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Sample records for brushbox lemon-gum eucalyptus

  1. Eucalyptus

    ... combination product containing eucalyptus oil, peppermint oil, and ethanol to the head does not reduce pain in ... hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)Eucalyptus can increase the toxicity of herbs that contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). ...

  2. Eucalyptus energy plantations

    1982-05-01

    India has extensive plantations of eucalyptus, a fast-growing, native plant that can be used as wood, fuel, pulp, oil and honey, and erosion control. India raises eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, and E. Citriodara. The applications, environmental requirements, yields, and related species are summarized for each. 2 references. (DCK)

  3. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

    Odair Bison; Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha Rezende; Aurélio Mendes Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende3

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones...

  4. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  5. Enhancing Eucalyptus Community Cloud

    Gian Mario Mereu; Matteo Dessalvi; Andrea Bosin; Giovanni Serra

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, the cloud computing model has moved from hype to reality, as witnessed by the increasing number of commercial providers offering their cloud computing solutions. At the same time, various open-source projects are developing cloud computing frameworks open to experimental instrumentation and study. In this work we analyze Eucalyptus Community Cloud, an open-source cloud-computing framework delivering the IaaS model and running under the Linux operating system. Our aim is...

  6. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    Malek Taher Maghsoodlou; Nasrin Kazemipoor; Jafar Valizadeh; Mohsen Falak Nezhad Seifi; Nahid Rahneshan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant mate...

  7. The Eucalyptus spectrograph

    de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Barbuy, Beatriz; Campos, Rodrigo P.; Castilho, Bruno V.; Gneiding, Clemens; Kanaan, Antonio; Lee, David; Lepine, Jacques R. D.; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; de Oliveira, Ligia S.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Silva, J. M.; Strauss, C.; Taylor, Keith

    2003-03-01

    As part of the Brazilian contribution to the 4.2 m SOAR telescope project we are building the Integral Field Unit spectrograph, "SIFUS." With the aim of testing the performance of optical fibers with 50 microns core size on IFUs, we constructed a prototype of the IFU and a spectrograph that were installed at the 1.6 m telescope of the Observatrio do Pico dos Dias (OPD), managed by Laboratrio Nacional de Astrofsica (LNA) in Brazil. The IFU has 512 fibers coupled to a LIMO microlens array (16 x 32) covering a 15" x 30" field on the sky. The spectrograph is a medium resolution instrument, operating in a quasi-Littrow mode. It was based on the design of the SPIRAL spectrograph built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The name Eucalyptus was given following the name of the native Australian tree that adapted very well in Brazil and it was given in recognition to the collaboration with the colleagues of the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The instrument first light occurred in the first semester of 2001. The results confirmed the possibility of using the adopted fibers and construction techniques for the SIFUS. We present the features of the instrument, some examples of the scientific data obtained, and the status of the commissioning, calibration and automation plans. The efficiency of this IFU was determined to be 53% during telescope commissioning tests.

  8. Eucalyptus oil in dentistry: A mini Review

    Ruchika Agarwal; Lakshmi. T

    2013-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians were familiar with many medicinal herbs andaware of their usefulness in treatment of various diseases. Eucalyptus oil is used to control several diseases derived from microbial infections. Eucalyptus oil has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied in human, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or effectiveness.Eucalyptus oil and its major component 1,8-cincole ...

  9. Eucalyptus oil in dentistry: A mini Review

    Ruchika Agarwal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ancient Egyptians were familiar with many medicinal herbs andaware of their usefulness in treatment of various diseases. Eucalyptus oil is used to control several diseases derived from microbial infections. Eucalyptus oil has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied in human, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or effectiveness.Eucalyptus oil and its major component 1,8-cincole have antimicrobial effects. In this review, an unusual and a rare case of chemical injury secondary to the use of eucalyptus oil has been presented here.

  10. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-19

    Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology. PMID:24919147

  11. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M.; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus.

  12. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    Malek Taher Maghsoodlou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil compositionfrom leaves and flowers of E. microthecaand E. viminalisleavesgrowing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013.After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%, aromadendrene (12.773%, α-pinene (6.752%, globulol (5.997%, ledene (5.665%, P-cymen (5.251%, and β-pinene (5.006% were the major constituents.  In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%, O-cymen (13.522%, β-pinene (11.082%, aromadendrene (7.444%, α-phellandrene (7.006%, globulol (5.419%, and 9-octadecenamide (5.414% were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%, α-pinene (13.379%, limonene (5.443%, and globulol (3.054%. Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils fromthe aerial parts of Eucalyptus speciesare a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  13. Photosynthetic temperature responses of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens

    Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; Loughead, S. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations of four year old Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Temperatures varied between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and were measured at approximately monthly intervals from early spring until midwinter. The photosynthetic temperature optimum was found to be linearly related to the average temperature of the preceding week during the entire nine month period. For E. globulus the optimum temperature for net photosynthesis increased from 17 degrees C to 23 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 degrees C to 16 degrees. The corresponding values for E. nitens were 14 to 20 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 to 19 degrees C. The photosynthetic performance of E. nitens was less sensitive to temperatures above and below the optimum than E. globulus. In a second experiment E. globulus clones were acclimated in temperature-controlled greenhouses, and in a shadehouse in four climatically different regions of Tasmania. A comparison of light response curves of the plants showed that the maximum rate of net photosynthesis was affected by the growth temperature, whereas apparent quantum efficiency remained unchanged. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

  15. Cryopreservation of eucalyptus genetic resources.

    Kaya, E; Alves, A; Rodrigues, L; Jenderek, M; Hernandez-Ellis, M; Ozudogru, A; Ellis, D

    2013-01-01

    The long-term preservation of forest genetic resources is a vital part of preserving our forest crops for future generations. Unfortunately, there are few genebanks dedicated to forest trees and very few methods for long-term preservation of forest genetic resources collections aside from field plantings of a limited number of seed-derived or elite clonal individuals. The use of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of elite germplasm is increasingly being used for the long-term preservation of clonal agronomic crops but for forest trees, such as Eucalyptus, the methodology for cryopreservation of diverse genetic resources collections has not been established. We report the successful cryopreservation of a germplasm collection of in vitro shoot cultures of thirteen Eucalyptus spp. lines consisting of two E. grandis x E. camaldulensis lines, seven E. urophylla x E. grandis lines, one E. grandis line, two E. grandis x E. urophylla lines, and one E. camaldulensis line. In a comparison of two cryopreservation methods, sucrose sensitivity limited the application of encapsulation-dehydration. However, with droplet-vitrification, all thirteen lines had good survival after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. A 30 min exposure to Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) yielded post-liquid nitrogen survival between 38% and 85% depending on the line. One hundred shoot tips from all thirteen lines are currently in long-term storage as a germplasm collection. PMID:24441371

  16. Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus

    Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

  17. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A.; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. Results The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissu...

  18. Genetics of Eucalyptus wood properties

    Raymond, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Génétique des propriétés du bois d'Eucalyptus. Les méthodes traditionnelles pour déterminer les propriétés du bois sont à la fois destructives et chères, limitant le nombre d'échantillons pouvant être étudiés. Au cours des décennies passées, les techniques d'échantillonnage non destructives et les méthodes nouvelles d'évaluation ont été développées. Elles conduisent à une forte augmentation dans le nombre d'arbres et de caractères pouvant être évalués. Cette technologie a permis l'évaluation ...

  19. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Patrcia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  20. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  1. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  2. Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae) Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)

    Freddy Mora; Claudio Palma-Rojas; Pedro Jara-Seguel

    2005-01-01

    Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,4...

  3. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Patrcia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto; Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Flix de Barros

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: M...

  4. Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species

    Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

  5. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    Adrian Pirraglia,; Ronalds Gonzales,; Daniel Saloni,; Jeff Wright; Joseph Denig

    2011-01-01

    Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental compositi...

  6. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD

    O Unsal; S Korkut; C Atik

    2003-01-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and co...

  7. Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae

    Freddy Mora

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m (P Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, with 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m and E. globulus (1.02 m m (P < 0.01. The greater chromosomal size of E. globulus suggests a greater amount of DNA, probably originated by structural alterations. This evolutionary pattern of karyotype morphology might be associated, as well, with a high level of conservation in chromosome morphology.

  8. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    Rudi Setiadji; Andriati Amir Husin

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement ...

  9. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    Zhang, K; Zheng, H.; F. L. Chen; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Y. Wang; Wu, Y.F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; X. W. Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured an...

  10. Activated carbons from Uruguayan eucalyptus wood

    Tancredi, N.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-12-01

    Most of the new wood plantations in Uruguay consist of eucalyptus, and the development of alternative uses is seen as important. Activated carbons were prepared from eucalyptus wood chars and the results of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} and steam activation were compared. The carbonization step gave rise to a narrow micropore structure and a highly developed microporosity which increased slightly upon CO{sub 2} activation and significantly upon steam activation. This last process led also to a widening of micropore size distribution and developed the mesoporosity more than CO{sub 2} activation did. The presence of O{sub 2} accompanying CO{sub 2} in the activating gas increased the micro- and microporosity of the carbons. No net destruction of microporosity was observed even at high burnoff levels and with as much as 5 vol.%O{sub 2} in the activating gas. 16 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  12. Ethanol production from fractionated eucalyptus wood

    Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-López, Julio; González-Muñoz, María Jesús; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood (EGW) is a lignocellulosic material with high cellulose and hemicellulose content, suitable for the simultaneous production of hemicellulosic and cellulosic ethanol. Processing of EGW by autohydrolysis yields a liquid phase rich in hemicellulosic-derived compounds (13.73 kg of xylooligosaccharides/ 100 kg of raw material). The liquid phase was processed by membranes, achieving a concentrated-liquor of 52.9 g of xylooligosaccharides/L. The liquor from membrane processi...

  13. Genetic Control of Heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S.; Rebecca C. Jones; Potts, Brad M.; Wong, Melissa M. L.; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F. G.; Poethig, R. Scott; Vaillancourt, René E.

    2014-01-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals...

  14. Eucalyptus globulus plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis

    Pinto, Glria Catarina Cintra da Costa

    2007-01-01

    A embriognese somtica (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padro de micropropagao, desde a induo aclimatizao. A propagao clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefcios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um mtodo efectivo de conseguir ganhos genticos num curto espa...

  15. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  16. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species

    Abdul Ghaffar; Muhammad Yameen; Shumaila Kiran; Shagufta Kamal; Fatima Jalal; Bushra Munir; Sadaf Saleem; Naila Rafiq; Aftab Ahmad; Iram Saba; Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves th...

  17. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  18. Proposal of a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations

    Leonardo Duarte Batista da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a method for environmental zoning of eucalyptus plantations, to identify areas where eucalyptus planting could be developed, and to determine suitability of such areas. The study area was the County of Vassouras, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, considering physical data, environmental legislation, urban areas, and the municipal land use plan. The areas for permanent preservation, as well as the conservation units and areas for industrial expansion, as defined in the county land use plan, plus areas nearby the city were considered restricted for the planting of eucalyptus trees. Vassouras is 552 km² large. Approximately 144 km² are suitable eucalyptus planting, of which 97% are now used for pastures. Approximately 50% of the area suitable for eucalyptus is of average suitability, whereas the class of highest suitability occupies about 30%. The less suitable areas correspond to 20% of the remaining 144 km2.

  19. USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

  20. Utilizao de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii para produo de painis de partculas orientadas OSB.

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade de utilizao de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii para produo de painis OSB. Foram produzidos em laboratrio painis com densidade nominal de 0,70 e 1,0 g/cm, com 100% de partculas de Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii, alm de painis com mistura de 50% de Pinus taeda na camada interna do painel, com 50% de Eucalyptus grandis e 50% de Eucalyptus dunnii.. Os painis de Eucalyptus grandis com densidade de 0,70 g/cm, considerada padro comercial, apresentaram valores de propriedades compatveis com os requisitos da norma canadense (CSA e europia EN, e tambm em relao aos painis de Pinus taeda usados como testemunhas. Os resultados dos ensaios mecnicos demonstraram incremento expressivo nos valores de MOE e MOR em flexo esttica com aumento na densidade do painel, abrindo a probabilidade de uso de painis com maior densificao para aplicaes que requeiram maior resistncia do painel OSB. Os resultados desta pesquisa indicam a viabilidade de utilizao de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis como espcie alternativa para produo de painis OSB no Brasil.

  1. Empirical modeling of eucalyptus wood processing

    Parajo, J.C.; Alonso, J.L.; Lage, M.A.; Vazquez, D. (Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with NaOH solutions in order to obtain substrates highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The experiments performed in the extraction and hydrolysis stages followed an incomplete factorial design. Temperature, NaOH concentration and extraction time were considered as independent variables. Their influence on five dependent variables (defined to measure the extraction yield, the chemical composition of processed samples and the enzymatic conversion) was assessed using second order, empirical models. In addition to the experimental results, other aspects related to the extraction selectivity are discussed. (orig.).

  2. Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii=Dinamica de enraizamento adventcio em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii

    Antnio Natal Gonalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of three clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.O tempo ideal de permanncia de propgulos vegetativos (miniestacas no interior da casa de vegetao para a rizognese possvel de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalaes do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de trs clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotaes dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaleto com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropnico. A regio basal da miniestaca foi imersa em soluo de 2.000 mg L-1 de cido indolbutrico (AIB por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento total de razes e a taxa de enraizamento por miniestaca foram avaliados a cada sete dias (0 - instante da estaquia, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias. Foram utilizadas as regresses logstica e exponencial para a modelagem matemtica da velocidade dos processos rizognicos. O modelo logstico teve o melhor ajuste para o percentual de enraizamento, e o modelo exponencial para o comprimento total do sistema radicular. Os clones apresentaram diferentes velocidades de enraizamento. O tempo ideal de permanncia das miniestacas dentro da casa de vegetao para o enraizamento est entre 35 a 42 dias, podendo variar em funo do material gentico.

  3. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

    2002-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

  4. Resistncia biolgica da madeira tratada de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana a fungos apodrecedores em ensaios de laboratrio / Biological resistance of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana woods treated to the decay fungi under laboratory conditions

    Magnos Alan, Vivian; Elio Jos, Santini; Karina Soares, Modes; Alencar, Garlet; Weslley Wilker Corra, Morais.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a resistncia biolgica da madeira tratada de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana sob a ao de organismos biodeterioradores em ensaios de laboratrio. Para tanto, foram utilizadas rvores de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana, ambas com 16 [...] anos de idade, as quais foram desdobradas em tbuas e submetidas ao tratamento preservativo em autoclave com arseniato de cobre cromatado (CCA). Em seguida, confeccionaram-se os corpos de prova para conduo do ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado com os fungos Trametes versicolor e Gloeophyllum trabeum, seguindo as recomendaes da norma ASTM. A partir dos resultados obtidos, observou-se para o fungo Trametes versicolor que o tratamento preservativo foi eficiente na reduo da degradao biolgica da madeira das duas espcies, com reduo da perda de massa em 35,17 e 82,31% para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectivamente, j para o fungo Gloeophyllum trabeum, a perda de massa foi reduzida em 6,79 e 96,65%, em comparao testemunha. Com base nas condies de realizao do presente estudo observou-se que o tratamento preservativo com CCA eficiente no aumento da resistncia biolgica da madeira a ao dos fungos apodrecedores Trametes versicolor e Gloeophyllum trabeum. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was conver [...] ted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA). Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  5. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    Aulus Estevo Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs, an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis, has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX. Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y and cytosolic (TRXh, have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

  6. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  7. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  8. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAAMENTOS EM RELAO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produo de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade bsica e composio qumica da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com lcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um nmero kappa 17 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relao licor/madeira 4:1, tempo at temperatura mxima 60 minutos, tempo temperatura mxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos fsico-qumicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, nmero kappa, viscosidade intrnseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinao em moinho Jkro ao nvel de 35SR e, juntamente com a polpa no-refinada, foram submetidas a testes fsico-mecnicos e ticos (resistncia trao, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume especfico, alvura, resistncia ao ar Gurley e ascenso capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de lcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradao da polpa. Todos os espaamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produo de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar reduo nos custos de produo de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de lcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possveis impactos em termos de incrustaes e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende s exigncias do mercado consumidor.

  9. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55Nmg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0nm, respectively. The addition of 9wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. PMID:26794952

  10. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  11. Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  12. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Berenice K. de, Alcntara; Daniel, Pizzaia; Fernando A., Piotto; Luclia, Borgo; Gilvano E., Brondani; Ricardo A., Azevedo.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A peroxidao lipdica e alongamento de raiz de Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram estudados em resposta s condies de estresse com alumnio (Al), um metal conhecido por limitar a produtividade agrcola em solos cidos, principalmente devido reduo do crescimento radicular. No [...] Brasil, o hbrido Grancam 1277 (E. grandis E. camaldulensis) tem sido plantado na regio do "Cerrado", local com grande ocorrncia de solos cidos. O presente estudo mostra que o hbrido teve reduo de crescimento das razes e aumento dos nveis de peroxidao lipdica, aps 24h de tratamento com 100 M de Al. No entanto, um possvel processo de tolerncia comeou aps este perodo, uma vez que foram observadas reduo na peroxidao lipdica e recuperao de alongamento da raiz aps 48h de exposio Al. A compreenso da dinmica temporal de tolerncia ao Al pode ser til principalmente para selecionar gentipos mais tolerantes e tambm para identificar genes de interesse para aplicao em bioengenharia. Abstract in english Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al), a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. [...] grandis E. camaldulensis) has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 M of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  13. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus)

    Jeancarlos Moreno; Gabriel López; Raúl Siche

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, t...

  14. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  15. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43o28'N, and longitude 3o48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  17. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

    Minogue, Patrick J.; Anna Osiecka

    2015-01-01

    Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-comple...

  18. Chemical constituents and ecotoxicological effects of leaf extracts Eucalyptus urograndis

    Lucienir Pains Duarte, Rute Cunha Figueiredo, Débora Barbosa da Silva Soares, Marcela Maciel Nogueira; Fabíola Oliveira Lino de Araújo, Arnola Cecília Rietzler

    2010-01-01

    Artificial forests of Eucalyptus produce large amounts of litterbag that by the action of wind andrainwater are dragged into aquatic environment, with consequent alteration of the aquatic ecosystems.For evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of Eucalyptus urograndis litterbag in the aquatic environment;there were prepared organic extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol), besides anaqueous extract. These polar extracts were tested in vitro against Daphnia similis and D. laevis(An...

  19. Nutrient relations during an eucalyptus cycle at different population densities

    Fernando Palha Leite; Ivo Ribeiro Silva; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Nairam Flix de Barros; Jlio Csar Lima Neves; Ecila Mercs de Albuquerque Villani

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize nutrient availability with the requirements of eucalyptus during a cultivation cycle, the nutrient flow of this system must be well understood. Essential, for example, is information about nutrient dynamics in eucalyptus plantations throughout a cultivation cycle, as well as impacts on soil nutrient reserves caused by the accumulation and subsequent export of nutrients via biomass. It is also important to quantify the effect of some management practices, such as tree population...

  20. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Anna-Stiina Jskelinen

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The de...

  1. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry. PMID:25394796

  2. Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia

    He, Congrong; Murray, Frank; Lyons, Tom

    Monoterpene and isoprene emission rates of 15 Eucalyptus species were measured using an air exchange chamber technique and GC-FID analysis. The normalised monoterpene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C) of these Eucalyptus species ranged from zero for E. forrestiana to 5.4±2.2 μg g -1 h -1 (or 871±33 μg m -2 h -1) for E. globulus. The dominant monoterpene compounds emitted from these Eucalyptus species were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and limonene. The normalised isoprene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C, PAR flux 1000 μmol m -2 s -1) ranged from 5.3±1.6 ( E. botryoides) to 69±34 μg g -1 h -1 ( E. globulus) or from 0.74 ( E. cladocalyx) to 9.5 mg m -2 h -1 ( E. rudis). Based on monoterpene emission rate data from four Eucalyptus species ( E. globulus, E. robusta, E. rudis, and E. sargentii), there were clear exponential relationships between leaf temperature and monoterpene emission rate for these Eucalyptus species. The mean exponential value ( β value) of the four Eucalyptus species was 0.103±0.012 K -1.

  3. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  4. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    Farah A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies according to species. It is 3.4% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni, 2.5% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus and 1.6% for Eucalyptus diversicolor. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx are characterized by an average yield less than 1%, i.e. 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average yields of the two hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus diversicolor are 2.9% and 1.4% respectively. The combinations Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus grandis are characterized by the lowest yields, i.e. 1%, 0.8% and 0.8% respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition shows that the hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni give 1,8-cineole rates superior to 70%, which is required by the users. Comparatively to Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the essential oils of the other crosses reveal a slight decrease in percentage of this product. However, increases of the alpha-pinene and p-cymene contents have been recorded. In general, all products detected in essential oils have average percentages intermediate between those of parental species. Hybridization of eucalyptus can improve the quality and the quantity of eucalyptus essential oils.

  5. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Mohand Tazerout; Samir Hanchi; Khaled Loubar; Mohand Said Lounici; Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characteriz...

  6. EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS

    Hernn Poblete W; Rodrigo Burgos O

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partculas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partculas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partculas. Se fabricaron tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m y se determinaron las propiedades flexin, traccin perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorcin de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se ca...

  7. Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese eucalyptus forests

    Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

    2001-07-01

    Emission to the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Eucalyptus globulus was studied in the laboratory with young specimen, and in the field with adult trees. Eucalyptus emits both monoterpenes and isoprene. The leaves of young trees emit at higher rates than the leaves of adult trees. The emission of isoprene is highly predominant during the day. The emission of isoprene is dependent on temperature and solar radiation. The emission rate follows the Guenther algorithm if a based emission factor of 32 {mu}gg{sub dw} {sup -1}h{sup -1} is used, increasing with temperature, to a maximum at 40{sup o}C. At higher temperatures there is a decrease in the emission rate. The main C{sub 10} emitted is 1,8-cineol. Cineol emissions increase exponentially with temperature, and are also seasonally dependent. Application of the emission algorithm to the Portuguese eucalyptus forests shows that during summer isoprene and monoterpene emissions by eucalyptus are of the same order of anthropogenic VOC production. Furthermore, in certain regions, in the center-north of Portugal, where eucalyptus forests are predominant, isoprene emissions can reach an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic production of VOCs during daytime periods in July and August. (Author)

  8. SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring

    Carlos Rozas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con temperaturas no superiores a los 50°C, con un bajo potencial de secado e incluyeron tratamientos de vaporizado para recuperar colapso y reducir tensiones de secado. Se evaluaron contenidos de humedad inicial y final, densidad básica, gradientes de humedades, grietas, contracciones, tensiones y alabeos, determinando finalmente su aprovechamiento en pisos, blocks y muebles. Los resultados indican que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens presenta una fuerte evaporación superficial, generando altos gradientes de humedad, contracciones prematuras a nivel de superficie y tensiones de secado bajo el P.S.F, originando grietas superficiales e internas. Cuando el colapso es severo, debido a la baja resistencia mecánica de la pared celular de la madera, se generan grietas superficiales e internas en la madera. El mejor aprovechamiento se obtuvo para madera radial, donde el Eucalyptus globulus registró entre 52 y 81% para blocks, entre 48 y 91% para piso y entre 38 y 89% para muebles. El Eucalyptus nitens registró entre 60 y 71% en blocks, entre 59 y 61% para piso y entre 52 y 63% para muebles. La pérdida por nudos en Eucalyptus globulus fluctuó entre 3 y 22% en madera radial y entre 5 y 24% para madera tangencial. Para Eucalyptus nitens, en tanto, fluctuó entre 12 y 19% y entre 15 y 34% para los cortes antes señalados. La pérdida por grietas en Eucalyptus globulus varió entre 3 y 10% para madera radial y entre 15 y 21% para tangencial. En el Eucalyptus nitens ésta fluctuó entre 3 y 13% y entre 5 y 38%. Lo anterior, permite concluir que la madera de corte radial es la mejor opción para ser utilizada en estas aplicacionesDrying tests on both Eucalyptus nitens and globulus radial and tangential timber were carried out at Universidad del Bío-Bío Laboratories, under the approach of the D98I1018 FONDEF Project to be later validated at an industrial scale. A 30 mm-thick, 1.8 meter-long and random with scantling was used at a laboratory level, while the one applied at industrial level showed 32 mm of thickness, the lengths of which ranging from 2.1 to 2.8 meters, and variable widths. As general rule, mild drying programs were used, at temperatures not higher than 50°C, and having low drying potential. In turn, such programs included steaming based treatment with the purpose of overcoming collapse and reduce drying tensile. The following was assessed: initial and final moisture content, basic density, moisture gradients, checks, shrinkage, tensile and warpage, to finally specify their utilization in flooring, blocks and furniture. Outcomes have shown that Eucalyptus nitens timber features a high surface evaporation, thus generating high moisture gradients, early shrinkage at surface level, along with below P.S.F. drying related tensile, which, in turn, brings about surface and internal checks. When collapse turns to be severe, and because of timber cell wall mechanical strength, both surface and internal checks show up. A better utilization was achieved for radial timber, where Eucalyptus globulus values ranged from 52 to 81% in the case of blocks, form 58 to 91% with respect to flooring, and between 38 and 89% in the case of furniture. Eucalyptus globulus figures ranged from 60 to 71% for blocks, from 59 to 61% for flooring, and between 52 and 63% in the case of furniture. Losses caused by knots in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 22% in the case of radial timber, while the tangential one featured a 5 to 24% variation. On the other hand, Eucalyptus nitens timber showed variations from 12 to 19%, and from 15 to 34% for the above mentioned cuts. Check related losses in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 10% in the case of radial timber, while tangential wood showed a 15 to 21% variation. Eucalyptus nitens featured variations from 3 to 13% and between 5 and 38%. Out of the above we may conclude that radial cut timber turns out to be the best option when being used in such applications

  9. Painis de madeira aglomerada de resduos da laminao de diferentes procedncias de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus cloeziana / Wood paticleboards made from residues obtained in the veneer production of eucalypt species and provenances

    Jos Benedito, Guimares Jnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Fbio Akira, Mori.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se fazer a avaliao de 15 procedncias de espcies de Eucalyptus cloeziana,Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna, com idade de 31 anos, sendo que esse teste foi instalado no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram fabricados 6 painis aglomerados para cada pro [...] cedncia, a partir dos resduos gerados pela laminao desse material. Foi utilizado o adesivo uria-formaldedo com 8%, e parafina a 1%, ambos com base nos seus respectivos teores de slidos. Os painis foram prensados temperatura de 160C, presso especfica de 3,92MPa por tempo de 8 minutos. A partir dos resultados concluiu-se que: em absoro de gua, destacou-se a espcie Eucalyptus saligna; em inchamento em espessura, a procedncia 43 mostrou melhor desempenho dentro da espcie de Eucalyptus grandis; foram obtidos resultados superiores para Eucalyptus cloeziana no que se refere compresso e MOE; para Eucalyptus grandis, a procedncia de nmero 10695 apresentou melhores propriedades de MOE e MOR. De forma geral, a procedncia 10.695 e as espcies de Eucalyptus grandis foram as que apresentaram maiores potenciais para a produo de painis aglomerados. Abstract in english This work aimed the evaluation of 15 (fifteen) provenances of three eucalypt species: Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The trees were 31 years old and the test was developed in the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Six particleboards for each provenance we [...] re made by using the residues generated in the veneer production of this material. It was used urea-formaldehyde at 8% resin level and paraffin at 1%, both according to their respective solid content. The boards were produced by using a pressing cycle with temperature of 160 C, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm and pressing time of 8 minutes. From the results, it was concluded that the specie Eucalyptus saligna was the best one in terms of water absorption. The 43 provenance of Eucalyptus grandis showed the best development of thickness swelling. Superior results of compression and elastic modulus were found to Eucalyptus cloeziana. The provenance of number 10695 of the specie Eucalyptus grandis presented the best results for elastic and rupture modulus. In general, the provenance 10695 and species of Eucalyptus grandis showed the greatest potential for production of particleboard.

  10. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    Adrian Pirraglia,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental composition, and net heating value of light roasted wood were assessed. The heating value of the eucalypts and pellets was enhanced by 19% (average, compared to the original material, while the moisture and volatiles content were drastically reduced. This reduction leads to an increase in the amount (w/w of carbon, enhancing the energy content in the material. Thus, torrefaction is useful for improving the heating value of woody biomass, consuming little external energy due to recirculation and burning of gases for the process. The pellets showed increased energy density, providing improved properties for transportation and handling.

  11. VARIAÇÃO DIMENSIONAL DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana

    Douglas Edson Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the behavior of the dimensional variations of wood treated of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muellé. Samples wood were prepared with dimensions of 20 x 20 x 100 mm, with larger longitudinal, adapted the dimensions of standard COPANT 30:1-005. For each variable were use 15 samples of wood. The measurements of the radial, tangential and axial were obtained with a digital caliper 0.01 mm accuracy, as well as mass (g of the samples on an analytical balance of 0.01 g accuracy. The values of the density of the wood species showed significant differences, as well as in the assessment of the contraction, the same behavior was identified for the swelling of the wood. The anisotropy values of contraction as well as the anisotropy of swelling, showed no statistical difference. According to the literature of Durlo and Marchiori (1992 these species can be cosiderated as normal wood.

  12. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ≤ 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  13. Tamanho de parcelas experimentais para Eucalyptus saligna Smith Experimental plot size for Eucalyptus saligna Smith

    Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, aos 15 meses de idade e aos 5 anos e meio de idade. Os experimentos foram instalados no Horto Florestal Barba Negra em área de produqdo da empresa Riocell S/A, localizada no município de Barra do Ribeiro - RS. O método utilizado para determinação do tamanho ótimo de parcelas foi o de Pimentel Gomes - ESALQ/USP. Os resultados demonstram que o tamanho ótimo de parcelas para plantas com 5 anos e meio de idade é de 9 a 25 plantas úteis medidas, e para o experimento com 15 rneses de idade a parcela ideal é de 4 plantas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the experimental plots size of Eucalyptus saligna Smith with 5.5 years old and for fifteen months old. The experiment were stablished in Barba Negra Garden Market located in Barra do Ribeiro District, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Pimentel Gomes - E S ALQ/USP method's was used. It was observed that the optimal experimental plots size may range from 9 to 25 plantas for five year old trees and four plants to 15 m onths old.

  14. Novos insetos sugadores (Hemiptera atacando Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Claubert Wagner de Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. The migration of pests of plants native to eucalyptus can cause significant losses in production. Been reported to occur of the leafhopper Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae and Membracis lunata Fabricius (Hemiptera: Membracidae in Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae in the municipality of Couto de Magalhães de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The species were observed in eucalyptus plants in the vegetative stage in the field. The occurrence of these insects attacking eucalyptus indicates their migration from fruit trees to the new host and is not recommended to install eucalyptus forests near areas with fruit trees.

