salerno : Centro Stampa di Ateneo, 2013 - (Reverchon, E.; De Marco, I.), s. 119-126 ISBN 88-7897-061-1. [Conference on Supercritical Fluids and Their Applications /10./. Napoli (IT), 29.05.2013-06.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical CO2 extraction * extract fractionation * eucalyptus Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  8. Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Networks Inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta Seedlings in Rain Forest Soil Microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Janos, David P.; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular...

  9. Furfural production from "Eucalyptus globulus" : optimizing by using neural fuzzy models

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, M. T.; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; Gómez Lozano, D. M.; López Baldovín, Francisco; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus globulus were subjected to isothermal autohydrolysis (temperature: 220–250 °C and isothermal residence time 0–60 min). The effect of the R0 factor on the sugar yield and composition of both liquid and solid phases obtained after the treatments has been studied. The furfural concentration and composition has been determined. A central composite experimental design, in conjunction with the neural fuzzy model, was used to the furfural content maximization under isothermal a...

  10. Optimization of furfural production by acid hydrolysis of "Eucalyptus globulus" in two stages

    OpenAIRE

    López Baldovín, Francisco; García Domínguez, M. T.; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Diego, C. M. de; Zamudio, Minerva A. M.; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the production of furfural by hydrolysis with dilute acid of Eucalyptus globulus wood in two stages, using a factorial experimental design and multiple regression models to maximize furfural yields. The two-stage process could provide a solid phase with less degraded cellulose and older applications that the solid phase of a conventional acid hydrolysis. The selectivity for furfural of the process was increased by effect of the glucan and lignin fractions...

  11. Maximizing furfural concentration from wheat straw and Eucalyptus globulus by nonisothermal autohydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, M. T.; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; López Baldovín, Francisco; Diego, C. M. de; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The autohydrolysis process as a method for selective extraction of hemicelluloses and conversion to furfural was proposed for lignocellulosic raw materials. Samples of wheat straw (WS) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were subjected to nonisothermal autohydrolysis, defined by temperature 180–240°C. Within a biorefinery scheme for the selected materials, the aim of this study is both (a) to optimize furfural processing technology to enable higher yields and improved productivity from EG and WS by ...

  12. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Gert J.; Karien Labuschagne; Solomon N.B. Boikanyo; Liesl Morey

    2014-01-01

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat Africanhorse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the presentstudy the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combinationof citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The numberof midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fi...

  13. Eucalyptus globulus wood and pulp localization pof sterols involved in pitch deposition using filipin fluorescent staining

    OpenAIRE

    Speranza, Mariela; Martínez Hernández, María Jesús; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Martínez Ferrer, Ángel Tomás

    2002-01-01

    Sitosterol is one of the main compound found in pitch deposits during totally-chlorine free (TCF) bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp. Filipin staining was used for the first time as a selective method to localize sitosterol in eucalypt pulp and wood. This polyene antibiotic reacts specifically with several 3?-hydroxysterols, such as sitosterol representing 72% of total sterols in E. globulus wood, forming fluorescent complexes. Filipin staining showed sitosterol in the walls and lume...

  14. Superhydrophobic nature of nanostructures on an indigenous Australian eucalyptus plant and its potential application

    OpenAIRE

    Poinern GEJ; Le XT; Fawcett D

    2011-01-01

    Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern, Xuan Thi Le, Derek FawcettMurdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Physics, Energy Studies and Nanotechnology, School of Engineering and Energy, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western AustraliaAbstract: In this preliminary study, the morphology and nanostructured features formed by the epicuticular waxes of the mottlecah (Eucalyptus macrocarpa) leaf were investigated and quantified. The surface features formed by the waxes give the leaf r...

  15. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further asses...

  16. Effects of hydric deficiency on gas exchange parameters and metabolism of Eucalyptus grandis clones

    OpenAIRE

    Renata B. S. Coscolin; Fernando Broetto; José A. Marchese; Marco C. Campohermoso; Marcos V. Paladini

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic effects caused by hydric deficiency (HD) on Eucalyptus grandis clones were assessed by an experiment where plants were cultivated in four blocks. The first was the control block, normally irrigated, whereas the other three blocks were submitted to cycles of hydric deficiency. Analysis of photosynthetic efficiency, enzymatic activity of antioxidant response system, level of pigments and L-proline concentration were performed to evaluate the HD effects. Results showed that HD alte...

  17. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  18. Fractionation of eucalyptus globulus wood by glycerol-water pretreatment : optimization and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Romaní, Aloia; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Pereira, Francisco B.; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A., colab.

    2013-01-01

    A glycerol-organosolv process can be a good alternative for Eucalyptus wood fractionation into its main compounds, improving the enzymatic saccharification of the cellulose. A study of process variables - glycerol?water percent content, temperature, and process time - was carried out using a Box-Behnken experimental design. The cellulose obtained from pretreated solids was recovered almost quantitatively, leading to a solid with a high percentage of cellulose (77 g/100 g of pretre...

  19. FORMULATION OF AN ANTI-DERMATOPHYTE CREAM FROM HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    E Moghimipour; Ameri, A.; A Saudatzadeh; Salimi, A; A Siahpoosh

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, there has been an increasing incidence of fungal infections, and because of drug resistance and toxicity associated with long-term treatment with antifungal drugs, search for new drugs to treat fungal infections is ongoing. The aim of the present study was to formulate herbal antifungal cream containing hydro-alcoholic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis as an anti-dermatophytic preparation and evaluate its physicochemical properties and stability. Firstly, the minimum i...

  20. A Bayesian approach for exact optimal measurement and cutting times for a Eucalyptus production forest

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, M.J.; Otten, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the design for supporting the optimal decision on tree cutting in a Portuguese eucalyptus production forest. Trees are usually cut at the biological rotation age, i.e. the age which maximizes the yearly volume production. Here we aim the maximization of the long-term yearly volume yield reduced by harvest costs. We consider different growth curves, with a known prior distribution, that can occur in each rotation. The optimal cutting time at each rotation depends both on t...

  1. Characterisation of Adaptive Genetic Diversity in Environmentally Contrasted Populations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (River Red Gum)

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Shannon; McEvoy, Rachel; Baldwin, Darren S.; Rees, Gavin N.; Parsons, Yvonne; Southerton, Simon

    2014-01-01

    As an increasing number of ecosystems face departures from long standing environmental conditions under climate change, our understanding of the capacity of species to adapt will become important for directing conservation and management of biodiversity. Insights into the potential for genetic adaptation might be gained by assessing genomic signatures of adaptation to historic or prevailing environmental conditions. The river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.) is a widespread Australia...

  2. Pretreatment with laccase and a phenolic mediator degrades lignin and enhances saccharification of Eucalyptus feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Rico Campos, Alejandro; Rencoret, Jorge; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Martínez, Ángel T.; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Biofuel production from lignocellulosic material is hampered by biomass recalcitrance towards enzymatic hydrolysis due to the compact architecture of the plant cell wall and the presence of lignin. The purpose of this work is to study the ability of an industrially available laccase-mediator system to modify and remove lignin during pretreatment of wood (Eucalyptus globulus) feedstock, thus improving saccharification, and to analyze the chemical modifications produced in t...

  3. ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS, TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA ON MCF-7 CELL LINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sr. Prema Kumari* and Louis Jesudas

    2014-01-01

    Methanolic crude extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Tinosopra Cordifolia grown in natural and industrial polluted conditions were investigated for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines to study the pollution effect on Cytotoxicity.  It was carried out by the XTT assay using serial dilutions. The Cytotoxicity of individual plants and also the combined extracts of plants grown in polluted and natural area were carried out separately to check out the differences. The ...

  4. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Novel Eucalyptus Oil, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Isopropyl Alcohol Biocide Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hendry, Emma; Conway, Barbara; Worthington, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Effective surface disinfection is a fundamental infection control strategy within healthcare. This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of novel biocide formulations comprising 5% and 2% eucalyptus oil (EO) combined with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) contained within a wipe. The efficacy of this novel antimicrobial formulation to remove and eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Candida albicans from steel s...

  5. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Kabakci; Fatih Mengeloglu

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C an...

  6. Some Properties of Eucalyptus Wood Flour Filled Recycled High Density Polyethylene Polymer-Composites

    OpenAIRE

    MENGELO?LU, Fatih; KARAKU?, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eucalyptus wood flours (EWF) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were investigated. First thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were conducted for recycled HDPE and EWF. Later the effects of EWF and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) concentrations were studied. TGA analysis revealed that EWF and recycled HDPE started degrading around 230 °C and 280 °C, respectively. Melting temper...

  7. Heterosis May Result in Selection Favouring the Products of Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Costa E Silva, João; Potts, Brad M.; Lopez, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP) with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials...

  8. Genotypic-unspecific protocols for the commercial micropropagation of Eucalyptus grandis × nitens and E. grandis × urophylla

    OpenAIRE

    WATT, Maria Paula

    2014-01-01

    Clones of Eucalyptus grandis × nitens and E. grandis × urophylla were subjected to various culture conditions at every culture stage leading to plantlet regeneration directly from axillary buds. The objective was to determine the possibility of using the same protocol for all clones. Although genotypic effects were evident, generally most clones responded similarly to the tested variations in each of the protocol stages, i.e. bud break, multiplication, and rooting. Estimated yields for the cl...

  9. Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rojhan; Nouri, L.

    2013-01-01

    Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract) was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca star...

  10. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  11. BALANCE OF WATER AND ENERGY FOR EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS WITH PARTIAL SOIL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves dos Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813329Eucalyptus plots with initial development ages presented discontinuity in soil cover, resulting in greaterexposure of the leaves to wind and solar radiation, which alters soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. Theobjective of this study was to study the components of the water and energy balances along the first yearof eucalyptus development in the Brazilian coastal plain region. The experimental site is located in anarea belonging to the company Fibria in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Thespace between the planted eucalyptus trees in the area studied was 3 x 3 m and the data of planting wason August 15th , 2004. The period of study lasted from the planting date until the plot reached an ageof 19 months. It was verified that there was a greater availability of energy during the summer and theprecipitation directly influenced the energy balance where during the period of study the energy available necessary for evapotranspiration was always greater than the fraction necessary for heating the soil-plantatmospheresystem, presenting a ?E/Rn ratio of 59.57%. It was also observed that the water balance with themodeled evapotranspiration showed a good correspondence with the observed moisture content, presentinga determination coefficient of 0,94. In the majority of trees, greater indices of leaf and root system areasfavored evapotranspiration, indicating that most energy available was utilized for changing the phase ofwater

  12. Photosynthetic analyses of two native Atlantic Forest species in regenerative understory of eucalyptus plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico, Lage-Pinto; Elaine, Bernini; Jurandi Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Angela Pierre, Vitória.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange, chlorophyll afluorescence, and photosynthetic pigments of Xylopia sericeaA. St.-Hil. and Siparuna guianensis Aubl. were evaluated during the rainy season and the dry season (2009-2010) in three understories with different ecological conditions (irradiance, water availability, and tempe [...] rature) located in the União Biological Reserve (known as REBIO União), at Rio de Janeiro State, a natural forest understory, eucalyptus understory under regeneration, and understory of eucalyptus plantation with 18-year-old trees that were removed 1 year before. The lowest values of Fv/Fm e Fm/Fo were observed in the exposed understory for both seasons, with lower values in the dry season, suggesting that reduced water availability potentializes the photoinhibitory process. For both species of the exposed understory it is suggested the occurrence of photoprotection, given that an increased proportion of carotenoid pigments in relation to the chlorophylls were verified. Both species still exhibited dynamic photoinhibition after 1 year of exposure to full sunlight (exposed understory) in both seasons, but more markedly so in the dry season, though they belong to early stages of ecological succession. Based on the results, it is suggested that these species are indicated for planting in degraded areas and that the cutting of eucalyptus trees as management practice should be performed in a gradual manner, during the rainy season, in order to minimize stress on these species.

  13. Preliminary study of prairies forested with Eucalyptus sp. at the northwestern Uruguayan soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forestation of Uruguayan natural prairie soil does not always ensure an increase of soil carbon sink. - The land cover change of Uruguayan Forestal Plan provoked biogeochemical changes on horizon Au1 of Argiudols; in native prairies which were replaced by monoculture Eucalyptus sp. plantation with 20 year rotations as trees. Five fields forested and six natural prairies were compared. The results not only show a statistical significant soil acidification, diminution of soil organic carbon, increase of aliphaticity degree of humic substances, and increase of affinity and capacity of hydrolytic activity from soil microbial communities for forested sites with Eucalyptus sp. but also, a tendency of podzolization and/or mineralization by this kind of land cover changes, with a net soil organic lost of 16.6 tons ha-1 in the horizon Au1 of soil under Eucalyptus sp. plantation compared with prairie. Besides, these results point out the necessity of correction of the methodology used by assigned Uruguayan commission to assess the national net emission of greenhouse gases, since the mineralization and/or podzolization process detected in forested soil imply a overestimation of soil organic carbon. The biochemical parameters show a statistical significant correlation between the soil organic carbon status and these parameters which were presented as essential for the correct evaluation of Uruguayan soil carbon sink

  14. Predicting moisture content from basic density and diameter during air drying of Eucalyptus and corymbia logs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio José, Vinha Zanuncio; Amélia, Guimarães Carvalho; Liniker, Fernandes da Silva; José, Tarcisio Lima; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo, Moreira da Silva.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In air drying of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs for the production of charcoal it is necessary to be able to predict when logs have reached the required moisture content of ? 35%.This study is aimed to produce models using basic density and diameter to predict the moisture content [...] of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs after 30, 60 and 90 days drying. 1,2 m long logs were taken at three different heights from three C. citriodora trees and three trees each from two E. urophylla clones (VM4 and Mn463). The 27 debarked, end sealed logs were air dried under cover for 90 days during which the change in moisture content was monitored. The relationship between density and drying was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the models for predicting the moisture content based on the basic density and diameter were produced. The density and the drying showed a high correlation coefficient. The coefficient of determination of the models was above 0,89 with a standard error lower than 6%. The use of the density and diameter to estimate the wood moisture content simplifies the production of the models, which can be used for Eucalyptus and Corymbia genetic materials.

  15. Predicting moisture content from basic density and diameter during air drying of Eucalyptus and corymbia logs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio José, Vinha Zanuncio; Amélia, Guimarães Carvalho; Liniker, Fernandes da Silva; José, Tarcisio Lima; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo, Moreira da Silva.

    Full Text Available In air drying of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs for the production of charcoal it is necessary to be able to predict when logs have reached the required moisture content of ? 35%.This study is aimed to produce models using basic density and diameter to predict the moisture content [...] of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs after 30, 60 and 90 days drying. 1,2 m long logs were taken at three different heights from three C. citriodora trees and three trees each from two E. urophylla clones (VM4 and Mn463). The 27 debarked, end sealed logs were air dried under cover for 90 days during which the change in moisture content was monitored. The relationship between density and drying was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the models for predicting the moisture content based on the basic density and diameter were produced. The density and the drying showed a high correlation coefficient. The coefficient of determination of the models was above 0,89 with a standard error lower than 6%. The use of the density and diameter to estimate the wood moisture content simplifies the production of the models, which can be used for Eucalyptus and Corymbia genetic materials.

  16. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management.

  17. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80?mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30?mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40?mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24°C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2?mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55?mg/liter at 7-10°C for 24?h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine. PMID:26470387

  18. A multi-gene phylogeny for species of Mycosphaerella occurring on Eucalyptus leaves

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    Michael J. Wingfield

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of the ascomycete genus Mycosphaerella are regarded as some of the most destructive leaf pathogens of a large number of economically important crop plants. Amongst these, approximately 60 Mycosphaerella spp. have been identified from various Eucalyptus spp. where they cause leaf diseases collectively known as Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease (MLD. Species concepts for this group of fungi remain confused, and hence their species identification is notoriously difficult. Thus, the introduction of DNA sequence comparisons has become the definitive characteristic used to distinguish species of Mycosphaerella. Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region of the ribosomal RNA operon have most commonly been used to consider species boundaries in Mycosphaerella. However, sequences for this gene region do not always provide sufficient resolution for cryptic taxa. The aim of this study was, therefore, to use DNA sequences for three loci, ITS, Elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1? and Actin (ACT to reconsider species boundaries for Mycosphaerella spp. from Eucalyptus. A further aim was to study the anamorph concepts and resolve the deeper nodes of Mycosphaerella, for which part of the Large Subunit (LSU of the nuclear rRNA operon was sequenced. The ITS and EF-1? gene regions were found to be useful, but the ACT gene region did not provide species-level resolution in Mycosphaerella. A phylogeny of the combined DNA datasets showed that species of Mycosphaerella from Eucalyptus cluster in two distinct groups, which might ultimately represent discrete genera

  19. Application of stress waves to estimate moisture content in Eucalyptus wood

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    Clair Rogério da Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate monitoring of moisture content in Eucalyptus wood during the drying process is critical to improving product quality. And as electric meters lose accuracy in some moisture ranges, in this work a Stress Wave Timer was used to try and assess the possibility of estimating wood moisture based on variation in the propagation velocity of stress waves in two Eucalyptus species. Effects of knot area and board basic density on the propagation of stress waves were also analyzed, using analysis of variance and observing mean values for these characteristics. Equations were fitted and wood moisture content could be estimated by the stress wave propagation method using nonlinear models or a multiple linear model, with wave propagation velocity, basic density and knot area being used as independent variables. Best fits were obtained for boards showing no visible defects (knots, cracks etc.. The propagation velocity of stress waves through the wood was found to vary as a function of the knot area, wood density and anatomical orientation (visual analysis of the boards. Knots had a stronger influence on wave transmission when they were present in radially cut boards. Keywords: wood moisture content, basic density, knots, Eucalyptus, stress wave timer.

  20. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  1. Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique

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    Lívia Cássia Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

  2. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  3. Chemo-profiling of eucalyptus and study of its hypoglycemic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Baishakhi; Mitra, Analava

    2013-10-15

    Constant escalations in the number of diabetics world-wide and the failure of conventional therapy to restore normoglycemia without adverse effects, in spite of tremendous strides in modern medicine, calls for naturopathy and alternative medicine. Because diabetes is multi-factorial and has secondary complications, prevention of hyperglycemia is the central dogma for its management. To date, no oral hypoglycemic exists which can achieve tight glycemic control without side effects. Dietary adjuncts, lifestyle interventions and a resurgence of interest in phyto-therapy have consequently gained ground. Natural hypoglycemics have attracted attention due to ease of incorporation in everyday diet, affordability, less adverse effects, and long term safety. Ethno botanical literature reports more than 800 anti-diabetic plants species. Eucalyptus is well represented in the Aboriginal Pharmacopoeias for its various pharmacological activities. Its hot aqueous decoction has been used as a hypoglycemic in various regions of world. This editorial attempts to summarize the data on the hypoglycemic potential of the different eucalyptus species, highlight the value of its natural biomolecules for the prophylaxis and treatment of type 2 diabetes, describe their mechanistic actions, shed light on the posology and safety aspects of eucalyptus and assess its applicability as a reinforcement to currently used therapy. PMID:24147201

  4. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  5. Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryzenhout, Marieka; Rodas, Carlos A; Portales, Julio Mena; Clegg, Paul; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    The pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis (formerly Cryphonectria cubensis) is best known for the important canker disease that it causes on Eucalyptus species. This fungus is also a pathogen of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), which is native to Indonesia, and like Eucalyptus, is a member of Myrtaceae. Furthermore, C. cubensis has been found on Miconia spp. native to South America and residing in Melastomataceae. Recent surveys have yielded C. cubensis isolates from new hosts, characterized in this study based on DNA sequences for the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions. These hosts include native Clidemia sericea and Rhynchanthera mexicana (Melastomataceae) in Mexico, and non-native Lagerstroemia indica (Pride of India, Lythraceae) in Cuba. Isolates from these hosts and areas group in the sub-clade of C. cubensis accommodating the South American collections of the fungus. This sub-clade also includes isolates recently collected from Eucalyptus in Cuba, which are used to epitypify C. cubensis. New host records from Southeast Asia include exotic Tibouchina urvilleana from Singapore and Thailand and native Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Consistent with their areas of occurrence isolates from the latter collections group in the Asian sub-clade of C. cubensis. DNA sequence comparisons of isolates from Tibouchina lepidota in Colombia revealed that they represent a new sub-clade within the greater Chrysoporthe clade. Isolates in this clade are described as Chrysoporthe inopina sp. nov., based on distinctive morphological differences. PMID:16876702

  6. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  7. Crescimento in vitro de progênies de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. sob condições de deficiência hídrica / In vitro growth of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. progenies under water deficit conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Maia, Souza; Antonio Natal, Gonçalves; Nelson Barbosa, Machado Neto.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Três procedências de Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram submetidas a deficiência hídrica induzida in vitro através da adição de 100, 400 e 1000 mM de sorbitol ao meio de cultura. As gemas foram avaliadas de acordo com seu crescimento em altura, produção de matéria seca, porcentagem de umidade e proteína [...] s totais em eletroforese de gel de poliacrilamida. Observou-se uma relação inversa entre o crescimento em altura, que sofreu redução com o aumento do deficit hídrico, e a produção de matéria seca. Houve um aumento geral do conteúdo de proteínas totais em relação a redução do potencial osmótico do meio de cultura e a expressão diferenciada de duas proteínas de 36 e 45 quilodaltons (kDa). Abstract in english Three Eucalyptus camaldulensis provenances were submitted to water deficit induced in vitro through the addition of 100, 400 and 1000 mM of sorbitol to the growth medium. Shoots were evaluated for growth in height, production of dry matter, moisture content and total proteins in SDS-PAGE (sodium dod [...] ecil sulphate-poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis). An inverse relationship was observed between the growth in height, that decreased with the increase of water deficit, and the production of dry matter. There was a general increase in content of total protein in relation to the reduction of the osmotic potential of the growth medium, and the diferenciation of two proteins (36 and 45 kDa).

  8. Influência da minieataquia seriada no vigor de minicepas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Influence of serial minicutting techinique on the vigor of Eucalyptus grandis ministumps

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    Ivar Wendling

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos subcultivos de miniestaquia seriada na capacidade de produção, vigor e sobrevivência das minicepas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, nas sucessivas coletas de miniestacas. O jardim miniclonal foi localizado em ambiente coberto por plástico transparente e conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em calhetão. A sobrevivência das minicepas foi superior a 96% após as sete coletas de brotações, para todos os clones e subcultivos. Em relação à produtividade e ao vigor das minicepas, ocorreram variações entre os clones e as coletas estudadas e, de modo geral, a miniestaquia seriada não proporcionou efeitos significativos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of serial minicutting technique on the production capacity, vigor and survival of Eucalyptus grandis ministumps in successive minicutting collections. The miniclonal garden was located in an environment covered by transparent plastic, under a hydroponic system. The survival of ministumps was superior to 96% after the seven collections were conducted for all the clones and subcultures. Regarding ministump productivity and vigor, variations were observed among clones and collections and the serial minicutting technique did not provide significant effects, overall.

  9. Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii: ( i sobrevivência de minicepas e produção de miniestacas em função das coletas e estações do ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985075O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a técnica de miniestaquia na clonagem de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii ao longo das estações do ano quanto à sobrevivência de minicepas e à produção de miniestacas. As minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas durante 352 dias em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico em leito de areia com solução nutritiva fornecida por gotejamento, efetuando-se 27 coletas sucessivas de brotações durante as quatro estações do ano (primavera, verão, outono e inverno. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco repetições e quatro minicepas por repetição. As minicepas apresentaram elevado percentual de sobrevivência (89,68% após 27 coletas sucessivas de brotações, indicando alta longevidade como fontes fornecedoras de propágulos. A produção de miniestaca variou conforme o clone e mostraram-se sensíveis às estações do ano e às oscilações da temperatura. A maior produção ocorreu nas estações consideradas mais quentes (primavera e verão com variação de 635,42 a 852,64 miniestacas m-2, e a menor nas estações mais frias (outono e inverno com 592,38 a 629,36 miniestacas m-2. A produção anual de miniestacas foi de 18.934,76; 20.942,27 e 20.748,14 miniestacas m-2 ano-1, respectivamente para os clones H12, H19 e H20.