  15. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  16. Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-06-01

    The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

    2014-07-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  18. Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas rvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confeco dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de trs diferentes fases de vaporizao, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporizao intermediria de quatro horas, para recuperao do colapso e uma vaporizao final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tenses de secagem, todas realizadas a 100C. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribudos aplicao de um programa de secagem gradual, s diferentes vaporizaes a que a madeira foi submetida, como tambm ao fato de ter-se aplicado a tcnica de anelamento e vaporizao.

  19. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  20. Variacin gentica en plntulas de Eucalyptus spp.

    H. C. Martnez Hernndez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evalu el crecimiento y acumulacin de biomasa en plntulas de 7 meses de edad pertenecientes a 42 familias de polinizacin libre de tres especies de Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. resinifera, y E. rudis. El ensayo se estableci en condiciones de vivero con germoplasma colectado en plantaciones establecidas en la cuenca del Valle de Mxico. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de variacin significativa (P?0.05 entre especies y entre familias dentro de especies para las variables altura, dimetro, nmero de hojas y nmero de ramas, aunque no en el rea foliar. A nivel de especies se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las variables relacionadas con la acumulacin y distribucin de biomasa, excepto en el peso seco de las hojas. Tambin se encontr una variacin significativa (P?0.01 a nivel de familias dentro de especies en el peso seco del tallo, el peso seco de hojas y la biomasa area mientras que el peso seco de las ramas y la biomasa de raz no presentaron una variacin significativa entre las familias. El componente de variacin de familias dentro de especies aport del 2 al 12 % de la variacin fenotpica total, mientras que las especies contribuyeron slo del 0.5 a 7.5 de esta variacin. El mayor porcentaje de variacin se present dentro de parcelas, con valores de 80 a 90 % del total en todas las variables de crecimiento y acumulacin de biomasa de las plntulas.

  1. Structural characterization of residual hemicelluloses from hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber.

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Li, Han-Ying; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, an environmental-friendly hydrothermal pretreatment of Eucalyptus fiber followed with alkali post-treatment was developed to produce bioethanol efficiently. This biorefinery process allowed all major components of biomass being converted into high value-added products. The chemical and structural features of the residual hemicelluloses isolated with alkali from the hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber, were comparatively investigated. Sugar and spectral analyses indicated that the hemicelluloses were mainly composed of glucuronoxylans, and especially hemicelluloses prepared at higher temperature (180C) contained higher contents of glucomannans and ?-glucan. Hydrothermal pretreatment resulted in a significant hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages in xylan backbone, and thus the molecular weight of the hemicelluloses was significantly reduced from 56,520 to 7780g/mol with the increase of temperature. This suggested that a combination of hydrothermal pretreatment at low temperatures (100-140C) and alkali post-treatment was an effective technique for isolating of hemicelluloses from Eucalyptus fiber. PMID:24867208

  2. AVALIAO DA QUALIDADE DO COMPENSADO FENLICO DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparao, foram produzidos tambm painis com lminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldedo com duas formulaes distintas. Os painis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa especfica superior e menor reduo na espessura em relao s demais espcies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistncia da linha de cola demonstraram no haver diferenas estatsticas entre as espcies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexo esttica, os painis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relao a Pinus taeda. Em relao aos efeitos de diferentes formulaes do adesivo, no foram constatadas diferenas estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceo da resistncia da linha de cola no teste mido.

  3. Avaliao da qualidade do compensado fenlico de Eucalyptus grandis.

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparao, foram produzidos tambm painis com lminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldedo com duas formulaes distintas. Os painis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa especfica superior e menor reduo na espessura em relao s demais espcies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistncia da linha de cola demonstraram no haver diferenas estatsticas entre as espcies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexo esttica, os painis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relao a Pinus taeda. Em relao aos efeitos de diferentes formulaes do adesivo, no foram constatadas diferenas estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceo da resistncia da linha de cola no teste mido.

  4. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    Rudi Setiadji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

  5. A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine

    D. TAMILVENDHAN; ILANGOVAN.V

    2011-01-01

    A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that...

  6. Carbon Storage in a Eucalyptus Plantation Chronosequence in Southern China

    Hu Du; Fuping Zeng; Wanxia Peng; Kelin Wang; Hao Zhang,; Lu Liu; Tongqing Song

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of carbon (C) allocation across different stages of stand development in Eucalyptus urophylla E. grandis plantations are not well understood. In this study, we examined biomass and mineral soil C content in five development stages (1, 2, 3, 45, and 68 years old) of a Eucalyptus stand in southern China. The tree biomass C pool increased with stand age and showed a high annual rate of accumulation. Stems accounted for the highest proportion of biomass C sequestered. The C pool in ...

  7. Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta

    Javad Safaei-Ghomi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 μg/disk and rifampin (5 μg/disk were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and nystatin (100 μg/disk for antifungal studies. The results of MIC study revealed that the essential oil has a stronger activity and broader spectrum than those of methanol extracts. It is interesting to point out that the oils had even greater potential of antimicrobial activities than those of 1,8-cineole as their main component.

  8. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  9. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  10. Termorretificao e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / Heat treatment and color of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Antnio Jos Vinha, Zanuncio; Elias de S, Farias; Teodorico Alves da, Silveira.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificao pode ser utilizada na alterao da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante s madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alteraes colorimtricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 C, por trs, cinco e sete ho [...] ras. Corpos de prova de 2 2 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliao de claridade (L), matriz vermelho (a*), matriz amarelo (b*), saturao (C) e ngulo de tinta (H). A claridade (L*) reduziu-se a partir de 140 C; a matriz vermelho (a*), a partir de 140 C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*), a saturao e o ngulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alterao da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificao escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliao do uso do material. Abstract in english Heat treatment can be used to change the color of timber, adding value to it. In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in color of Eucalyptus grandis wood subjected to 140, 170, 200, and 230 C for three, five, and seven hours. Samples of 2 2 2 cm were dried and heat treated to evaluate light [...] ness (L), a* coordinate (green-red coordinate), b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H). Lightness (L *) decreased as from 140 C. a* coordinate (green-red coordinate) decreased as from 140 C for five hours. b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H), saturation, and ink angle reduced as from 170 C. Temperature was more effective than time to change the color of timber. Heat treatment darkened the wood and can be an alternative to add value to this material.

  11. Biological Activity of Eucalyptus Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Topiař, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Machalová, Zdeňka; Karban, Jindřich; Pavela, R.

    Marseille : International Society for Advancement of Supercritical Fluids, 2014, s. 60. ISBN 978-2-37111-002-1. [European Meeting on Supercritical Fluids /14./. Marseille (FR), 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : SFE * eucalyptus * fractionation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  13. Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust

    Adelica Aparecida Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2 em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou-se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3. Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético.Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2 obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoculation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3. Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

  14. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between −3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  15. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  16. Anti-trypanosomal Potential of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis

    Y.A. Kabiru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis in both the human and animal forms has been confronted with multidimensional problems that include paucity of drugs, resistance, high cost, prolonged treatment protocol and adverse side effects. The main objective of this study was to explore alternative sources of antitrypanosomal agents from the leaves, stem and root barks of Eucalyptus camaldulensis The plant parts were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water; and the extracts screened for antitrypanosomal activity. Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei were administered intraperitoneally doses ranging from 200-600 mg/kg body weight/day of the extracts for 21 consecutive days. One control group was treated with 3.5mg/kg bodyweight of berenil while the other control group was left untreated. The methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf produced complete cure for the animals in the different dose groups and survived as long as those treated with the standard drug, berenil, although the clearance time was faster for the standard drug. Sub inoculation of healthy mice with the blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF of the cured mice did not result in infection, thus indicating a complete and permanent cure. Acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf confirmed the safety of the extract because no mortality was recorded even at 5000 mg/kg bodyweight. However, the extract had no prophylactic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of E. camaldulensis leaf gave 10 fractions, with only fractions 8 and 9 exhibiting minimal antitrypanosomal activities that were not comparable to those of the crude extract and the standard drug (p≤0.05. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenes, steroids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and fatty acids in both the crude extract and fraction 9; while fraction 8 contained only terpenes, steroids and fatty acids. Data from GC-MS analysis of the two fractions indicated likely components to be methyl esters, amides, long chain alkenes and alcohols. The result of this study shows that the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf has immense potential for the development of drugs against African trypanosomiasis.

  17. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exigências do mercado consumidor.

  18. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; F. L. Chen; Z. Y. Ouyang; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological proper...

  19. The green-leaved variant of Eucalyptus largiflorens: a story involving hybridization and observant local people

    Parsons, Robert F.; Zubrinich, Tatia M.

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus largiflorens (Black Box) is the most common tree in the Chowilla anabranch system on the Murray River floodplain. It typically has dull, glaucous, grey-green leaves. Occasional trees with smaller, glossy green leaves (Green Box) occur scattered amongst the Black Box. In areas with increasing salinity, they usually appear much healthier than adjacent, normal Black Box trees. Green Box plants are intermediate between normal Eucalyptus largiflorens plants and Eucalyptus gracilis plant...

  20. Afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus and leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain

    Pozo, Jesús; Basaguren, Ana; Elosegi, Arturo; Molinero, Jon; Fabre, Eric; Chauvet, Eric

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that decomposition of leaf species in streams is influenced by afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus, we compared decay rates, nutrient levels, fungal biomass and macroinvertebrate assemblages on alder and eucalyptus leaf litter in three streams (two headwaters under different forests, and a mid reach) of the Agüera catchment (northern Spain). Whatever the reach, alder always decomposed significantly faster than eucalyptus. Litter contents in nitrogen and phosphorus ro...

  1. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    M. CALLISTO; F. A. R. Barbosa; Moreno, P.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

  2. Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators

    C C6rdova; M. Barrandeguy; Navarrete, E.

    2012-01-01

    The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm)...

  3. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    Villar Emilie; Klopp Christophe; Noirot Cline; Novaes Evandro; Kirst Matias; Plomion Christophe; Gion Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during t...

  4. Perceiving drought : large-scale impacts of eucalyptus and regional economic and environmental sustainability

    Xu, Jiayue; 徐嘉悅

    2015-01-01

    After 20 century, eucalyptus have become predominate species in the plantation area in the coastal area, Guangxi province, China. After 2008, great drought happened in Guangxi, which make people began to pay attention to the large area of eucalyptus plantation in the coastal area. Mainstream media spread the idea that eucalyptus planation cause the ecological disaster and threat the local ecology system that making local people get into the panic. NGO do the researches to illustrate the probl...

  5. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method / Transformao gentica de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica

    Evnia Galvo, Mendona; Vanessa Cristina, Stein; Flvia Pereira, Balieiro; Carolina Delfin Fernandes, Lima; Breno Rgis, Santos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenrio silvicultural mundial devido sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rpido e produo de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gnero dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformao gentica impor [...] tante ferramenta para esse propsito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagao in vitro para induo, regenerao e seleo que permita a obteno de plantas transgnicas a partir de grupos de clulas transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formao de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformao gentica de folhas e calos atravs da infeco por A. tumefaciens. Para a formao de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentrao de nitrognio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e gua de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformao gentica de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas tcnica de agrobiobalstica, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartculas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferncia do gene, enquanto para a transformao gentica dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influncia de diferentes perodos de infeco. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformao gentica de folhas atravs da tcnica de agrobiobalstica foi efetiva, sendo possvel observar a expresso transiente do gene gus, mas no houve diferenas significativas entre os perodos de infeco (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens tambm apresentaram expresso transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regenerao e seleo e apresentaram formao de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for th [...] is purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  6. Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entre 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento.

  7. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in southeast Brazil.

    Callisto, M; Barbosa, F A R; Moreno, P

    2002-02-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus. PMID:12185924

  8. Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available he sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K, half life (t0,5 and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 . The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%. The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  9. Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification

    Romaní, Aloia; Garrote Velasco, Gil; López Baldovín, Francisco; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This work provides an assessment on the fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus wood by sequential stages of autohydrolysis (to cause the solubilization of hemicelluloses) and organosolv pulping (to dissolve lignin, leaving solids enriched in cellulose). With this approach, valuable products (hemicellulose-derived saccharides, sulphur-free lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates with low contents of residual hemicelluloses) are obtained in separate streams, according to the biomass refinery a...

  10. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD WITH IMPREGNATED CHEMICALS

    Guofeng Wu,; Qian Lang,; Heyu Chen; Junwen Pu

    2012-01-01

    Methylolurea and carbamide were used to impregnate eucalyptus wood to improve its physical and chemical properties. The physical properties and dimensional stability were examined. TGA was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the wood. FTIR was used to state the changes of functional groups. The changes of wood structure were observed by SEM. The results showed the bending strength and compressive strength parallel to the grain increased by 15.10% and 16.78%, respectively. The basic dens...

  11. Wood and pulp properties of two Eucalyptus globulus wood samples

    Santos, A; Anjos, O.; Simões, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports experimental data about wood chemical composition (extractives and lignin content), fibre characteristics, kraft cooking behaviour and papermaking potential of two wood samples of Eucalyptus globulus (one industrial chip sample and another obtained from a clone tree). The samples were submitted to the kraft cooking and bleaching processes in order to evaluate its pulping potential. The experimental results showed that the clone tree requires mi...

  12. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to eval...

  13. Studies on the eucalyptus leaf disease complex in Portugal

    Silva, Márcia Filipa Lopes Rosendo de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Native from south eastern Australia, Eucalyptus globulus is the main species in eucalypts plantations in Portugal. The most serious foliar disease in eucalypt plantations is linked to Mycosphaerella senso lato, which affects young trees in the juvenile phase foliage causing leaf necrosis. This disease results in reduced growth rate of the host and lower wood volume, thus causing significant productivity losses. The most common name for this disease was Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease that became ...

  14. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

  15. BENDING STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF POLES OF ARGENTINEAN Eucalyptus grandis

    E.A Torrán; M.A Sosa Zitto; A.D Cotrina; J.C Piter

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of an investigation regarding the determination of bending strength and stiffness in full-size poles of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis. The importance of accurately knowing the mechanical properties of this material has increased with the increasing demand of utility poles of this species and with the use of modern procedures aimed at achieving a reliable and economical structural design. For this purpose an empirical research project with two samples con...

  16. A case study of Eucalyptus globulus fingerprinting for breeding

    Ribeiro, Maria Margarida; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Ribeiro, Carla; Cunha, Fátima; Araújo, José; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Marques, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    • Introduction Tree genetic improvement programs usually lack, in general, pedigree information. Since molecular markers can be used to estimate the level of genetic similarity between individuals, we genotyped a sample of a Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus breeding population—a reference population of 125 individuals—with 16 microsatellites (SSR). • Materials and methods Using genotypes from the reference population, we developed a simulation approach to recurrently generate (105...

  17. CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) PLANTS

    CHRISTIAN TRONCOSO; JOSÉ BECERRA; MAGALIS BITTNER; CLAUDIA PEREZ; KATIA SÁEZ; MANUEL SÁNCHEZ-OLATE; DARCY RÍOS

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid) and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass detection (MS). The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of t...

  18. Investment analysis of smallholder Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Matthies, Brent

    2013-01-01

    In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Val...

  19. Regenerao de plantas de Eucalyptus globulus por embriognese somtica

    Pinto, Glria Catarina Cintra da Costa

    2007-01-01

    A embriognese somtica (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padro de micropropagao, desde a induo aclimatizao. A propagao clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefcios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um mtodo efectivo de conseguir ganhos genticos num curto espa...

  20. Leaf area estimation from tree allometrics in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Fabião, António; J. M. C. Pereira; Tomé, Margarida; Carreiras, J.M.B.; Tomé, José; Pereira, J. S.; David, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Data from five studies on the relationships between dendrometric measurements and leaf area of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations were pooled and analyzed to develop regression models for the estimation of leaf area of individual trees. The data, collected at two sites in west-central and southwestern Portugal, varied in age from 2 to 19 years and in plant density from 481 to 1560 trees/ha and included both first and second rotation coppice stands. A total of 29 nonlinear reg...

  1. Dinmica de decomposio e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus no sul do Brasil / Litter decomposition and nutrients in Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus Hybrid Stand in southern Brazil

    Mrcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Marcos Vinicius Winckler, Caldeira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada, sua decomposio e a taxa de disponibilizao de nutrientes em um plantio hbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla - Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram demarcadas quatro parcelas (20 m - 20 m) e, em cada uma delas, [...] foram coletadas estacionalmente (entre maro de 2007 e dezembro de 2010) quatro amostras de forma aleatria. A quantidade de serapilheira estocada sobre o solo foi, em mdia, de 14,0 Mg ha-1.O coeficiente de decomposio foi de 0,54, com tempo mdio para a renovao (1/K) de 1,86 anos e tempo mdio para decomposio de 50 e 95% da serapilheira em 1,29 e 5,59 anos, respectivamente. O potssio apresentou o maior coeficiente de devoluo (0,52), seguido por B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu; consequentemente, o potssio apresentou menor tempo mdio de residncia na serapilheira (0,91 anos). Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to determine the litter accumulation stock, its decomposition and nutrient release in an Eucalyptus urophylla - Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state. Four plots were demarcated (20 m - 20 m) and four samples w [...] ere seasonally sampled (from March 2007 to December 2010) at random. Average litter accumulation on soil was 14.0 Mg ha-1. Litter accumulated showed 0.54 decomposition coefficient with average renewal time (1/K) of 1.86 years and average time to litter decomposition of 50, and 95% of litter in 1.29 and 5.59 years, respectively. Potassium presented the highest turnover (0.52), followed by B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu and consequently the lowest average residence time in the litter (0.91 years).

  2. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HEARTWOOD AND SAPWOOD OF EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS

    Bekir Cihad BAL; BEKTAŞ, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    In this study, some of the physical propertiesof heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus grandisgrown in Karabucak, Turkey were determined. Thephysical properties determined were air-drieddensity, oven-dried density, basic density, shrinkage,swelling, fiber saturation point, and maximummoisture content. According to the test results, thephysical properties of the heartwood samplesdiffered from those of the sapwood samples due tothe presence of high proportion of juvenile wood inthe heartwood. It ...

  3. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in eucalyptus pulps

    Israel González,; Sami Boufi; Maria Angels Pèlach; Manel Alcalà; Fabiola Vilaseca,; Pere Mutjé

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these di...

  4. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Thiago L. Romanelli; Marcos Milan; Rafael Cesar Tieppo

    2012-01-01

    Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environm...

  5. Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.

    de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan; Allsopp, Mike H

    2013-08-15

    We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other. PMID:23629013

  6. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

  7. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    R. Yasodha; R. Sumathi; P. Chezhian; S. Kavitha; M. Ghosh

    2008-04-01

    Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. Recently, many genomic programmes are underway leading to the accumulation of voluminous genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences in public databases. These sequences can be utilized for analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) available in the transcribed genes. In this study, in silico analysis of 15,285 sequences representing partial and full-length mRNA from Eucalyptus species for their use in developing SSRs or microsatellites were carried out. A total of 875 EST-SSRs were identified from 772 SSR containing ESTs. Motif size of 6 for dinucleotide and 5 for trinucleotide, tetranucleotide, and pentanucleotides were considered in locating the microsatellites. The average frequency of identified SSRs was 12.9%. The dinucleotide repeats were the most abundant among the dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide motifs and accounted for 50.9% of the Eucalyptus genome. Primer designing analysis showed that 571 sequences with SSRs had sufficient flanking regions for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer synthesis. Evaluation of the usefulness of the SSRs showed that EST-derived SSRs can generate polymorphic markers as all the primers showed allelic diversity among the 16 provenances of E. tereticornis.

  8. ADSORPTION OF TOLUENE ONTO BLEACHED EUCALYPTUS PULP TREATED WITH ULTRASOUND

    Iñaki Urruzola,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bleached kraft semichemical eucalyptus pulp was used as raw material to adsorb an organic compound, toluene, from aqueous solution. The pulp was sonicated with different powers and different times to obtain smaller cellulose fibers. The adsorption capacity for toluene of sonicated fibers and bleached eucalyptus pulp was measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The absorption capacity for toluene was increased considerably when cellulose nanofibres were obtained. The adsorption capacity of bleached eucalyptus pulp was 36 μmol/g, while sonicated fibres at 30 W and 20 hours increased the adsorption by 47% and at 50 W and 20 h increased it by 67% compared with untreated fibres. Visual examination and optical microscopy were used to observe the reduction of fibers width and the dispersion increase. Contact angle measurements were used to analyze the variation of hydrophilic character of cellulose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study variations introduced by the ultrasound treatments on the chemical structure of the samples. The adsorption capacity studies showed that the treatment with ultrasound improved the retention capacity of the fibres, increasing considerably the adsorption capacity when the fiber width approached the nanoscale.

  9. Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages

    C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Arajo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

  10. Characterization of abiotic stress genes from different species of eucalyptus

    The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)

  11. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  12. SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring

    Carlos Rozas; Reinaldo Sánchez; Paula Pinedo

    2005-01-01

    Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con te...

  13. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  14. Controle gentico da regenerao in vitro em prognies de Eucalyptus grandis Genetic control of in vitro regeneration of Eucalyptus grandis

    Carlos David Vera Bravo; Antnio Natal Gonalves; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias; Roland Vencovsky

    2008-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o controle gentico da regenerao direta in vitro a partir de plntulas de Eucalyptus grandis, foram utilizadas sementes de 10 prognies de polinizao aberta da populao base, origem Atherton, localizada em Anhembi, Estado de So Paulo. Vinte dias de cultivo aps a germinao, 196 segmentos distais dos hipoctilos por prognie foram inoculados in vitro num Delineamento em Blocos Completos Aleatorizado Generalizado, com duas unidades experimentais por bloco e sete ...

  15. Fractionation of Volatile Compounds from Eucalyptus and Lippia Using Sorbents together with Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Topiař, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to separate and concentrate the groups of terpenes and terpenoids from eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis L.) and lippia (Lippia javanica L.) to several fractions using SFE in one step with adsorption. Extracts of both plants contain significant amount of biologically active compounds and therefore they can find application in medicine or as botanical insecticide in agriculture.

  16. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

  17. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment.

    Elhariri, Mahmoud; Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Refai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%). Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment. PMID:26884765

  18. Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay Inonotus splitbergeri um patógeno do caule de Eucalyptus globulus no Uruguai

    SEBASTIÁN MARTÍNEZ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

  19. Primeros estudios sobre asociaciones trficas de inters para la sanidad forestal en Eucalyptus spp. / Preliminary studies on trophic associations of interest for forest health in Eucalyptus spp.

    Eliana M., Cuello; Andrea V., Andorno; Carmen M., Hernndez; Vicente, Dell' Arciprete; Eduardo N., Botto.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo muestreos sobre las principales plagas de eucaliptos y sus enemigos naturales en dos sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se cuantific la abundancia de las plagas sobre diversas especies de eucaliptos y se registraron los insectos entomfagos asociados, con el fin de identific [...] ar las interacciones que podran ser utilizadas en estrategias de control biolgico de las plagas estudiadas. Se presenta una red trfica cualitativa Eucalyptus - plaga - enemigo natural. Abstract in english Main eucalyptus pests and their entomophagous natural enemies were surveyed in two localities of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Pest abundance was quantified on different Eucalyptus species and the entomophagous insects associated were registered in order to identify interactions which can be use [...] d in biological control strategies. A preliminary qualitative trophic web Eucalyptus - pest - natural enemy is presented.

  20. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Four Cultivated Eucalyptus Species in Iran as Medicinal Plants (E. microtheca, E. spathulata, E. largiflorens and E. torquata)

    Fatemeh Sefidkon; Mohammad Hassan Assareh,; Zahra Abravesh; Mohammad Mehdi Barazandeh

    2007-01-01

    The leaves of four cultivated Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus microtheca var. Microtheca F.Muell., Eucalyptus spathulata, Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus torquata were collected in spring from Kashan and Isfahan provinces (central region of Iran). After drying the plant materials in shade, their essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography, using flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Twenty-two components were id...

  1. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Eucalyptus-A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    Larcombe, Matthew J; Holland, Barbara; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2015-07-01

    We assess phylogenetic patterns of hybridization in the speciose, ecologically and economically important genus Eucalyptus, in order to better understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Eucalyptus globulus pollen was applied to 99 eucalypt species, mainly from the large commercially important subgenus, Symphyomyrtus. In the 64 species that produce seeds, hybrid compatibility was assessed at two stages, hybrid-production (at approximately 1 month) and hybrid-survival (at 9 months), and compared with phylogenies based on 8,350 genome-wide DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Model fitting was used to assess the relationship between compatibility and genetic distance, and whether or not the strength of incompatibility "snowballs" with divergence. There was a decline in compatibility with increasing genetic distance between species. Hybridization was common within two closely related clades (one including E. globulus), but rare between E. globulus and species in two phylogenetically distant clades. Of three alternative models tested (linear, slowdown, and snowball), we found consistent support for a snowball model, indicating that the strength of incompatibility accelerates relative to genetic distance. Although we can only speculate about the genetic basis of this pattern, it is consistent with a Dobzhansky-Muller-model prediction that incompatibilities should snowball with divergence due to negative epistasis. Different rates of compatibility decline in the hybrid-production and hybrid-survival measures suggest that early-acting postmating barriers developed first and are stronger than later-acting barriers. We estimated that complete reproductive isolation can take up to 21-31 My in Eucalyptus. Practical implications for hybrid eucalypt breeding and genetic risk assessment in Australia are discussed. PMID:25777461

  2. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITY, CONTENT AND NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY IN GENOTYPES OF Eucalyptus spp. IN JEQUITINHONHA VALLEY, MG

    Geraldo Erli de Faria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization of eucalyptus species can provide more productive hybrids and with a high efficiency of nutrient absorption and, or, nutrient use, depending on the combined species. In this context, the present work was undertaken in the Jequitinhonha Valley region, Minas Gerais, and its objectives were: to determine the productivity, content and use efficiency of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in interspecific hybrids of Eucalyptus spp. In each plot, the diameters were measured at breast height (DBH in all the trees, and three trees with diameter similar to the average mean were felled. The volume of the trees was estimated by the Smallian method, using the height, diameter and the bark thickness at the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The fresh weight of the wood, bark, leaves and branches was determined in the field, and samples from them were collected for the determination of dry matter. The log samples consisted of collected disks with bark, from the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The samples of vegetable tissues were analyzed for: N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The results obtained did not show significant differences for the production of crown biomass between the eucalyptus hybrids of the same age. However, the production of log biomass presented significant differences and the naturally pollinated hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla were 50.0 % and 69.0 % more productive compared with the hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Also, these hybrids allocated larger amount of biomass in the log (92.3 % in relation to the crown (7.7 %, and they were more efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The conclusions were that: 1 same aged hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural or controlled pollinations did not differ in their crown biomass; 2 log biomass was reduced in the hybrids from controlled pollination between Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis; 3 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural pollination were more productive and more efficient in the absorption and efficiency of use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and 4 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis are less productive and less efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg.

  4. CO{sub 2} gasification of eucalyptus wood chars

    Tancredi, N.; Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J.; Rodriguez, J.J. [Universidad de Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-10-01

    It is reported that chars obtained from Eucalyptus grandis sawdust at different carbonization temperatures were gasified with CO{sub 2} in isothermal and non-isothermal thermal gravimetric experiments. At low and intermediate conversion values the reactivity can be reasonably well explained in terms of the development of surface area as gasification proceeds. At high conversion values a steep increase in reactivity is observed which can be attributed to the increasing catalytic effect of the metallic constituents (mainly Na and K) of the inorganic matter present in the chars. Activation energies in the range 230-261 kJ mol{sup -1} are obtained. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Eucalyptus Cloud to Remotely Provision e-Governance Applications

    Sreerama Prabhu Chivukula; Rajasekhar Krovvidi; Aneesh Sreevallabh Chivukula

    2011-01-01

    Remote rural areas are constrained by lack of reliable power supply, essential for setting up advanced IT infrastructure as servers or storage; therefore, cloud computing comprising an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) is well suited to provide such IT infrastructure in remote rural areas. Additional cloud layers of Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) can be added above IaaS. Cluster-based IaaS cloud can be set up by using open-source middleware Eucalyptus in data c...

  6. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

    Couloux Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

  7. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gez.garcia@gmail.com [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

  8. APLICAES DA MICROPROPAGAO NA CLONAGEM DE EUCALYPTUS NO BRASIL

    Aloisio Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, en Brasil, dentro de las diversas tcnicas de propagacin in vitro, la micropropagacin ha sido la que mayor inters cientfico y econmico ha despertado en el campo forestal. De hecho, es la tcnica ms difundida por sus aplicaciones prcticas. Los primeros estudios fueron realizados en la dcada de los 50's. Entre 1970 y 1980 fueron establecidos algunos laboratorios de cultivo de tejidos. El presente trabajo es una revisin y una sntesis de la informacin de las aplicaciones de la micropropagacin en la clonacin de Eucalyptus en los programas de silvicultura clonal de Brasil.

  9. Propagation of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) by organ and tissue culture

    Bennett, M.J.; McComb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Micropropagation methods are described for the production of clonal lines from Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) seedlings. Nodal explants from mature trees can also yield shoot cultures, but a high frequency of contamination occurs among such explants. Uncontaminated callus cultures can be produced from mature trees by culturing stamen filaments and shoots can subsequently be regenerated from this callus. The rooting percentage of shoot cultures from either nodes or stamen callus of mature trees is low compared with that from seedling explants. Considerable variation was observed between trees in the ability of stamen callus to regenerate shoots and in the frequency of rooting. (Refs. 27)

  10. Properties of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for energy production

    Dimas Agostinho Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy potential of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage wood. The samples were collected in the municipality of Cerro Negro, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 5 trees at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of commercial height. It was determined basic density, high calorific value, elemental composition, immediate chemical analysis, lower calorific value, energy density, carbon storage and energy production. The physical and chemical variables studied and energy potential of wood did not present differences along the stem.

  11. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ? The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ? Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. ? Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. ? Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

  12. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  13. Effect of extractives on heat content of melaleuca and eucalyptus

    Wang, S.; Huffman, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of extraction with various solvents on the heat content of wood, bark, branches and foliage of Melaleuca quinquenervia and Eucalyptus grandis. The effect of extractives was measured by the difference in calorific values between extracted and unextracted samples. Ether or chloroform extractives produced more heat per g when burned than did methanol extractives or the structural components of the biomass sample. The effect of these extractives on the heat value of the materials was statistically significant though small.