  10. Pathogenicity evaluation of Cytospora eucalypticola isolated from Eucalyptus spp: cankers in Uruguay Avaliação da patogenicidade de Cytospora eucalypticola isolado de Eucalyptus spp: no Uruguai

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    Raquel Alonso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytospora eucalypticola has been frequently associated with twig and stem cankers and as endophyte of Eucalyptus globulus and E. grandis in Uruguay. Mycelium discs of two C. eucalypticola isolates obtained from actively growing colonies were inoculated, both superficially and on experimentally wounded stems of E. globulus and E. grandis. No inoculated and control plants have shown any discoloration, gumosis or necrosis nor did they display lesions ten months after inoculation. Callus tissue was formed, partially or wholly occluding the wounds. The ability to penetrate healthy tissues and the inability to produce lesions evidenced that the presence of C. eucalypticola in twig and stem cankers could result from saprotrophic expansion of the endophytic mycelium in dying tissues, cankers probably being produced by different environmental stress conditions.Cytospora eucalypticola tem sido, freqüentemente, associado a lesões de pequenos ramos e cancros de caules e como endofíto de Eucalyptus globulus e E. grandis no Uruguai. Discos de micélio de dois isolados do C. eucalypticola obtidos de colônias crescendo ativamente foram inoculados superficialmente e em caules de E. globulus e E. grandis feridos experimentalmente. Não se observou exsudação de goma, descoloraçao, necrose, nem lesões dez meses depois nos controles. O tecido de calo foi formado, parcialmente ou totalmente fechando as feridas. A capacidade de penetrar tecidos saudáveis e a incapacidade de produzir lesões evidenciou que a presença de C. eucalypticola em cancro do caule pode resultar em uma expansão saprofítica do micélio em tecidos enfraquecidos. O cancro provavelmente foi produzido por algum tipo de estresse abiotico

  11. NANOINDENTACIONES Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA EN MADERA DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS CON MICRO Y MESO GRIETAS NANOINDENTATIONS AND ULTRASTRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS NITENS WITH MICRO AND MESOCRACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gacitua E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una metodología basada en nanoindentaciones y análisis de la ultraestructura de células de madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden para explorar los factores que generan la aparición de fallas en la madera debido a tensiones de crecimiento. Se estudió madera normal y madera con mesogrietas. Existieron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de vasos y módulo de elasticidad de la pared S2 entre los dos tipos de madera estudiadas. Se identificó como causa de la fractura de la lámina media y pared S1, fractura definida como mesogrieta, el factor de concentración de esfuerzos y la capacidad de almacenamiento de energía por parte de las fibras de madera, presentando ambos factores diferencias significativas entre las muestras de madera analizadasUsing nanoindentations and ultrastructure analysis, we developed a methodology to explore factors that may contribute to failures in Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden due to growth stresses. Two types of wood were analyzed; normal wood and wood with meso-cracks. Factors contributing to cracking included the vessel frequency and mechanical properties of the S2 layer measured with nanoindentations. Micro and mesocracks propagated throughout the middle lamella and S1 layer due to an increased stress concentration that was mainly

  12. NANOINDENTACIONES Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA EN MADERA DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS CON MICRO Y MESO GRIETAS / NANOINDENTATIONS AND ULTRASTRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS NITENS WITH MICRO AND MESOCRACKS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William, Gacitua E; Aldo, Ballerini A; Jean Pierre, Lasserre; David, Bahr.

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló una metodología basada en nanoindentaciones y análisis de la ultraestructura de células de madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) para explorar los factores que generan la aparición de fallas en la madera debido a tensiones de crecimiento. Se estudió madera normal y madera con m [...] esogrietas. Existieron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de vasos y módulo de elasticidad de la pared S2 entre los dos tipos de madera estudiadas. Se identificó como causa de la fractura de la lámina media y pared S1, fractura definida como mesogrieta, el factor de concentración de esfuerzos y la capacidad de almacenamiento de energía por parte de las fibras de madera, presentando ambos factores diferencias significativas entre las muestras de madera analizadas Abstract in english Using nanoindentations and ultrastructure analysis, we developed a methodology to explore factors that may contribute to failures in Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) due to growth stresses. Two types of wood were analyzed; normal wood and wood with meso-cracks. Factors contributing to cracking in [...] cluded the vessel frequency and mechanical properties of the S2 layer measured with nanoindentations. Micro and mesocracks propagated throughout the middle lamella and S1 layer due to an increased stress concentration that was mainly

  13. MODELOS HIPSOMÉTRICOS GENERALIZADOS MISTOS NA PREDIÇÃO DA ALTURA DE Eucalyptus sp. / GENERALIZED MIXED HEIGHT-DIAMETER MODELS FOR Eucalyptus sp. HEIGHT PREDICTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Ribeiro de, Mendonça; Samuel de Pádua Chaves e, Carvalho; Natalino, Calegario.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se, este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a teoria dos modelos generalizados mistos e a modelagem da heterogeneidade de variância no ajuste de dois modelos não lineares para a relação altura-diâmetro em Eucalyptus sp. Foram utilizados dados de árvores-amostras de diferentes materiais gen [...] éticos (clone e semente) e idades. De acordo com as análises, o modelo assintótico obteve os melhores resultados em relação ao modelo sigmoidal. A precisão dos modelos avaliados aumentou com a utilização da teoria dos efeitos mistos com adição de covariáveis e a modelagem da heterogeneidade da variância. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the theory of the generalized mixed models and the modeling of the heteroscedasticity of variance in the fit of two nonlinear models for the height-diameter relationship in Eucalyptus sp. Data from sample trees of different genotypes (clone and seed) and age [...] s were used. According to the analysis, the asymptotic model achieved the best results compared to the sigmoid model. The accuracy of the models increased using the theory of mixed effects with the addition of covariates and modeling of the heteroscedasticity of variance.

  14. Variações genéticas em populações de Eucalyptus spp. detectadas por meio de marcadores moleculares Genetic variations in Eucalyptus spp. genotypes detected by means of molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pereira Caixeta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de marcadores moleculares, aliada às técnicas clássicas do melhoramento, pode contribuir significativamente para o conhecimento básico da cultura e do caráter estudado e para a geração e o desenvolvimento de produtos melhorados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar marcadores RAPD para detectar e maximizar a variabilidade genética em genótipos Eucalyptus, identificando cruzamentos favoráveis para um programa de melhoramento florestal, visando o uso múltiplo. Foram analisados 44 genótipos de híbridos naturais do gênero Eucalyptus, plantados na região noroeste de Minas Gerais. Os marcadores moleculares RAPD apresentaram poder de discriminação eficiente entre os 44 genótipos avaliados, constatando-se uma distância genética média entre os genótipos de Eucalyptus de 54% e divergência genética variando de 24 a 73%. Este fato indica que entre os indivíduos analisados existe uma ampla base genética, o que possibilita a manipulação desse material em programas de melhoramento. A distância genética entre os genótipos 5 e 9; 9 e 10; 9 e 19; 9 e 25; 9 e 33; 9 e 35; 9 e 36; 9 e 44; 10 e 33; 12 e 19; 12 e 33; e 12 e 39 apresentou-se maior ou igual a 70%. A análise de agrupamento estabelecida, utilizando UPGMA e o critério de corte de 80% da distância genética total, permitiu a formação de nove grupos distintos. Esses grupos apresentaram divergência genética média superior a 60%. A maior média de distância ocorreu entre o grupo I e os demais, com 67%. A avaliação por marcadores moleculares RAPD forneceu uma identificação direta da variação genética dos genótipos e, neste sentido, novos cruzamentos para produção de híbridos específicos poderão ser gerados, aumentando, assim, a divergência genética e a produtividade de derivados de madeira de qualidade superior para usos múltiplos em programas de melhoramento florestal.Molecular marker technology combined with the classic breeding techniques can contribute significantly to a basic understanding of the crop and character investigated and help generate and develop improved products. The objective of this work is to utilize RAPD markers to detect and maximize the genetic variability in eucalyptus genotypes, identifying crossings favorable to a forest breeding program, aiming at multiple use. A total of 44 natural hybrid genotypes of the Eucalyptus genus, planted in northwestern Minas Gerais was analyzed. The RAPD molecular markers presented efficient discriminating power among the 44 evaluated genotypes, determining an average genetic distance among them of 54% and genetic divergence ranging from 24 to 73%. This shows that there is a wide genetic basis among the individuals analyzed, allowing a manipulation of this material in breeding programs. The genetic distance among the genotypes 5 and 9; 9 and 10; 9 and 19; 9 and 25; 9 and 33; 9 and 35; 9 and 36; 9 and 44; 10 and 33; 12 and 19; 12 and 33; 12 and 39 proved to be either greater or equal to 70%. Grouping analysis established by the UPGMA method, and the cut of 80% of the total genetic distance as a criterion allowed the formation of nine distinct groups. These groups presented an average genetic divergence superior to 60%. The highest mean of distance occurred between group I and the remaining groups, with 67%. The evaluation by RAPD molecular markers provided an indirect identification of the genetic variation of the genotypes and, in this sense, new crosses for the production of specific hybrids can be generated, increasing the genetic divergence and yield of wood products of superior quality for multiple uses in forest breeding programs.

  15. Variações genéticas em populações de Eucalyptus spp. detectadas por meio de marcadores moleculares / Genetic variations in Eucalyptus spp. genotypes detected by means of molecular markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo Pereira, Caixeta; Dulcinéia de, Carvalho; Sebastião Carlos da Silva, Rosado; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de marcadores moleculares, aliada às técnicas clássicas do melhoramento, pode contribuir significativamente para o conhecimento básico da cultura e do caráter estudado e para a geração e o desenvolvimento de produtos melhorados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar marcadores RAPD par [...] a detectar e maximizar a variabilidade genética em genótipos Eucalyptus, identificando cruzamentos favoráveis para um programa de melhoramento florestal, visando o uso múltiplo. Foram analisados 44 genótipos de híbridos naturais do gênero Eucalyptus, plantados na região noroeste de Minas Gerais. Os marcadores moleculares RAPD apresentaram poder de discriminação eficiente entre os 44 genótipos avaliados, constatando-se uma distância genética média entre os genótipos de Eucalyptus de 54% e divergência genética variando de 24 a 73%. Este fato indica que entre os indivíduos analisados existe uma ampla base genética, o que possibilita a manipulação desse material em programas de melhoramento. A distância genética entre os genótipos 5 e 9; 9 e 10; 9 e 19; 9 e 25; 9 e 33; 9 e 35; 9 e 36; 9 e 44; 10 e 33; 12 e 19; 12 e 33; e 12 e 39 apresentou-se maior ou igual a 70%. A análise de agrupamento estabelecida, utilizando UPGMA e o critério de corte de 80% da distância genética total, permitiu a formação de nove grupos distintos. Esses grupos apresentaram divergência genética média superior a 60%. A maior média de distância ocorreu entre o grupo I e os demais, com 67%. A avaliação por marcadores moleculares RAPD forneceu uma identificação direta da variação genética dos genótipos e, neste sentido, novos cruzamentos para produção de híbridos específicos poderão ser gerados, aumentando, assim, a divergência genética e a produtividade de derivados de madeira de qualidade superior para usos múltiplos em programas de melhoramento florestal. Abstract in english Molecular marker technology combined with the classic breeding techniques can contribute significantly to a basic understanding of the crop and character investigated and help generate and develop improved products. The objective of this work is to utilize RAPD markers to detect and maximize the gen [...] etic variability in eucalyptus genotypes, identifying crossings favorable to a forest breeding program, aiming at multiple use. A total of 44 natural hybrid genotypes of the Eucalyptus genus, planted in northwestern Minas Gerais was analyzed. The RAPD molecular markers presented efficient discriminating power among the 44 evaluated genotypes, determining an average genetic distance among them of 54% and genetic divergence ranging from 24 to 73%. This shows that there is a wide genetic basis among the individuals analyzed, allowing a manipulation of this material in breeding programs. The genetic distance among the genotypes 5 and 9; 9 and 10; 9 and 19; 9 and 25; 9 and 33; 9 and 35; 9 and 36; 9 and 44; 10 and 33; 12 and 19; 12 and 33; 12 and 39 proved to be either greater or equal to 70%. Grouping analysis established by the UPGMA method, and the cut of 80% of the total genetic distance as a criterion allowed the formation of nine distinct groups. These groups presented an average genetic divergence superior to 60%. The highest mean of distance occurred between group I and the remaining groups, with 67%. The evaluation by RAPD molecular markers provided an indirect identification of the genetic variation of the genotypes and, in this sense, new crosses for the production of specific hybrids can be generated, increasing the genetic divergence and yield of wood products of superior quality for multiple uses in forest breeding programs.

  16. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  17. Study on Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula officinalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis extracts on the two-spotted spider mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modarres Najafabadi S.S. et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Two-Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a significant pest to bean plants in Markazi Province (Iran. This study was done to evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts from three essential oils; thyme, lavender and eucalyptus on the pest T. urticae. The essential oils were applied in five different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0% and the experiment was done in 2009-2011. The results showed that lavender (Lavandula officinalis had the most potent efficient as an acaricidal agent against Tetranychus, this was followed by thyme (Thymus vulgaris and then eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The LC50 values of lavender, thyme and eucalyptus for adult mites were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively. The findings of this research revealed that extracts of these three essential oils (lavender, thyme and eucalyptus all had an active acaricidal effect on the two-spotted spider mite on bean plants.

  18. CUTTING PREFERENCE OF Eucalyptus spp. BY THE LEAF-CUTTING ANT Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the cutting preference of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus workers among three species and a Clone of eucalypt. The seedlings of Eucalyptus spp. were offered simultaneously to three colonies of this leaf-cutting ant under laboratory conditions. The assay ended six hours after initial offering or until the workers of a colony cut all leaves of a certain eucalyptus species. On the average, colonies cut and carried 0.453g ± 0.064 of Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0.384g ± 0.052 of Clone 129; 0.341g ± 0.054 of Eucalyptus urophylla and 0.102g ± 0.027 of Eucalyptus cloeziana. This last species was the least preferred for cutting and carrying. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the amount of leaves cut from the other eucalypts.

  19. Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, Maria Inés

    2008-10-01

    The essential oils extracted from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, and the hybrids E. grandisxE. camaldulensis, and E. grandisxE. tereticornis were analyzed by GC-MS, and evaluated for their fumigant and repellent effects on permethrin-resistant head lice. Fumigant activity of both hybrids was higher than that for pure species. E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis showed KT50 values of 12.99 and 13.63min, respectively. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis showed KT50 values of 25.57, 35.01, and 31.31, respectively. A simple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between KT50 data and % of 1,8-cineole in these essential oils. Repellency varied from 47.80+/-16% to 80.69+/-6% for the five Eucalyptus essential oils tested. Interspecific hybridization improves the pediculicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils. PMID:18261899

  20. Ant community richness and composition across a gradient from Eucalyptus plantations to secondary Atlantic Forest / Riqueza e composição das comunidades de formigas em um gradiente de plantio de Eucalyptus a Mata Atlântica secundária

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Sayuri, Suguituru; Rogério Rosa, Silva; Débora Rodrigues de, Souza; Catarina de Bortoli, Munhae; Maria Santina de Castro, Morini.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As florestas secundárias e plantações de espécies exóticas estão se expandindo nas paisagens tropicais. No entanto, nossa compreensão sobre o valor destas florestas para a conservação da biodiversidade de invertebrados ainda é incipiente. Neste trabalho, usamos a fauna de formigas de serapilheira pa [...] ra avaliar a diversidade desses insetos entre três florestas de Eucalyptus, sendo uma comercial (quatro anos de idade) e duas abandonadas em diferentes idades de regeneração (16 e 31 anos) e uma área de Mata Atlântica secundária. A riqueza total foi mais alta na floresta secundária e nos plantios de Eucalyptus abandonados há mais tempo. A densidade de espécies na floresta secundária foi significativamente maior quando comparado as plantações de Eucalyptus, mas não difere entre eucaliptais; análise de ordenação revelou diferenças na composição de espécies entre as plantações de Eucalyptus com subbosque ausente e com subbosque desenvolvido ou em desenvolvimento. Ainda, foi constatada uma sobreposição acentuada entre amostras de serapilheira das florestas de eucaliptos abandonadas há mais tempo e a floresta secundária. Em geral, plantações de eucalipto foram caracterizadas pela presença de espécies generalistas e de ampla distribuição. Nossos resultados indicam que embora o subbosque de plantações de eucaliptos com maior idade de regeneração suporte um conjunto relativamente alto de espécies generalistas de formigas, é improvável que eucaliptais conservem a maioria das espécies de florestas primárias, especialmente predadores especializados, Dacetini e espécies nômades. Abstract in english Secondary forests and exotic tree plantations are expanding across tropical landscapes. However, our current understanding of the value of these human-dominated forest landscapes for invertebrate biodiversity conservation is still very poor. In this paper, we use the leaf-litter ant fauna to assess [...] invertebrate diversity in one commercially managed Eucalyptus plantation (four years old), two abandoned plantations of different regeneration ages (16 and 31 years), and one neighboring secondary Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil. There was a clear gradient in species richness from the secondary forest to the managed Eucalyptus plantation; richness and diversity peaked in secondary forest and in the older regenerating Eucalyptus plantation. Significantly more species were recorded in secondary forest samples than in Eucalyptus plantations, but Eucalyptus plantations had a similar level of richness. Furthermore, a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed clear differences in species composition between the younger managed Eucalyptus plantation (understory absent) and habitats with sub-developed or developed understory. Eucalyptus plantations were characterized by an assemblage of widespread, generalist species very different from those known to occur in core forest habitats of southeastern Brazil. Our results indicate that while older regenerating Eucalyptus plantations can provide habitat to facilitate the persistence of generalist ant species, it is unlikely to conserve most of the primary forest species, such as specialized predators, Dacetini predators, and nomadic species.

  1. Eficiência das auxinas (AIB e ANA) no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell / Auxin (IBA and NAA) effects on minicuttings rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. clones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Daniele de, Almeida; Aloisio, Xavier; José Maria Moreira, Dias; Haroldo Nogueira, Paiva.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência das auxinas AIB (ácido indolbutírico) e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético) no enraizamento adventício de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana. Foram utilizadas miniestacas provenientes de sete clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana, estabelecidos em m [...] inijardim clonal, sendo avaliados os efeitos de AIB (0, 1.500, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1) na forma líquida e em pó e ANA (0, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1) na forma líquida. Os resultados apontaram ser a miniestaquia técnica viável na propagação vegetativa dos clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana estudados, apresentando, de modo geral, alto índice de enraizamento das miniestacas. Os clones com maior potencial de enraizamento adventício responderam mais positivamente às menores dosagens de AIB, enquanto nos clones com capacidade de enraizamento reduzida houve tendência de as maiores dosagens de AIB serem mais eficientes no enraizamento, independentemente da forma de aplicação do fitorregulador (líquido ou pó). O ANA, de modo geral, não influenciou significativamente o enraizamento das miniestacas da maioria dos clones estudados. Abstract in english The present work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the auxins IBA (indolbutyric acid) and NAA (naphtaleneacetic acid) on the adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana clones. Minicuttings originated from seven Eucalyptus cloeziana clones established in mini-clonal hedge, were evaluated for the [...] effects of IBA (0, 1500, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1) in the liquid and powder forms and NAA (0, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1) in the liquid form. The results showed that minicutting is a viable technique for vegetative propagation of the studied Eucalyptus cloeziana clones, with overall high rooting rates. Clones with higher adventitious rooting potential gave better response to lower IBA doses, while clones with reduced rooting potential were more efficient with higher doses, independently of the form of the applied phytoregulator (powder or liquid). NAA, in general, had no significant effect on minicutting rooting for most studied clones.

  2. Eficiência das auxinas (AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell Auxin (IBA and NAA effects on minicuttings rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniele de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência das auxinas AIB (ácido indolbutírico e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no enraizamento adventício de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana. Foram utilizadas miniestacas provenientes de sete clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana, estabelecidos em minijardim clonal, sendo avaliados os efeitos de AIB (0, 1.500, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 na forma líquida e em pó e ANA (0, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 na forma líquida. Os resultados apontaram ser a miniestaquia técnica viável na propagação vegetativa dos clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana estudados, apresentando, de modo geral, alto índice de enraizamento das miniestacas. Os clones com maior potencial de enraizamento adventício responderam mais positivamente às menores dosagens de AIB, enquanto nos clones com capacidade de enraizamento reduzida houve tendência de as maiores dosagens de AIB serem mais eficientes no enraizamento, independentemente da forma de aplicação do fitorregulador (líquido ou pó. O ANA, de modo geral, não influenciou significativamente o enraizamento das miniestacas da maioria dos clones estudados.The present work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the auxins IBA (indolbutyric acid and NAA (naphtaleneacetic acid on the adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana clones. Minicuttings originated from seven Eucalyptus cloeziana clones established in mini-clonal hedge, were evaluated for the effects of IBA (0, 1500, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1 in the liquid and powder forms and NAA (0, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1 in the liquid form. The results showed that minicutting is a viable technique for vegetative propagation of the studied Eucalyptus cloeziana clones, with overall high rooting rates. Clones with higher adventitious rooting potential gave better response to lower IBA doses, while clones with reduced rooting potential were more efficient with higher doses, independently of the form of the applied phytoregulator (powder or liquid. NAA, in general, had no significant effect on minicutting rooting for most studied clones.

  3. REDUÇÃO FOLIAR EM MINIESTACAS E MICROESTACAS DE CLONES HÍBRIDOS DE Eucalyptus globulus / REDUCTION IN LEAF OF MINI-CUTTINGS AND MICRO-CUTTINGS OF HYBRID CLONES OF Eucalyptus globulus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anne Caroline Guieiro, Correia; Aloisio, Xavier; Poliana Coqueiro, Dias; Miranda, Titon; Reynaldo Campos, Santana.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da redução foliar no enraizamento de dois tipos (apicais e intermediárias) de miniestacas e microestacas de quatro clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus. Foram realizadas avaliações quanto ao percentual de sobrevivência, raízes emitidas na extremidade in [...] ferior do tubete, enraizamento, altura, diâmetro do colo e massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Aos 90 dias de idade, pôde-se concluir que as estacas apicais sem e com redução foliar foram superiores às intermediárias e os clones se comportaram de maneira diferenciada em relação ao enraizamento das miniestacas e microestacas. A propagação vegetativa por estacas apicais sem redução foliar pode ser recomendada para a produção de mudas de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globuluse de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of leaf reduction in the rooting of two types of mini-cuttings and micro-cuttings (apical and intermediate) of four hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus. Evaluations were performed on the percentage of survival, roots at the lower end of the tub [...] e, rooting, height, stem diameter, dry weight of shoot and root. At 90 days, it can be concluded that the apical cuttings with and without leaf reduction were higher than the intermediate cuttings, besides each clone behaved differently in relation to the rooting of mini-cuttungs and micro-cuttings. Vegetative propagation by apical cuttings without leaf reduction can be recommended for the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus.

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined to multivariate data analysis for detection of disease-resistant clones of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantao, Leandro Wang; Toledo, Bruna Regina; Ribeiro, Fabiana Alves de Lima; Pizetta, Marilia; Pierozzi, Caroline Geraldi; Furtado, Edson Luiz; Augusto, Fabio

    2013-11-15

    In this paper it is reported the use of the chromatographic profiles from volatile fractions of plant clones - in this case, hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis×Eucalyptus urophylla - to determine specimens susceptible to rust disease. The analytes were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined to fast quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS). Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was employed for estimate the correlation between the chromatographic profiles and resistance against Eucalyptus rust, after preliminary variable selection performed by Fisher ratio analysis. The proposed method allowed the differentiation between susceptible and non-susceptible clones and determination of three resistance biomarkers. This approach can be a valuable alternative for the otherwise time-consuming and labor-intensive methods commonly used. PMID:24148519

  5. Generation and analysis of an Eucalyptus globulus cDNA library constructed from seedlings subjected to low temperature conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Rasmussen-Poblete; Jorge, Valdes; Maria Cecilia, Gamboa; Pablo D.T, Valenzuela; Erwin, Krauskopf.

    2008-04-15

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus is the most important commercial temperate hardwood in the world because of its wood properties and due to its characteristics for biofuel production. However, only a very low number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are publicly available for this tree species. We constructed a [...] cDNA from E. globulus seedlings subjected to low temperature and sequenced 9,913 randomly selected clones, generating 8,737 curated ESTs. The assembly produced 1,062 contigs and 3,879 singletons forming a Eucalyptus unigene set. Based on BLASTX analysis, 89.3% of the contigs and 88.5% of the singletons had significant similarity to known genes in the non-redundant database of GenBank. The Eucalyptus unigene set generated is a valuable public resource that provides an initial model for genes and regulatory pathways involved in cell wall biosynthesis at low temperature.

  6. Eucalyptus ESTs involved in mechanisms against plant pathogens and environmental stresses / ESTs de Eucalyptus envolvidos nos mecanismos contra fitopatógenos e estresse ambiental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Dias, Rosa; Edson Luiz, Furtado; Leonardo Pires, Boava; Celso Luis, Marino; Edson Seizo, Mori; Iraê Amaral, Guerrini; Edivaldo Domingues, Veline; Carlos Frederico, Wilcken.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do Eucalipto tem importância econômica muito elevada no Brasil e vem sofrendo inúmeros ataques de patógenos, além de essa cultura estar sujeita aos inúmeros estresses ambientais. A resistência e sobrevivência desta cultura frente às circunstâncias ambientais desfavoráveis, e ataques de pra [...] gas e doenças, revelaram que o Eucalipto apresenta um sistema de defesa evoluído e altamente eficiente. Aqui nós apresentamos os resultados obtidos no projeto do genoma de ESTs do Eucalyptus (FORESTs). Agrupando as seqüências de cDNA expressas (ESTs) obtidas pelo projeto, montou-se grupos (contigs) de seqüências similares provenientes de cada biblioteca de cDNA induzidas e não induzidas por agentes estressantes, identificou-se os grupos de seqüências de cDNA similares a outras moléculas já conhecidas, como moléculas de plantas-sinalizadoras, fitoalexinas e biossíntese de vias de lignina, proteínas-RP e supostos genes correspondendo às enzimas envolvidas na detoxificação de moléculas de oxigênio reativo. Apresentamos também, considerações gerais sobre os mecanismos de defesa do Eucalipto contra o estresse biótico e abiótico. Estas informações são de extraordinário valor para a produção de Eucalipto e ajudaram no futuro a direcionar programas de melhoramento do Eucalipto, visando assim obter plantas com melhor resistência contra os patógenos e estresses ambientais. Abstract in english Eucalypt plantation has high economical importance in Brazil; however, it has been attacked by various pathogens under different environmental stress conditions. Disease resistance and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions have revealed that the eucalypt has developed highly efficient [...] defense systems. Here we show the results of the Eucalyptus ESTs Genome Project (FORESTs). Using the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained by the Project, contigs of similar sequences from each cDNA library induced and not induced by stress agents were formed, and cDNA sequences similar to other already known molecules, such as plant-signaling molecules, phytoalexins, lignin biosynthesis pathways, PR-proteins and putative genes corresponding to enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, were identified. We also present general considerations about the mechanisms of Eucalyptus defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. These data are of extreme importance for future eucalypt breeding programs aimed at developing plants with enhanced resistance against pathogens and environmental stresses.