  14. Alongamento in vitro de gentipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / In vitro elongation of minicutings of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden genotypes

    Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira; Aline Ritter, Curti; Aline Ferreira, Paim.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brotaes com pequeno alongamento podero apresentar reduzida formao de razes se forem diretamente cultivadas em meios de enraizamento ou, ainda, resultar em mudas de baixa qualidade para aclimatizao. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o alongamento in vitro de gentipos de Eucalyptus dun [...] nii sob diferentes concentraes de cido Giberlico (GA3). Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio nutritivo MS reduzido metade da concentrao de sais (/2 MS) suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de cido alfa-Naftaleno Actico (ANA), 0,1 mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP), e variando-se o GA3, conforme tratamentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo bifatorial 6 x 4, resultante da combinao de seis gentipos e quatro concentraes de GA3 (0,0; 0,2; 0,4 e 0,8 mg L-1). Aps 30 dias de cultivo in vitro, foram efetuadas as avaliaes. Para a maioria dos gentipos, a ausncia de GA3 resultou no maior nmero de brotaes alongadas por explante e maior comprimento de gemas alongadas. Em geral, os gentipos que apresentaram maior nmero de brotaes tambm tiveram brotaes maiores. Com o emprego da maior concentrao testada de GA3, observou-se mais de 50% de calognese em um dos gentipos e intensidade diferenciada nos demais. GA3 no apresenta efeito no alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii e, inclusive, em sua presena os gentipos reduzem o nmero de brotaes alongadas e o comprimento das brotaes, aumentando a formao de calos. Os gentipos de Eucalyptus dunnii avaliados apresentam desempenho in vitro diferenciado em relao ao alongamento, o qual passvel de seleo. Abstract in english Shoots that have short lengths may present low percentage of survival if they are directly grown on rooting media, or give rise to low quality seedlings for the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii minicuttings under differen [...] t concentrations of giberellic acid. Minicuttings were prepared and inoculated under aseptic conditions on MS nutritive medium with half of the salt concentration (/2 MS). We used fixed concentrations of NAA (0.5 mg L-1) and BAP (0.1 mg L-1) varying GA3 according to the treatment. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design, using a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, where the levels of factor "A" refer to different genotypes and the levels of factor B, the concentrations of GA3 (0.0; 0.2; 0.4, and 0.8 mg L-1), each replicate was composed of a flask containing three explants. Thirty days after in vitro culture, evaluations were performed. For most genotypes, the absence of GA3 produced the highest number of elongated shoots for explant and a longer length of elongated shoots. In general, genotypes with the highest number of shoots also had larger shoots. The non-addition of GA3 to the nutritive medium did not promote calli formation, reaching over 50% in the use of higher concentration of GA3 tested (0.80 mg L-1). The calli formation was different in different genotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has no effect on in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii. In the presence of GA3 genotypes reduce the number of elongated shoots and shoot length, increasing the formation of calli. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii evaluated present differently in relation to in vitro elongation, which is able to be selected.

  15. Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances

    Fábio Akira Mori

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed better. In themechanical tests, MOE presented itself above the demands of the norm with the exception of provenance 7785 of Eucalyptus saligna,in which stress was performed parallel to the cover fibers. For parallel MOR, only the provenances 9789 and 10695 of Eucalyptusgrandis and 97852 of Eucalyptus cloeziana managed to reach the demands of the norm ABNT 31:000.05-001/2. For shearing stressand failure in wood, all the provenances and species showed themselves above the demands, with the exception of 10634; 48 and 9753of Eucalyptus grandis.

  16. Occurrence of proscopiidae in Eucalyptus spp.: analysis of the infestations and spatial distribution

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to report the occurrence of proscopiidae and to quantify its infestation and spatial distribution in one experimental plantation of eucalypt clones. The study was conducted in an experimental field with eucalypt hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (clones GG100, Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (H13 and of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (VM01. The plantation was established in three continuous blocks with 512 plants with 3 m x 2 m, in Cceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Infestation of proscopiidae insects was detected two months after planting . The insects were collected for identification. The attacked trees were geo-referenced and the injuries were quantified. The spatial pattern of proscopiidae he attack was determinated using the location information of the damaged plants, which have been submitted to a quadrats analyses using Morisita and binomial dispersion indexes. All the collected insects have been identified as Tetanorhynchus smithi Rehn, 1904 (Orthoptera, Proscopiidae. The infestation differed significantly among the three eucalypts clones and aggregated spatial pattern of attack was observed. This is the first report of this species of proscopiidae in eucalyptus in Mato Grosso State.

  17. Evaluation of wood volume in young eucalyptus trees with and without irrigation

    Adriano da S. Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management has mostly been performed without criteria and, studies in relation to field-irrigated eucalyptus development are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate wood volume equations based on stem (trunk diameter of two eucalyptus hybrids in initial development, with and without irrigation. The experiment was set up in Aquidauana, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from April, 2011 to March, 2012, with the eucalyptus hybrids, Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Grancam and Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Urograndis. Evaluations were performed during the first year of crop development in which five mathematical models were tested for estimation of wood volume (Berkhout; Koperzik & Gehrhardt; Exponential; Brenac; Hohenald & Krenn. The best models for estimation of wood volume of young plants are Brenac, Exponential and Hohenald & Krenn. The Brenac equation shows highest precision for estimating wood volume as a function of diameter at 5 cm height from the ground, with precision greater than 99% for plants up to 12 months of age, regardless of the use of irrigation.

  18. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels / Avaliao do potencial de uso de nove espcies do gnero Eucalyptus para produo de lminas e compensados

    Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; Jos Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski; Leandro Soares da, Silva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espcies de Eucalyptus na produo de lminas e painis compensados multilaminados. As lminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em t [...] rs classes de qualidade para as nove espcies estudadas. Os painis compensados foram produzidos em laboratrio, com cinco lminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldedo, com gramatura de 360 g/m (linha dupla). Os painis foram prensados com presso especfica de 10 kgf/cm, temperatura de 140C e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminao indicaram que, com exceo de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espcies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento mdio em laminao acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexo esttica paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espcies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parmetros estudados neste trabalho para produo de lminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield a [...] ccording to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm, a temperature of 140C and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  19. Seleo de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produo de compensados / Selection of clones of Eucalyptus urophylla for plywood production

    Jos Benedito, Guimares Jnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Brbara Maria Ribeiro, Guimares; Stefnia Lima, Oliveira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a avaliao de 6 clones oriundos da Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) para a confeco de painis compensados multilaminados. Foram produzidos 6 painis para cada clone estudado. Utilizou-se adesivo fenol-formaldedo com gramatura de 320g/m. O c [...] iclo de prensagem seguiu os seguintes parmetros: presso de 1,47MPa, temperatura de 150C e tempo de 10 minutos. A partir dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla se apresentam com grande potencial para a produo de painis compensados multilaminados, uma vez que apresentaram valores de suas propriedades fsicas e mecnicas acima dos referenciados em literatura e, significativamente, superiores aos exigidos pelas normas ABNT 31:000.05-00/2 (flexo esttica) e EN 314-2 (resistncia ao cisalhamento), sendo considerados para uso como forma de concreto (FOR). O clone que se destacou em todas as propriedades fsico-mecnicas, com melhores resultados, foi o 36. Abstract in english This work aimed at the evaluation of six (6) Eucalyptus urophylla clones of Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) for making particleboard panels. Six (6) panels to each clone studies were produced. About 320g/m of Phenol phormol aldehyde adhesives Were utilized. The pressing c [...] ycle parameters were: pressure of 1.47MPa, temperature of 150C and 10 minutes of pressing time. It was concluded that clones of Eucalyptus urophylla show a great potential for production of particleboard panels, since they presented values of physical and mechanical properties above the ones referenced in literature and highly superior to those required by the ABNT Standards 31:000.05-00/2 (static bending) and EN 314-2 (shearing resistance), the tested clones can be used for producing concrete mold (FOR). The clone which stood out the most in all the properties tested was the clone 36.

  20. Eucalyptus plantations for electricity generation: the cost of carbon dioxide abatement in Thailand

    Wathanyu Amatayakul; Azar, C. [Chalmers University of Technology and Goteborg University, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory

    2003-07-01

    Short-rotation plantations are expected to play an important role in the transition towards renewable energy, in particular in many developing countries. At present, developing countries do not have any carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) abatement targets under the Kyoto Protocol, but CO{sub 2} mitigating projects might nevertheless he carried out through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The purpose of this paper is to analyse (i) the economics of eucalyptus production in the cast and northeast of Thailand and (ii) the cost of substituting eucalyptus wood for fossil fuels for electricity production. The productivity of eucalyptus plantations is estimated at 7-11 dry ton/hectare(ha)/year over a rotation period of 3 to 5 years. The levelized cost of eucalyptus wood delivered to the factory gate is estimated at 13-18 USD/fresh ton (1.2-1.7 USDIGJ). If eucalyptus wood is used for electricity generation, the cost of electricity generation would be 6.2 US cents/kWh, and consequently the cost of substituting a wood-fired plant for a coal-fired plant and a gas-fired plant would be 107 and 196 USD/ton-C, respectively. The extent to which eucalyptus plantations could offer economically attractive options for electricity generation and CO{sub 2} abatement depends, among other things, on the cost of reducing CO{sub 2} missions in the Annex 1 countries and CO{sub 2} mitigation options in developing countries. In addition, it depends on the economics of eucalyptus production as seen by farmers. There are also several other factors that affect an increased establishment of eucalyptus plantations in Thailand. The potential land-use change impact as well as the social and environmental impact associated with establishing mono-culture eucalyptus plantations as a CO{sub 2} abatement strategy are, however, not analysed in this paper and should he further investigated. (author)

  1. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (α-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus.

  2. Attenuation of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Eucalyptus globulus.

    Nakhaee, Alireza; Bokaeian, Mohammad; Saravani, Mohsen; Farhangi, Ali; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2009-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) was used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia in diabetes has been associated with increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage to tissue compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in the diet (20 g/Kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant power in plasma and liver homogenate, as well as glycated-Hb (HbA(1C)) o...

  3. Genomic patterns of species diversity and divergence in Eucalyptus.

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Myburg, Alexander A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2015-06-01

    We examined genome-wide patterns of DNA sequence diversity and divergence among six species of the important tree genus Eucalyptus and investigated their relationship with genomic architecture. Using c. 90 range-wide individuals of each Eucalyptus species (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. dunnii and E. camaldulensis), genetic diversity and divergence were estimated from 2840 polymorphic diversity arrays technology markers covering the 11 chromosomes. Species differentiating markers (SDMs) identified in each of 15 pairwise species comparisons, along with species diversity (HHW ) and divergence (FST ), were projected onto the E. grandis reference genome. Across all species comparisons, SDMs totalled 1.1-5.3% of markers and were widely distributed throughout the genome. Marker divergence (FST and SDMs) and diversity differed among and within chromosomes. Patterns of diversity and divergence were broadly conserved across species and significantly associated with genomic features, including the proximity of markers to genes, the relative number of clusters of tandem duplications, and gene density within or among chromosomes. These results suggest that genomic architecture influences patterns of species diversity and divergence in the genus. This influence is evident across the six species, encompassing diverse phylogenetic lineages, geography and ecology. PMID:25678438

  4. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  6. Effects of Cadmium on Some Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus occidentalis

    A. Shariat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals including cadmium produced as a result of urban, industrial and agricultural activities lead to the water pollution. Also, considering the growing need for silviculture in Iran, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive research on fast growing and evergreen species of Eucalyptus and their role in heavy metals' absorption. To achieve this goal, Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were grown in pots containing silica and irrigated with a mixture of nutrient solution and cadmium chloride in 5, 10 and 15 m M for 10 months. Root and leaf samples were harvested and the amount of cadmium in stem, root and leaf organs was measured. Also, some morphological and physiological characteristics were determined including soluble sugar and praline. The analysis indicated that the cadmium concentrations of 15 mM treatment in the root, leaf and stem were 585, 142 and 87 mg/kg D.W., respectively. Proline content increased with the increase of Cadmium concentration while the content of pigments decreased. The result of this research shows that eucalypt has the potential of cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. Therefore, the plant can be used to decrease the environmental pollutions.

  7. Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii Eucalyptus dunnii: (II sobrevivncia e enraizamento de miniestacas em funo das coletas e estaes do ano

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tcnica de miniestaquia na clonagem de Eucalyptus benthamii Eucalyptus dunnii ao longo das estaes do ano quanto sobrevivncia e enraizamento de miniestacas. As minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas durante 352 dias em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropnico em leito de areia com soluo nutritiva fornecida por gotejamento, efetuando-se 27 coletas sucessivas de brotaes durante as quatro estaes do ano (primavera, vero, outono e inverno. Mergulhou-se a poro basal da miniestaca durante 10 segundos em soluo hidroalcolica (1:1 v/v de concentrao de 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco repeties e vinte miniestacas por repetio. O enraizamento das miniestacas variou conforme o clone e mostrou-se muito sensvel s estaes do ano e s oscilaes da temperatura. Os melhores ndices de enraizamento foram registrados nas estaes mais frias onde variou de 19,59% a 56,20% e os menores nas estaes mais quentes, com 4,62% a 8,50%. Os clones H19 e H20 apresentaram os maiores ndices de enraizamento nas quatro estaes do ano.

  8. Eucalyptus oil as a cosolvent in water-ethanol-gasoline mixtures

    Barton, A.F.M.; Tjandra, J.

    1989-01-01

    The solubility data for water-ethanol-petrol-eucalyptus oil blends studied over the temperature range of -30 to 40 degrees C are presented. The addition of eucalyptus oil as a cosolvent resulted in a significant depression of the cloud point temperature. Individual components of the eucalyptus oil were examined for their effect on the system, and results showed that most had little effect. Piperitone was the most effective, but 1,8-cineole was the most promising practical material. The ternary phase equilibrium data for the system water-petrol-ethanol were determined over the whole composition range at 0 and 25 degrees C; the addition of about 5% 1,8-cineole to petrol increased the single-phase area by more than 11%. The tie-line data were also obtained. These results suggest that eucalyptus oils, particularly those with high 1,8-cineole content, are potential cosolvents for hydrated ethanol fuel blends. 14 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids

    Eder Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T. From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

  10. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, the main product of Eucalyptus oils

    Paula, Rodrguez; Wilson, Sierra; Sonia, Rodrguez; Pilar, Menndez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest industry in Uruguay has grown considerably during the last decade. Eucalyptus plantations account for 74% of the forested land, with Eucalyptus globulus being the most widely distributed species. This industry is dedicated exclusively to the production of wood without exploiting the by-pr [...] oducts (leaves and small branches). Eucalyptus leaves are known to contain important amounts of essential oils composed primarily of 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trymethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). In this work, the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, is achieved using a native bacterium (Rhodococcus sp.) which was isolated from the soil of Eucalyptus forest. A 98% of bioconversion was achieved. Three different optically pure compounds were obtained, and they were identified as 2-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole, 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole and 2-oxo-1,8-cineole.

  11. Species adaptability, seed availability and prospects for improvement of eucalyptus in Minas Gerais

    Ferrevia, M.; Balloni, E.A.; Pinto, J.E. Jr.; Jacob, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing study into possible improvement of Eucalyptus spp. in plantations, data are presented from all existing trials and experimental plantings in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Growth, uniformity, form and fruiting are indicated.

  12. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it was the most dimensionally instable clone, whereas considering maximum volumetric shrinkage, clone 1 was the most stable. Eucalyptus grandis presented the least basic density and was the most stable, while Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density and was the most dimensionally instable.

  13. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil

    Callisto, M.; F. A. R. BARBOSA; Moreno, P.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

  14. Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation

    Martins, Carla; Natal-Da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food o...

  15. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Araújo Pedro; Brito Michael dos; Souza Uiara; Viana Julianade Oliveira Fernandes; Mazzafera Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, whi...

  16. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a ...

  17. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

    Carlos M. Silva; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Neto, Carlos P.; Simões, Pedro C.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Eduardo L. G. Oliveira; Domingues, Rui M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obta...

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  19. Specific cutting energy consumption in a circular saw for Eucalyptus stands VM01 and MN463

    Erica Moraes de Souza; José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva; José Tarcísio Lima; Alfredo Napoli; Túlio Jardim Raad; Thiago Gomes Gontijo

    2011-01-01

    Modern technologies for continuous carbonization of Eucalyptus sp. require special care in wood cutting procedures. Choosing the right tool, cutting speeds and feed rates is important to manage time and energy consumption, both of which being critical factors in optimizing production. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of machining parameters on the specific cutting energy consumption of Eucalyptus sp. stands MN 463 and VM 01, owned by V&M Florestal. Tests were performed a...

  20. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    P. C. C. PINHEIRO; RAAD T. J.; Yoshida, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by e...

  1. SUPERVISED PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES FROM LEAVES NIR SPECTRA

    ROSARIO CASTILLO; DAVID CONTRERAS; JUANITA FREER; JOSE RUIZ; SOFÍA VALENZUELA

    2008-01-01

    Three supervised pattern recognition methods (SPRM) were evaluated to discriminate between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens species applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy on leaves. The methods used were k-nearest neighbor (KNN), soft modeling class analogy (SIMCA) and discriminant partial least squares (PLS-DA). First and second derivatives were used as transform techniques and mean-center (MC) and autoscaling (AS) as preprocessing techniques. The training set was constitued by 2...

  2. Estimation of eucalyptus forest plantations carbon sequestration potential in Uruguay with the CO2fix model

    Juntheikki, Joni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis is to estimate the carbon sequestration potential in eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. This study also aims to show how beneficial these plantations are for carbon sinks. The aim of this research is calculate total carbon balance in eucalyptus plantations and compare the results to degraded lands. This study is first-of-its-kind study in Uruguay, but not unique globally. The objective was to use a modeling approach to formulate the results. The methodology of this ...

  3. Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira; José Cola Zanuncio; Eder Pin Pedruzzi; Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2005-01-01

    Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava) or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and sho...

  4. Survey to Evaluate Escape of Eucalyptus spp. Seedlings from Plantations in Southeastern USA

    Mac A. Callaham Jr.; Stanturf, John A.; William J. Hammond; Rockwood, Donald L.; Evelyn S. Wenk; Joseph J. O'Brien

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biomass-based energy in the southeastern Unites States has led to increased need for fast-growing tree species. Several Eucalyptus species exhibit characteristics that make them attractive in the bioenergy context. However, some of these also possess traits that suggest they could become invasive. To make a preliminary assessment of the risk of seedling establishment in the vicinity of Eucalyptus plantations, we conducted surveys at 3 sites in South Carolina and 16 sites in Florid...

  5. Decomposition of Fire Exposed Eucalyptus Leaves in a Portuguese Lowland Stream

    Gama, Mafalda; Gonalves, Ana Lcia; Ferreira, Vernica; Graa, Manuel A.S.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    We compared fire exposed with normal abscised eucalyptus leaves incubated in a stream running through eucalyptus plantations in central Portugal, in terms of breakdown rates, microbial activity, diversity and macroinvertebrate abundance. Although leaves exposed to fire had lower nutritional value, mass loss was similar for both leaf types (k = 0.0089-0.0095 d-1 for fire and k = 0.0084-0.00103 d-1 for normal leaves). Fungal biomass was similar among treatments, whereas sporulation and microbia...

  6. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Richardson B. G. da Silva; Magali R. da Silva; Danilo Simões

    2014-01-01

    To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1); vermiculi...

  7. LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL STRAIN IN DIFFERENT SPACING AND AGES IN HYBRID CLONE OF Eucalyptus

    Antônio Américo Cardoso Junior; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Tarcísio Lima; Sebastião Carlos da Silva Rosado; Lourival Marin Mendes

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of Eucalyptus as supplier of raw-material for sawmills has been progressively increased. Trees of bothbest quality and dimensions represent an important market requirement. Therefore, the effects of forestry treats on the woodcharacteristics must be evaluated. This work veriied the influence of the spacing and of the age in the longitudinal residual strain(LRS), associated to the growth stresses, in clones of Eucalyptus. For determining LRS it was utilised an extensometer CIRA...

  8. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    P. C. C. PINHEIRO

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG. The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

  9. Effect of fiber wall chemistry on pulping processes of novel Eucalyptus hybrids

    Muguet Soares, Marcelo Coelho dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates relevant issues regarding the use of Eucalyptus wood: the factors affecting energy consumption during wood defibration, with focus on fiber wall chemistry and the assessment of wood quality from a wide range of novel Brazilian Eucalyptus hybrids. The obtained results are reflected to mechanical and traditional chemical processes. Wood refining experiments were carried out in laboratory scale, with and without chemical pretreatment: alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp...

  10. Implicaes nutricionais com base em diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus / Nutritional implications based in different intensities of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus biomass harvesting

    Mrcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Peter, Trby; Elias Frank, Arajo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de nutrientes para futuros plantios em um stio florestal est relacionada principalmente , intensidade de colheita aplicada. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar as implicaes nutricionais causadas pelas diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de um povoamento de Eucal [...] yptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus com dez anos de idade, em Eldorado do Sul - RS. A avaliao das implicaes nutricionais conforme a intensidade de colheita florestal foi analisada levando em considerao: o estoque de nutrientes entre o sistema solo - planta; os efeitos da colheita dos diferentes componentes da biomassa acima do solo na remoo dos nutrientes; o nmero de rotaes e a taxa de remoo de nutrientes conforme o sistema de colheita utilizado e o coeficiente de utilizao biolgica dos nutrientes. Com a colheita da madeira com casca, todos os nutrientes teriam uma remoo superior a 45% de sua quantidade acumulada na biomassa total acima do solo. Entretanto, removendo apenas a madeira comercial, que apresenta o maior coeficiente de utilizao de nutrientes, a porcentagem de remoo para os nutrientes, com exceo do Cu e Zn, seria inferior a 50%, chegando at 10% no caso do Ca, em relao ao total contido na biomassa. O fsforo e o clcio podero ser os principais nutrientes a tornarem-se limitantes na produtividade nas prximas rotaes, pois as estimativas de rotaes potenciais esto prximas a um, quando realizada a colheita da madeira com casca Abstract in english Nutrients available for future plantation is mainly related to the harvest system applied. Based on this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional implications caused by difference biomass harvest intensities in the Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus 10 years-old in Eldorado do Sul - RS. N [...] utritional implications assessment was analyzed and taken into account: nutrients balance between soil-plant system; harvest effects of the different aboveground components in the nutrients removal; rotation numbers and nutrients removal rate in relation to harvest system used and nutrients biological utilization rate. With the harvest of wood with the bark all the nutrients removal would suffer more than 45% of the total amount accumulated in aboveground biomass. However, removing just the wood, which has the highest nutrients utilization rate, the nutrients removed percentage, except by Cu and Zn, will be less than 50% and up to 10% in the case of Ca in relation to the total biomass contained. Phosphorus and calcium can be the main nutrients which become limited in the next rotation productivity, because the potential rotation estimates are close to one, when wood with bark are harvested. Key words: forestry production; nutrients stock; nutrients available

  11. PREFERNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIES DE LABORATRIO

    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Jnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferncia de corte das operrias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em trs espcies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para trs colnias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas aps o seu incio ou at que uma das colnias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colnias cortaram e carregaram, em mdia, 0,453g 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa ltima a espcie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, no houve diferena significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

  12. USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL

    Samir Lotfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

  13. Eucalyptus Biomass and Volume Estimation Using Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data

    Fbio Furlan Gama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to establish a relationship between volume and biomass with interferometric and radiometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar response from planted Eucalyptus saligna forest stands, using multi-variable regression techniques. X and P band SAR images from the airborne OrbiSAR-1 sensor, were acquired at the study area in the southeast region of Brazil. The interferometric height (Hint = difference between interferometric digital elevation model in X and P bands, contributed to the models developed due to fact that Eucalyptus forest is composed of individuals whose structure is predominantly cylindrical and vertically oriented, and whose tree heights have great correlation with volume and biomass. The volume model showed that the stand volume was highly correlated with the interferometric height logarithm (Log10Hint, since Eucalyptus tree volume has a linear relationship with the vegetation height. The biomass model showed that the combination of both Hint2 and Canopy Scattering IndexCSI (relation of sVV by the sum of sVV and sHH, which represents to the canopy interaction were used in this model, due to the fact that the Eucalyptus biomass and the trees height relationship is not linear. Both models showed a prediction error of around 10% to estimate the Eucalyptus biomass and volume, which represents a great potential to use this kind of technology to help establish Eucalyptus forest inventory for large areas.

  14. Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification.

    Romaní, Aloia; Garrote, Gil; López, Francisco; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-05-01

    This work provides an assessment on the fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus wood by sequential stages of autohydrolysis (to cause the solubilization of hemicelluloses) and organosolv pulping (to dissolve lignin, leaving solids enriched in cellulose). With this approach, valuable products (hemicellulose-derived saccharides, sulphur-free lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates with low contents of residual hemicelluloses) are obtained in separate streams, according to the biomass refinery approach. Autohydrolysis was carried out under optimized operational conditions, and organosolv pulping was performed using uncatalyzed ethanol-water solutions. The effects of the most influential operational variables (autohydrolysis severity, delignification temperature and ethanol concentration in the organosolv stage) on solid yield, solid composition, cellulose susceptibility and recovery of the various fractions was assessed using statistical methods, which enabled the identification of the most favourable operational conditions. PMID:21392966

  15. Phyllosphere mycobiota of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and E. globulus Labill.

    Ljaljevi?-Grbi? Milica V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of phyllosphere microfungi of two Eucalypti species (E. camaldulensis and E. globulus was investigated using moist chamber method. A total of 19 different taxa of phyllosphere microfungal community were identified in leaves and seed bearing capsules. Aspergillus niger was the most frequent isolate in both investigated Eucalyptus species along with Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. Saprotrophic species occurred more frequently in Eucalypti phyllosphere compared to plant pathogens. Epiphytes were quantitatively prevalent. Microscopic analyses of E. globulus phylloplane microfungal community revealed potential inhibitory effect of Trichoderma viride against Eucalypti pathogenic species Seimatosporium eucalypti which formed aberrant, collapsed conidia. The study of phyllosphere mycobiota is of significant importance, considering that numerous leaf inhabiting fungi are in complex interactions with each other and their host plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  16. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  17. QUALITY OF SAWN TIMBER DRYING OF Eucalyptus dunnii

    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

  18. Estabelecimento, multiplicação e alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Establishment, multiplication and elongation in vitro of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cloro ativo (NaOCl na assepsia de explantes para o estabelecimento in vitro, bem como benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA para a multiplicação e alongamento de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. As minicepas fornecedoras de propágulos para introdução in vitro foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram desinfestados com 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0% (v/v de cloro ativo durante 10 min e inoculados em meio de cultura MS. Na obtenção de brotações múltiplas, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS suplementado com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Na fase de alongamento, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de ANA. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados, obtendo-se 45%, 46% e 66% de estabelecimento do clone H12, H19 e H20, respectivamente. A concentração de BAP que resultou na maior proliferação de gemas axilares para o clone H12 aos 60 dias foi estimada na faixa de 0,25 e 0,30 mg L-1. Aos 60 dias, a faixa entre 0,25 e 0,75 mg L-1 de ANA promoveu o maior número de brotações alongadas do clone H12.This work aimed to evaluate different concentrations of active chlorine (NaOCl in explant asepsis for the establishment in vitro as well as of benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA in the multiplication and elongation of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Ministumps, which supply shoots for introduction in vitro, were cultivated in a clonal mini garden under semi-hydroponic system. Nodal segments of clones H12, H19 and H20 were disinfested with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v of active chlorine during 10 minutes and inoculated in MS medium. In the multiplication phase, culture ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of BAP was used. In the elongation phase, ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of NAA was used. No interaction occurred between the studied levels, with 45%, 46% and 66% of establishment of clones H12, H19 and H20, respectively. The BAP concentration that resulted in the highest axillary's bud proliferation for clone H12 at 60 days was estimated in the range of 0.25 to 0.30 mg L-1. At 60 days, the range between 0.25 to 0.75 mg L-1 of NAA, promoted the highest number of elongated shoots for H12 clone.

  19. Avaliao da regenerao natural de Eucalyptus paniculata Smith.

    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A regenerao natural de Eucalyptus paniculata, originada por semeadura natural, foi avaliada com o objetivo de identificar o potencial desse mtodo de regenerao. Foram instaladas amostras de 4 m2, sistematicamente distribudas na rea regenerada, nas quais foram avaliadas a quantidade de plantas, dimetro das plantas e a distncia de um ponto a rvore mais prxima. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que nenhuma parcela estava vazia e que 70% desses espaos vazios apresentavam rea de at 1 m2. Em 56% das parcelas encontrou-se de 2 a 5 plantas. Na idade de 6 a 7 anos, em 55% das parcelas, o dimetro da maior planta foi superior a 10 cm. A distribuio das rvores possibilita realizar desbastes seletivos no povoamento, garantindo sua produtividade futura.

  20. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil.

    Taur, D J; Kulkarni, V B; Patil, R Y

    2010-05-01

    In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. PMID:21808553

  1. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil

    D J Taur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml.

  2. Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses.

    Cermelli, Claudio; Fabio, Anna; Fabio, Giuliana; Quaglio, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was determined for 120 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 20 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 40 isolates of S. agalactiae, 20 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 40 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 30 isolates of H. parainfluenzae, 10 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two viruses, a strain of adenovirus and a strain of mumps virus, all obtained from clinical specimens of patients with respiratory tract infections. The cytotoxicity was evaluated on VERO cells by the MTT test. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the Kirby Bauer paper method, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration. H. influenzae, parainfluenzae, and S. maltophilia were the most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae. The antiviral activity, assessed by means of virus yield experiments titered by the end-point dilution method for adenovirus, and by plaque reduction assay for mumps virus, disclosed only a mild activity on mumps virus. PMID:17972131

  3. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  4. Myrtus comunis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells

    Hrubik Jelena D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cytotoxicity of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-buthanol, and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. was examined against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 using MTT and SRB assays. The results showed significant cytotoxic potential of examined extracts, with IC50 values ranging from 7 to 138 ?g/ml for M. communis and 3-250 ?g/ml for E. camaldulensis. The two plants generally expressed similar activity, and no significant difference in cell lines sensitivity towards extracts was observed. The results indicate to M. communis and E. camaldulensis as candidates for thorough chemical analyses for identification of active compounds, and eventually for attention in the process of discovery of new natural products in the control of cancer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173037 i br. 172058

  5. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. PMID:27112846

  6. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17 dias, apresentou superioridade organogênica. Explantes foliares devem ser transferidos para novo meio de indução de brotações a cada cinco dias. Este estudo também teve como objetivo avaliar fatores que afetam a transformação genética de explantes foliares com o gene uidA, via co-cultivo com Agrobacterium tumefaciens, tais como a pré-cultura, a duração da co-cultura e a adição da acetoseringona no meio de cultura. As melhores condições para a expressão do gene uidA foram a cada dois dias de pré-cultura de explantes foliares, três dias de co-cultura com a bactéria e a adição de acetoseringona nos meios de pré e co-cultura.