  7. Intervalo hídrico óptimo en suelos argiudoles plantados con Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Least limiting water range in argiudoll soils under eucalyptus dunnii maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El Intervalo Hídrico Óptimo (IHO es el rango de agua del suelo dentro del cual el crecimiento de la planta está menos limitado por el potencial de agua, la aireación y la resistencia del suelo a la penetración de raíces. El IHO es a menudo determinado en cultivos, pero su aplicación en estudios de plantaciones forestales son escasos. Los objetivos fueron: a estimar el IHO del suelo en plantaciones de Eucalyptus dunnii joven y adulto usando funciones de edafo-transferencia; b relacionar funcionalmente la frecuencia de humedad observada localizada fuera del IHO (p fuera con el IHO y determinar si la relación es influenciada por el tipo de suelo y las condiciones meteorológicas del período de crecimiento. Se estimó el IHO en suelos Argiudoles Típico y Abrúptico, usando funciones de edafo-transferencia (FT de retención hídrica y resistencia del suelo. La frecuencia de humedad observada fuera del rango del IHO (p fuera fue evaluada estadísticamente usando el modelo PROC CATMOD. El IHO aumentó de 0,009 cm³ cm-³ (horizonte Bt arcillo limoso a 0,207 cm³ cm-3 (horizonte C franco limoso. El modelo de regresión logística muestra que pfuera se relacionó negativamente con el IHO (R² = 0,83***. La pendiente del modelo (b1 = -30,5475 no varió por condiciones climáticas pero la ordenada al origen resultó influenciada por este parámetro (b o seco = 5,0083; b o húmedo = 3,5207. El modelo fundamental-empírico sostuvo al IHO como un indicador de calidad física del suelo apto para evaluar factores climáticos que inciden sobre el consumo de agua en eucaliptos.The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR integrates water potential, aeration and mechanical resistance conditions that can be limiting to plant growth. The LLWR was often determined in field crops, but studies performed under tree plantations are scarce. In this study, soil LLWR was determined in young and mature Eucalyptus dunnii plantations using pedo-transfer functions. Frequency of soil moisture values falling outside the LLWR (p out was statistically evaluated using the PROC CATMOD model. LLWR increased from 0.009 cm³ cm-3 in silty clay Bt horizons to 0.207 cm3 cm-3 in silty loam C horizons. The p out was negatively related to LLWR (R² = 0.83***. The slope of the fitted model (b1 = - 30.5475 was not altered by climatic conditions, but its intercept varied from dry (b o = 5.0083 to wet (b o = 3.5207 years. From this empirical-fundamental model, it can be concluded that LLWR is a suitable index to indicate the best soil physical conditions for the growth of eucalyptus plantations.

  8. Regeneración natural del matorral espinoso tamaulipeco en una plantación de Eucalyptus spp. / Natural regeneration of the tamaulipan thornscrub in an Eucalyptus spp. plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dinorah Dalila, Martínez Hernández; Javier, Jiménez Pérez; Eduardo, Alanís Rodríguez; José Isidro, Uvalle Sauceda; Pamela Anabel, Canizales Velázquez; Luis, Rocha Domínguez.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones forestales con especies exóticas generan controversia a nivel mundial y tal es el caso de la presencia de eucaliptos en México. En el presente estudio se caracterizó la regeneración natural de vegetación leñosa en el Matorral Espinoso Tamaulipeco (MET), que se localiza en el noreste [...] del país, dentro de una plantación original de Eucalyptus spp. La investigación se llevó a cabo 27 años después de su establecimiento y en ella se instalaron 11 sitios de muestreo de 250 m² (10 x 25 m) para evaluar todos los ejemplares con crecimiento secundario que presentaran un diámetro basal (d0.50) mayor o igual a 0.5 cm. Los datos recabados permitieron estimar índices de riqueza y diversidad, así como abundancia relativa, dominancia y frecuencia; con estos números se calculó el Índice de Valor de Importancia. Se demostró que en la zona existe renovación de las especies de interés en la siembra original y los parámetros poblacionales propios son similares a las de otras áreas con características parecidas; además se presentó sucesión ecológica, después de haber sido sujetas a actividades agrícolas, pecuarias y forestales (matarrasa). Se registró alta densidad (4 301 ind ha-1) y mayor cantidad de individuos de clases diamétricas bajas ( Abstract in english Forest plantations with exotic species are of great controversy worldwide. This research characterizes the natural regeneration of woody vegetation of Tamaulipan thornscrub (MET) in a plantation of Eucalyptus spp. Eleven sampling sites of 250 m² (10 x 25 m) were established in the plantation area an [...] d all wood species larger than one centimeter of basal diameter were registered and measured. Richness and diversity indices as well as values of relative abundance, dominance, frequency were estimated which were used to calculate the Importance Value Index. Results show that there is natural regeneration of native woody species under the plantation of Eucalyptus spp.; density, crown area, richness and diversity values were similar to other regenerated areas after agricultural activities, livestock and forestry (clear cutting). High density (4 301 ind ha-1) and more individuals of lower diameter classes (

  9. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  10. Controle de plantas daninhas e seletividade do flumioxazin para eucalipto / Weed control and selectivity of flumioxazin in eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Augusto Soares, Tiburcio; Francisco Affonso, Ferreira; Lino Roberto, Ferreira; Miler Soares, Machado; Aroldo Ferreira Lopes, Machado.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A extensão de uso de herbicidas já registrados para outras culturas, como o flumioxazin, se faz importante do ponto de vista do manejo integrado de plantas daninhas em plantios de eucalipto. Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas e a fitotoxicidade do flumioxazin aplicado is [...] oladamente ou em mistura no tanque com isoxaflutole e sulfentrazone. Foi realizada a aplicação desses herbicidas sobre plantas de eucalipto, utilizando pulverizador costal de precisão. Foram realizadas avaliações de porcentagem visual de intoxicação, altura e diâmetro das plantas de eucalipto, e percentagem de massa seca e controle de plantas daninhas. Conclui-se que o flumioxazin é seletivo ao eucalipto até a dose de 125 g. ha-1, embora possa acusar algum tipo de injuria que é plenamente recuperável com o desenvolvimento das plantas. Sua eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas em pré-emergência foi melhor quando em mistura no tanque com isoxaflutole e sulfentrazone. Abstract in english Flumioxazin is a registered herbicide for agricultural crops what is an important fact concerning integrated management for weeds in eucalyptus plantations. This study evaluated the efficiency of weed control and the phytotoxicity in eucalyptus plants caused by the herbicide flumioxazin applied alon [...] e or in tank mixture with sulfentrazone and isoxaflutole. The aim was to extend the use of this herbicide in eucalyptus. The herbicide was applied to eucalyptus plants using precision backpack sprayer. It was evaluated, visually, the intoxication percentage and measured height and diameter of eucalyptus trees, the control plants and dry mass of weeds. It was concluded that flumioxazin is selective to the eucalyptus at the 125 g.ha-1 dosage, and its efficiency in controlling weeds pre-emergence was better when mixed in the tank with isoxaflutole and sulfentrazone.

  11. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  12. Estimation de la rentabilité de la culture de certains eucalyptus dans le sud-ouest de la France

    OpenAIRE

    Terreaux, Jean-Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of the profitability of the culture of eucalyptus in south-west of France. We determine some economic parameters related to the plantation in the south-west of France of eucalyptus, which has particularly good properties for pulp production, but which is the object of relatively frequent frost hazards. Firstly we define the management criteria which are suitable to guide the decider. Secondly we use a Monte-Carlo method to compute the value of these criteria for the E. gundal and E...

  13. EgMYB2, a new transcriptional activator from Eucalyptus xylem, regulates secondary cell wall formation and lignin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Goicoechea, Monica; Lacombe, Eric; Legay, Sylvain; Mihaljevi, Csnjezana; Rech, Philippe; Jauneau, Alain; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Daniel; Chaubet-Gigot, Nicole; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    EgMYB2, a member of a new subgroup of the R2R3 MYB family of transcription factors, was cloned from a library consisting of RNA from differentiating Eucalyptus xylem. EgMYB2 maps to a unique locus on the Eucalyptus grandis linkage map and co-localizes with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for lignin content. Recombinant EgMYB2 protein was able to bind speci?cally the cis-regulatory regions of the promoters of two lignin biosynthetic genes, cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alc...

  14. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity for the hybrids that have provided with high levels of density. (author)

  15. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m3. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m3. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity for the hybrids that have provided with high levels of density. (author)

  16. IN-VITRO STUDIES SUGGEST PROBABLE MECHANISM OF EUCALYPTUS OIL FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi P; Kamala Vakati; Chinna M Eswaraiah; Habibur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to study in-vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Eucalyptus globules oil. Anti-inflammatory activity of Eucalyptus globules oil at 100, 250, 500 mcg/ml were studied using human red blood cell membrane (HRBC) stabilization method and anti-arthritic activity of same concentration using bovine serum albumin denaturation(BSA) method. The effect Diclofenec and Aspirin at concentration of 100, 200 mcg/ml were also assessed as standard drug. Results showed s...

  17. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on amaryllis and associated grassy weed Efeitos alelopáticos do Eucalyptus citriodora sobre amarílis e em gramíneas daninhas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G El-Rokiek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Petri dish assay was carried out for screening different concentrations of aqueous extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora on germination and seedling growth of wild oat weed (Avena fatua. Seed germination, root and shoot length of wild oat exhibited different degrees of inhibition according to the concentration of the aqueous extract. Maximum inhibitions of germination percentage, root and shoot length were recorded when using 25% fresh leaf extract. Based on this preliminary work (Petri dish assay, studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions at the National Research Center, Egypt, in the two winter seasons of 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 to evaluate the effects of foliar and soil treatments of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora fresh and dry leaves on wild oat weed as well as on the growth and flowering of amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybridum, compared with the recommended dose of the herbicide tralkoxydim. Amaryllis fresh and dry weights as well as flowering increased significantly when treated with the previous extracts, especially the fresh leaf extract. However, the fresh and dry weights of wild oat were significantly reduced by the aqueous extracts, either fresh or dry, indicating phytotoxic effects. Tralkoxydim caused complete inhibition of wild oat as compared with the control. The studies involved estimation of the endogenous contents of total phenols in weed. With all the treatments, the inhibitory effects on weeds were correlated with accumulation of the internal contents of total phenols, compared to their respective controls. The amount of phenols correlated well with the weed's growth performance. This study establishes the effect of the aqueous extracts on the weed wild oat, associated with amaryllis, which may serve as a tool in establishing their herbicidal potential.Um experimento em placas de Petri foi realizado para a seleção de diferentes concentrações de extratos aquosos de folhas frescas e secas de Eucalyptus citriodora na germinação e no crescimento inicial de aveia-selvagem (Avena fatua. A germinação da semente, a raiz e o comprimento da brotação apresentaram diferentes graus de inibição, de acordo com a concentração do extrato aquoso. As maiores porcentagens de inibição da germinação, de raiz e de comprimento de brotação foram registradas com extrato fresco das folhas a 25%. Com base no trabalho preliminar (experimento em placa de Petri, foram conduzidos estudos na estufa do Centro de Pesquisa Nacional, Egito, em duas estações de inverno: 2006/2007 e 2007/2008. Nesse local, foram avaliados os efeitos de tratamentos foliar e do solo de extratos aquosos das folhas frescas e secas de Eucalyptus citriodora na aveia-selvagem, assim como no crescimento e no florescimento da espécie Hippeastrum hybridum, em comparação com a dose recomendada do herbicida tralkoxydim. Os pesos frescos e secos do amarílis sofreram aumento significativo, bem como o florescimento, quando tratados com os extratos, principalmente com a pulverização do extrato das folhas frescas. Entretanto, os pesos frescos e secos da aveia-selvagem foram reduzidos significativamente pelos extratos aquosos, tanto frescos como secos, indicando intoxicação. O herbicida tralkoxydim causou a inibição completa de aveia-selvagem em comparação ao controle. Os estudos envolveram a avaliação dos índices endógenos de fenóis totais na espécie daninha. Em todos os tratamentos, os efeitos inibitórios nas espécies daninhas foram correlacionados com o acúmulo de índices internos dos fenóis totais, comparados aos respectivos controles. Constatou-se boa correlação entre a quantidade de fenóis e o desempenho do crescimento na espécie daninha. Este estudo estabeleceu o efeito dos extratos aquosos sobre a espécie daninha aveia-selvagem associada ao amarílis, o que pode servir como ferramenta para estabelecer seu potencial herbicida.

  18. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on amaryllis and associated grassy weed / Efeitos alelopáticos do Eucalyptus citriodora sobre amarílis e em gramíneas daninhas associadas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.G, El-Rokiek; R.A, Eid.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em placas de Petri foi realizado para a seleção de diferentes concentrações de extratos aquosos de folhas frescas e secas de Eucalyptus citriodora na germinação e no crescimento inicial de aveia-selvagem (Avena fatua). A germinação da semente, a raiz e o comprimento da brotação aprese [...] ntaram diferentes graus de inibição, de acordo com a concentração do extrato aquoso. As maiores porcentagens de inibição da germinação, de raiz e de comprimento de brotação foram registradas com extrato fresco das folhas a 25%. Com base no trabalho preliminar (experimento em placa de Petri), foram conduzidos estudos na estufa do Centro de Pesquisa Nacional, Egito, em duas estações de inverno: 2006/2007 e 2007/2008. Nesse local, foram avaliados os efeitos de tratamentos foliar e do solo de extratos aquosos das folhas frescas e secas de Eucalyptus citriodora na aveia-selvagem, assim como no crescimento e no florescimento da espécie Hippeastrum hybridum, em comparação com a dose recomendada do herbicida tralkoxydim. Os pesos frescos e secos do amarílis sofreram aumento significativo, bem como o florescimento, quando tratados com os extratos, principalmente com a pulverização do extrato das folhas frescas. Entretanto, os pesos frescos e secos da aveia-selvagem foram reduzidos significativamente pelos extratos aquosos, tanto frescos como secos, indicando intoxicação. O herbicida tralkoxydim causou a inibição completa de aveia-selvagem em comparação ao controle. Os estudos envolveram a avaliação dos índices endógenos de fenóis totais na espécie daninha. Em todos os tratamentos, os efeitos inibitórios nas espécies daninhas foram correlacionados com o acúmulo de índices internos dos fenóis totais, comparados aos respectivos controles. Constatou-se boa correlação entre a quantidade de fenóis e o desempenho do crescimento na espécie daninha. Este estudo estabeleceu o efeito dos extratos aquosos sobre a espécie daninha aveia-selvagem associada ao amarílis, o que pode servir como ferramenta para estabelecer seu potencial herbicida. Abstract in english A Petri dish assay was carried out for screening different concentrations of aqueous extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora on germination and seedling growth of wild oat weed (Avena fatua). Seed germination, root and shoot length of wild oat exhibited different degrees of inhibit [...] ion according to the concentration of the aqueous extract. Maximum inhibitions of germination percentage, root and shoot length were recorded when using 25% fresh leaf extract. Based on this preliminary work (Petri dish assay), studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions at the National Research Center, Egypt, in the two winter seasons of 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 to evaluate the effects of foliar and soil treatments of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora fresh and dry leaves on wild oat weed as well as on the growth and flowering of amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybridum), compared with the recommended dose of the herbicide tralkoxydim. Amaryllis fresh and dry weights as well as flowering increased significantly when treated with the previous extracts, especially the fresh leaf extract. However, the fresh and dry weights of wild oat were significantly reduced by the aqueous extracts, either fresh or dry, indicating phytotoxic effects. Tralkoxydim caused complete inhibition of wild oat as compared with the control. The studies involved estimation of the endogenous contents of total phenols in weed. With all the treatments, the inhibitory effects on weeds were correlated with accumulation of the internal contents of total phenols, compared to their respective controls. The amount of phenols correlated well with the weed's growth performance. This study establishes the effect of the aqueous extracts on the weed wild oat, associated with amaryllis, which may serve as a tool in establishing their herbicidal potential.

  19. Fotossíntese, condutância estomática e produtividade de clones de Eucalyptus sob diferentes condições edafoclimáticas / Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and productivity of Eucalyptus clones under different soil and climatica conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Shinkai Gentil, Otto; Aline Regina, Vergani; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves; Arthur, Vrechi; Sérgio Ricardo, Silva; José Luiz, Stape.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fotossíntese, condutância estomática e produtividade de clones de Eucalyptus em duas áreas distintas: uma no Município de Eunápolis, Sul da Bahia, com precipitação bem distribuída ao longo do ano (área úmida); e outra em Salto da Divisa, Leste de Minas Gerais, [...] com precipitação concentrada nos meses quentes do ano (área seca). Foram estudados quatro clones, avaliando-se o crescimento, através do inventário das árvores; e as variáveis fotossintéticas, medidas com o aparelho Infrared Gas Analyser (IRGA). Dentro de cada área só houve diferença significativa entre clones na área úmida quanto à variável volume de madeira. A produtividade dos clones na área úmida foi 3,3 vezes superior à produtividade da área seca. Na área úmida, todos os clones diminuíram a condutância estomática com o aumento do déficit de pressão de vapor, com queda de 0,16 mol m² s-1 para cada 1 kPa de aumento no DPV e taxa fotossintética máxima variando de 12,5 a 16,4 µmol m² s-1. A comparação entre os clones da área úmida resultou em diferença significativa do clone A, que apresentou fotossíntese máxima superior à dos demais. Na área seca não houve relação entre condutância estomática e DPV e não se observou diferença na fotossíntese entre os clones, que variou de 1,2 a 3,4 µmol m² s-1. Verificou-se relação linear entre a fotossíntese máxima e a produtividade dos clones, evidenciando que a taxa fotossintética foi um dos fatores responsáveis pela maior produtividade do Eucalyptus na área úmida. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and productivity of Eucalyptus clones in two different sites; one in Eunápolis, southern Bahia with well distributed rainfall throughout the year (wet area) and another on Salto da Divisa, east of Minas Gerais, wit [...] h rainfall concentrated over the hot months of the year (dry area). Four different clones were examined, measurements of plants growth were performed by means of inventory and the photosynthetic parameters were measured with IRGA (Infrared Gas Analyser). Within each area, there is difference between clones only in the wet area for the variable volume. The average productivity of the clones in the wet area was 3.3 times higher comparing to the dry area. All clones in wet area decreased stomatal conductance in response to increase in vapor pressure deficit, decreasing 0.16 mol m² s-1 to each 1kPa increase in VPD and the maximum photosynthetic rate ranging from 12.5 to 16.4 µmol m² s-1 in this area. The comparison between clones within each area resulted in a significant difference in the wet area, with the clone A reaching maximum photosynthesis higher than others. In the dry area, there was no correlation between stomatal conductance and VPD, and there was no difference in photosynthesis between the clones, ranging from 1.2 to 3.4 µmol m² s-1. A linear relationship was observed between the maximum photosynthesis and clones productivity, suggesting that photosynthetic rate was one of the factors responsible for the increased Eucalyptus productivity of the wet area.

  20. Avaliação do desdobro de toras de Eucalyptus para a obtenção de peças estruturais / Evaluation of Eucalyptus sawmill log to obtain structural parts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Campos, Monteiro; José Tarcísio, Lima; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Bruna Carolina Lage de, Andrade.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle sobre os produtos obtidos no desdobro das toras é importante para a gestão da serraria e também para a redução dos impactos ao ambiente. O rendimento e o estudo de tempo são parâmetros para a avaliação do desdobro em uma serraria. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o rendimento e [...] o estudo dos tempos do desdobro de toras de Eucalyptus durante a produção de peças estruturais. Foram utilizadas dez toras de Eucalyptus grandis provenientes de um plantio com 15 anos de idade, retiradas de uma área da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). Na serraria experimental da UFLA, as toras foram serradas utilizando uma serra de fita e os pranchões foram resserrados em uma serra circular. As peças seguiram as dimensões estabelecidas na NBR 7190 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 1997). As peças produzidas foram mensuradas e o rendimento calculado. Os tempos de todas as etapas do processo foram obtidos por meio de um cronometro e, em seguida, analisados os tempos efetivamente serrando e o tempo total de processamento das toras e pranchões. O rendimento médio do desdobro para a produção de peças principais foi de 20,9% e de peças secundárias foi de 22,9%. O rendimento médio do desdobro foi satisfatório, dentro dos valores obtidos em outros trabalhos. A serra circular quando comparada a serra de fita apresentou maior porcentagem de tempo efetivamente serrando a madeira. O tempo, efetivamente serrando, foi menos da metade do tempo total de processamento das toras. Abstract in english The control over the products of the sawing of logs is important for the management of the sawmill and also to reduce environmental impacts. The yield and the time study are parameters for the assessment of unfolding in a sawmill. This study aimed to evaluate the yield and the time study of the sawi [...] ng of Eucalyptus logs during the production of structural parts. This work used ten logs of Eucalyptus grandis from a plantation with 15 years of age, taken from an area of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). In the experimental sawmill of UFLA the logs were sawn using a band saw and the planks were resawn in a circular saw. The structural parts followed the dimensions laid down in the NBR 7190 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 1997). The parts produced were measured and calculated yield. The times of all stages of the process were obtained using a stopwatch and then analyzed the time actually sawing and the processing time of logs and planks. The average of yield for the production of main parts was 20.9% and secondary part was 22.9%. Average yield of sawing was satisfactory if compared with the values ??obtained in other studies. The circular saw compared to band saw showed higher percentage of effective time sawing of wood. The effective time of sawing was less than half the total processing time of the logs.

  1. Fitotoxidez de cádmio para Eucalyptus maculata e E. urophylla em solução nutritiva Cadmium phytotoxity to Eucalyptus maculata and E. urophylla in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de doses crescentes de Cd em solução nutritiva no crescimento e absorção mineral de mudas de Eucalyptus maculata e E. urophylla e respectivos sintomas de fitotoxidez em casa de vegetação. Mudas foram mantidas por cinco semanas em vasos contendo 2 L de solução nutritiva de Clark, adicionando-se 0, 45, 90, 135 e 180 miM de Cd fornecido como CdSO4. Após uma semana de exposição aos tratamentos, E. maculata exibiu pontuações avermelhadas nas nervuras, clorose internerval, necrose, murchamento das folhas e escurecimento das raízes. Além desses sintomas, E. urophylla apresentou morte das gemas apicais e acentuada queda de folhas. A dose crítica de Cd para reduzir em 10% a matéria seca da parte aérea foi baixa; 2,4 miM e 1,5 miM de Cd para E. maculata e E. urophylla, respectivamente. Os níveis críticos de toxidez na parte aérea foram de 14,5 mg kg-1 em E. maculata e 10,8 mg kg-1 de Cd em E. urophylla. Esses resultados indicaram que E. maculata é provavelmente menos sensível ao Cd do que E. urophylla. Foi também observado que o Cd reduziu a translocação de Cu em até 24 e 43% em E. maculata e E. urophylla, respectivamente. A translocação de Fe caiu de 36% em média, nas duas espécies no controle para apenas 12% com 180 miM Cd. A elevação nas doses de Cd reduziu os teores de Ca e Mg na parte aérea das espécies, atingindo-se teores de Mg abaixo da faixa considerada adequada em E. urophylla. Ficaram evidenciadas a fitotoxidez de Cd no Eucalyptus e a relação desta com a diminuição da translocação de Cu e Fe e com a diminuição dos teores foliares de Mg.The effects of increasing concentration of Cd in nutrient solution on growth, mineral uptake and phytotoxicity symptoms in Eucalyptus maculata and E. urophylla seedlings were studied under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings were kept for five weeks in 2 L pots containing Clark's nutrient solution amended with 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 muM as CdSO4. After one week of exposure to Cd treatments seedlings of E. maculata exhibited nerval reddish spots, interveinal leaf chlorosis, leaf necrosis, drought and root darkening, whereas E. urophylla showed additionally apical dieback and leaf fall. The critical dose to reduce shoot dry matter by 10% was low; 2.4 muM and 1.5 muM of Cd to E. maculata and E. urophylla, respectively, while toxicity critical concentration in the shoots were 14.5 and 10.8 mg kg-1 dry matter for these species, respectively.These results indicate that E. maculata is probably less sensitive to Cd than E. urophylla. It was also found that Cd reduced translocation of Cu by 24 and 43% as compared to control in E. maculata and E. urophylla, whereas translocation of Fe was reduced from 36% on average for the two species in the control to 12% at 180 muM of Cd. Shoot concentrations of Ca and Mg was also reduced in both species, reaching levels below those considered adequate for E. urophylla. Increasing concentration of Cd in nutrient solution reduced Ca and Mg contents in shoots of species, reaching Mg contents below those of the range considered suitable for E. urophylla. Relationships of Cd phytotoxicity in Eucalyptus with Cu and Fe translocation as well as with Mg foliar contents were shown.