  7. WOOD VAPORIZATION EFFECT ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus dunnii

    Clóvis Roberto Haselein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaporization effects on the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression, crushing strength and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction on logs and sawn wood of two sources of Eucalyptus dunnii. The mechanical attempts were performed under the Copant standards in the  climatized conditions (12%. To do so, about two thirds of the logs, with a diameter between 20-30 cm, were vaporized at 100o C and 100% of relative humidity for 20 hours, while  the  remaining  logs  were  kept  as  control.  From  each  log,  a  central plank radially directed with eight centimeter of thickness was taken, from which small beams of 8 cm x 8 cm were taken. Half of the small beams from the vaporized logs were once again submitted to vaporization under the same previously described conditions for a period of 3 hours, thus obtaining three different levels of comparison (control, vaporized on logs and presteaming wood. The results showed a remarkable reduction on the crushing strength in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction with the vaporization on the two conditions and sources of Eucalyptus dunnii used. On the other hand, the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression did not show any change with the vaporization.

  8. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  9. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for this purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1 and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2. To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun, to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS, for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes. The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS

    K. Ananda et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2 are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungal isolate OP4MT2 showed highest zone of inhibition (20 mm against Penicillium chrysogenum among two test fungi. The crude ethyl acetate extract of P3MT1 isolate showed highest zone of inhibition against Candida albicans (19 mm by both well and disc diffusion method when compared to other fungal isolates. Another four fungal isolates (P3ML1, P6MT1, P5MT1 and P2MT1 from the same set of thirty isolates showed positive for the secretion of amylase, protease and laccase enzymes in agar plate method. Two endophytic fungal isolates (P6MT1 & P2MT1 among thirty are able to oxidize guaiacol indicating the presence of Lignin degrading enzymes. Four fungal isolates indicated presence of laccase enzymes by qualitative test were able to decolorize both methylene blue and aniline blue (synthetic dyes in solid and liquid media. The quantitative estimation of percent decolorization of synthetic dyes by spectrophotometric method confirmed more than 90 % reduction in color is made possible by the endophytic fungi. All these fungal strains with good bioactivity are of worth studying in detail for the purification and characterization of the active compounds and enzymes.

  11. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    Gonzlez-Garca, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. PMID:22960456

  12. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  13. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  14. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species. PMID:25632486

  15. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  16. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality.

  17. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  18. Resistance of Eucalyptus pellita to rust (Puccinia psidii) / Resistncia ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) em Eucalyptus pellita

    Marisngela Rodrigues, Santos; Lcio Mauro da Silva, Guimares; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende; Leonardo Novaes, Rosse; Karina Carnielli, Zamprogno; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) atualmente uma das principais enfermidades em plantios comerciais de eucalipto no Brasil. Dentre as diferentes espcies de eucalipto, Eucalyptus pellita apontada como uma promissora fonte de resistncia. Neste trabalho estudou-se o controle gentico da r [...] esistncia ferrugem em E. pellita por meio de inoculaes em condies controladas de 441 plantas oriundas de quatro prognies. As inoculaes foram realizadas com o isolado monopostular UFV-2, raa 1. Todas as prognies segregaram para resistncia ferrugem, sendo o nmero de plantas resistentes superior em todos os cruzamentos. Modelos de herana baseados em poucos genes no explicaram totalmente os padres de segregao obtidos. A herdabilidade no sentido restrito da resistncia ferrugem foi estimada entre 32,7% a 37,3%. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a resistncia ferrugem em E. pellita complexa, sendo governada por genes de efeito maior e menor. Abstract in english Eucalypts rust (Puccinia psidii) is currently one of the major diseases in commercial eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The primary method of disease control is the use of resistant genotypes, and, among the different species of Eucalyptus, E. pellita is indicated as a promising source of resistance. [...] In this work, the genetic control of rust resistance in E. pellita through inoculations under controlled conditions of 441 plants from four full-sibling families was studied. Inoculations were performed using the monopostular isolate UFV-2, race 1. All families tested segregated for rust resistance, and the number of resistant plants was higher than susceptible in all crosses. Inheritance models based on few genes did not fully explain the observed segregation patterns, and the narrow-sense heritability of rust resistance was estimated between 32.7% and 37.3%. The results suggested that rust resistance in E. pellita is complex and is controlled by major- and minor-effect genes.

  19. Eficincia de fungicidas sistmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust

    Edival ngelo Valverde Zauza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absoro de fungicidas sistmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ao curativa quando aplicados at quatro dias aps a inoculao. Aplicados aps sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculao, os fungicidas reduziram a infeco, mas no controlaram totalmente a doena. Alm do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados at 21 dias antes da inoculao de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mnimo de absoro de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infeco de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto.Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4 urediniospores /mL and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

  20. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus. PMID:27010209

  1. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass of Hybrid Eucalyptus Plantation Forest

    Siti Latifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.  The present investigation was carried out to determine carbon sequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical validity and accuracy in predicting biomass and carbon, based on determination coefficient (R and correlation coefficient (r, aggregative deviation percentage (AgD, and the average deviation percentage (AvD. The best general model to estimate the biomass of hybrid Eucalyptus was Y = 1351,09x^0,876. e^(0,094.  Results showed that hybrid Eucalyptus had an average above-ground biomass in year 0 (the land without the eucalyptus trees up to year 3 as large as 1.36, 11.56, 43.18, and 63.84 t ha. The carbon content of hybrid Eucalyptus were 0.61, 5.2, 19.43 t^(-1, and 28,73  t^(-1 C ha while the carbon sequestration potential were 2.23, 19.08, 71.31, and 105.43 t^(-1 CO  ha^(-1 respectively.Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, model, hybrid Eucalyptus, plantation forest

  2. Presence of the Eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli and its parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon in Portugal: first record, geographic distribution and host preference

    Branco, Manuela; Boavida, Conceição; Durand, Nicolas,; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel,Zvi

    2009-01-01

    The Eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and its parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were observed for the first time in Portugal, in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Data on the distribution of O. maskelli in Portugal, differences in the susceptibility of two host species, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and parasitism by C. chamaeleon are given.

  3. CARACTERSTICAS TECNOLGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDSTRIA MOVELEIRA

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Braslia e no Laboratrio de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Braslia, DF. Foram estudadas duas espcies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confeco de peas mobilirias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades fsicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecnicas (flexo esttica e dureza extremamente positivas para a indstria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e mquinas, alm de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar tima aceitao do mvel fabricado com a espcie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades fsicas e mecnicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta caractersticas desejadas para indstria moveleira. A sua colorao cinza oliva uma opo para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espcie devero ser tomados durante operaes com mquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricao de piso.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study / Atividade antimicrobiana do leo de Eucalyptus globulus, xilitol e papana: estudo piloto / Actividad antimicrobiana del aceite de Eucalyptus globulus, xilitol y papana: estudio piloto

    Valria de Siqueira, Mota; Ruth Natalia Teresa, Turrini; Vanessa de Brito, Poveda.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do leo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus e das substncias xilitol e papana, frente aos micro-organismos: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli e Candida albicans. MTODO Utilizou-se a av [...] aliao antimicrobiana in vitro, por meio do teste da difuso em gar e avaliao do dimetro do halo de inibio das substncias testadas. A clorexidina 0,5% foi utilizada como controle. RESULTADOS Observou-se que o leo de Eucalyptus globulus apresentou inibio superior da clorexidina quando aplicado ao Staphylococus aureus, e inibio idntica quando aplicado aos micro-organismos Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris e Candida albicans. A papana 10% apresentou efeito antimicrobiano inferior ao da clorexidina em relao Candida albicans. O xilitol no apresentou inibio dos micro-organismos testados. CONCLUSO O leo de Eucalyptus globulus possui atividade antimicrobiana contra diferentes micro-organismos e parece ser uma alternativa vivel como agente germicida, portanto, recomendam-se novas investigaes. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus y las sustancias xilitol y papana, ante los microorganismos: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli y Candida albicans. MTODO Se utiliz la eva [...] luacin antimicrobiana in vitro, por medio de la prueba de la difusin en agar y evaluacin del dimetro del halo de inhibicin de las sustancias probadas. La clorhexidina al 0,5% fue utilizada como control. RESULTADOS Se advirti que el aceite de Eucalyptus globulus present inhibicin superior a la de la clorhexidina cuando aplicado al Staphylococus aureus, e inhibicin idntica cuando aplicado a los microorganismos Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris y Candida albicans. La papana al 10% present efecto antimicrobiano inferior al de la clorhexidina con relacin a la Candida albicans. El xilitol no present inhibicin de los microorganismos probados. CONCLUSIN El aceite de Eucalyptus globulus tiene actividad antimicrobiana contra diferentes microorganismos y parece ser una alternativa viable como agente germicida, por lo que se recomiendan nuevas investigaciones. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. ME [...] THOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  5. Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita

    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

  6. Tableros de partículas y MDF de Eucalyptus nitens: ensayos a escala industrial Particleboard and MDF using Eucalyptus nitens: Industrial scale experiments

    BRUNO GORRINI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En dos plantas industriales de MASISA S.A. se fabricaron tableros de partículas y MDF empleando madera de Eucalyptus nitens. La madera de E. nitens reemplazó a un 20% del tradicional Pinus radiata en la fabricación de tableros de partículas y en un 100% en MDF. Los parámetros de producción permanecieron tal como se fijan para la producción con pino radiata. Las propiedades de los tableros de partículas cumplieron con los estándares que se fija MASISA S.A. para su producción normal. Los tableros MDF no lograron satisfacer estos estándares. Se recomienda continuar la investigación para mejorar las propiedades de los tableros MDF. Pese a lo anterior, los valores obtenidos permiten aseverar que, con algunas correcciones al proceso, se podrán producir tableros MDF con Eucalyptus nitens.Particleboard containing 20% Eucalyptus nitens, and MDF consisting of 100% Eucalyptus nitens wood were produced industrially at two plants owned by the company MASISA S.A. Normal production parameters for Pinus radiata were maintained. The particleboard produced had the same mechanical and physical properties that MASISA S.A. achieves under normal conditions for Pinus radiata. The MDF panels containing E. nitens did not reach industrial standards. Further investigations are necessary to achieve the required mechanical and physical property standards for MDF boards. The investigation of the properties of these panels indicated that with some process corrections, it will be possible to produce MDF using Eucalyptus nitens.

  7. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film: antibacterial effects against a clinical pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, in vitro

    Sugumar S; Mukherjee A3; Chandrasekaran N

    2015-01-01

    Saranya Sugumar, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus) nanoemulsion was formulated using low- and high-energy emulsification methods. Development of nanoemulsion was optimized for system parameters such as emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration, and emulsification methods to obtain a lower droplet size with greater stability. The minimized droplet diameter was achieved u...

  8. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  9. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus and Schinus molle

    Ana Karenth LPEZ-MENESES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential oils (EO of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L., thymus (Thymus capitatus L. pirul (Schinus molle L. were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 L L1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4% and fumonisin (31% production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.

  10. Phytoremediation efficiency OF CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites.

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Wang, Jinji

    2016-04-01

    The capacity of plants to uptake heavy metals from contaminated soils has shown great phytoremediation potential. The development, resistibility and Cd extraction of Eucalyptus globulus individuals from metalliferous and clean sites in different years were analyzed under a specific environment. Eucalyptus globulus planted in Guiyu for phytoremediation or cultivated in an uncontaminated, natural environment for economic purposes were transplanted to Yuecheng town, which, in recent years, has been involved in the e-waste dismantling and recycling business, to compare the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus trees grown in different environments. Trees cultivated in polluted areas can remove far more Cd and Hg from the contaminated soil than the individuals from clean soils because metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus can produce more biomass and uptake more heavy metals than nonmetalliferous plants per year. As polluted environments negatively affect the growth of plants, we speculated that the phytoremediation efficiency of metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus should decrease over time and that nonmetalliferous trees should adapt to the local environment. PMID:26458117

  11. Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators

    C C6rdova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4 within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05 the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05. However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05. The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met was not affected (p ? 0.05 by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

  12. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  13. Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood

    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

  14. Aplicao de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden = IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importncia no setor florestal e muitos avanos na rea do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns gentipos promissores ainda no possuem protocolos de multiplicao com tcnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se avaliar concentraes de IBA na sobrevivncia, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinao da dose de mxima eficincia tcnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropnico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a poro basal da miniestaca em solues hidroalcolicas, cujas concentraes foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constitudo por trs clones e cinco concentraes de IBA, com cinco repeties, contendo dez miniestacas por repetio. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizognicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram at a maiorconcentrao de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. Ministumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the minicutting basal portion was plunged in hydro-alcoholic solutions, whose concentrations were: 0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1 of IBA. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with the factors consisting of three clones and five IBA concentrations, with five replications, containing 10 minicuttings per replication. IBA positively influenced the minicutting rooting processes, with differentiated behavior between the clones, with 30.32 to 55.45% rooting variation. The positives increments occurred until the highest IBA concentration for H12 and H19 clones. However, the range between 4,000 and 6,000 mg L-1 ofIBA treatments promoted the best rooting results for the H20 clone.

  15. Tipos de Ruptura em Madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Modificada Termicamente / Types of Failures in Thermally-Modified Eucalyptus grandis Wood

    Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo; Aline Fernanda de, Brito.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os tipos de ruptura durante os ensaios mecnicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis modificada termicamente. Para tanto, tbuas centrais de 19 rvores de E. grandis com 5,9 anos de idade foram utilizadas nesse estudo. As tbuas foram secas at 10% de umid [...] ade, aplainadas com 32 mm de espessura e seccionadas em peas com 0,60 m de comprimento. Posteriormente, uma das peas foi mantida em seu estado original e as demais foram modificadas termicamente 140C, 160C, 180C, 200C e 220C por 2,5 horas. De cada pea foram produzidos corpos-deprova para os ensaios de compresso paralela s fibras e de flexo esttica. O material foi aclimatizado em cmara climtica com 21C e 65% de umidade relativa, no Laboratrio de Secagem e Preservao da Madeira da FCA, UNESP, de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Aps os ensaios mecnicos, os tipos de ruptura foram caracterizados pela norma ASTM D-143 (2007). Os resultados mostraram que: (1) existe uma relao direta, pelo teste qui-quadrado, entre a temperatura do tratamento trmico e a ruptura frgil da madeira de E. grandis; e (2) a madeira dessa espcie quando modificada termicamente 220C apresentou 100% de ruptura caracterizada como frgil. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the types of failures after the mechanical tests of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood. The present study utilized boards that contained the pith from 5 years and 11 months old Eucalyptus grandis trees. The boards were dried up to 10.0% moisture content, planing [...] to 32-mm thick, and cutted into smaller pieces measuring 0.60 m in length. Subsequently, one piece was kept in its original condition and others pieces were thermally-modified at 140C, 160C, 180C, 200C and 220C over a period of 2.5 hours. Specimens were obtained for the compression-parallelto-grain and static-bending tests. All of the specimens were placed in a climatic chamber (21C and 65% relative humidity) in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation in the Department of Natural Resources/Forest Sciences, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP, in Brazil. After the mechanical tests the types of failures were classified as recommended by ASTM D-143 (2007). The results show that: (1) there is a direct relationship between the heat treatment temperature and brittle wood by chi-square test; and (2) the E. grandis wood when thermally-modified at 220C presented 100% of fragile failure.

  16. Nutritional content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stump leaves / Teor nutricional foliar em minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii

    Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Francisco Jos Benedini, Baccarin; Antnio Natal, Gonalves; Marclio de, Almeida.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os teores foliares nutricionais de minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii em relao a diferentes concentraes de Zn e B ao longo de sucessivas coletas de brotaes. As brotaes foram oriundas de minicepas fertirrigadas com solues nutritivas variando nas concentraes de Zn e B ( [...] S1 - isento de Zn e B, S2 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn, S3 - 0,5 mg L-1 de B, S4 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S5 - 1,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S6 - 2,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B), sendo realizadas oito coletas de brotaes do minijardim clonal. Ao longo do experimento foram determinados o teor nutricional foliar de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Considerou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com trs repeties. Os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes variaram significativamente em relao aos tratamentos avaliados, sendo que as solues S5 e S6 apresentaram as melhores respostas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the foliar nutrient content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stumps treated with different Zn and B concentrations during successive shoot collections. Shoots were collected from mini-stumps fertigated with nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of Z [...] n and B (S1 - free of Zn and B; S2 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn; S3 - 0.5 mg L-1 B; S4 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn and B; S5 - 1.0 mg L-1 Zn and B; S6 - 2.0 mg L-1 Zn and B). Eight shoot collections from the clonal mini-garden were performed. For each shoot collection, the nutritional content of the leaf was determined (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The experiment was conducted using a randomized design with a split plot and included three replications. The foliar macro and micronutrient contents varied significantly in relation to the treatments, and the S5 and S6 nutritive solutions presented the best responses.

  17. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220C, 250C and 280C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher HHV, lower LHV and useful UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220C. Temperature 250C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  18. Clones de Eucalyptus versus a produo de polpa celulsica.

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira definida pelas combinaes entre as diversas caractersticas intrnsecas da rvore em funo do seu uso. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar essas caractersticas na madeira de clones de Eucalyptus visando produo de polpa celulsica kraft de qualidade. Foram usados 15 clones, duas rvores de cada clone, num total de trinta rvores, todos com idades de 5,8 anos. As caractersticas avaliadas na madeira foram densidade bsica, dimenses das fibras (comprimento da fibra, espessura de parede, dimetro do lmen e composio qumica (teor de celulose, lignina, hemicelulose, extrativos e cinzas. Foram realizados quatro cozimentos Kraft para cada rvore, utilizando diferentes cargas de lcali ativo, para estabelecer a curva de deslignificao da amostra. Essas cargas de lcali foram selecionadas aps realizao de cozimentos exploratrios, objetivando obteno de nmero kappa prximo a 18 na parte mediana da curva. Nos cozimentos, foram avaliados o rendimento depurado, a viscosidade da polpa celulsica e o lcali consumido. Os resultados de rendimento variaram de 43,4 a 52,0 %, o teor de lcali ativo utilizado de 17,5 a 23,4 %, o lcali consumido de 15,5 a 20,0% e a viscosidade de 19,9 a 61,4 cP.

  19. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  20. CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill PLANTS

    CHRISTIAN TRONCOSO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and mass detection (MS. The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin. In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide, borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

  1. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  2. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways. PMID:26262563

  3. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  4. Influence of temperature on products yield of Eucalyptus microcorys carbonization

    Renato da Silva Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During charcoal production different products are formed. These products are influenced primarily by the temperature of carbonization. Given that charcoal is the main input in the production of pig iron in Brazil, this study evaluated the influence of final temperature of carbonization of the products generated and also the influence of the radial and longitudinal sampling on the yield of each product. Samples were taken from internal and external position along the radius and also from three different heights from four Eucalyptus microcorys trees. The samples were carbonized in an electric furnace with an experimental water-cooled condenser and a collecting bottle of condensable volatile materials. The final temperatures of carbonization were 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900C. The gravimetric yield, tar and non-condensable gases were calculated. The results showed no difference in the gravimetric yield in the longitudinal and radial positions studied, while the tar yield and non-condensable gases showed temperature variations of 700C and 800C and the variation of the gravimetric yield temperatures between 500C to 900C was 15%, the change of yield of tar from the radial direction of sampling was on average 8%, the variation of the yield of non-condensable gases in a radial sampling was on average 16%.

  5. Optimization of agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation in eucalyptus camaldulensis

    This study was conducted to optimize Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Transformation was done by using LBA4404 containing binary plasmid pGA482 with uidA (Gus) gene under CamV35S promoter and nptII gene under nos promoter. For optimization, different explants (Cotyledonary leaves, plantlet leaves and hypocotyls of young In vitro plants and calli) with and without preculture were infected with a range of optical densities (O.D.600nm=0.3-0.6). Effect of different concentrations of Acetosyringone, infection time and co-cultivation time on transformation efficiency was evaluated. Confirmation of transformation was done through GUS histochemical staining and through PCR. Callogenesis and regeneration was found fast on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP. Highest transformation efficiency was obtained with bacterial suspension of O.D.600nm = 0.5 for non-precultured explants and O.D.600nm=0.3 for precultured explants. (author)

  6. Climate determines vascular traits in the ecologically diverse genus Eucalyptus.

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Harbusch, Marco; Wesolowski, Anita; Smith, Renee; Macfarlane, Craig; Tjoelker, Mark G; Reich, Peter B; Adams, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Current theory presumes that natural selection on vascular traits is controlled by a trade-off between efficiency and safety of hydraulic architecture. Hence, traits linked to efficiency, such as vessel diameter, should show biogeographic patterns; but critical tests of these predictions are rare, largely owing to confounding effects of environment, tree size and phylogeny. Using wood sampled from a phylogenetically constrained set of 28 Eucalyptus species, collected from a wide gradient of aridity across Australia, we show that hydraulic architecture reflects adaptive radiation of this genus in response to variation in climate. With increasing aridity, vessel diameters narrow, their frequency increases with a distribution that becomes gradually positively skewed and sapwood density increases while the theoretical hydraulic conductivity declines. Differences in these hydraulic traits appear largely genotypic in origin rather than environmentally plastic. Data reported here reflect long-term adaptation of hydraulic architecture to water availability. Rapidly changing climates, on the other hand, present significant challenges to the ability of eucalypts to adapt their vasculature. PMID:26743135

  7. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  8. Colorimetry as grouping tool of eucalyptus clones wood

    Márcio da Fonseca Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneity of wood color in a batch to be marketed is of fundamental importance, as it will reflect in products quality resulting from its processing. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate, through colorimetric technique, the colorimetric parameters of Eucalyptus spp. wood from 25 clones and classify them into groups, according to color similarity degree. It was determined the lightness (L*, red-green color coordinate (a*, yellow-blue chromatic coordinate (b*, chromaticity (C* and ink angle (h. Radial and tangential faces and three positions in the radial direction were characterized using a colorimeter. Comparing to tangential planes, the results showed that radial plane presented larger values of L* and h in wood near the bark. Furthermore, it was observed higher values of L* in samples from intermediate radial positions. Finally, it was found that, as radial growth ocurred, developed timber showed less intense yellow shades. The definition of the wood color tones will be useful in timber market in the homogenization of their products, which will facilitate their marketing.

  9. Eucalyptus nitens: nanomechanical properties of bark and wood fibers

    Muoz, Freddy; Valenzuela, Paulina; Gacita, William

    2012-09-01

    In this study, Eucalyptus nitens species was nano-characterized to determine variability in nanomechanical properties within the cellular ultra-structure between the bark and wood fibers. Three factors, including site (2 levels), family (2 levels) and fiber type (bark and wood) were analyzed using three response variables, including the elastic modulus ( E), hardness ( H) and ductility ratio ( E/ H) in the middle lamella ( ML) and the cell wall within the S2 layer. The results indicated significant differences for E S2 and H S2 when comparing fiber types: E S2?12.52 GPa and H S2?0.31 GPa for wood fiber and E S2?10.81 GPa and H S2?0.26 GPa for bark fiber. There is not statistically significant difference in ductility ratio ( E/ H) in S2 and ML between fiber types. These results indicate that bark and wood fibers can be used together or separately in the development of new composite materials and engineering products.

  10. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell.

    Gilmara A. C. Fortes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated glycoside, 4-O-( 4,6-di-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-trans-p-coumaric acid, named microcoryn ( 1 , together with sixteen known phenolic compounds, 5-O-(6'-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-gentisic acid (2, ellagic acid (3, gallic acid (4, kaempferol (5, quercetin (6, 3-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (7, 2,3,6-tri-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (8, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (9, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (10, 4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl- b - D -glucose (11, gemin D (12, tellimagrandin I (13, tellimagrandin II (14, isocoriariin F (15, oenothein C (16, and oenothein B (17 were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys . The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data, especially by 2D NMR techniques. This is the first phytochemical investigation of this plants leaf extract.

  11. Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management

    João Batista Rezende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

  12. Eucalyptus urograndis stem proteome is responsive to short-term cold stress

    Gabriela de Almeida, Leonardi; Natlia Aparecida, Carlos; Paulo, Mazzafera; Tiago Santana, Balbuena.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus urograndis is a hybrid eucalyptus of major economic importance to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. Although widely used in forest nurseries around the country, little is known about the biochemical changes imposed by environmental stress in this species. In this study, we evaluated [...] the changes in the stem proteome after short-term stimulation by exposure to low temperature. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protein identification, 12 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and successfully identified after stringent database searches against a protein database from a closely related species (Eucalyptus grandis). The identification of these proteins indicated that the E. urograndis stem proteome responded quickly to low temperature, mostly by down-regulating specific proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and signaling. The results of this study represent the first step in understanding the molecular and biochemical responses of E. urograndis to thermal stress.

  13. Consumo Foliar de Eucalyptus spp. por Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Wagner Calixto Morais

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. The productive potential of forest stands is reduced by pest occurrence among other factors. In Brazil, leaf-cutting ants are the most severe eucalypt pests. Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr is prevalent in the south east Brazil. However, scarce information about its potential damage for Eucalyptus forests is available. This work deals to quantifying the eucalypt leaf-consumption by such specie of leaf-cutting ant. Fresh leaves were taken from trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and served to different colonies of A. disciger, during 24 hours period, over eight different times. Leaf-consumption was calculated throughout fresh weights of leaves, before and after ants foraging. Each colony of A. disciger consumed 38.8 3.2 g e 22.0 2.3 g of eucalypt leaves, per day.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study.

    Mota, Valéria de Siqueira; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended. PMID:25992819

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study

    Valéria de Siqueira Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  16. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L

    The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

  17. Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production

    Allan Motta Couto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, H and O, lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

  18. Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota

    A. Duarte

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation of C. neoformans var. gattii in our country. A total of 100 Eucalyptus trees, distributed among 13 zones, located in the center, northeast, east and west of Santafé de Bogotá, were studied. Flowers, fruits, leaves, barks and Eucalyptus debris were collected. The samples were processed by extraction with saline solution containing antibiotics, cultured in selective media and the isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Twenty-seven isolates of 9 Cryptococcus sp. were recovered from 21 Eucalyptus trees, from 5 zones. One C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A was recovered. The Cryptococcus associated with Eucalyptus is important because this is the first study done in our country.

  19. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves

    Khaled, Sebei; Fawzi, Sakouhi; Wahid, Herchi; Mohamed Larbi, Khouja; Sadok, Boukhchina.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte [...] (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms includingStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). RESULTS: The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain ?-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata(arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSION: The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and ?-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostatashowed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  20. Hydrological implications of soil water-repellency in Eucalyptus globulus forests, north-central Portugal

    Ferreira, A. J. D.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.; Ceballos, A.; Doerr, S. H.

    2000-05-01

    Soil water-repellency (hydrophobicity) is a widespread property of Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster forest soils in central and north littoral Portugal and is particularly severe during the summer dry conditions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of water repellency on overland flow and runoff generation at plot and catchment scales for two types of terrain with differing land management and degree of soil hydrophobicity: (i) highly hydrophobic land with regenerating eucalyptus forest following fire; and (ii) largely hydrophilic land on which deep-ploughing prior to planting eucalyptus seedlings had eliminated hydrophobicity. Overland flow responses were monitored over a 40-month period for two 8 m×2 m plots and streamflow was recorded continuously at gauging stations for two small catchments of predominantly regrowth eucalyptus and ploughed/planted eucalyptus, respectively. Soil hydrophobicity was assessed using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test. Seasonal variations in the factors influencing plot overland flow response were assessed for each land management type using multivariate analysis. For the regrowth eucalyptus plot, overland flow generation was found to be negatively correlated with antecedent soil moisture in summer (suggesting that hydrophobicity-linked Hortonian overland flow is then dominant), but positively related to throughflow in winter (suggesting that saturation overland flow generation in a hydrophilic-phase soil was at that time the dominant mechanism). In the ploughed/planted areas, negative correlations with soil moisture were found neither in summer nor winter. Rainfall amount (and in winter also antecedent precipitation) were found to be the variables most strongly and positively related to overland flow volume. The plot results are compared with streamflow responses for the small catchments.

  1. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves

    Khaled Sebei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon, Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani, Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata. Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms includingStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212, Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30, Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778. RESULTS: The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain ?-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%. Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea. The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte, E. bicostata(arboretum of Aindraham showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSION: The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59% and ?-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%. The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostatashowed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  2. Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii

    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by Eucalyptus grandis glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate. Veneer combinations with higher shear strength were pith/outer, intermediary/outer and outer/outer wood.

  3. Comparison between field performance of cuttings and seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus

    João Gaspar, Maria; Borralho, Nuno; Lopes Gomes, António

    2005-01-01

    Comparaison des performances en forêt de plants issus de semis et de bouturage d'Eucalyptus globulus. Le recours à la multiplication végétative est un outil de première importance pour le déploiement des variétés améliorées d'Eucalyptus globulus. Cependant, l'existence de caractéristiques morphologiques distinctes entre plants issus de semis et plants issus de boutures laisse planer des doutes sur leurs effets sur la croissance et la qualité du bois. Dans cette étude, nous avons comparé la cr...

  4. Nutrition and growth in newly established plantations of Eucalyptus globulus in northwestern Spain

    Merino, Agustín; López, Ángel, L.; Brañas, Jesús; Rodríguez-Soalleiro, Roque

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition et croissance dans les nouvelles plantations d'Eucalyptus globulus du nord ouest de l'Espagne. La croissance et l'état nutritionnel des plantations d'Eucalyptus globulus du nord-ouest de l'Espagne ont été étudiés en fonction des caractéristiques édaphiques et des techniques de préparation du site. La plupart des plantations sont installées sur des sols pauvres de profondeur moyenne. Bien que fertilisées à la plantation, la plupart des plantations révèlent des concentrations foliaire...

  5. The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil on the development of Musca domestica third stage larvae.

    Abdel Halim, Azza S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil (Camphor oil) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of the house-fly, Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50% 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9 % and 0.7% showed 100% larval mortality rate. At concentrations of 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% the larval mortality rate was 90%. On the other hand, the developed pupae did not emerge to adults. Eucalyptus globulus oil is safe, cheap and widely used in Medicine. So, it is recommended to be use in controlling larvae of M. domestica. PMID:16083072

  6. Compaction and soil fertility after eucalyptus harvesting using Feller Buncher and Skidder

    Ana Lcia Piedade Sodero Martins Pincelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, the impact of Feller Buncher and Skidder traffic in harvesting areas of eucalyptus in Mogi Guau, considering the compaction and fertilization effects in the range of soil next to the carrier during the cycle of forest growth. An increase in soil compaction, caused by machinery traffic in topsoil (0-10 cm, was observed in the area recently harvested. The soils of the study areas, with eucalyptus 1.4 and 6.0 years old, showed good fertility conditions, especially the older area, where decomposition of forest residues possibly contributed to such fertility.

  7. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption and basic papermaking properties were evaluated. Upon these results, they were considered as potential mixed base material for Kraft cooking. In previous research, significant differences were found between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus maidenii Kraft pulping behavior and no mixture was recommended. New results indicate a similar performance for each studied Eucalyptus species. However, the comparable demand in active alkali charges among them, suggests that mixtures could be successfully employed.

  8. Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators for Bioenergy Sustainability as Applied to Eucalyptus

    Dale, Virginia H.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Wesh, Beau M.; Eaton, Laurence M.

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus is a fast-growing tree native to Australia and could be used to supply biomass for bioenergy and other purposes along the coastal regions of the southeastern United States (USA). At a farmgate price of $66 dry Mg?1, a potential supply of 27 to 41.3 million dry Mg year?1 of Eucalyptus could be produced on about 1.75 million ha in the southeastern USA. A proposed suite of indicators provides a practical and consistent way to measure the sustainability of a particular situation where ...

  9. LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL STRAIN IN DIFFERENT SPACING AND AGES IN HYBRID CLONE OF Eucalyptus

    Antônio Américo Cardoso Junior

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Eucalyptus as supplier of raw-material for sawmills has been progressively increased. Trees of bothbest quality and dimensions represent an important market requirement. Therefore, the effects of forestry treats on the woodcharacteristics must be evaluated. This work veriied the influence of the spacing and of the age in the longitudinal residual strain(LRS, associated to the growth stresses, in clones of Eucalyptus. For determining LRS it was utilised an extensometer CIRADForêt. The experiment indicated a linear reduction in LRS with the enlargement of the spacing and a tendency of quadratic variationfor the age factor.

  10. Elastic Cloud Computing Infrastructures in the Open Cirrus Testbed Implemented via Eucalyptus

    Baun, Christian; Kunze, Marcel

    Cloud computing realizes the advantages and overcomes some restrictionsof the grid computing paradigm. Elastic infrastructures can easily be createdand managed by cloud users. In order to accelerate the research ondata center management and cloud services the OpenCirrusTM researchtestbed has been started by HP, Intel and Yahoo!. Although commercialcloud offerings are proprietary, Open Source solutions exist in the field ofIaaS with Eucalyptus, PaaS with AppScale and at the applications layerwith Hadoop MapReduce. This paper examines the I/O performance ofcloud computing infrastructures implemented with Eucalyptus in contrastto Amazon S3.

  11. Recovering of carbon fixation in a eucalyptus site after felling

    Rodrigues, A. M.; Pita, G. P. A.; Mateus, A.; Santos Pereira, J.

    2009-04-01

    Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an ultrasonic Gill anemometer R2, an open path analyzer IRGA LI-7500 and a microclimate unit at its top. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. For the 2002-2006 period, mean annual values of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross production(GPP) and ecosystem respiration(Reco) were -533.3 gCm-2, 1628.6 gCm-2 and 1095.2 gCm-2. Seasonal patterns of carbon fixation for the five years showed a decrease in July-August periods due to highest air temperatures, atmospheric water vapour deficits and stomata partial closure to prevent water transpiration losses. For the period 2002-2006, the dry year of 2005 with a precipitation of about 390 mm, corresponded to the smaller carbon fixation of 390 gCm-2. Similarly, values of Reco, GPP and estimated leaf area index (less than three) were also minimal in 2005. Water use efficiency, WUE (ratio GPP/precipitation) was maximum in summer periods and in driest years, reaching values of about 12g/L-1. Recovery of carbon sink capacity, after the felling, begun after August 2007. The 2007 and 2008 annual NEE values were respectively 105.8 gCm-2 and -35.78 gCm-2. This negative value of NEE for 2008 is indicative of a carbon sink recovery. Annual Reco values for 2007 and 2008 were respectively 1059.03 gCm-2 and 1148.21 gCm-2. For GPP the annual values of 2007 and 2008 were respectively 953.24 gCm-2 and 1148.10 gCm-2. After the felling, stems rapidly grew and monthly GPP increased from 32 gCm-2 to 114 gCm-2 from January to October 2007. In November and December 2007, GPP decreased as a consequence of less solar radiation and frost in the young plants. In 2008 monthly GPP increased again till September. In the last three months of 2008, GPP diminished as a consequence of lack of water loss by evapotranspiration and the thinning. The results showed a chronological tendency for carbon fixation of the eucalyptus site according to physiological status of plants, concerning age and physical environmental factors.

  12. EFFECT OF FREQUENCY OF IMMERSION AND AIR INJECTION ON IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTOR

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813321The objectives of this study were to evaluate different immersion frequencies (2, 4, 8 and 16 h andexplants supports (filter paper and foam of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clone insideRITA bioreactors; and a ventilation system with additional air input coupled to the bioreactor containers.It was evaluated the explants fresh weight, number of shoots and hyperhydricity and in vitro axillary budmultiplication. The immersions every two and four hours and the filter paper showed higher growth andnumber of shoots, but caused a greater percentage of hyperhydric shoots. Under the conditions and systemtested, the additional air injection in the RITA bioreactor did not influence the culture growth.

  13. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF GLUED JOINTS OF EUCALYPTUS sp. SAWN WOOD

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated eucalypt wood adhesion capacity. The material evaluated was a commercial sawn wood composed by a blend of species of the genus Eucalyptus. The adhesives used were resorcinol-formaldehyde and polyvinila acetate (PVAc. The wood was segregated in three density with 0% of moisture content: class 1; 2 and 3 that, when combined (class1 x class1; 2x2; 3x3; 1x2; 1x3; 2x3 resulted in six treatments. The performance of the adhesion was evaluated by the shear strength to parallel compression and by wood failure in the glue line. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the adhesion of the combinations of wood/adhesive presented satisfactory performance. The average shear strength of the joints were shown equivalent to the shear strength of the solid wood with similar performance of adhesion in the two adhesives. In general, resorcinol-formaldheyde adhesive presented higher values (74.41% for wood failure in the joints, but similar to all treatments. The adhesion of samples of higher density presented lower performance probably when only the values of wood failure are considered. The values for the strength of glued joints, in general, were similar when analyzed the results achieved with the resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive- base 140,56 Kgf/cm2. To polyvinila acetate the values of wood failure decrease when the density increase (65.94%, but the resistance in the glue line was positively affected (140.25 Kgf/cm2. In general, the density influenced the adhesion of the joints for the employed adhesives.

  15. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal

    Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 μmol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 μg Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 μg C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

  17. Micropropagation of eucalyptus saligna sm. from cotyledonary nodes

    Eucalyptus saligna is an important woody plant used to lumber and cellulose. The aim of this research was to establish a protocol for micropropagation of this species from cotyledonary nodes. Plantlets with 16 days old were used as a donor explants. The induction of cotyledonary nodes consisted of two parts: a dark culture followed by a light culture. Basal medium was MS added with 30g.L-1 sucrose, 10% coconut water and solidified with 7g.L-1 agar. For the dark culture the media were supplemented with 3.6 micro M NAA (Naftalenoacetic acid) and 4.4 micro M BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and for the light culture the media were supplemented with 2.7 micro M NAA and 1.1 micro M BAP. The period for dark and light culture was 20 days. Shoots were multiplied on MS medium, 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 1.1 micro M BAP. Shoots were elongated on MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Shoots were rooting on half-strength MS salts. Acclimatization was performed in a hydroponics floating system. Moreover, the shoot multiplication in liquid medium with different CaCl/sub 2/ levels was carried out under agitation. Organogenesis of cotyledonary nodes was characterized by simultaneous occurrence of shoot and callus. Shoots presented hyperhydricity under liquid medium, however, the CaCl/sub 2/ reduces the hyperhydricity in liquid medium; nevertheless, it had been not effective in eliminating hyperhydricity due to toxicity of chlorine. The hydroponics acclimatization results in 90% plant survival. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of E. saligna was suitable established and can be used for clonal propagation or genetic transformation. (author)

  18. GROWTH OF Eucalyptus globulus SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO NPK FERTILIZATION

    Raul Vicente Pezzutti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study has had as its objectives to evaluate the seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus subspecies maidenii, in response to different NPK originated from the combination of slow release and quick release fertilizers. The study was conducted in a climatized green house ata the Technological Center of Forestry, in the Forest Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, from September to December of 1997. The plants were cultivated in a compost of pine bark substrate, in a completely randomized design, consisting of 4 treatments which consisted of Phosphorus dosages (60% of Super Simple (0-18-0 and a slow release NPK fertilizer (14-14-14, known as Osmocote, which derived from ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate and potassium sulfate. The treatments, resulting from the combination of 60% super simple and 40% osmocote were 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 and 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate. There were  4 repetitions of 11 plants for each treatment. After 100 days the height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were evaluated. The results indicate that the E. globulus subsp. maidenii seedlings growth responded positively to NPK fertilization  [60% of Super Simple (0-18-0+40% of slow release fertilizer (14-14-14]; when the fertilizer was not applied the seedlings did not grow as much while the maximum increment in height, collar diameter, above-ground dry matter, root dry matter and number of leaves were obtained in the  dosage range of 6,7 Kg m-3 to 7,5 Kg m-3 of substrate.

  19. Entomofauna polinizadora de Eucalyptus nitens en huertos semilleros del centro sur de Chile Pollinator insects of Eucalyptus nitens in a clonal seed orchard in South Central Chile

    Mara-Jos Sanzana; Luis E. Parra; Hugo A Bentez; Jaime Espejo

    2012-01-01

    Las variaciones que se pueden observar en los ensambles de polinizadores de especies exticas, en respuesta a cambios en las variables ambientales o florales, no han recibido mucha atencin. Este trabajo constituye la primera aproximacin sobre la abundancia de especies polinizadoras, asociadas al Eucalyptus nitens en un huerto semillero clonal de la hacienda Rucamanqui, localidad de Hupil (37 15' S y 71 55' O), regin del Biobo. Entre octubre y noviembre de 2010, se examin la variacin ...

  20. Analysis of the Impact of the Use of Eucalyptus Biomass for Energy on Wood Availability for Eucalyptus Forest in Portugal: a Simulation Study

    Margarida Tomé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of energy diversification and profitable forest resource exploitation, increasing the use of biomass residues for energy can play an important role by using local sources of energy, reducing carbon emissions and fossil-energy use, providing additional revenue for the forest sector, and also reducing the risk of forest wildfires. Regional simulators can help forecast available wood and biomass and allow evaluation of possible future conflicts of interest and their consequences for society. This paper focuses on improving an existing regional forest simulator (SIMPLOT so that it can be applied to study research questions related to increasing the use of eucalyptus biomass for bioenergy and the related consequences for wood available for pulp. Biomass modules were integrated into SIMPLOT so that different sources of biomass used for energy could be accounted for. The updated version of the simulator was used to assess the impact of different biomass demands for bioenergy, combined with different afforestation alternatives on the wood available for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal. SIMPLOT's forecasts indicated that the eucalyptus forest is unable to satisfy wood demand even when pulp afforestation areas are doubled, regardless of the biomass demand considered. Also, the simulation results showed that, with the tested afforestation rates, eucalyptus forest cannot meet high increases in demand for wood.

  1. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima. PMID:25703618

  2. Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four eucalyptus essential oils.

    George, David R; Masic, Dino; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Guy, Jonathan H

    2009-06-01

    The results of this study suggest that certain eucalyptus essential oils may be of use as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in the management of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. At a level of 0.21 mg/cm(2), the essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora achieved 85% mortality in D. gallinae over a 24 h exposure period in contact toxicity tests. A further two essential oils from different eucalyptus species, namely E. globulus and E. radiata, provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower mite mortality (11 and 19%, respectively). Notable differences were found between the eucalyptus essential oils regarding their chemical compositions. There appeared to be a trend whereby the essential oils that were composed of the fewer chemical components were the least lethal to D. gallinae. It may therefore be the case that the complexity of an essential oil's chemical make up plays an important role in dictating the toxicity of that oil to pests such as D. gallinae. PMID:19089590

  3. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity

    Topiař, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210. ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.371, year: 2014

  4. Production and development of eucalyptus seedlings in function of doses of phosphorus

    José Henrique Tertulino Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P on the survival in the nursery and early development in the field of clonal Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and five replicates of 30 plants per replicate. At the end of the cycle (90 days, 15 seedlings were used for determining the dry matter accumulation and nutrient concentration in the shoot. The rest was planted in the field to determine the percentage of survival and early development. The treatments consisted of four doses of P fertilization (0.0, 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 mg plant-1. To obtain high quality seedlings in conditions similar to this experiment it is required doses of P in the range from 3.6 to 3.8 mg plant-1. Doses greater than 4 mg plant-1 affect the development and quality of eucalyptus seedlings. An adequate phosphorus fertilization of eucalyptus seedlings increase, by about 30%, the percentage of surviving seedlings in the field.

  5. Sampling methods for assessing social wasps species diversity in a eucalyptus plantation.

    De Souza, A R; Venâncio, D F A; Zanuncio, J C; Prezoto, F

    2011-06-01

    Social wasps were collected in a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis, a genetically enhanced eucalyptus) plantation in Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, southwestern of Brazil, by using a variety of sampling methods, including active capture and baited traps set at two microhabitats. Six new records of social wasps for this region were obtained during the study: Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille, Polybia ignobilis Haliday, Polybia occidentalis Olivier, Polybia platycephala (Richards), Protonectarina sylveirae Saussure, and Protopolybia exigua Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The active capture method sampled the greatest number of species. Baited traps installed in the canopy sampled agreater number of individuals of social wasps than those set on the trunks of eucalyptus trees. Fruit based baits captured a greater number of social wasp species than those baited with a protein derivative. Once no method was able to sample all species, we concluded that the efficiency of a survey can be maximized by using traps with a variety of different baits, in combination with active capture methods. PMID:21735938

  6. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS: A MULTIPURPOSE TREE

    Hardel Danendra kumar; Sahoo Laxmidhar

    2011-01-01

    The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus globulus. The results of the above studies support the use of these plants for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethnobotanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

  7. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS: A MULTIPURPOSE TREE

    Hardel Danendra kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus globulus. The results of the above studies support the use of these plants for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethnobotanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

  8. Produo de painis compensados estruturais com diferentes composies de lminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painis compensados estruturais produzidos com lminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composies de lminas. Foram produzidos painis experimentais com dimenses de 50 x 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composies: (1 painis com todas as lminas de mesma espcie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4; e (2 painis com lminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lminas de trs variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10. Os painis produzidos exclusivamente com lminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistncia da linha de cola aos esforos de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composio dos painis com lminas das duas espcies/variedades de forma intercalada no influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistncia da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposio das lminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecnicas avaliadas foram satisfatrios, em comparao com os valores de referncia apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mnimos requeridos pela norma tcnica, indicando a viabilidade de produo de painis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinao de espcies de folhosas e conferas.

  9. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  10. MIXED AND MONOSPECIFIC STANDS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACKWATTLE. II FINE ROOT BIOMASS DENSITY

    Mrcio Viera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fine root biomass density (FRBD in mixed and monospecific stands of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla and Acacia mearnsii (black wattle in Bag-RS (Southern Brazil. An experimental trial was installed with three treatments: 100% Eucalyptus (100E; 100% Acacia mearnsii (100A; 50% Eucalyptus + 50% Acacia mearnsii (50E:50A. The trial was carried using a randomized block design with three replicates. The fine root (? 2.0mm biomass density was determined 8 and 18 months after planting the trees. Soil samples were collected, with a cylindrical extractor auger (d = 7.0 cm, from four depths (0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 20 and 20 - 30 cm at each sampling point. After 8 months, the FRBD distribution was the same in both species and in all soil layers, reaching the maximum projection at 125 cm from the tree trunk. After 18 months, the root biomass density was higher in the monospecific black wattle stand than in the monospecific eucalyptus stand and the mixed stand. The fine root biomass density was highest in the 5 - 10 cm layer close to the trunk, for the planting row spacing, the planting line and the diagonals between two planting lines. Knowledge about fine root growth and distribution in soil at initial stages of stand development may help in decision-making for intensive forestry, thus ensuring more efficient use of soil resources.

  11. Does Diatomaceous Earth Control Leaf-Cutter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Eucalyptus Plantations?

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Wilcken, Carlos F; Neves, Daniela A; Pogetto, Mario H F A D; Carmo, Janaina B; Guerreiro, Julio C; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-06-01

    Genus Atta includes some of the most important Formicidae leaf cutter ants which cause extensive damage to the eucalyptus plantations. Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, one of the chief pests in Brazilian reforestation, can restrict and reduce forest productivity by its intense and constant leaf-cutting activities on plants at all stages. Therefore, the demand for new products to control A. sexdens rubropilosa indicates the study of the utilization of the dry powder formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE) against this pest in the eucalyptus cultivars. The study was conducted using 120 colonies of A. sexdens rubropilosa in Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla Blake (Myrtaceae) (urograndis) stand. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments (1, 10, 25, and 50 g/m2 of DE, 6.0 g/m2 sulfluramid bait per square meter of loose soil, and the control) with five replications, each with four colonies of this ant. Diatomaceous earth was applied to the active A. sexdens rubropilosa ant holes, and the sulfluramid bait was applied in bulk in a localized manner. The control efficacy of A. sexdens rubropilosa with DE was low, showing values similar to that of the control, and, for this reason, it cannot be used to control this ant. The bait with sulfluramid showed higher efficacy than those of the other treatments. PMID:26470237

  12. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  13. Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

  14. Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

  15. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  16. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species

    Abdul Ghaffar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan. EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%, α-pinene (31.4%, citrinyl acetate (13.3%, eugenol (11.8% and terpenene-4-ol (10.2% were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani. Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively. The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  17. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species.

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Yameen, Muhammad; Kiran, Shumaila; Kamal, Shagufta; Jalal, Fatima; Munir, Bushra; Saleem, Sadaf; Rafiq, Naila; Ahmad, Aftab; Saba, Iram; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (31.4%), citrinyl acetate (13.3%), eugenol (11.8%) and terpenene-4-ol (10.2%) were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively) followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively). The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications. PMID:26593893

  18. Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia.

    Chen, Shuaifei; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Roux, Jolanda; Xie, Yaojian; Wingfield, Michael J; Zhou, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Many species in the Cryphonectriaceae cause diseases of trees, including those in the genera Eucalyptus and Syzygium. During disease surveys on these trees in southern China, fruiting structures typical of fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae and associated with dying branches and stems were observed. Morphological comparisons suggested that these fungi were distinct from the well known Chrysoporthe deuterocubensis, also found on these trees in China. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi and evaluate their pathogenicity to Eucalyptus clones/species as well as Syzygium cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were included in the study. Isolates were characterized based on comparisons of morphology and DNA sequence data for the partial LSU and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA, ?-tubulin and TEF-1? gene regions. After glasshouse trials to select virulent isolates field inoculations were undertaken to screen different commercial Eucalyptus clones/species and S. cumini trees for susceptibility to infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously identified South African Celoporthe isolates. Based on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons, four new Celoporthe spp. were identified and they are described as C. syzygii, C. eucalypti, C. guangdongensis and C. indonesiensis. Field inoculations indicated that the three Chinese Celoporthe spp., C. syzygii, C. eucalypti and C. guangdongensis, are pathogenic to all tested Eucalyptus and S. cumini trees. Significant differences in the susceptibility of the inoculated Eucalyptus clones/species suggest that it will be possible to select disease-tolerant planting stock for forestry operations in the future. PMID:21700641

  19. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto.

  20. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    C.M.M. Silva; Ferreira, L.R.; Ferreira, F.A.; G. V. Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid), GE 463 (E. ur...

  1. New geographical distribution and seasonality of Costalimaita ferruginea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Eucalyptus urograndis in Guiricema, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    E. M. Pires

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a voracious defoliator, responsible for big losses associated to eucalyptus plantations. The attack of this pest can be characterized by the appearance of holes in the leaves and consequent fall, which reduces the photosynthetic potential, and thus slows the development of plants attacked. The objective of this research was to report the new occurrence and characterize the period of attack of beetle C. ferruginea in plantations of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (= Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae in municipality of Guiricema,  Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The period of monitoring started in December 2006 and extended until December 2012. The first attacks of C. ferruginea in this region started in the end of September, and showed a peak of population and greater intensity of damage from mid-October until the second week of November.

  2. Genetic dissection of growth, wood basic density and gene expression in interspecific backcrosses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla

    Kullan Anand Raj; van Dyk Maria M; Hefer Charles A; Jones Nicoletta; Kanzler Arnulf; Myburg Alexander A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background F1 hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla are widely grown for pulp and paper production in tropical and subtropical regions. Volume growth and wood quality are priority objectives in Eucalyptus tree improvement. The molecular basis of quantitative variation and trait expression in eucalypt hybrids, however, remains largely unknown. The recent availability of a draft genome sequence (http://www.phytozome.net) and genome-wide genotyping platforms, combined wit...

  3. Infestation of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore on Thirteen Eucalyptus Species and Their Relationship with the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils

    Alejandro Lucia; Cecilia Naspi; Eduardo Zerba; Héctor Masuh

    2016-01-01

    Glycaspis brimblecombei is a pest insect that affects Eucalyptus genus and was firstly detected in Argentina in 2005. The main objective of this study is to determine the correlation between the level of infestation and chemical composition of essential oils extract. In an experimental plantation of 13 Eucalyptus species, the natural presence of the psyllid in the adaxial and abaxial faces of the leaves was determined and the mean number of individuals per species was calculated. The essentia...

  4. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Márcio Viera; Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis) and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) and, of corn (Zea mays) in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood) from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn); - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn); - 50E:50A (50%...

  5. Ciclagem e balano de nutrientes no sistema solo-planta em um plantio de Eucalyptus sp., no Distrito Federal

    Alcides Gatto; Angela Pereira Bussinguer; Fabiana Campos Ribeiro; Gileno Brito de Azevedo; Maria Cristina Bueno; Marina Morais Monteiro; Pierre Farias de Souza

    2014-01-01

    As espcies do gnero Eucalyptus so as mais plantadas no mundo, tornando-se soluo para diminuir a presso sobre as florestas nativas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a biomassa seca e sua distribuio nos diferentes compartimentos das rvores (folhas, galhos, casca, lenho e razes), bem como examinar o contedo de macronutrientes dela e o balano de nutrientes no sistema solo-planta, em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, aos 60 meses de idade, na Fazenda gua Limpa, no Distri...

  6. LEAF TOTAL NITROGEN CONCENTRATION AS AN INDICATOR OF NITROGEN STATUS FOR PLANTLETS AND YOUNG PLANTS OF EUCALYPTUS CLONES

    Eric Victor de Oliveira Ferreira; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Bruna Maximiano Médice; Nairam Félix de Barros; Ivo Ribeiro Silva

    2015-01-01

    The use of leaf total nitrogen concentration as an indicator for nutritional diagnosis has some limitations. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of total N concentration as an indicator of N status for eucalyptus clones, and to compare it with alternative indicators. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement with plantlets of two eucalyptus clones (140 days old) and six levels of N in the nutrient so...

  7. Estimation of Eucalyptus plantations above ground biomass in Brazil using ALOS/PALSAR L-band data

    Baghdadi, N; le Maire, G.; Fayad, I.; Bailly, J.S; Nouvellon, Y.; Lemos, C.; Hakamada, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the L-band SAR backscatter sensitivity to forest biomass for Eucalyptus plantations. The results showed that the radar signal is highly dependent on biomass only for values lower than 50 t/ha, which corresponds to plantations of approximately three years of age. Next, Random Forest regressions were performed to evaluate the potential of PALSAR data to predict the Eucalyptus biomass. Regressions were constructed to link the biomass to both radar signa...

  8. Effects of harrowing and fertilisation on understory vegetation and timber production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation in central Portugal

    Fabio, Antnio; Carneiro, M; M. C. Martins; M.A. Silva; Hilrio, L.; Lous, M.; Madeira, M.

    2008-01-01

    Harrowing and fertilisation are common practices at middle rotation in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Central Portugal. In order to clarify the effects of such practices on understory vegetation and timber production, a field trial was installed in a 5-year-old first rotation eucalyptus plantation, in a region with mixed oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. Four treatments that involved harrowing (H), fertilisation (F), harrowing and fertilisation (HF), and cont...

  9. Effects of harrowing and fertilisation on understory vegetation and timber production of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation in Central Portugal

    Carneiro, M; Fabio, Antnio; M. C. Martins; Fabio, Andr; Silva, M. Abrantes; Hilrio, L.; Lous, M.; Madeira, M.

    2008-01-01

    Harrowing and fertilisation are common practices at middle rotation in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Central Portugal. In order to clarify the effects of such practices on understory vegetation and timber production, a field trial was installed in a 5-year-old first rotation eucalyptus plantation, in a region with mixed oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. Four treatments that involved harrowing (H), fertilisation (F), harrowing and fertilisation (HF), and cont...

  10. Use of fractional factorial design for selection of nutrients for culturing Paecilomyces variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    J.B.Almeida e Silva; U. A. Lima; M.E.S. Taqueda; F.G. Guaragna

    1998-01-01

    A eucalyptus hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed by treating eucalyptus wood chips with sulfuric acid. The hydrolysate was used as the substrate to grow Paecilomyces variotii IOC-3764 cultured for 72 or 96 hours. The influence of the inhibitors, nutrients and fermentation time was verified by a 28-4 and, subsequently, a 25-1 fractional factorial design. The effects of the inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural), nutrients (rice bran, urea, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfat...

  11. Identification and comparison of the yield and composition of essential oil constituents of four Eucalyptus species adapted to the climatic conditions of Khorramabad

    Karamian Reza; Mohammadian Ali; Hassanimoghadam Esfandiar; Alizadeh Lila; Keshvari Mahtab; Hosseini Seyed Masih; Beyranvand Kolsoum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Eucalyptus has more than 400 species, while only a few species of this genus have been imported in Iran. In this study we aimed to investigate chemical compounds of the essential oils of Eucalyptus species adapted in Lorestan climate. Methods: In this study, the fresh young leaves of four different Eucalyptus species including E. suggrandis, E. globulus subsp. bicostata, E. nitens and E. globulus subsp. maidenii were collected in spring (the middle of May) in khorramabad, Iran. ...

  12. Spatial distribution of water use by eucalyptus plantations in a small catchment in Guangxi, South China: a modelling and GIS approach.

    Yan, Dongjun

    2009-01-01

    Industrial plantations of eucalyptus are sharply increasing in Asia. Although supplying raw material for the pulp and paper industry, easing deforestation on native forests and increasing carbon sequestration to help counter global warming, there are several concerns about the environmental effects of industrial eucalyptus plantations. These concerns include invasiveness of eucalyptus and loss of biodiversity, loss of land for food production, loss of soil fertility due to short rotation time...

  13. Eucalyptus development in degraded soil fertilized with sewage sludge and mineral fertilizer

    Rodrigues, R. A. F.; Santos, E. B.; Alves, M. C.; Arruda, O. G.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development of eucalyptus in a degraded Oxisol with mineral fertilizer and sewage sludge. The study was conducted in Selviria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. The culture of eucalyptus was planted in 2003 at 2.0 m x 1.5 m spacing, with application of 60 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (dry basis) and mineral fertilizer. After five years (2008) the area received biosolids and mineral fertilizer, and after five months, were evaluated for height and diameter at breast height of Eucalyptus. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - control (without addition of inputs), T2 - Mineral fertilization (30 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O), T3 - Reapplication of 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis, T4 - Reapplication of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge, dry basis. Before reapplication the biosolids plant height was higher in the eucalyptus with treatment 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (8.03 m) compared to control (5.75 m) and mineral fertilizer (5.91 m) and that treatment 4.64 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (6.34 m) did not differ from the previous three. For the diameter at breast height was the highest value for treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 (7.78 cm) compared to control (5.23 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm), and that of mineral fertilizer (5.96 cm) did not differ from all treatments. After reapplication of sludge plant height was higher in the eucalyptus treatment with 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge (11.21 m) compared with control (7.51 m), mineral fertilizer (7.77 m) and 4 64 Mg ha-1 (8.07 m), which did not differ. The diameter at breast height had the same behavior before the application of biosolids in the highest value observed being 9.28 Mg ha-1 (8.46 cm) compared with control (5.75 cm) and 4.64 Mg ha-1 (5.03 cm) and that of mineral fertilizer (6.34 cm) did not differ from the others. Reapplication of the dose of 9.28 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge in degraded Oxisol provided greater height and diameter at breast height from eucalyptus trees.

  14. Eucalyptus sp. SEEDLING RESPONSE TO POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND SOIL WATER1

    Paulo Csar Teixeira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A considerable portion of Brazils commercial eucalypt plantations is located in areas subjected to periods of water deficit and grown in soils with low natural fertility, particularly poor in potassium. Potassium is influential in controlling water relations of plants. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of potassium fertilization and soil water potential (?w on the dry matter production and on water relations of eucalypt seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. The experimental units were arranged in 4x4x2 randomized blocks factorial design, as follow: four species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptusgrandis, Eucalyptusurophylla, Eucalyptuscamaldulensis and hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, four dosages of K (0, 50, 100 and 200mgdm-3 and two soil water potentials (-0.01MPa and -0.1 MPa. Plastic containers with 15cm diameter and 18cm height, with Styrofoam base, containing 3.0dm3 of soil and two plants per container were used. Soil water potential was kept at 0.01MPa for 40 days after seeding. Afterward, the experimental units were divided into two groups: in one group the potential was kept at -0.01MPa, and in the other one, at -0.10MPa. Soil water potential was controlled gravimetrically twice a day with water replacement until the desired potential was reestablished. A week before harvesting, the leaf water potential (?, the photosynthetic rate (A, the stomatal conductance (gs and the transpiration rate were evaluated. The last week before harvesting, the mass of the containers was recorded daily before watering to determine the consumption of water by the plants. After harvesting, total dry matter and leaf area were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, to Tukey's tests and regression analyses. The application of K influenced A, gs and the transpiration rate. Plants deficient in K showed lower A and higher gs and transpiration rates. There were no statistical differences in A, gs and transpiration rates in plants with and without water deficit. The addition of K reduced the consumption of water per unit of leaf area and, in general, plants submitted to water deficit presented a lower consumption of water.

  15. Workflow to improve the forest management of Eucalyptus globulus stands affected by Gonipterus scutellatus in Galicia (Spain) using remote sansing and GIS

    Álvarez Taboada, María Flor; Lorenzo Cimadevilla, Henrique; Rodríguez Pérez, José Ramón; Picos Martín, Juan

    2004-01-01

    In Spain there are more than 500.000 ha. of Eucalyptus plantations. There represent 3,5 % of the national forest and the 25 % of the timber harvested. Galicia monocultures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations cover 177.679 ha. and mixed stands of eucalyptus cover 200.000 ha. more. This high productivity has been powered by the absence of pests and pathogens. However, since 1991 the health and productivity of these stands has been threatened by the Eucalyptus snout beetle, which causes a...