  2. Air drying of logs from an Eucalyptus urophylla clone for carbonization use / Secagem ao ar livre de toras de um clone de Eucalyptus urophylla empregado na carbonização

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael Nogueira, Rezende; José Tarcísio, Lima; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Alfredo, Napoli; Hélder Bolognani, Andrade; André Luiz Raimundo, Faria.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A secagem da madeira é uma das etapas do processo de carbonização e seu controle é de grande importância no rendimento e na qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Nas empresas produtoras de carvão, após o corte, a madeira é empilhada nas margens das estradas ou próxima aos fornos de carbonização e é [...] carbonizada após 90 dias de secagem ao ar livre, quando se deseja alcançar 30% de umidade. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a secagem ao ar livre de toras de um clone de Eucalyptus urophylla empregado na produção de carvão vegetal, analisando-se a perda de umidade no tempo, influência da casca e do diâmetro das toras no processo. Foram utilizadas toras com casca e sem casca, com diâmetros variando de 6,0 a 21,0 cm, densidade básica média de 0,496 g/cm³ e 3,60 m de comprimento, provenientes de um talhão comercial de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos de idade. Pilhas de secagem ao ar livre foram instaladas em Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil e o acompanhamento da secagem foi realizado por pesagens periódicas das toras durante 80 dias. Ao final deste estudo, observou-se que as maiores perdas de umidade ocorreram nas três semanas iniciais. A umidade das toras sem casca (54%) e com casca (50%) foram próximas após 80 dias de secagem, com uma maior redução de umidade para as toras sem casca. A influência da casca na perda de umidade foi mais pronunciada nas três primeiras semanas. A redução de umidade ocorreu em intensidades diferentes em função do diâmetro das toras. Após 80 dias, a maior redução de umidade foi observada nas toras sem casca: 65% para as toras de maiores diâmetros e 80% para as de menores diâmetros. Já, para as toras com casca os resultados foram respectivamente 56% e 75%. Abstract in english Wood drying is one of various stages in the carbonization process, therefore proper monitoring is key to improving yield and obtaining quality charcoal. Prior to being subjected to carbonization by charcoal production plants and once trees have been felled, logs are piled up by the roadside or close [...] to carbonization furnaces and left air drying for 90 days until an optimal 30% moisture content is reached. This work aims to evaluate air drying of logs from an Eucalyptus urophylla clone for carbonization use, analyzing moisture reduction over time and also the influence of log diameter and bark. Logs with and without bark were used, 6.0cm to 21.0cm in diameter, 3.60m in length, with average basic density of 0.496 g/cm³, obtained from a commercial stand of Eucalyptus urophylla at age 8 years. Air drying log piles were arranged outdoors in Paraopeba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil and monitoring consisted of periodic log weighing for a period of 80 days. At the end of the experiment, higher rates of moisture loss were observed in the three initial weeks. Moisture in logs without bark (54%) and with bark (50%) was close after 80 drying days, with a higher level of moisture reduction being observed for logs without bark. Bark influence on moisture loss was more pronounced in the first three weeks. Moisture reduction varied in intensity as a function of log diameter. After 80 days, the highest level of moisture reduction was observed in logs without bark: 65% for logs larger in diameter and 80% for logs smaller in diameter. As regards logs with bark, results were 56% and 75% respectively.

  3. Fitotoxidez de cádmio para Eucalyptus maculata e E. urophylla em solução nutritiva / Cadmium phytotoxity to Eucalyptus maculata and E. urophylla in nutrient solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa, Soares; José Oswaldo, Siqueira; Janice Guedes de, Carvalho; Fátima Maria Souza, Moreira.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de doses crescentes de Cd em solução nutritiva no crescimento e absorção mineral de mudas de Eucalyptus maculata e E. urophylla e respectivos sintomas de fitotoxidez em casa de vegetação. Mudas foram mantidas por cinco semanas em vasos contendo 2 L de solução nutritiva de Cla [...] rk, adicionando-se 0, 45, 90, 135 e 180 miM de Cd fornecido como CdSO4. Após uma semana de exposição aos tratamentos, E. maculata exibiu pontuações avermelhadas nas nervuras, clorose internerval, necrose, murchamento das folhas e escurecimento das raízes. Além desses sintomas, E. urophylla apresentou morte das gemas apicais e acentuada queda de folhas. A dose crítica de Cd para reduzir em 10% a matéria seca da parte aérea foi baixa; 2,4 miM e 1,5 miM de Cd para E. maculata e E. urophylla, respectivamente. Os níveis críticos de toxidez na parte aérea foram de 14,5 mg kg-1 em E. maculata e 10,8 mg kg-1 de Cd em E. urophylla. Esses resultados indicaram que E. maculata é provavelmente menos sensível ao Cd do que E. urophylla. Foi também observado que o Cd reduziu a translocação de Cu em até 24 e 43% em E. maculata e E. urophylla, respectivamente. A translocação de Fe caiu de 36% em média, nas duas espécies no controle para apenas 12% com 180 miM Cd. A elevação nas doses de Cd reduziu os teores de Ca e Mg na parte aérea das espécies, atingindo-se teores de Mg abaixo da faixa considerada adequada em E. urophylla. Ficaram evidenciadas a fitotoxidez de Cd no Eucalyptus e a relação desta com a diminuição da translocação de Cu e Fe e com a diminuição dos teores foliares de Mg. Abstract in english The effects of increasing concentration of Cd in nutrient solution on growth, mineral uptake and phytotoxicity symptoms in Eucalyptus maculata and E. urophylla seedlings were studied under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings were kept for five weeks in 2 L pots containing Clark's nutrient solution amen [...] ded with 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 muM as CdSO4. After one week of exposure to Cd treatments seedlings of E. maculata exhibited nerval reddish spots, interveinal leaf chlorosis, leaf necrosis, drought and root darkening, whereas E. urophylla showed additionally apical dieback and leaf fall. The critical dose to reduce shoot dry matter by 10% was low; 2.4 muM and 1.5 muM of Cd to E. maculata and E. urophylla, respectively, while toxicity critical concentration in the shoots were 14.5 and 10.8 mg kg-1 dry matter for these species, respectively.These results indicate that E. maculata is probably less sensitive to Cd than E. urophylla. It was also found that Cd reduced translocation of Cu by 24 and 43% as compared to control in E. maculata and E. urophylla, whereas translocation of Fe was reduced from 36% on average for the two species in the control to 12% at 180 muM of Cd. Shoot concentrations of Ca and Mg was also reduced in both species, reaching levels below those considered adequate for E. urophylla. Increasing concentration of Cd in nutrient solution reduced Ca and Mg contents in shoots of species, reaching Mg contents below those of the range considered suitable for E. urophylla. Relationships of Cd phytotoxicity in Eucalyptus with Cu and Fe translocation as well as with Mg foliar contents were shown.

  4. Seleção de genitores de Eucalyptus grandis e de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de híbridos interespecíficos utilizando REML/BLUP e informação de divergência genética / Selection of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla parents for the production of interespecific hybrids using REML/BLUP and genetic diversity data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria das Graças de Barros, Rocha; Ismael Eleotério, Pires; Rodrigo Barros, Rocha; Aloísio, Xavier; Cosme Damião, Cruz.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 363 progênies de meios-irmãos de Eucalyptus urophylla e de 245 progênies de meios-irmãos de E. grandis, visando à seleção de genitores para a produção de híbridos interespecíficos em cruzamentos controlados em dialelo circulante, com base em seus valores genéticos preditos. Os ensaio [...] s foram conduzidos em Guanhães, MG, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, parcelas lineares de seis plantas para E. urophylla e oito plantas para E. grandis, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 2,0 m. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados adotando-se modelos mistos com uso do procedimento REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viesada) para diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP), altura total (ALT) e volume individual (VOL). A predição dos valores genéticos foi feita somente para (DAP), característica que foi utilizada para seleção. Em E. urophylla, foram obtidas as estimativas de herdabilidade no sentido restrito de 0,2785 e de acurácia da ordem de 61%, e em E. grandis, herdabilidade de 0,2247 e acurácia de 53%. A seleção dos 100 genitores de cada espécie individualmente proporcionará ganhos genéticos na ordem de 20,6% em E. urophylla e de 16,4% em E. grandis. Ganho genético para DAP em torno de 35,0% poderá ser obtido com o cruzamento dos 10 indivíduos selecionados para cada espécie, portadores das maiores estimativas de divergência genética. Abstract in english Predicted parental genetic values of 363 half-sib Eucalyptus grandis and 245 half-sib E. urophylla progenies were evaluated for selection to produce interspecific hybrids in controlled crosses in a circulating diallel. The essays were conducted in Guanhães, Minas Gerais, in a complete randomized blo [...] ck design in five replications, row plots of six E. urophylla and eight E. grandis plants in 3.0 x 2.0 m spacing. The genetic parameters were estimated by mixed models using the REML / BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood / best linear unbiased prediction) procedure for diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (TH) and individual volume (VOL) traits. The genetic values were only predicted for diameter at breast height (DBH), to which the selection was performed. The estimated heritability values in the restricted sense for Eucalyptus urophylla were 0.2785 and for accuracy 61%, and 0.2247 and 53% in Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Selection of 100 parents of each species individually will provide genetic gains of 20.6 % in Eucalyptus urophylla and of 16.4 % in Eucalyptus grandis. A genetic gain for diameter at breast height around 35.0% can be obtained by crosses among the first 10 selected individuals of each species and carriers of the greatest genetic divergences.

  5. Eficiência relativa de fosfatos naturais na adubação de plantio de mudas de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden e Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et cambage em solo sem e com calagem / Relative efficiency of rock phosphates in fertilization of planting seedlings Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden and Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et cambage in soil with and without liming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Patrícia Rosa, Dias; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Gustavo, Brunetto; Márcia Aparecida, Simonete; Bruna, Bicaratto.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto possui uma grande exigência de fósforo (P) na fase de implantação do povoamento. Por isso o seu nível crítico de P é mais alto na fase inicial de desenvolvimento, diminuindo com o aumento da idade. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta no crescimento inicial de eucalipto à adubação fos [...] fatada e a eficiência relativa (ER) de fosfatos naturais (FNs) em solos sem e com calagem. Para isso, foram conduzidos, no período de outubro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011, dois experimentos em casa de vegetação, na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), em Lages (SC), um com mudas de Eucalyptus dunnii e outro com Eucalyptus benthamii, utilizando os FNs Bayovar, Gafsa e Djebel, além do superfosfato triplo e testemunha (sem P), em um Cambissolo Húmico sem e com calagem. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco fontes de P e dois níveis de calagem), com quatro repetições. As plantas foram cultivadas por 110 dias e após a colheita, foram determinados a produção de matéria seca (por diferença de peso úmido e peso seco) e o acúmulo de P no tecido vegetal das diferentes partes da planta (determinado por espectrofotometria em comprimento de onda de 882 nm, após redução do complexo fosfomolibidato com ácido ascórbico). A eficiência relativa dos FNs (%) foi calculada a partir dos dados obtidos de matéria seca de parte aérea e matéria seca total. Para a correlação entre os parâmetros de teor de P acumulado na planta e os teores de P disponível no solo foi aplicado o Teste de Correlação de Pearson (P Abstract in english The eucalyptus has a pronounced demand for phosphorus (P) in the initial growth. Therefore, its P critical level is higher in the early stages of development, decreasing with plant age. The study was carried out to evaluate the response to fertilization and relative efficiency (RE) of phosphates (RP [...] s) in the initial growth of eucalyptus. For this, two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, from October 2010 to February 2011, at the University of Santa Catarina (UDESC), in Lages, Santa Catarina state, one with Eucalyptus dunnii and another with Eucalyptus benthamii using the following phosphorus sources: Bayovar, Gafsa, Djebel and triple superphosphate, plus a control without P. These P treatments were applied in soils with and without liming. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement and with four replications. Plants were grown for 110 days and after harvest, were determined dry matter (by difference of wet weight and dry weight) and P accumulation in plant tissue from different parts of the plant (determined by spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 882 nm after reduction of phospho-molibidate complex with ascorbic acid). The relative efficiency of RPs (%) was calculated from data obtained from dry matter of shoots and total dry matter. For the correlation between the parameters of P content in the plants and soil available P it was applied Pearson's correlation (P

  6. Inventário florestal com tecnologia laser aerotransportada de plantios de Eucalyptus spp no Brasil / Forest inventory with airborne laser technology of Eucalyptus spp plantations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Estraviz Rodriguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente artigo faz uma breve apresentação e análise da informação gerada pela tecnologia laser aerotransportada LIDAR em um levantamento das características altimétricas em plantios clonais de Eucalyptus no Sul da Bahia, Brasil. Uma revisão dos princípios da tecnologia LIDAR é seguida de uma descrição dos dados gerados para um subconjunto de parcelas amostrais sobrevoadas em Setembro de 2008. Os resultados do levantamento LIDAR são apresentados conjuntamente com os dados de medições convencionais de inventário florestal realizadas no campo. Considerando-se a alta precisão observada para os parâmetros diretamente relacionados com a altura das árvores, e o potencial de redução significativa da intensidade amostral de campo, barateando assim o custo final das atividades de inventário florestal, justifica-se o uso dessa tecnologia aerotransportada. Assim, será possível reduzir os extenuantes e, por vezes, imprecisos e ineficientes procedimentos de campo usados em levantamentos de extensas áreas florestadas. AbstractThis paper briefly presents and evaluates the information produced by the LIDAR airborne laser technology used to assess altimetric characteristics in cloned plantations of Eucalyptus in Southern Bahia, Brazil. A revision of the main principles of the LIDAR technology is followed by the description of data generated for a sub set of sample plots assessed in September 2008. The LIDAR assessment results are jointly presented with forest inventory data produced by conventional field measurements. Considering the observed high accuracy of the parameter directly related to tree height, and the significant potential of reduction of intensity in sample field, lowering forest inventory total costs, the use of the airborne technology is justifiable. Therefore, it will be possible to reduce the tiresome, and many times imprecise and inefficient, field procedures used to assess in extensive forest areas.