  16. Crescimento de raizes e da parte area de clones de hbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e de Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp submetidos a dois regimes de irrigao no campo Performance of Eucalyptus spp clones under different levels of soil water availability in the field - root and aboveground growth

    Geraldo Gonalves dos Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou subsidiar a seleo de gentipos de eucalipto para plantio em ambientes com disponibilidade varivel de gua no solo, atravs da anlise do crescimento de razes na fase inicial de estabelecimento da planta no campo e de sua associao com o crescimento das plantas adultas. Foram utilizados os clones 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 e 1277 de eucalipto, sob dois regimes de irrigao, a partir de seis meses de idade, em condies de campo, no norte do Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi estabelecido em blocos ao acaso, com trs repeties. O crescimento em altura aos 38 meses de idade no variou significativamente entre os tratamentos de irrigao, enquanto em dimetro e volume nessa mesma idade foi significativamente superior nas plantas do tratamento irrigado em relao ao no-irrigado, sendo os clones 1260 e 0321 os mais produtivos. O clone 1277 apresentou menor sensibilidade deficincia hdrica, o que pode ser atribudo ao intenso crescimento do sistema radicular. O clone 1250 apresentou menor crescimento em altura e dimetro, possivelmente em razo de apresentar menor crescimento do sistema radicular, o que torna esse clone mais suscetvel deficincia hdrica. Com base nas avaliaes realizadas, o clone 1250 no deve ser recomendado para regies com dficit hdrico acentuado, e os demais clones estudados podem ser estabelecidos em regies com regime hdrico semelhante ao da regio objeto deste estudo, destacando-se os clones 1260 e 0321, por apresentarem maior produo volumtrica. Em condies de dficit hdrico mais acentuado, o clone 1277 o mais promissor, em razo de no ter apresentado reduo no crescimento, quando sob deficincia hdrica acentuada no solo.Below and aboveground growth of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and one Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp clones identified as 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 and 1277, were studied in the field under varying water availability. The objective of the study was to select eucalypt genotypes to be planted in sites with varying soil water availability. The experiment was set in Northeastern Brazil, Inhambupe, Bahia (Latitude - 1147'00''S; Longitude - 3821'00''W and Altitude - 154 m, with mean annual rainfall of 950 mm. Two levels of irrigation were applied six months after the seedlings have being planted in the field: (a irrigated when weekly rainfall was lower than 10 mm and, (b non-irrigated - plants received water only from rainfall. Root distribution and biomass were determined six months after planting, just before the irrigation treatment started, in order to characterize root growth of each clone. Height and diameter at breast height (DBH were measured at the age of 38 months. There was no significant difference (P=0.05 in height growth at this age between irrigation treatments, but there were differences in growth among clones: clone 1260 was significantly taller than the others. DBH and volume were significantly larger for irrigated plants; however, there was a tendency of clone 1277 to maintain growth even under drought. Clone 1260 followed by the 0321 presented the highest volume by the age of 38 months in both dry and wet soil conditions. The growth rate of clone 1277 is lower than for clones 1260 and 0321, but, due to its root production and distribution deep in the soil profile, it survives and grows in sites with low soil water availability. Clone 1250 showed great reduction in volume when under water stress, probably due to its poor root growth, i.e., this clone is not recommended for dry sites.

  17. Vergamento da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis plasticizada por vaporizao e cozimento / Solid wood bending of Eucalyptus grandis wood plasticized by steam and boiling

    Matheus Lemos, Peres; Rafael de Avila, Delucis; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O vergamento de madeira foi utilizado ao longo dos sculos para a produo de objetos grandes, como estruturas de embarcaes ou pequenos utenslios. Mesmo com constantes estudos de vergamento, h carncia de melhorias de processo e incluso de madeiras de baixo valor comercial. Assim, o presente tr [...] abalho analisou a madeira vergada de Eucalyptus grandis tratada por diferentes tempos de exposio vaporizao e ao cozimento. Foram analisados o nmero de tipos de defeitos por pea vergada (Ndef), a variao no teor de umidade perante os tratamentos (?Tu), a presso de extremidade (Pe) e a perda de forma circular (Pf). Verificou-se que as variveis diferem significativamente entre os tipos de tratamento de vaporizao e cozimento, exceto para o Ndef. Os tempos de tratamento no apresentaram efeito significativo. Concluiu-se que a espcie aceitvel para vergamentos em raios inferiores ao utilizado no presente estudo. Adicionalmente, a vaporizao mostrou ser o melhor tratamento, por apresentar melhores parmetros de qualificao. Abstract in english Wood bending has been used for centuries in the manufacturing not only of large objects, such as boat structures, but also small objects, like musical instruments. Despite a large number of studies on bending, process improvements and inclusion of low added-value timber are still insufficient. Hence [...] , this study proposes a bent wood analysis of Eucalyptus grandis treated with different steam and boiling exposure times. We analysed the number of failure types per sample (N.of f), moisture content variation in the treatments (?Tu), end pressure (Pe) and spring back (Pf). The variables showed significant differences between steaming and boiling, except for N.of f. Different treatment times did not show significant effects. We conclude that Eucalyptus grandis timber is suitable for bending at smaller radius than the one adopted in this study. Furthermore, steaming is better than boiling due to its higher qualification parameters.

  18. Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different places seeking to the production of vegetal charcoal Avaliao de clones de Eucalyptus em diferentes locais visando produo de carvo vegetal

    Thiago Andrade Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This research aim to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of three Eucalyptus clones planted at different places and to verify the existent functional relations between the basic density and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. Three Eucalyptus clones were evaluated and four trees were sample for each clone and place. It was determined the depth of penetration of a Pilodyn pin at 1.30 m of height of the soil (DBH, average basic density (DBm, the basic density at DBH, the calorific value, lignin, total extractive, ashes and holocellulose contents and elemental chemical analysis (C, H, N and O. The wood was carbonized and the charcoal produced was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In the evaluation of the wood characteristics a completely randomized design disposed in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 was used. A linear model was adjusted between DBm and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. It was possible to conclude that the clones present potential to be used for energy. The charcoal produced may be used in siderurgy. The linear model adjusted between DBm and the penetration of the Pilodyn pin was satisfactory.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a qualidade da madeira e do carvo vegetal de trs clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais e verificar a relao funcional existente entre a densidade bsica e a profundidade de penetrao do pino do Pilodyn. Foram avaliados trs clones de Eucalyptus e amostradas quatro rvores por clone em cada local. Determinou-se a profundidade de penetrao de um pino de ao do Pilodyn a 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP, a densidade bsica mdia (DBm, a densidade bsica no DAP, o poder calorfico superior e os teores de lignina, extrativos totais, cinzas, holocelulose e a anlise qumica elementar (C, H, N e O. A madeira foi carbonizada e o carvo produzido foi avaliado quantitativamente e qualitativamente. Na avaliao das caractersticas da madeira, utilizou-se um DIC em um esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Foi ajustado um modelo linear entre a DBm e a profundidade de penetrao do pino do Pilodyn. Foi possvel concluir que os clones apresentaram potencial para o uso energtico. O carvo vegetal produzido pode ser utilizado na siderurgia. O modelo linear ajustado entre a DBm e a penetrao do pino do Pilodyn mostrou-se satisfatrio.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

  19. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

    L.D. Tuffi Santos; B.F Sant'anna-Santos; R.M.S.A. Meira; R.A.S. Tiburcio; F.A. Ferreira; C.A.D. Melo; E.F.S. Silva

    2008-01-01

    A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI®) sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis ...

  20. Caracterización fitosanitaria de astillas de Eucalyptus spp. y de especies nativas Phytosanitary characterization of Eucalyptus spp. and native species chips

    DOLLY LANFRANCO; SANDRA IDE; CECILIA RUIZ; ISABEL VIVES; HERNAN PEREDO

    2003-01-01

    Se entregan los primeros antecedentes sobre el estado sanitario de astillas de Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens y de especies nativas. Se estudiaron ocho embarques de astillas, en los cuales el principal problema debido principalmente al tiempo de acanchado del producto fue la presencia de hongos manchadores pertenecientes al género Ceratocystis. No existen problemas ocasionados por insectos, sólo se detectó la presencia de galerías, en un porcentaje muy bajo de astillas de especies nativas (0,...

  1. Efecto de poda y raleo en el rea foliar de Eucalyptus nitens Effect of pruning and thinning intensity on Eucalyptus nitens leaf area

    Fernando Muoz; Miguel Espinosa; Jorge Cancino; Rafael Rubilar; Miguel Herrera

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens es una especie de rpido crecimiento plantada principalmente en Chile y Australia (Tasmania). En Chile, no hay estudios publicados de rea foliar en bosques adultos de E. nitens. Se investig el efecto de la poda y el raleo en el rea foliar de E. nitens. Los datos utilizados provienen de una plantacin de 15 aos de edad, luego de nueve aos de establecido el ensayo. El estudio fue realizado en una plantacin efectuada el ao 1989, cercana a la localidad de Los Alamos, zona...

  2. Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota

    DUARTE, A.; N. Ordoñez; Castañeda, E.

    1994-01-01

    El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especie...

  3. Avaliao da superfcie da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden tratada termicamente / Surface evaluation of the heat treated wood of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Gilmara Pires de Moura, Palermo; Joo Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca; Alexandre Monteiro de, Carvalho; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estudar a qualidade da superfcie usinada da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, submetida ao processo de tratamento trmico. As operaes de usinagens realizadas nas tbuas obtidas a partir do processamento de mecnico de seis rvores foram: desempeno, desengrosso, rasgo na f [...] uradeira horizontal, furao, furao para dobradia e lixamento. Foram selecionadas 208 tbuas de 125 x 25 x 500 mm, sendo 104 no tratadas e 104 tratadas termicamente a uma temperatura final de 190C. A avaliao da superfcie foi feita de acordo com a norma ASTM D-1666/87. O resultado mostrou que a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis apresenta um bom comportamento durante os testes de usinagem, obtendo notas 1 e 2 (excelente e bom), exceto para os testes de furao para a dobradia no furo passante e furao com broca de 12, 8 e 6 mm, pois alcanaram notas entre 2 e 4 (bom, regular e ruim). O tratamento trmico diminuiu a quantidade de defeitos nas amostras usinadas, com exceo para o defeito gr arrancada, em algumas operaes de usinagem. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge a [...] nd sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190C. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good), except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad). The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  4. NANOINDENTACIONES Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA EN MADERA DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS CON MICRO Y MESO GRIETAS NANOINDENTATIONS AND ULTRASTRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS NITENS WITH MICRO AND MESOCRACKS

    William Gacitua E; Aldo Ballerini A; Jean Pierre Lasserre; David Bahr

    2007-01-01

    Se desarrolló una metodología basada en nanoindentaciones y análisis de la ultraestructura de células de madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) para explorar los factores que generan la aparición de fallas en la madera debido a tensiones de crecimiento. Se estudió madera normal y madera con mesogrietas. Existieron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de vasos y módulo de elasticidad de la pared S2 entre los dos tipos de madera estudiadas. Se identificó como causa de la fractura ...

  5. Relationship between density and anatomical structure of different species of Eucalyptus and identification of preservatives

    Rafael C., Abruzzi; Berenice A., Dedavid; Maral J. R., Pires; Suzana F., Ferrarini.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species and density of Eucalyptus wood poles installed in the electrical network are useful parameters which must be considered when it is necessary to establish the service life of these structures. In this work, eucalyptus poles samples were collected and analyzed by scanning electron microsco [...] py and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). SEM image analysis showed that the lumen diameter average of fiber substantially is variable between the three species studied, in line with the wood density obtained in laboratory, for poles with several years in service in the electricity network, as well as for not used poles. In addition, EDS microanalysis was utilized for identify the presence of chemical preservatives employed in the conservation these poles. The analysis method proposed proved effective for characterization for this timber.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD AND SCAR MARKER RELATED TO EARLY FLOWERING IN Eucalyptus grandis

    Douglas Silva Domingues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There are few available tools in eucalyptus breeding to accelerate the selection of superior genotypes, and one of the main tools to improve this process is the use of molecular markers linked to traits of interest. Using Bulked Segregant Analysis, we evaluated 81 RAPD molecular markers in a Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden progeny that segregates for early flowering, and one marker was identified as related to this trait. This RAPD marker was converted into a Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR, which was then evaluated in a F1 progeny, and validated in other progenies that presents this trait. The SCAR marker was informative in the progeny in which one of the parental was the donor of the band, with an efficiency of 60%. These results describe the first SCAR marker developed for eucalypt and confirm this technique as a useful molecular tool for forestry breeding which could be employed to locate markers linked to other silvicultural traits.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils.

    Delaquis, Pascal J; Stanich, Kareen; Girard, Benoit; Mazza, G

    2002-03-25

    Essential oils from dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (seeds of Coriandrum sativum L.), cilantro (leaves of immature C. sativum L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dives) were separated into heterogeneous mixtures of components by fractional distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined for the crude oils and their fractions. Essential oil of cilantro was particularly effective against Listeria monocytogenes, likely due to the presence of long chain (C6-C10) alcohols and aldehydes. The strength and spectrum of inhibition for the fractions often exceeded those determined in the crude oils. Mixing of fractions resulted in additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual test microorganisms. PMID:11929164

  8. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  9. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus

    Wilma Michele Santos Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  10. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  11. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. PMID:26255602

  13. SUPERVISED PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES FROM LEAVES NIR SPECTRA

    ROSARIO CASTILLO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three supervised pattern recognition methods (SPRM were evaluated to discriminate between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens species applying near infrared (NIR spectroscopy on leaves. The methods used were k-nearest neighbor (KNN, soft modeling class analogy (SIMCA and discriminant partial least squares (PLS-DA. First and second derivatives were used as transform techniques and mean-center (MC and autoscaling (AS as preprocessing techniques. The training set was constitued by 288 samples and 20 samples were used as validation set. A significant difference between the assayed methods was not observed, however best results for separation of classes and prediction rate were obtained when first derivative and MC were used for all the recognition pattern methods. Use of leaves and NIR spectroscopy avoids the destructive usual wood analysis in forest industries and facilities the fast classification of these species for forest applications.

  14. Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. juvenile wood by sap displacement method

    Pablo Marcel de Arruda Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

  15. Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna

    Camilo Ernesto Restrepo Estrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling’s method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

  16. Eucalyptus ESTs involved in mechanisms against plant pathogens and environmental stresses

    Daniel Dias Rosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalypt plantation has high economical importance in Brazil; however, it has been attacked by various pathogens under different environmental stress conditions. Disease resistance and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions have revealed that the eucalypt has developed highly efficient defense systems. Here we show the results of the Eucalyptus ESTs Genome Project (FORESTs. Using the expressed sequence tags (ESTs obtained by the Project, contigs of similar sequences from each cDNA library induced and not induced by stress agents were formed, and cDNA sequences similar to other already known molecules, such as plant-signaling molecules, phytoalexins, lignin biosynthesis pathways, PR-proteins and putative genes corresponding to enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, were identified. We also present general considerations about the mechanisms of Eucalyptus defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. These data are of extreme importance for future eucalypt breeding programs aimed at developing plants with enhanced resistance against pathogens and environmental stresses.

  17. Torrefaction and low temperature carbonization of oil palm fiber and Eucalyptus in nitrogen and air atmospheres.

    Lu, Ke-Miao; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2012-11-01

    Torrefaction is a pretreatment method for upgrading biomass as solid fuels. To provide flexible operations for effectively upgrading biomass at lower costs, the aim of this study was to investigate the properties of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus pretreated in nitrogen and air atmospheres at temperatures of 250-350°C for 1h. Based on energy and solid yield and introducing an energy-mass co-benefit index (EMCI), oil palm fiber pretreatment under nitrogen at 300°C provided the solid fuel with higher energy density and less volume compared to other temperatures. Pretreatment of oil palm fiber in air resulted in the fuel with low solid and energy yields and is therefore not recommended. For eucalyptus, nitrogen and air can be employed to upgrade the biomass, and the suggested temperatures are 325 and 275°C, respectively. PMID:22940305

  18. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LEAF-CUTTING ANT NESTS (Hymenoptera: Formicidae IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS

    Marcelo Araújo Caldeira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Programs of integrated pest management in forest plantation require a sampling plan. Therefore, it is important todetermine the spatial distribution these pests, because it makes the decision process more precise, given that it takes into accounttheir local and regional spatial distribution variations. This work was carried out for evaluating the spatial distribution of antnests in eucalyptus plantations. Twelve eucalyptus stands belonging to V&M Florestal Ltd., in Bocaiúva county, Minas Gerais,were used. They were divided into 6m x 20m sub parcels, totalizing 120m2. The nests were identified, counted and measured ineach parcel. Both found and expected frequency of nests were calculated according to Poisson’s distribution, in order todetermine the type of spatial distribution of nests. The found and the expected frequency (x2; p>0.01 were similar. The result was a randomized distribution.

  19. CERAMBYCIDAE BEETLES ASSOCIATED TO Eucalyptus spp. IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect, identify and carry out a faunistic characterization of Cerambycidae occurring in a forest of Eucalyptus spp., on São Manoel farm, in the municipality of Pinheiro Machado, RS. In the period from February 2006 to October 2007, collections of insects were performed every 15 days, with three ethanol traps. After selection procedures, the Cerambycidae were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. We collected 692 insects, distributed among 29 genera and 40 species. The most abundant species were Acanthoderes jaspidea, Chlorida costata, Compsocerus barbicornis, Eburodacrys sp., Eurysthea hirta, Neoclytus curvatus and Nyssodrysina lignaria, which represented 81.17% of the total individuals. Cerambycidae were collected during practically the entire sampling period, but the largest number at a single collection occurred in the month of December. Several species demonstrate potential for damaging Eucalyptus spp., of which Neoclytus curvatus deserves the most attention, because it represented almost half of the insects collected.

  20. Fractionation of eucalyptus globulus wood by glycerol-water pretreatment : optimization and modeling

    Romaní, Aloia; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Pereira, Francisco B.; Domingues, Lucília; J. A. TEIXEIRA

    2013-01-01

    A glycerol-organosolv process can be a good alternative for Eucalyptus wood fractionation into its main compounds, improving the enzymatic saccharification of the cellulose. A study of process variables - glycerol−water percent content, temperature, and process time - was carried out using a Box-Behnken experimental design. The cellulose obtained from pretreated solids was recovered almost quantitatively, leading to a solid with a high percentage of cellulose (77 g/100 g of pretre...

  1. Two new triterpenoids from the bark of Eucalyptus exserta and their molluscicidal and cytotoxic activities.

    Li, Jingjing; Xu, Hanhong; Tang, Wenwei; Song, Zhijun

    2012-03-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 2?-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid-3?-trans- isoferulate (1) and 2?, 3?, 24-trihydroxyolean-18-en-28-oic acid (2), together with three known triterpenoids (3-5) were isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Eucalyptus exserta. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 exhibited molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata. All isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against Spodoptera litura (SL) cells. PMID:22178417

  2. Superhydrophobic nature of nanostructures on an indigenous Australian eucalyptus plant and its potential application

    Poinern GEJ; Le XT; Fawcett D

    2011-01-01

    Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern, Xuan Thi Le, Derek FawcettMurdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Physics, Energy Studies and Nanotechnology, School of Engineering and Energy, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western AustraliaAbstract: In this preliminary study, the morphology and nanostructured features formed by the epicuticular waxes of the mottlecah (Eucalyptus macrocarpa) leaf were investigated and quantified. The surface features formed by the waxes give the leaf r...

  3. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  4. Effect of thermal rectification on colors of Eucalyptus Saligna and Pinus caribaea Woods

    Ana Lúcia Piedade Sodero Martins Pincelli; Luiz Fernando de Moura; José Otávio Brito

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods underwent a variety of thermal rectification treatments (from 120ºC to 180ºC) to evaluate the effect of heating on their colorimetric properties. The following color parameters were measured: lightness (L), a* coordinate (green-red coordinate), b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H). This study demonstrates that thermal rectification can be regarded as a tool for adding value to wood through c...

  5. Distribution, droplet diameter and phytotoxicity of herbicides applied in eucalyptus seedlings with air induction nozzles

    Bruna Pires da Silva; ngela Aparecida Machado; Edson Diniz da Fonseca; Marcelo da Costa Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The spray nozzles are responsible for the formation of droplets, each nozzle type exerts a different function, with its own characteristics related to the deposition of droplets according to the desired target. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution, droplet diameter and phytotoxicity of glyphosate and isoxaflutole herbicides applied in eucalyptus seedlings with air induction nozzles (AIUB 04 and TTI 110 04). The spectrum of droplet diameter was determined by particle size analyzer by ...

  6. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Ayse Kabakci; Fatih Mengeloglu,

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C an...

  7. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae)

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Masuh, Hector M.; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we rep...

  8. Structural features and properties of soluble products derived from Eucalyptus globulus hemicelluloses

    Gullon, P.; M. J. González-Muñoz; Gool, M.P., van; Schols, H.A.; Hirsch, J.; Ebringerová, A.; Parajo, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to double hydrothermal processing to remove extractives in the first stage, and to cause the selective solubilisation of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan in the second stage. The hemicellulose-derived products present in the liquors from the second hydrothermal stage (substituted xylooligosaccharides, denoted XOS) were refined by treatments with membranes and ion exchange. The purified XOS product was assayed for composition and characterised by HPLC-RI...

  9. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus from Algeria

    Harkat-Madouri, Lila; Asma, Boudria; Madani, Khodir; Said, Zakia Bey-Ould Si; Rigou, Peggy; Grenier, Daniel; Allalou, Hanane; Remini, Hocine; Adjaoud, Abdennour

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are known for their use in various fields such as cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this work is to investigate the chemical composition of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves (E. globulus) by gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, and to evaluate their antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical scavenging effect, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity) as well as their antibacterial activity, against p...

  10. Life cycle assessment of printing and writing paper produced from Eucalyptus globulus

    Dias, A.; Lopes, E.; Arroja, L.; Capela, M.; Pereira, F. [Environmental and Planning Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Tome, M. [Agronomy Superior Institute, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-06-01

    The environmental impacts of the production of Portuguese printing and writing paper from Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were assessed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system under study includes forestry, pulp production, paper production, wastepaper final disposal, transports and production of energy, chemicals and fuels. The results are presented and discussed at inventory analysis and impact assessment levels. The results suggest that the pulp and paper production processes contribute significantly to almost all of the analysed inventory parameters and impact assessment categories. (orig.)

  11. DETAILED MASS BALANCES OF THE AUTOHYDROLYSIS OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AT 170°C

    Moritz Leschinsky; Herbert Sixta; Rudolf Patt

    2009-01-01

    Autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus was conducted at three different intensity levels typical for prehydrolysis kraft pulping as utilized for manufacturing dissolving pulp grades. The objective was to establish for the autohydrolysis process a detailed mass balance comprising the chemical composition of all three phases: the autohydrolysate, the released gas, and the solid residue. Carbohydrate determination involved both acid methanolysis combined with gas chromatography (GC) and sulfuric ...

  12. ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS, TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA ON MCF-7 CELL LINE

    Sr. Prema Kumari* and Louis Jesudas

    2014-01-01

    Methanolic crude extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Tinosopra Cordifolia grown in natural and industrial polluted conditions were investigated for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines to study the pollution effect on Cytotoxicity.  It was carried out by the XTT assay using serial dilutions. The Cytotoxicity of individual plants and also the combined extracts of plants grown in polluted and natural area were carried out separately to check out the differences. The ...

  13. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Polyphenols

    Ângelo Luís; Duarte Neiva; Helena Pereira; Jorge Gominho; Fernanda Domingues; Ana Paula Duarte

    2014-01-01

    These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study ...

  14. Leachates of Eucalyptus globulus in Intermittent Streams Affect Water Parameters and Invertebrates

    Canhoto, Cristina; Laranjeira, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Low order streams running through Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Central Portugal are frequently reduced to isolated permanent or temporary summer pools with darkly stained water due to leaf leachates. Here we assess the toxicity of such leachates to the shredder Sericostoma vittatum. Leachates resulted in deoxygenated and more acid water, and increased its phenolic content and conductivity. S. vittatum exposed to high concentrations of leachates failed to grow and died within 30 days eve...

  15. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-05-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (900 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  16. Effects of Eucalyptus globulus Wood Autohydrolysis Conditions on the Reaction Products

    Garrote, G.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Falque, E.; Domingues, H; Parajo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were reacted in aqueous media (hydrothermal treatments) at 160 °C for 30¿66 min. Liquors from the several experiments were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry for monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide substituents (arabinose moieties, uronic acids, and acetyl groups), acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and dichloromethane-soluble compounds. Individual components ...

  17. Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils

    Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo N.; González Audino, Paola; Masuh, Hector M.

    2009-01-01

    Vapors of essential oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (E. gunnii, E. tereticornis, E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. cinerea, E. saligna, E. sideroxylon, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. viminalis and the hybrids E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis) and their major components were found to be toxic to Aedes aegypti adults, the yellow fever mosquito. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber and the ...

  18. Early Ovule Development Following Self‐ and Cross‐pollinations in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus

    POUND, L. M.; WALLWORK, M. A. B.; POTTS, B. M.; SEDGLEY, M.

    2002-01-01

    The study was conducted to identify the self‐incompatibility mechanism in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus. Controlled self‐ and cross‐pollinations were conducted on individual flowers from three mature trees that had self‐incompatibility levels of 76, 99·6 and 100 %. Flowers were harvested at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. Embryology was investigated by bright field microscopy on material harvested at 4 and 6 weeks after pollination. Fertilization had taken place at 4 weeks after po...

  19. Essential oils from two Eucalyptus from Tunisia and their insecticidal action on Orgyia trigotephras (Lepidotera, Lymantriidae)

    Badreddine Ben Slimane; Olfa Ezzine; Samir Dhahri; Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamaa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Essential oils extracted from aromatic and medicinal plants have many biological properties and are therefore an alternative to the use of synthetic products. The chemical composition of essential oils from two medicinal plants (Eucalyptus globulus and E. lehmannii) was determined and, their insecticidal effects on the third and fourth larval stages of Orgyia trigotephras were assessed. RESULTS: Larvae were collected from Jebel Abderrahmane (North-East of Tunisia), conserved in gr...

  20. Transcriptome Sequencing of Two Phenotypic Mosaic Eucalyptus Trees Reveals Large Scale Transcriptome Re-Modelling

    Padovan, Amanda; Patel, Hardip R.; Chuah, Aaron; Gavin A. Huttley; Krause, Sandra T; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J.; Külheim, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic mosaic trees offer an ideal system for studying differential gene expression. We have investigated two mosaic eucalypt trees from two closely related species (Eucalyptus melliodora and E. sideroxylon), which each support two types of leaves: one part of the canopy is resistant to insect herbivory and the remaining leaves are susceptible. Driving this ecological distinction are differences in plant secondary metabolites. We used these phenotypic mosaics to investigate genome wide pa...

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pisolithus in soil under eucalyptus plantations in Brazil

    Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya; Irene da Silva Coelho; Daniela Tiago da Silva Campos; Elza Fernandes de Araújo; Yutaka Tamai; Toshizumi Miyamoto

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen Pisolithus basidiomes were collected from Eucalyptus plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. These basidiomes were characterized morphologically and molecularly. The basidiomes varied in shape, color and size. One of them was found underground, indicating a hypogeous fungus. The main morphological distinctive characteristic was spore ornamentation, which distinguished two groups. One group with short and erect spines was identified as Pisolithus microcarpus, and the other w...

  2. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  3. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    Ognouabi Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs. In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13 had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%. The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

  4. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  5. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  6. Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia

    Kidanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more resilient soils need intensification to sustain human needs. This thesis discusses the opportunities of a short rotation (3 years) eucalyptus based agroforestry system to intensify annual sole cro...

  7. Life-cycle assessment of eucalyptus short-rotation coppices for bioenergy production in Southern France

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Nguyen The, Nicolas; Maupu, Pauline; Vial, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRCs) are considered prime candidates for biomass production, yielding good-quality feedstock that is easy to harvest. Besides technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are important to take into account when developing SRCs. Here, we evaluated the environmental impacts of delivering 1 GJ of heat from eucalyptus SRC using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on management scenarios involving different rotations lengths, fertilizer input rates, stem ...

  8. Changes in carbon stocks in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations induced by different water and nutrient availability

    Fabio, Antnio; Madeira, M.; J.S. Pereira; Arajo, M.C.; Ribeiro, C.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the carbon stocks under different soil water and nutrient conditions were studied in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. stands in a field experiment, at O bidos (central Portugal). The treatments were irrigation plus a complete fertiliser solution to simulate near optimal nutrition (IF), irrigation only (I), and fertilisers added to rain-fed plots (F). The control (C) received neither water nor fertilisers (except a small amount at planting). The production of biomass (aboveg...

  9. Development of root biomass in an Eucalyptus globulus plantation under different water and nutrient regimes

    Fabio, Antnio; Madeira, M.; Steen, E. van der; Katterer, T.; Ribeiro, C.; de Arajo, C.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution along the soil profile of Eucalyptus globulus root biomass was followed in a plantation in central Portugal at 1, 2 and 6 years after planting, using an excavation technique. The experimental design consisted of a control (C)and 3 treatments: application of solid fertilizers twice a year (F), irrigation without the application of fertilizers (I) and irrigation combined with liquid fertilizers (IL). Bellow- and above-ground biomass decreased as follows: IL>I>F>C. So, water str...

  10. Eucalyptus Biomass and Volume Estimation Using Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data

    Fbio Furlan Gama; Joo Roberto dos Santos; Jos Claudio Mura

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to establish a relationship between volume and biomass with interferometric and radiometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) response from planted Eucalyptus saligna forest stands, using multi-variable regression techniques. X and P band SAR images from the airborne OrbiSAR-1 sensor, were acquired at the study area in the southeast region of Brazil. The interferometric height (Hint = difference between interferometric digital elevation model in X and P bands), contributed to the ...

  11. Supercritical Fluid Fractionation for Enhancement of Insecticidal Activity of Eucalyptus Extract

    Topiař, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Maixnerová, Lucie; Pavela, R.

    Salerno : Centro Stampa di Ateneo, 2013 - (Reverchon, E.; De Marco, I.), s. 119-126 ISBN 88-7897-061-1. [Conference on Supercritical Fluids and Their Applications /10./. Napoli (IT), 29.05.2013-06.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical CO2 extraction * extract fractionation * eucalyptus Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. Characterization of organic deposits produced in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood

    Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Martín Martínez, Francisco; Romero Sánchez, Javier

    1998-01-01

    The composition of the organic deposits (the so-called pitch deposits) accumulated in different parts of the mills during the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using an ECF (elementary chlorine free) bleaching sequence has been studied. Three pitch deposits were selected in the bleaching sequence. The first one was taken just after the kraft pulping and the oxygen prebleaching step, while the other two were taken from different parts of the mill after the chlorine dioxide bleaching...

  13. Lipophilic extractives from Eucalyptus globulus pulp during kraft cooking followed by TCF and ECF bleaching

    Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Romero Sánchez, Javier; Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of lipophilic extractives in paper pulps from Eucalyptus globulus wood during kraft cooking followed by TCF (“totally chlorine free”) and ECF (“elemental chlorine free”) bleaching sequences has been determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses revealed that the composition of the lipophilic extractives in pulp after kraft cooking and TCF bleaching with hydrogen peroxide was similar to that of E. globulus wood extract...

  14. Complex xylo-oligosaccharides identified from hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain.

    Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A. G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrolysates from two hydrothermally treated xylan-rich agrobased materials, Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain were fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Hereby, several pools were obtained and they were characterised by their sugar composition. Additionally, the oligosaccharides in the pools described were further identified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry. The hydrothermally treated brewery's spent gr...

  15. CLONE SELECTION OF Eucalyptus ENVISAGING WOOD PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ASSESSED ON FIELD CONDITIONS

    Érica de Alvarenga Crespo Rodrigues; Sebastião Carlos da Silva Rosado; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; Alisson Moura Santos

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the phenotypic, genetic and environmental parameters for the following wood physical properties:basic density, radial, tangential, volumetric shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient. It also assessed the indirect genetic gains in thephysical properties of wood by the selection of amplitude for longitudinal residual strains evaluated using a non-destructive method.A total of 13 Eucalyptus clones aged 10 years were used. The experiment was established in a completely...

  16. Influence of enzyme and chemical adsorption on the thermal degradation path for eucalyptus pulp

    Barneto, A. G.; Valls Vidal, Cristina; Ariza, José; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Changes in thermal degradation path of eucalyptus pulp support enzymes (laccase from Trametes villosa) and chemicals (Tris–HCl or tartrate–tartaric buffer) adsorption on cellulose during biobleaching, thereby increasing cellulose amount that degrades at low temperature and decreasing the apparent crystallinity (ApC) of cellulose crystallites. Changes in ApC, which can be assessed by thermogravimetric analysis—but not X-ray diffraction spectroscopy—affect cellulose volatilization; thus, the hi...

  17. Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract

    M. Rojhan; Nouri, L.

    2013-01-01

    Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract) was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca star...

  18. Effects of inbreeding on population mean performance and observational variances in Eucalyptus globulus

    Costa E Silva, João; Hardner, Craig; Tilyard, Paul; Pires, Ana M.; Potts, Brad M.

    2010-01-01

    * Mean performance and variances were studied in self (SELF), open pollinated (OP) and unrelated polymix (POL) crosses of common parentage in Eucalyptus globulus.* Inbreeding depression for survival (SURV) and basal area per hectare (BAH) was the highest reported for a SELF eucalypt population, increasing with age to reach 74 and 77%, respectively, over 10 years.* Inbreeding depression in the OP was 36% for SURV and 32% for BAH at age 10 years, and estimates of outcrossing rate from BAH were ...

  19. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de; Lahr Francisco Antonio Rocco

    2004-01-01

    The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard), in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of ru...

  20. Influence of bleaching technologies on the aerobic biodegradability of effluents from Eucalyptus kraft pulps factories

    Gladys Vidal; Manuel Soto; Ramón Méndez; Juan Manuel Lema

    1999-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradability of effluents from different Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching processes was studied. Bleaching effluents were obtained from: i) Chlorine Bleaching (CB) processes, with partial substitution of chlorine by chlorine dioxide and ii) Total Chlorine Free (TCF) processes. The overall biodegradability, in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was higher for TCF effluents (96-98%) than for CB ones (82-93%). Taking into account the higher organic load of CB effluents, this fact i...

  1. Alterations of soil chemical properties by eucalyptus cultivation in five regions in the Rio Doce Valley Alteraes de caractersticas qumicas de solos pelo cultivo de eucalipto em cinco regies no Vale do Rio Doce

    Fernando Palha Leite; Ivo Ribeiro Silva; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Nairam Flix de Barros; Jlio Csar Lima Neves

    2010-01-01

    Little is currently known about modifications in edaphic characteristics caused by short-rotation eucalyptus and the impacts of these alterations on the sustainability of eucalyptus wood production. This study was carried out to identify theses changes at five sites of eucalyptus plantation in the region of the Rio Doce Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Areas with more than three previous eucalyptus cycles, adjacent to pasture land or native forest, were chosen. Soil samples were collect...

  2. BALANCE OF WATER AND ENERGY FOR EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS WITH PARTIAL SOIL COVER

    Mariana Gonçalves dos Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813329Eucalyptus plots with initial development ages presented discontinuity in soil cover, resulting in greaterexposure of the leaves to wind and solar radiation, which alters soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. Theobjective of this study was to study the components of the water and energy balances along the first yearof eucalyptus development in the Brazilian coastal plain region. The experimental site is located in anarea belonging to the company Fibria in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Thespace between the planted eucalyptus trees in the area studied was 3 x 3 m and the data of planting wason August 15th , 2004. The period of study lasted from the planting date until the plot reached an ageof 19 months. It was verified that there was a greater availability of energy during the summer and theprecipitation directly influenced the energy balance where during the period of study the energy available necessary for evapotranspiration was always greater than the fraction necessary for heating the soil-plantatmospheresystem, presenting a λE/Rn ratio of 59.57%. It was also observed that the water balance with themodeled evapotranspiration showed a good correspondence with the observed moisture content, presentinga determination coefficient of 0,94. In the majority of trees, greater indices of leaf and root system areasfavored evapotranspiration, indicating that most energy available was utilized for changing the phase ofwater

  3. A multi-gene phylogeny for species of Mycosphaerella occurring on Eucalyptus leaves

    Michael J. Wingfield

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of the ascomycete genus Mycosphaerella are regarded as some of the most destructive leaf pathogens of a large number of economically important crop plants. Amongst these, approximately 60 Mycosphaerella spp. have been identified from various Eucalyptus spp. where they cause leaf diseases collectively known as Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease (MLD. Species concepts for this group of fungi remain confused, and hence their species identification is notoriously difficult. Thus, the introduction of DNA sequence comparisons has become the definitive characteristic used to distinguish species of Mycosphaerella. Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region of the ribosomal RNA operon have most commonly been used to consider species boundaries in Mycosphaerella. However, sequences for this gene region do not always provide sufficient resolution for cryptic taxa. The aim of this study was, therefore, to use DNA sequences for three loci, ITS, Elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α and Actin (ACT to reconsider species boundaries for Mycosphaerella spp. from Eucalyptus. A further aim was to study the anamorph concepts and resolve the deeper nodes of Mycosphaerella, for which part of the Large Subunit (LSU of the nuclear rRNA operon was sequenced. The ITS and EF-1α gene regions were found to be useful, but the ACT gene region did not provide species-level resolution in Mycosphaerella. A phylogeny of the combined DNA datasets showed that species of Mycosphaerella from Eucalyptus cluster in two distinct groups, which might ultimately represent discrete genera

  4. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  5. Edapho-climatic zoning for Eucalyptus urograndis in the State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Olíria Morgana Menezes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Edaphic and climatic zoning was undertaken in the State of Tocantins for eucalyptus crop in the State of Tocantins, in particular, Eucalyptus urograndis using ArcGIS 9.3 platform, a geographic information system (GIS tool for working with maps. Thus, the study was based on the parameters that reflect the climatic requirements for the proper development of the species, natural edaphic aptitude and the slope of the land for crop mechanization purposes. The first phase of the study comprised the cross-checking of maps of precipitation, temperature and water deficit, which resulted in the zoning of climatic aptitude. The second phase comprised the zoning of natural edaphic aptitude, based on existing soil units in the state. Based on the results obtained an edaphic and climate zoning was performed for the species to. The findings showed temperature constraint to the development of Eucalyptus urograndis. However, they stress the importance of the present study regarding the clones that are being implemented in Tocantins. Concerning natural edaphic aptitude, there was a predominance of soils considered unfavorable, yet significant areas were found to have favorable soil aptitude.

  6. Assessment of hepatoprotective role of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract in Rattus norvegicus after vanadium intoxication

    The protective effect of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and its potency has been compared with Liv.52 following V2O5, induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. LD50 estimated for V2O5, was 69.6 mg/kg b.wt. The administered doses of V2O5, were LD50/10th for acute and 1/7th, 1/14th and 1/21th of sublethal dose for subacute (7, 14 and 21 ds) respectively. Body weight, liver weight and hepatosomatic index were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was assessed in terms of hepatic total proteins, total lipids and total cholesterol. V2O5 intoxication significantly increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol, while significantly decreased body weight and total proteins. Pretreatment with dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt of Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract and 0.125 ml/kg b.wt. of Liv.52 syrup restored the increased liver weight, hepatosomatic index, total lipids and total cholesterol and decreased parameters like body weight and total proteins toward normalcy. The results reveal that Eucalyptus tereticornis leaf extract modulates V2O5 toxicity like well known hepatoprotectant, however the modulation is less than Liv.52. (author)

  7. POLIAMINAS COMO MARCADORES BIOQUÍMICOS DE SALINIDADE EM CALOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis

    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores bioquímicos têm sido usados na análise de plantas submetidas a vários tipos de estresse, entre eles a salinidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o estresse salino em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis em relação ao conteúdo de poliaminas. Explantes (hipocótilos obtidos de sementes foram inoculados em meio indutivo de calos e foram submetidos a diferentes níveis de NaCl e analisados aos 10, 20 e 30 dias de inoculação. As poliaminas livres foram extraídas, isoladas e quantificadas usando TLC (Cromatografia de Camada Delgada. O conteúdo de putrescina foi maior, enquanto que o conteúdo de espermidina apresentou decréscimo, em calos submetidos a condições salinas. Os resultados mostram que o acúmulo de putrescina está relacionado com a exposição a NaCl em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis. A diminuição do conteúdo de espermina pode ser usada como marcador bioquímico de calos de Eucalyptus sujeitos à salinidade.

  8. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.

    Qulez, A M; Saenz, M T; Garca, M D

    2012-03-01

    The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2?mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6?mg/kg and 3.25?mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14?mg/kg and 3.54?mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines. PMID:21928376

  9. Ethyl Formate: A Potential Disinfestation Treatment for Eucalyptus Weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Apples.

    Agarwal, Manjree; Ren, Yonglin; Newman, James; Learmonth, Stewart

    2015-12-01

    Export of Pink Lady apples from Australia has been significantly affected by infestations of adult eucalyptus weevils (Gonipterus platensis Marelli). These weevils cling tenaciously to the pedicel of apple fruit when selecting overwintering sites. As a result, apples infested with live G. platensis adults lead to rejection for export. Since the Montreal Protocol restricted use of methyl bromide as postharvest treatment, it was necessary to consider alternative safer fumigants for disinfestation of eucalyptus weevil. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 80?mg/liter of ethyl formate. Complete control (100% mortality) was achieved at 25-30?mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24C for 24-h exposure without apples. However, with 90-95% of the volume full of apples, complete control was achieved at 40?mg/liter of ethyl formate at 22-24C for 24-h exposure. No phytotoxicity was observed and after one day aeration, residue of ethyl formate declined to natural levels (0.05-0.2?mg/kg). Five ethyl formate field trials were conducted in cool storages (capacity from 250-900 tons) and 100% kill of eucalyptus weevils were achieved at 50-55?mg/liter at 7-10C for 24?h. Ethyl formate has great potential for preshipment treatment of apples. Its use is considerably cheaper and safer than already existing fumigants like methyl bromide and phosphine. PMID:26470387

  10. Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus

    Silvano Rodrigues Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones.

  11. A model system to study the lignification process in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Araújo, Pedro; Cesarino, Igor; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Ferrari, Ilse Fernanda; Kiyota, Eduardo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass is closely related to the presence of the phenolic heteropolymer lignin in secondary cell walls, which has a negative effect on forage digestibility, biomass-to-biofuels conversion and chemical pulping. The genus Eucalyptus is the main source of wood for pulp and paper industry. However, when compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, relatively little is known about lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus and only a few genes were functionally characterized. An efficient, fast and inexpensive in vitro system was developed to study lignification in Eucalyptus globulus and to evaluate the potential role of candidate genes in this biological process. Seedlings were grown in four different conditions, in the presence or absence of light and with or without sucrose in the growth medium, and several aspects of lignin metabolism were evaluated. Our results showed that light and, to a lesser extent, sucrose induced lignin biosynthesis, which was followed by changes in S/G ratio, lignin oligomers accumulation and gene expression. In addition, higher total peroxidase activity and differential isoperoxidase profile were observed when seedlings were grown in the presence of light and sucrose. Peptide sequencing allowed the identification of differentially expressed peroxidases, which can be considered potential candidate class III peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization in E. globulus. PMID:24444279

  12. MIXED STANDS of Eucalyptus urograndis AND Acacia mearnsii IN AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM: I - BIOMASS PRODUCTION

    Isabel Sandra Kleinpaul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate a mixed stand of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in an agroforestry system with corn (Zea mays L. in Bagé, RS. The design entailed a randomized block with five treatments and three replicates (T1- 100E; T2- 100A; T3- 50E:50A; T4- 75E:25A e T5- 25E:75A, with 4.0 m x 1.5 m planting space. Three lines of corn were planted, between the eucalyptus and/or black-wattle lines. Ten months after the installation, the biomass from forest species were quantified and separated in fractions (leaf, branch and stem. Corn biomass was collected at the end of the cycle and separated in fractions (leaf, straw, grain, corn cob and stem. In mixed stands, the treatment T5 (25E:75A showed the highest biomass accumulation, being 35.1% in the leaves, 25.8% in branches and 39.1% in stem. The black wattle showed higher growth than the initial eucalyptus, both alone and in the mixed stand. The yield of corn was between 1.01 to 1.26 Mg ha-1, which was not statistically different (p>0.05 between treatments.

  13. Genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition and growth in Eucalyptus across multiple environments.

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mabiala, André; Savelli, Bruno; Bert, Didier; Brendel, Oliver; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    In the context of climate change, the water-use efficiency (WUE) of highly productive tree varieties, such as eucalypts, has become a major issue for breeding programmes. This study set out to dissect the genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C), a proxy of WUE, across several environments. A family of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis was planted in three trials and phenotyped for δ(13) C and growth traits. High-resolution genetic maps enabled us to target genomic regions underlying δ(13) C quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on the E. grandis genome. Of the 15 QTLs identified for δ(13) C, nine were stable across the environments and three displayed significant QTL-by-environment interaction, suggesting medium to high genetic determinism for this trait. Only one colocalization was found between growth and δ(13) C. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis suggested candidate genes related to foliar δ(13) C, including two involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. This study provides the first report of the genetic architecture of δ(13) C and its relation to growth in Eucalyptus. The low correlations found between the two traits at phenotypic and genetic levels suggest the possibility of improving the WUE of Eucalyptus varieties without having an impact on breeding for growth. PMID:25643911

  14. [Decomposition of eucalyptus-alder mixed litters and dynamics of soil faunal community].

    Li, Yan-hong; Luo, Cheng-de; Yang, Wan-qin; Hu, Jie; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2011-04-01

    In order to understand the decomposition characteristics of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) -alder (Alnus formosana) mixed litters and the roles of soil fauna in the decomposition process, litter samples of the two tree species were collected from the Suji Town of Leshan, Sichuan Province, and mixed with different proportions. The mixtures were put in 6-, 30-, and 260-mesh litterbags to investigate their mass loss and the dynamics of soil faunal community during the process of decomposition. Different proportion mixtures all presented the same decomposition pattern, i. e., decomposed rapidly in early period and slower in later period. The mixtures had the highest decomposition rate in 6-mesh litterbag, followed by in 30-mesh, and in 260-mesh litterbag. In the litterbags with same meshes, the decomposition rate of different proportion mixed litters also varied. In 6-mesh litterbag, the durations for the decomposition of the litters had slight difference; while in 30- and 260-mesh litterbags, the durations for pure E. grandis and A. formosana litters getting 95% mass loss had a difference of 1175 and 908 days, respectively. During the decomposition of the litters, soil macrofauna had an obvious change in community structure. In early period, Psocoptera dominated; in mid period, Opisthopora dominated; in later period, Coleoptera dominated; and by the end, Diptera dominated. This study provided important information to understand the material cycling in eucalyptus-alder mixed plantation. PMID:21774303

  15. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paric, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paric- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paric veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  16. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpene and short-chained carbonyl compounds from Eucalyptus spp. in southern Australia

    Winters, Anthony J.; Adams, Mark A.; Bleby, Tim M.; Rennenberg, Heinz; Steigner, Dominik; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    Eucalypts are among the highest emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds, yet there is relatively little data available from field studies of this genus. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes and the short-chained carbonyls formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were determined from four species ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, and Eucalytpus viminalis) in Australia. A smaller comparative study was conducted on E. camaldulensis in south-eastern Australia. Carbonyl emissions, reported here for the first time from eucalypts, were generally comparable with rates reported for other species, with diurnal emissions peaking at about 4, 75 and 34 nmol m -2 min -1 for acetone, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde respectively. There was wide variation in diurnal isoprene and monoterpene emissions between species, but under standard conditions, isoprene emissions were much lower than previous reports. Conversely, standard emission rates of monoterpenes were as much as six times greater than previous reports for some species. Emission of each carbonyl was correlated with its ambient concentration across different species, but more weakly related to temperature. Acetaldehyde emission in particular was significantly correlated with transpiration, but not with sap flow or with ethanol concentrations in xylem sap, suggesting fermentation within the leaf and stomatal conductance are primary controlling processes. Differences in acetaldehyde exchange velocities between sites, in addition to transpiration differences, suggest stomata may indeed exert long term emission regulation, in contrast to compounds for which no biological sink exists.

  17. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  18. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits. Keywords: profitability, eucalyptus on-farm tree growing, renewable energy, aforestation

  19. Predicting the morphological characteristics and basic density of Eucalyptus wood using the NIRS technique

    Lívia Cássia Viana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply the near infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRS for fast prediction of basic density and morphological characteristics of wood fibers in Eucalyptus clones. Six Eucalyptus clones aged three years were used, obtained from plantations in Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce and Santa Bárbara, in Minas Gerais state. The morphological characteristics of the fibers and basic density of the wood were determined by conventional methods and correlated with near infrared spectra using partial least square regression (PLS regression. Best calibration correlations were obtained in basic density prediction, with values 0.95 for correlation coefficient of cross validation (Rcv and 3.4 for ratio performance deviation (RPD, in clone 57. Fiber length can be predicted by models with Rcv ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and standard error (SECV ranging from 0.037 to 0.079 mm. The prediction model for wood fiber width presented higher Rcv (0.82 and RPD (1.9 values in clone 1046. Best fits to estimate lumen diameter and fiber wall thickness were obtained with information from clone 1046. In some clones, the NIRS technique proved efficient to predict the anatomical properties and basic density of wood in Eucalyptus clones.

  20. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  1. Application of stress waves to estimate moisture content in Eucalyptus wood

    Clair Rogério da Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate monitoring of moisture content in Eucalyptus wood during the drying process is critical to improving product quality. And as electric meters lose accuracy in some moisture ranges, in this work a Stress Wave Timer was used to try and assess the possibility of estimating wood moisture based on variation in the propagation velocity of stress waves in two Eucalyptus species. Effects of knot area and board basic density on the propagation of stress waves were also analyzed, using analysis of variance and observing mean values for these characteristics. Equations were fitted and wood moisture content could be estimated by the stress wave propagation method using nonlinear models or a multiple linear model, with wave propagation velocity, basic density and knot area being used as independent variables. Best fits were obtained for boards showing no visible defects (knots, cracks etc.. The propagation velocity of stress waves through the wood was found to vary as a function of the knot area, wood density and anatomical orientation (visual analysis of the boards. Knots had a stronger influence on wave transmission when they were present in radially cut boards. Keywords: wood moisture content, basic density, knots, Eucalyptus, stress wave timer.

  2. Variation in composition and yield of foliage oil of eucalyptus polybractea

    Eucalyptus polybractea (blue mallee) is the essential oil rich species used in the commercial production of pharmaceutical-grade Eucalyptus oil in Australia. This species was grown at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2004-08 to investigate the quantity and quality of its foliage oil. The oils were extracted by hydro-distillation method, from the leaves of four year aged ten E. polybractea plants. The data showed a significant intra-species variation in their oil contents (29.3 to 41.8 mg g-1 fresh weight of leaves). Out of ten plants eight contained oil >30 mg g/sup -1/ fresh weight of leaves. The components of the extracted oils varied from 12-26 as detected by GC/FID on Carbowax 20 M packed glass column. Among all the oil components, 1, 8-cineole was the major compound (91.7-94.2 %), while the other identified compounds were alpha-pinene (0-1.2 %), beta-pinene (0.4-2.3 %), limonene (0.2-1.3 %), p-cymene (1.23-2.75 %), and terpinene-4-ol (0.6-0.92 %). The extracted oils from all the Eucalyptus polybractea plants contained high amount of 1, 8-cineole (>90 %), therefore, classified as species of high quality medicinal oil. (author)

  3. Novel hosts of the Eucalyptus canker pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis and a new Chrysoporthe species from Colombia.

    Gryzenhout, Marieka; Rodas, Carlos A; Portales, Julio Mena; Clegg, Paul; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    The pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis (formerly Cryphonectria cubensis) is best known for the important canker disease that it causes on Eucalyptus species. This fungus is also a pathogen of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), which is native to Indonesia, and like Eucalyptus, is a member of Myrtaceae. Furthermore, C. cubensis has been found on Miconia spp. native to South America and residing in Melastomataceae. Recent surveys have yielded C. cubensis isolates from new hosts, characterized in this study based on DNA sequences for the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions. These hosts include native Clidemia sericea and Rhynchanthera mexicana (Melastomataceae) in Mexico, and non-native Lagerstroemia indica (Pride of India, Lythraceae) in Cuba. Isolates from these hosts and areas group in the sub-clade of C. cubensis accommodating the South American collections of the fungus. This sub-clade also includes isolates recently collected from Eucalyptus in Cuba, which are used to epitypify C. cubensis. New host records from Southeast Asia include exotic Tibouchina urvilleana from Singapore and Thailand and native Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Consistent with their areas of occurrence isolates from the latter collections group in the Asian sub-clade of C. cubensis. DNA sequence comparisons of isolates from Tibouchina lepidota in Colombia revealed that they represent a new sub-clade within the greater Chrysoporthe clade. Isolates in this clade are described as Chrysoporthe inopina sp. nov., based on distinctive morphological differences. PMID:16876702

  4. Predicting moisture content from basic density and diameter during air drying of Eucalyptus and corymbia logs

    Antnio Jos, Vinha Zanuncio; Amlia, Guimares Carvalho; Liniker, Fernandes da Silva; Jos, Tarcisio Lima; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Jos Reinaldo, Moreira da Silva.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In air drying of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs for the production of charcoal it is necessary to be able to predict when logs have reached the required moisture content of ? 35%.This study is aimed to produce models using basic density and diameter to predict the moisture content [...] of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs after 30, 60 and 90 days drying. 1,2 m long logs were taken at three different heights from three C. citriodora trees and three trees each from two E. urophylla clones (VM4 and Mn463). The 27 debarked, end sealed logs were air dried under cover for 90 days during which the change in moisture content was monitored. The relationship between density and drying was analyzed by Pearsons correlation coefficient and the models for predicting the moisture content based on the basic density and diameter were produced. The density and the drying showed a high correlation coefficient. The coefficient of determination of the models was above 0,89 with a standard error lower than 6%. The use of the density and diameter to estimate the wood moisture content simplifies the production of the models, which can be used for Eucalyptus and Corymbia genetic materials.

  5. Predicting moisture content from basic density and diameter during air drying of Eucalyptus and corymbia logs

    Antnio Jos, Vinha Zanuncio; Amlia, Guimares Carvalho; Liniker, Fernandes da Silva; Jos, Tarcisio Lima; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Jos Reinaldo, Moreira da Silva.

    Full Text Available In air drying of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs for the production of charcoal it is necessary to be able to predict when logs have reached the required moisture content of ? 35%.This study is aimed to produce models using basic density and diameter to predict the moisture content [...] of Eucalyptus urophylla and Corymbia citriodora logs after 30, 60 and 90 days drying. 1,2 m long logs were taken at three different heights from three C. citriodora trees and three trees each from two E. urophylla clones (VM4 and Mn463). The 27 debarked, end sealed logs were air dried under cover for 90 days during which the change in moisture content was monitored. The relationship between density and drying was analyzed by Pearsons correlation coefficient and the models for predicting the moisture content based on the basic density and diameter were produced. The density and the drying showed a high correlation coefficient. The coefficient of determination of the models was above 0,89 with a standard error lower than 6%. The use of the density and diameter to estimate the wood moisture content simplifies the production of the models, which can be used for Eucalyptus and Corymbia genetic materials.

  6. Assessment of the salt tolerance and environmental biosafety of Eucalyptus camaldulensis harboring a mangrin transgene.

    Yu, Xiang; Kikuchi, Akira; Shimazaki, Takayoshi; Yamada, Akiyo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2013-01-01

    Increasing soil salinization of arable land has a major impact on the global ecosystem. One approach to increase the usable global forest area is to develop transgenic trees with higher tolerance to conditions of salt stress. An allene oxide cyclase homolog, mangrin, contains a core protein domain that enhances the salt tolerance of its host. We utilized this feature to develop improved salt-tolerant eucalyptus trees, by using transgenic Eucalyptus camaldulensis carrying the mangrin gene as a model. Since the Japanese government requires an environmental biosafety assessment for the surrounding biosphere, we performed experiments on trees grown in a special netted-house. This study examined the transgenic E. camaldulensis carrying the mangrin gene to assess the feasibility of using these transformants, and assessed their salt tolerance and environmental biosafety. We found that seven of 36 transgenic genotypes had significantly higher salt tolerance than non-transformants, and more importantly, that these plants had no significant impact on environmental biosafety. These results suggest that introduction of the mangrin gene may be one approach to safely enhance salt tolerance in genetically modified Eucalyptus species, and that the transformants have no apparent risks in terms of environmental biosafety. Thus, this study provides valuable information regarding the use of transgenic trees in situ. PMID:22752709

  7. Field performance of alternative landfill covers vegetated with cottonwood and eucalyptus trees.

    Abichou, Tarek; Musagasa, Jubily; Yuan, Lei; Chanton, Jeff; Tawfiq, Kamal; Rockwood, Donald; Licht, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill covers to control percolation into the waste. Performance of one conventional cover was compared to that of two evapotranspiration (ET) tree covers, using large (7 x 14 m) lined lysimeters at the Leon County Solid Waste management facility in Tallahassee, Florida. Additional unlined test sections were also constructed and monitored in order to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, and tree growth inside lysimeters and in unlined test sections. The unlined test sections were in direct contact with landfill gas. Surface runoff on the ET covers was a small proportion of the water balance (1% of precipitation) as compared to 13% in the conventional cover. Percolation in the ET covers averaged 17% and 24% of precipitation as compared to 33% in the conventional cover. On average, soil water storage was higher in the lined lysimeters (429 mm) compared to unlined test sections (408 mm). The average soil temperature in the lysimeters was lower than in the unlined test sections. The average tree height inside the lysimeters was not significantly lower (8.04 mfor eucalyptus and 7.11 mfor cottonwood) than outside (8.82 m for eucalyptus and 8.01 m for cottonwood). ET tree covers vegetated with cottonwood or eucalyptus are feasible for North Florida climate as an alternative to GCL covers. PMID:22574380

  8. Preliminary study of prairies forested with Eucalyptus sp. at the northwestern Uruguayan soils

    Carrasco-Letelier, L.; Eguren, G.; Castineira, C.; Parra, O.; Panario, D

    2004-01-01

    The forestation of Uruguayan natural prairie soil does not always ensure an increase of soil carbon sink. - The land cover change of Uruguayan Forestal Plan provoked biogeochemical changes on horizon Au{sub 1} of Argiudols; in native prairies which were replaced by monoculture Eucalyptus sp. plantation with 20 year rotations as trees. Five fields forested and six natural prairies were compared. The results not only show a statistical significant soil acidification, diminution of soil organic carbon, increase of aliphaticity degree of humic substances, and increase of affinity and capacity of hydrolytic activity from soil microbial communities for forested sites with Eucalyptus sp. but also, a tendency of podzolization and/or mineralization by this kind of land cover changes, with a net soil organic lost of 16.6 tons ha{sup -1} in the horizon Au{sub 1} of soil under Eucalyptus sp. plantation compared with prairie. Besides, these results point out the necessity of correction of the methodology used by assigned Uruguayan commission to assess the national net emission of greenhouse gases, since the mineralization and/or podzolization process detected in forested soil imply a overestimation of soil organic carbon. The biochemical parameters show a statistical significant correlation between the soil organic carbon status and these parameters which were presented as essential for the correct evaluation of Uruguayan soil carbon sink.

  9. Preliminary study of prairies forested with Eucalyptus sp. at the northwestern Uruguayan soils.

    Carrasco-Letelier, L; Eguren, G; Castiñeira, C; Parra, O; Panario, D

    2004-01-01

    The land cover change of Uruguayan Forestal Plan provoked biogeochemical changes on horizon Au(1) of Argiudols; in native prairies which were replaced by monoculture Eucalyptus sp. plantation with 20 year rotations as trees. Five fields forested and six natural prairies were compared. The results not only show a statistical significant soil acidification, diminution of soil organic carbon, increase of aliphaticity degree of humic substances, and increase of affinity and capacity of hydrolytic activity from soil microbial communities for forested sites with Eucalyptus sp. but also, a tendency of podzolization and/or mineralization by this kind of land cover changes, with a net soil organic lost of 16.6 tons ha(-1) in the horizon Au(1) of soil under Eucalyptus sp. plantation compared with prairie. Besides, these results point out the necessity of correction of the methodology used by assigned Uruguayan commission to assess the national net emission of greenhouse gases, since the mineralization and/or podzolization process detected in forested soil imply a overestimation of soil organic carbon. The biochemical parameters show a statistical significant correlation between the soil organic carbon status and these parameters which were presented as essential for the correct evaluation of Uruguayan soil carbon sink. PMID:14553994

  10. Preliminary study of prairies forested with Eucalyptus sp. at the northwestern Uruguayan soils

    The forestation of Uruguayan natural prairie soil does not always ensure an increase of soil carbon sink. - The land cover change of Uruguayan Forestal Plan provoked biogeochemical changes on horizon Au1 of Argiudols; in native prairies which were replaced by monoculture Eucalyptus sp. plantation with 20 year rotations as trees. Five fields forested and six natural prairies were compared. The results not only show a statistical significant soil acidification, diminution of soil organic carbon, increase of aliphaticity degree of humic substances, and increase of affinity and capacity of hydrolytic activity from soil microbial communities for forested sites with Eucalyptus sp. but also, a tendency of podzolization and/or mineralization by this kind of land cover changes, with a net soil organic lost of 16.6 tons ha-1 in the horizon Au1 of soil under Eucalyptus sp. plantation compared with prairie. Besides, these results point out the necessity of correction of the methodology used by assigned Uruguayan commission to assess the national net emission of greenhouse gases, since the mineralization and/or podzolization process detected in forested soil imply a overestimation of soil organic carbon. The biochemical parameters show a statistical significant correlation between the soil organic carbon status and these parameters which were presented as essential for the correct evaluation of Uruguayan soil carbon sink

  11. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. PMID:26132805

  12. Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii Eucalyptus dunnii: ( i sobrevivncia de minicepas e produo de miniestacas em funo das coletas e estaes do ano

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985075O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tcnica de miniestaquia na clonagem de Eucalyptus benthamii Eucalyptus dunnii ao longo das estaes do ano quanto sobrevivncia de minicepas e produo de miniestacas. As minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas durante 352 dias em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropnico em leito de areia com soluo nutritiva fornecida por gotejamento, efetuando-se 27 coletas sucessivas de brotaes durante as quatro estaes do ano (primavera, vero, outono e inverno. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco repeties e quatro minicepas por repetio. As minicepas apresentaram elevado percentual de sobrevivncia (89,68% aps 27 coletas sucessivas de brotaes, indicando alta longevidade como fontes fornecedoras de propgulos. A produo de miniestaca variou conforme o clone e mostraram-se sensveis s estaes do ano e s oscilaes da temperatura. A maior produo ocorreu nas estaes consideradas mais quentes (primavera e vero com variao de 635,42 a 852,64 miniestacas m-2, e a menor nas estaes mais frias (outono e inverno com 592,38 a 629,36 miniestacas m-2. A produo anual de miniestacas foi de 18.934,76; 20.942,27 e 20.748,14 miniestacas m-2 ano-1, respectivamente para os clones H12, H19 e H20.