  7. Genetic variability in progenies of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden for resistance to Puccinia psidii / Variabilidade genética em progênies de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden para resistência à Puccinia psidii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cleber da Silva, Pinto; Rodolfo Manoel Lemes da, Costa; Cristiano Bueno de, Moraes; Cristiane de, Pieri; Evandro Vagner, Tambarussi; Edson Luiz, Furtado; Edson Seizo, Mori.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variabilidade genética em progênies de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden para resistência à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii). Experimentos de campo foram instalados em duas regiões edafoclimáticas.Progênies de polinização aberta foram estabelecidas em um delineamento emblocos casualizados. Em condiçõe [...] s de campo foram avaliadas 60 e 48 progênies emdois locais, com seis repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Instalou-se tambémum experimento em ambiente controlado, com 53 progênies, em blocoscasualizados, com seis repetições e nove plantas por parcela. Foram avaliadas altura da planta e a severidade de ataque que determinam a fase mais suscetível à doença foliar. A população de E. dunnii estudada apresentou altavariabilidade genética para resistência à ferrugem, com coeficiente de variaçãogenética de 36, 07% e 70% das progênies avaliadas foram imunes a ferrugem. Istoindica alto potencial para seleção e melhoramento da espécie. Abstract in english This study investigated the genetic variability in progenies of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden for resistance against rust (Puccinia psidii). Field experiments were installed in two regions with differentsoil-climatic conditions. Open-pollinated progenies were established in arandomized complete block des [...] ign. Sixty and 48 progenies were evaluated underfield conditions at two sites, respectively, with six replications and eight trees per plot. In another experiment in a controlled environment, 53 progenies were evaluated in randomized blocks with six replications and nine plants perplot. The following traits were evaluated: plant height, severity of pestattack and the most susceptible stage to the leaf disease. The genetic variability for rust resistance in the E. dunnii population under studywas high, with a genetic coefficient of variation of 36.07%; 7% of thee valuated progenies were rust-resistant. It indicates a high potential for selection and breeding of the species.

  8. Estimativa do crescimento de povoamentos de Eucalyptus baseada em modelos lineares em multiníveis de efeito misto / Eucalyptus stand growth estimate based on multilevel linear mixed-effects models

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalino, Calegario; Richard F., Daniels; Agostinho Lopes, Souza; Romualdo, Maestri.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposta do presente estudo foi a modelagem do crescimento de povoamentos clonais de Eucalyptus, com base em modelos lineares mistos em multiníveis. A base de dados utilizada foi proveniente de povoamentos homogêneos, localizados na região costal brasileira, nos Estados do Espírito Santo e da Bahi [...] a. Foram utilizados dois níveis aleatórios de modelagem: unidades amostrais e árvores individuais dentro das unidades amostrais. Como exemplo de aplicação do método foi utilizado o logaritmo da área basal, como resposta, em função do inverso da idade, da altura total e da interação entre elas. Com a utilização de técnicas de modelagem baseada nos efeitos fixos e mistos, as estimativas dos parâmetros foram melhoradas significativamente. Também, com a modelagem da autocorrelação e da heterogeneidade da variância, partindo-se de um modelo homoscedástico para um modelo heteroscedástico auto-regressivo, com estrutura de variância positiva definida no nível 1 e com estrutura de correlação auto-regressiva de primeira ordem (AR1), os valores do logaritmo da máxima verossimilhança foram significativamente elevados. Abstract in english The main purpose of this study was to apply the mixed-effects theory in modeling Eucalyptus stand growth. The database is from homogeneous stands located on Brazilian coastal region, Espírito Santo and Bahia States. We used two levels of sampling: sample units and individual trees inside of sample u [...] nits. As an example, we considered the logarithm of the basal area as response variable and inverse of age, logarithm of the total height and their interaction as covariates. The parameter estimate quality of the linear model was significantly improved. Also, by modeling the heteroscedasticity and the autocorrelation (AR(1)), the log-likelyhood values were increased significantly.

  9. Estimativa do crescimento de povoamentos de Eucalyptus baseada em modelos lineares em multiníveis de efeito misto Eucalyptus stand growth estimate based on multilevel linear mixed-effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalino Calegario

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A proposta do presente estudo foi a modelagem do crescimento de povoamentos clonais de Eucalyptus, com base em modelos lineares mistos em multiníveis. A base de dados utilizada foi proveniente de povoamentos homogêneos, localizados na região costal brasileira, nos Estados do Espírito Santo e da Bahia. Foram utilizados dois níveis aleatórios de modelagem: unidades amostrais e árvores individuais dentro das unidades amostrais. Como exemplo de aplicação do método foi utilizado o logaritmo da área basal, como resposta, em função do inverso da idade, da altura total e da interação entre elas. Com a utilização de técnicas de modelagem baseada nos efeitos fixos e mistos, as estimativas dos parâmetros foram melhoradas significativamente. Também, com a modelagem da autocorrelação e da heterogeneidade da variância, partindo-se de um modelo homoscedástico para um modelo heteroscedástico auto-regressivo, com estrutura de variância positiva definida no nível 1 e com estrutura de correlação auto-regressiva de primeira ordem (AR1, os valores do logaritmo da máxima verossimilhança foram significativamente elevados.The main purpose of this study was to apply the mixed-effects theory in modeling Eucalyptus stand growth. The database is from homogeneous stands located on Brazilian coastal region, Espírito Santo and Bahia States. We used two levels of sampling: sample units and individual trees inside of sample units. As an example, we considered the logarithm of the basal area as response variable and inverse of age, logarithm of the total height and their interaction as covariates. The parameter estimate quality of the linear model was significantly improved. Also, by modeling the heteroscedasticity and the autocorrelation (AR(1, the log-likelyhood values were increased significantly.

  10. Modificação da cor original da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis através de tratamentos termorretificadores / Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Wanessa Aparecida, Santos.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se determinar a modificação da cor original da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden após a termorretificação. Amostras de madeira foram termorretificadas sob diferentes condições de temperatura (180, 200, 215 e 230ºC) e tempo (15 minutos, 2 e 4 horas). As análises co [...] lorimétricas foram realizadas por meio do sistema CIE L*a*b* com o auxílio do espectrofotômetro Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d. Todos os tratamentos termorretificadores causaram uma alteração na cor original da madeira. As madeiras termorretificadas apresentaram menores valores de L* (luminosidade), quando comparadas à madeira não tratada (controle), caracterizando o escurecimento da madeira, principalmente para as condições mais severas de temperatura e tempo. As coordenadas cromáticas a* e b* apresentaram comportamentos diferentes, dependendo da combinação temperatura-tempo. A modificação da cor original da madeira possibilitou a criação de novos padrões de cor, podendo agregar maior valor à madeira estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC) and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours). Color analysis were [...] performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness) values than untreated wood (control), characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b*) showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  11. Prognose da produção de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. pela aplicação da função de distribuição S B de Johnson / Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. yield projection using johnson S B distribution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Versides Sebastião de Moraes e, Silva; Thelma Shirlen, Soares; Chirle, Colpini; Danielle Parra, Travagin; Roberto Tuyoshi, Hosokawa; José Roberto Soares, Scolforo.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a prognose da produção de um povoamento de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Delnh, localizado em Cuiabá, MT. Na distribuição diamétrica, utilizou-se a Função S B de Johnson ajustada pelo método dos momentos. O modelo testado para expressar os atributos da floresta foi av [...] aliado por meio de análise de regressão. De maneira geral, com os testes realizados foi possível verificar que o modelo apresentou ajuste satisfatório e sem tendência nos resíduos. A eficiência de prognose foi avaliada pelo teste "t", desvio de prognose e correlação entre o volume prognosticado e o volume observado na idade de prognose. O processo de modelagem utilizado permitiu obter, com detalhes, as análises das tendências do crescimento, a partir das quais se pode concluir que a metodologia adotada permitiu a obtenção de estimativas da produção atual e futura, utilizando-se de um conjunto de modelos biomatemáticos discriminados em cada fase deste estudo. Abstract in english This study was carried out to accomplish the yield projection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Delnh. in Cuiabá-MT. For the diameter distribution, the Johnson SB's function was adjusted by the methods of the moments. The model used to express the attributes of the forest was evaluated by the regression a [...] nalysis. In general, the tests carried out showed that the model presented satisfactory fitting and was unbiased in the graphic analyses of the residues. The efficiency of the prognosis was appraised by the t-test, prognosis deviation and correlation between the predicted and the observed volume at the same age. The modeling process used allowed us to obtain the detailed tendencies of growth. From these tendencies, it can be concluded that the adopted methodology allowed us to obtain the estimates of the current or future production, making use of the group of bio-mathematical models discriminated for each phase of this study.

  12. Prognose da produção de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. pela aplicação da função de distribuição S B de Johnson Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. yield projection using johnson S B distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Versides Sebastião de Moraes e Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a prognose da produção de um povoamento de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Delnh, localizado em Cuiabá, MT. Na distribuição diamétrica, utilizou-se a Função S B de Johnson ajustada pelo método dos momentos. O modelo testado para expressar os atributos da floresta foi avaliado por meio de análise de regressão. De maneira geral, com os testes realizados foi possível verificar que o modelo apresentou ajuste satisfatório e sem tendência nos resíduos. A eficiência de prognose foi avaliada pelo teste "t", desvio de prognose e correlação entre o volume prognosticado e o volume observado na idade de prognose. O processo de modelagem utilizado permitiu obter, com detalhes, as análises das tendências do crescimento, a partir das quais se pode concluir que a metodologia adotada permitiu a obtenção de estimativas da produção atual e futura, utilizando-se de um conjunto de modelos biomatemáticos discriminados em cada fase deste estudo.This study was carried out to accomplish the yield projection of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Delnh. in Cuiabá-MT. For the diameter distribution, the Johnson SB's function was adjusted by the methods of the moments. The model used to express the attributes of the forest was evaluated by the regression analysis. In general, the tests carried out showed that the model presented satisfactory fitting and was unbiased in the graphic analyses of the residues. The efficiency of the prognosis was appraised by the t-test, prognosis deviation and correlation between the predicted and the observed volume at the same age. The modeling process used allowed us to obtain the detailed tendencies of growth. From these tendencies, it can be concluded that the adopted methodology allowed us to obtain the estimates of the current or future production, making use of the group of bio-mathematical models discriminated for each phase of this study.

  13. EFEITO DA VAPORIZAÇÃO NA SECAGEM DE TÁBUAS DE Eucalyptus grandis / EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael Nogueira, Rezende; José Tarcísio, Lima; Luana Elís de Ramos e, Paula; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da vaporização na taxa de secagem e na qualidade da secagem de tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isso, utilizou-se uma madeira proveniente de um plantio da Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, Brasil, com idade de 24 anos. Árvores foram abatidas e suas t [...] oras foram desdobradas por um sistema de corte tangencial. Dividiu-se a carga de tábuas à metade, sendo uma delas para secagem com vaporização e outra sem vaporização. Na secagem com vaporização, após a fase de aquecimento, houve um tratamento de 3 horas a 90ºC e 100% de umidade relativa. A secagem ocorreu em estufa de secagem convencional e foram realizadas medições de defeitos e determinação da taxa de secagem. Os resultados indicaram que a vaporização foi eficiente, aumentando a taxa de secagem em 15% e reduzindo defeitos de secagem de 20 a 52%. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were [...] felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control). The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  14. Métodos de captura para formigas em pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis / Methods for catching ants in pre-planting of Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jardel, Boscardin; Ervandil Corrêa, Costa; Juliana, Garlet; Alessandro, Fiorentini.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar três métodos de coleta de formigas em uma área de pré-plantio de Eucalyptus grandis em Santa Maria-RS. Foram realizadas amostragens de março a agosto de 2011, utilizando-se armadilha de solo (AS), isca atrativa à base de patê de fígado de frango (IA) e extração [...] por Funil de Berlese (FB), sendo seis repetições por tratament