  13. Dinâmica do enraizamento de microestacas e miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis Rooting dynamics of microcuttings and minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis clones

    Miranda Titon

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a dinâmica de enraizamento de microestacas e miniestacas, mediante o acompanhamento da emissão e do desenvolvimento de raízes de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram utilizadas microestacas provenientes de brotações coletadas em plantas rejuvenescidas por micropropagação e miniestacas oriundas de brotações coletadas de miniestacas enraizadas originadas de mudas propagadas pelo processo de estaquia convencional. Os resultados indicaram a maior habilidade de enraizamento das microestacas em relação às miniestacas, evidenciada através do número de raízes/estaca, comprimento total de raiz/estaca, comprimento da maior raiz/estaca, comprimento médio de raízes/estaca e peso de matéria seca de raízes.The aim of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of microcutting and minicutting techniques during rooting process, by monitoring root emergence and development in microcuttings and minicuttings of four Eucalyptus grandis clones. Microcuttings were obtained from in vitro rejuvenated plant-derived sprouts, whereas minicuttings from rooted sprouts derived from plants propagated through conventional cutting technique. The results suggest the greater rooting ability of the microcuttings as compared to the minicuttings, evidenced by the number of roots/cuttings, total root/cutting length, largest root/cutting length, mean length of roots/cutting and dry weight of roots.

  14. NANOINDENTACIONES Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA EN MADERA DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS CON MICRO Y MESO GRIETAS NANOINDENTATIONS AND ULTRASTRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS NITENS WITH MICRO AND MESOCRACKS

    William Gacitua E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarroll una metodologa basada en nanoindentaciones y anlisis de la ultraestructura de clulas de madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden para explorar los factores que generan la aparicin de fallas en la madera debido a tensiones de crecimiento. Se estudi madera normal y madera con mesogrietas. Existieron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de vasos y mdulo de elasticidad de la pared S2 entre los dos tipos de madera estudiadas. Se identific como causa de la fractura de la lmina media y pared S1, fractura definida como mesogrieta, el factor de concentracin de esfuerzos y la capacidad de almacenamiento de energa por parte de las fibras de madera, presentando ambos factores diferencias significativas entre las muestras de madera analizadasUsing nanoindentations and ultrastructure analysis, we developed a methodology to explore factors that may contribute to failures in Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden due to growth stresses. Two types of wood were analyzed; normal wood and wood with meso-cracks. Factors contributing to cracking included the vessel frequency and mechanical properties of the S2 layer measured with nanoindentations. Micro and mesocracks propagated throughout the middle lamella and S1 layer due to an increased stress concentration that was mainly

  15. MODELOS HIPSOMTRICOS GENERALIZADOS MISTOS NA PREDIO DA ALTURA DE Eucalyptus sp. / GENERALIZED MIXED HEIGHT-DIAMETER MODELS FOR Eucalyptus sp. HEIGHT PREDICTION

    Adriano Ribeiro de, Mendona; Samuel de Pdua Chaves e, Carvalho; Natalino, Calegario.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se, este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a teoria dos modelos generalizados mistos e a modelagem da heterogeneidade de varincia no ajuste de dois modelos no lineares para a relao altura-dimetro em Eucalyptus sp. Foram utilizados dados de rvores-amostras de diferentes materiais gen [...] ticos (clone e semente) e idades. De acordo com as anlises, o modelo assinttico obteve os melhores resultados em relao ao modelo sigmoidal. A preciso dos modelos avaliados aumentou com a utilizao da teoria dos efeitos mistos com adio de covariveis e a modelagem da heterogeneidade da varincia. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the theory of the generalized mixed models and the modeling of the heteroscedasticity of variance in the fit of two nonlinear models for the height-diameter relationship in Eucalyptus sp. Data from sample trees of different genotypes (clone and seed) and age [...] s were used. According to the analysis, the asymptotic model achieved the best results compared to the sigmoid model. The accuracy of the models increased using the theory of mixed effects with the addition of covariates and modeling of the heteroscedasticity of variance.

  16. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m- sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  17. Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile

    Sandra Ide M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus, fue reportada por primera vez en el país en junio de 2009, como resultado del Programa de Vigilancia Forestal del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG. Insecto succionador cuyo daño lo ocasionan tanto ninfas como adultos al alimentarse de la savia de sus hospederos desde las hojas. Cuando las poblaciones aumentan, se produce una fuerte reducción de la tasa fotosintética de las hojas, lo que puede provocar una disminución del crecimiento y en ocasiones producir la defoliación completa del árbol. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la detección de T. peregrinus, delimitar su área de distribución y establecer el rango de hospederos dentro de las especies del género Eucalyptus presentes en Chile. Para esto se instalaron trampas amarillas pegajosas en la región Metropolitana, comuna de Til-Til, y en la región de Valparaíso y se realizó una prospección nacional que abarcó las regiones con presencia de especies del género Eucalyptus. Se detectaron nueve puntos positivos (= presencia en la región Metropolitana y uno en la región de Valparaíso. La detección de estados inmaduros y adultos de T. peregrinus sobre E. camaldulensis indica que el insecto se encuentra establecido en las regiones Metropolitana y de Valparaíso, Chile. Se dan a conocer las acciones a seguir dentro de las labores de control oficial ejecutadas por el SAG.The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was first reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG. Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When populations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims of this study were to confirm the detection of T. peregrinus, define its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the official control tasks performed by SAG.

  18. Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation Utilizacin del agua, limitacin hdrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantacin de Eucalyptus

    JOSE LUIZ STAPE

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeastern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall. We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water in control and irrigated treatments. Water supply limited growth; wood biomass increased from 36.6 Mg ha-1 for both treatments to 107.0 and 141.0 Mg ha-1 after 2 years for the control and irrigated plots. Across both years, irrigation increased wood productivity by 52% (42.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1 versus 28.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Water use was similar between the control and irrigated treatments during the wet year, but irrigation increased water use by 37% in the normal rainfall year. The efficiency of water use (wood production per m3 of transpired water in the control treatment increased from the normal year (1.8 kg wood/m of water to the wet year (3.2 wood/m of water, and irrigation increased water use efficiency by 18% in the wet year, 75% in the normal year, and 32% across both years. In combination with prior work on water use efficiency across a geographic gradient in rainfall, these irrigation results indicate that increasing water use efficiency should be expected with increasing water use by Eucalyptus.Millones de hectreas de Eucalyptus son intensamente manejadas en el mundo entero para la produccin de madera, pero la ecofisiologa del efecto de la limitacin de los recursos naturales en su crecimiento continuo, poco cuantificados. Fue estudiada la ecologa de la produccin de un planto clonal de 3,4 aos de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla en un terreno arenoso, durante dos aos (lluvioso y otro normal en el noreste del Brasil. La produccin de madera fue medida y estimado el uso del agua para el bosque (agua transpirada en los tratamientos control y bajo riego. La disponibilidad hdrica limit el crecimiento, y la biomasa leosa creci de 36,6 Mg ha-1 para los dos tratamientos, para 107,0 y 141,0 Mg ha-1 despus de 2 aos, para los tratamientos control y bajo riego, respectivamente. El promedio de la productividad para los 2 aos fue 52% superior para el tratamiento bajo riego (42,8 Mg ha-1 ao-1 versus 28,1 Mg ha-1 ao-1. El uso del agua fue similar entre los tratamientos control y bajo riego durante el ao lluvioso, pero la irrigacin aument el uso del agua en 37% en el ao con precipitacin normal. La eficacia del uso del agua (produccin de madera por m3 de agua transpirada en el tratamiento control aument en el ao normal (1,8 kg madera/m de agua, en el ao hmedo (3,3 kg madera/m de agua, y la irrigacin aument la eficacia del uso del agua en 18% en el ao lluvioso, 75% en el ao normal, y 32% como promedio de los 2 aos. En conjunto con nuestro trabajo anterior sobre la eficacia del uso del agua por un gradiente de precipitacin, estos resultados indican que una eficacia superior del uso del agua se debe esperar con el aumento del uso del agua por el Eucalyptus.

  19. Manganese accumulation and its relation to "eucalyptus shoot blight in the Vale do Rio Doce"

    Fernando Palha Leite

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus Shoot Blight in the Vale do Rio Doce (ESBVRD is an anomaly that leads to reduced growth and, in more extreme cases, to death of eucalyptus plants. Initially diagnosed in plantations in the region of the Vale do Rio Doce, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, this problem has also been found in plantations in other regions of the country and even in other countries. Although the symptoms of this anomaly are well-known, its causes are not yet understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause-effect relationship between accumulation of manganese (Mn in eucalyptus clones and ESBVRD. Characterization of the environment in areas of greater occurrence of this problem in regard to soil, climate and fluctuation of the water table was undertaken in eucalyptus plantations of the Celulose Nipo-brasileira S.A. (Cenibra company in the region of the Vale do Rio Doce. Plant tissues were sampled in two situations. In the first situation, diagnosis occurred in the initial phase of the anomaly in clones with differentiated tolerance to the problem; in the second situation, diagnosis was made in a single clone, considered to be sensitive, in two time periods - in the phase with the strong presence of symptoms and in the recovery phase, in areas of occurrence and in areas of escape from the problem. The most ESBVRD-sensitive clone showed much higher (4.8 times higher leaf Mn contents than more tolerant clones. In plants with the anomaly, Mn leaf contents were greater than 3,070 mg kg-1, much greater than the quantity found in those without the anomaly (734 mg kg-1. In the period in which the symptoms began to wane, there was a sharp decline in leaf Mn contents, from 2,194 to 847 mg kg-1. Manganese content in the above ground part and plant litter (44.4 g ha-1 in the area of occurrence of the anomaly was three times greater than that found in these same components (14.1 g ha-1 in the area of absence of the symptom. Based on the evidence found, such as the existence of environmental conditions favorable to high Mn availability to the plants in the areas of greatest incidence of ESBVRD, greater uptake of Mn in sensitive clones and in plants with symptoms, and a synchronism between the intensity of symptoms of ESBVRD and leaf Mn contents, it may be inferred that temporary excess of Mn in eucalyptus plants is closely related to ESBVRD.

  20. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF

    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF cujas densidades foram iguais a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF. Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF were equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

  1. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  2. Study on Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula officinalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis extracts on the two-spotted spider mite

    Modarres Najafabadi S.S. et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Two-Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a significant pest to bean plants in Markazi Province (Iran. This study was done to evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts from three essential oils; thyme, lavender and eucalyptus on the pest T. urticae. The essential oils were applied in five different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0% and the experiment was done in 2009-2011. The results showed that lavender (Lavandula officinalis had the most potent efficient as an acaricidal agent against Tetranychus, this was followed by thyme (Thymus vulgaris and then eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The LC50 values of lavender, thyme and eucalyptus for adult mites were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively. The findings of this research revealed that extracts of these three essential oils (lavender, thyme and eucalyptus all had an active acaricidal effect on the two-spotted spider mite on bean plants.

  3. Evaluation of “restinga” plants establishment facilitated by Eucalyptus sp. at Joaquina Beach, Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 16 years, we verified the establishment of shrub and tree species in the understorey of patches of the exotic Eucalyptus sp., which were no more than 5m in height. These patches were located in sections of interior dunes adjacent to the foredune of Joaquina beach. In this study, areas under the canopies of Eucalyptus sp. and areas without this species were compared to evaluate the potential of facilitation of these patches in relation to the establishment of the native shrub and tree species of this restinga. We found 266 plants, which belonged to 11 species. From this total, 208 plants were found in the understorey of Eucalyptus sp. and 58 plants were found in the control areas. There were 11 species under the canopies and 6 species in the control areas. Plant height and stem diameter were measured and they showed higher averages in the understorey. The most abundant species was Dodonaea viscosa (107 individuals that showed similar occurrence in both areas. Other species, including Clusia criuva, Myrsine parvifolia, Myrsine sp., Eugenia catharinae, Guapira opposita and Vitex megapotamica, were more frequent in the understorey, and 5 species were found only under the canopy of Eucalyptus sp. Four species bloomed and fructified in the understorey. The greatest abundance and diversity of plants under the canopies reinforced the hypothesis that Eucalyptus sp. facilitates their establishment.

  4. CUTTING PREFERENCE OF Eucalyptus spp. BY THE LEAF-CUTTING ANT Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Jnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the cutting preference of Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus workers among three species and a Clone of eucalypt. The seedlings of Eucalyptus spp. were offered simultaneously to three colonies of this leaf-cutting ant under laboratory conditions. The assay ended six hours after initial offering or until the workers of a colony cut all leaves of a certain eucalyptus species. On the average, colonies cut and carried 0.453g 0.064 of Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0.384g 0.052 of Clone 129; 0.341g 0.054 of Eucalyptus urophylla and 0.102g 0.027 of Eucalyptus cloeziana. This last species was the least preferred for cutting and carrying. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the amount of leaves cut from the other eucalypts.

  5. Efeito "in vitro" de antibiticos e rizobactrias no controle de bactrias fitopatognicas ao Eucalyptus spp. "In vitro" effect of antibiotics and rhizobacteria on the control of phytopathogenic bacteria in Eucalyptus spp.

    Jeane de Ftima Cunha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenas causadas por bactrias constituem um novo desafio cultura do Eucalyptus spp., podendo, inclusive, limitar o uso de clones suscetveis. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficincia de antibiticos e rizobactrias na inibio do crescimento "in vitro" de isolados de bactrias fitopatognicas ao Eucalyptus spp. na fase de viveiro e de campo. O antibitico sulfato de amicacina e a rizobactria S1 (Bacillus subtillis destacaram-se quanto inibio do crescimento do isolado fitopatognico IP1-05 (Pseudomonas chichorii, enquanto a cefoxitina causou maior inibio dos isolados BSV16 e RVV11 (Rhizobium sp.. Os antibiticos de uso comercial na rea agronmica, Mycoshield (oxitetraciclina e Agrimicina (estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram pouco efetivos. Este trabalho proporciona embasamento a alternativas para controle biolgico de doenas bacterianas em mudas de Eucalyptus spp. na fase de viveiro.Diseases caused by bacteria represent a new challenge for Eucalyptus spp. and may also limit the use of susceptible clones. Our study aimed at an evaluation of the efficiency of antibiotics and rhizobacteria in inhibiting "in vitro" growth of phytopathogenic bacteria isolates in Eucalyptus spp. during the nursery stage and in the field. The antibiotic amicacine sulfate and rhizobacterium S1 (Bacillus subtilis stood out inhibiting the growth of the phytopathogenic isolate IP1-05 (Pseudomonas chichorii, whereas cefoxitin caused a greater inhibition of the isolates BSV16 and RVV11 (Rhizobium sp.. The commercial antibiotics for agricultural use Mycoshield (oxitetracycline and Agrimycin (estreptomycin and tetracycline were little effective. This study offers a base for alternatives of biological control of bacterial diseases in Eucalyptus spp. nursery seedlings.

  6. REDUO FOLIAR EM MINIESTACAS E MICROESTACAS DE CLONES HBRIDOS DE Eucalyptus globulus / REDUCTION IN LEAF OF MINI-CUTTINGS AND MICRO-CUTTINGS OF HYBRID CLONES OF Eucalyptus globulus

    Anne Caroline Guieiro, Correia; Aloisio, Xavier; Poliana Coqueiro, Dias; Miranda, Titon; Reynaldo Campos, Santana.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da reduo foliar no enraizamento de dois tipos (apicais e intermedirias) de miniestacas e microestacas de quatro clones hbridos de Eucalyptus globulus. Foram realizadas avaliaes quanto ao percentual de sobrevivncia, razes emitidas na extremidade in [...] ferior do tubete, enraizamento, altura, dimetro do colo e massa seca da parte area e da raiz. Aos 90 dias de idade, pde-se concluir que as estacas apicais sem e com reduo foliar foram superiores s intermedirias e os clones se comportaram de maneira diferenciada em relao ao enraizamento das miniestacas e microestacas. A propagao vegetativa por estacas apicais sem reduo foliar pode ser recomendada para a produo de mudas de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globuluse de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of leaf reduction in the rooting of two types of mini-cuttings and micro-cuttings (apical and intermediate) of four hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus. Evaluations were performed on the percentage of survival, roots at the lower end of the tub [...] e, rooting, height, stem diameter, dry weight of shoot and root. At 90 days, it can be concluded that the apical cuttings with and without leaf reduction were higher than the intermediate cuttings, besides each clone behaved differently in relation to the rooting of mini-cuttungs and micro-cuttings. Vegetative propagation by apical cuttings without leaf reduction can be recommended for the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus and Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus.

  7. Organogênese de explante foliar de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla Organogenesis of the leaf explant of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clones

    Elisa Cristina Soares de Carvalho Alves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ [1-fenil-3-(1,2,3-tia-diazol-5-iluréia], BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no desempenho da propagação in vitro por organogênese de explante foliar de três clones híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones quanto a intensidade, textura e coloração dos calos, em razão dos tratamentos com os reguladores de crescimento. Os melhores resultados de calejamento dos três genótipos foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento TDZ (0,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1, obtendo-se 100% de calejamento no explante foliar. Os piores resultados de calejamento foram observados nos tratamentos com a combinação dos reguladores de crescimento BAP (0,1 mg L-1 e ANA (0,1 mg L-1. Em relação à regeneração, a melhor resposta foi obtida com 1,0 mg L-1 BAP em que 8% dos calos formados a partir de explantes foliares regeneraram gemas, com número médio destas formadas por calo igual a 4,2.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth regulators TDZ [1-phenil-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea], BAP (6-benzilaminopurine e NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid on the in vitro propagation by organogenesis from foliar explants of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. Depending on the clone used, there were singular responses to growth regulators treatment regarding callusing intensity, texture and color. The best results of the three genotypes used were observed with the TDZ (0.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment, where 100% of the foliar explants presented callus. The worst results were observed with the BAP (0.1 mg L-1 and NAA (0.1 mg L-1 treatment. Subsequently, considering the regeneration process, the best response was achieved with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, in which 8% of the calli regenerated buds, with an average of 4.2 buds per explant.

  8. Eucalyptus microfungi known from culture. 1. Cladoriella and Fulvoflamma genera nova, with notes on some other poorly known taxa

    Johannes Z. Groenewald

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A study of microfungi associated with living Eucalyptus leaves and leaf litter revealed several novel and interesting taxa. Cladoriella eucalypti gen. et sp. nov. is described as a Cladosporium-like genus associated with litter collected in South Africa, while Fulvoflamma eucalypti gen. et. sp. nov. is newly described from leaf litter collected in Spain. Beta-conidia are newly reported for species of Pestalotiopsis, namely Pestalotiopsis disseminata in New Zealand, and a Pestalotiopsis sp. from Colombia. Satchmopsis brasiliensis is reported from litter in Colombia and Indonesia, while Torrendiella eucalypti is reported from leaf litter in Indonesia, and shown to have a Sporothrix-like anamorph. Leptospora rubella is reported from living Eucalyptus leaves in Colombia, where it is associated with leaf spots of Mycosphaerella longibasalis, while Macrohilum eucalypti is reported from leaf spots of Eucalyptus in New Zealand

  9. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. PMID:22795070

  10. Fracturas en madera de Eucalyptus nitens: efecto de las propiedades mecánicas a nivel ultraestructural y de la anatomía celular Fracture in Eucalyptus nitens wood: effect of nanomechanical properties, ultrastructure and anatomical level

    Paulina Valenzuela C; Cecilia Bustos A; Jean Pierre Lasserre; William Gacitúa E

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para indagar en las causas y posibles factores que originan la fractura en la estructura de la madera de Eucalyptus nitens. Para esto se examinó el comportamiento nanomecánico de la lamela media (LM), de las capas S1 y S2 de la pared celular. También se determinaron el número, área y diámetro de los vasos que están asociados a niveles de agrietamiento extremos (alto y bajo). Se estudiaron dos familias de Eucalyptus nitens procedentes de dos sitios de la 8va Región de Chi...

  11. SOIL SEEDBANK FROM THE UNDERSTOREY OF Pinus AND Eucalyptus IN THE FLONA DE BRASÍLIA, BRAZIL

    Augusta Rosa Gonçalves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the soil seedbank from the understory of Pinus and Eucalyptus in the Floresta Nacional de Brasília wasperformed, these plantations were established in the 1980s, and since 1987 have not had adequate management. Two stands of each genuswere chosen, with and without gaps. In each one of these stands 15 plots of 2 x 2 m were implanted, where a sample of 0,30 m x 0,30 mof soil and two sub-sample of 0,125 x 0,15 m of litter were collected for a quantative and qualitative analyzis of the seedbank. The mediumdensity of seedlings emergence in the Pinus stand was 3.098,19 seeds.m-2 while for the Eucalyptus it was of 2.077,19 seeds.m-2, whichmeans that the seedbank from the Pinus understory area has a higher regeneration potential than the Eucalyptus plantations. The Pinusplantations contained in the understorey: 12 families, 25 genus and 39 species, while in the Eucalyptus: 14 families, 31 genus and 48species, proving more richness in the Eucalyptus seedbank. In both genuses the most important families were Poaceae and Asteraceae.Both Pinus and Eucalyptus seedbanks populations, with or without openings, proved that the more interference in its population higheris the number of seeds from herbaceous species in comparison to tree species. The Sørensen similarity índex applied to analyze theseedbanks in the four areas, both for soil fractions and litter, was low, 0,5 and 0, 486, respectively.

  12. Simulated drift effect of glyphosate in different parts of Eucalyptus grandis plantsEfeito da deriva simulada de glyphosate em diferentes partes da planta de Eucalyptus grandis

    Maria Renata Rocha Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphoste on Eucalyptus grandis, through the application of low doses in different parts of the plant. The experimental design was a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments were glyphosate application at 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g a.e. ha-1 of the commercial formulation Scout®. Three forms of application were used: applying on leaf, on stem, and on the entire plant (leaf + stem. For leaf application, stems were covered with plastic ribbons to protect them from the solution; the same was made with plants that were sprayed on stems, covering leaf with plastic bag. The application was carried out in an armed stationary spray tips XR 11002 VS, with 183 KPa pressure in volume of 200 L ha-1. The eucalyptus plants receiving applications in leaves and whole plant (leaves + stem showing effects of intoxication are more intense about the plants that received the stem applications only. However, there may be increases in height growth and total dry mass of eucalyptus plants in applications of 30 g a.e. ha-1 glyphosate.No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphoste em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio da aplicação de doses reduzidas em diferentes partes da planta. Utilizouse o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g e.a.ha-1 de glyphosate, da formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação foi realizada de três formas: aplicação sobre as folhas, no caule e na planta inteira (folha + caule. Para a aplicação nas folhas o caule foi coberto com fitas plásticas para evitar que fosse atingido pela solução, e o mesmo foi feito com as plantas que receberam pulverização no caule, cobrindo as folhas com saco plástico. A aplicação foi realizada em um pulverizador estacionário, munido de pontas XR 11002 VS, com pressão de 183 KPa e com consumo de calda de 200 L ha-1. As plantas de eucalipto que receberam aplicações nas folhas e na planta inteira (folhas + caule apresentaram efeitos de intoxicação mais intenso em relação às plantas que receberam aplicações somente no caule. Entretanto, pode ocorrer incrementos no crescimento em altura e na massa seca total das plantas de eucalipto em aplicações da dose de 30 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate.

  13. Fotossntese, condutncia estomtica e produtividade de clones de Eucalyptus sob diferentes condies edafoclimticas / Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and productivity of Eucalyptus clones under different soil and climatica conditions

    Marina Shinkai Gentil, Otto; Aline Regina, Vergani; Antnio Natal, Gonalves; Arthur, Vrechi; Srgio Ricardo, Silva; Jos Luiz, Stape.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fotossntese, condutncia estomtica e produtividade de clones de Eucalyptus em duas reas distintas: uma no Municpio de Eunpolis, Sul da Bahia, com precipitao bem distribuda ao longo do ano (rea mida); e outra em Salto da Divisa, Leste de Minas Gerais, [...] com precipitao concentrada nos meses quentes do ano (rea seca). Foram estudados quatro clones, avaliando-se o crescimento, atravs do inventrio das rvores; e as variveis fotossintticas, medidas com o aparelho Infrared Gas Analyser (IRGA). Dentro de cada rea s houve diferena significativa entre clones na rea mida quanto varivel volume de madeira. A produtividade dos clones na rea mida foi 3,3 vezes superior produtividade da rea seca. Na rea mida, todos os clones diminuram a condutncia estomtica com o aumento do dficit de presso de vapor, com queda de 0,16 mol m s-1 para cada 1 kPa de aumento no DPV e taxa fotossinttica mxima variando de 12,5 a 16,4 mol m s-1. A comparao entre os clones da rea mida resultou em diferena significativa do clone A, que apresentou fotossntese mxima superior dos demais. Na rea seca no houve relao entre condutncia estomtica e DPV e no se observou diferena na fotossntese entre os clones, que variou de 1,2 a 3,4 mol m s-1. Verificou-se relao linear entre a fotossntese mxima e a produtividade dos clones, evidenciando que a taxa fotossinttica foi um dos fatores responsveis pela maior produtividade do Eucalyptus na rea mida. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and productivity of Eucalyptus clones in two different sites; one in Eunpolis, southern Bahia with well distributed rainfall throughout the year (wet area) and another on Salto da Divisa, east of Minas Gerais, wit [...] h rainfall concentrated over the hot months of the year (dry area). Four different clones were examined, measurements of plants growth were performed by means of inventory and the photosynthetic parameters were measured with IRGA (Infrared Gas Analyser). Within each area, there is difference between clones only in the wet area for the variable volume. The average productivity of the clones in the wet area was 3.3 times higher comparing to the dry area. All clones in wet area decreased stomatal conductance in response to increase in vapor pressure deficit, decreasing 0.16 mol m s-1 to each 1kPa increase in VPD and the maximum photosynthetic rate ranging from 12.5 to 16.4 mol m s-1 in this area. The comparison between clones within each area resulted in a significant difference in the wet area, with the clone A reaching maximum photosynthesis higher than others. In the dry area, there was no correlation between stomatal conductance and VPD, and there was no difference in photosynthesis between the clones, ranging from 1.2 to 3.4 mol m s-1. A linear relationship was observed between the maximum photosynthesis and clones productivity, suggesting that photosynthetic rate was one of the factors responsible for the increased Eucalyptus productivity of the wet area.

  14. The effect of temperature and water stress on laboratory germination of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seeds of different sizes

    López, Marian; Humara, Jaime; Casares, Abelardo; Majada, Juan

    2000-01-01

    Effet de la température et du stress hydrique sur la germination en laboratoire de graines d'Eucalyptus globulus Labill de différentes tailles. On a étudié l'influence sur la germination des graines d'Eucalyptus globulus Labill de températures constantes comprises entre 13o et 33 oC et de potentiels hydriques compris entre 0 et $-0,75$ MPa. La germination était significativement influencée par la température et la taille des graines. La vitesse et le taux de germination augmentaient avec la t...

  15. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m3. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m3. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity for the hybrids that have provided with high levels of density. (author)

  16. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity for the hybrids that have provided with high levels of density. (author)

  17. Eficincia relativa de fosfatos naturais na adubao de plantio de mudas de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden e Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et cambage em solo sem e com calagem / Relative efficiency of rock phosphates in fertilization of planting seedlings Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden and Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et cambage in soil with and without liming

    Luciana Patrcia Rosa, Dias; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Gustavo, Brunetto; Mrcia Aparecida, Simonete; Bruna, Bicaratto.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto possui uma grande exigncia de fsforo (P) na fase de implantao do povoamento. Por isso o seu nvel crtico de P mais alto na fase inicial de desenvolvimento, diminuindo com o aumento da idade. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta no crescimento inicial de eucalipto adubao fos [...] fatada e a eficincia relativa (ER) de fosfatos naturais (FNs) em solos sem e com calagem. Para isso, foram conduzidos, no perodo de outubro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011, dois experimentos em casa de vegetao, na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), em Lages (SC), um com mudas de Eucalyptus dunnii e outro com Eucalyptus benthamii, utilizando os FNs Bayovar, Gafsa e Djebel, alm do superfosfato triplo e testemunha (sem P), em um Cambissolo Hmico sem e com calagem. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco fontes de P e dois nveis de calagem), com quatro repeties. As plantas foram cultivadas por 110 dias e aps a colheita, foram determinados a produo de matria seca (por diferena de peso mido e peso seco) e o acmulo de P no tecido vegetal das diferentes partes da planta (determinado por espectrofotometria em comprimento de onda de 882 nm, aps reduo do complexo fosfomolibidato com cido ascrbico). A eficincia relativa dos FNs (%) foi calculada a partir dos dados obtidos de matria seca de parte area e matria seca total. Para a correlao entre os parmetros de teor de P acumulado na planta e os teores de P disponvel no solo foi aplicado o Teste de Correlao de Pearson (P Abstract in english The eucalyptus has a pronounced demand for phosphorus (P) in the initial growth. Therefore, its P critical level is higher in the early stages of development, decreasing with plant age. The study was carried out to evaluate the response to fertilization and relative efficiency (RE) of phosphates (RP [...] s) in the initial growth of eucalyptus. For this, two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, from October 2010 to February 2011, at the University of Santa Catarina (UDESC), in Lages, Santa Catarina state, one with Eucalyptus dunnii and another with Eucalyptus benthamii using the following phosphorus sources: Bayovar, Gafsa, Djebel and triple superphosphate, plus a control without P. These P treatments were applied in soils with and without liming. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement and with four replications. Plants were grown for 110 days and after harvest, were determined dry matter (by difference of wet weight and dry weight) and P accumulation in plant tissue from different parts of the plant (determined by spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 882 nm after reduction of phospho-molibidate complex with ascorbic acid). The relative efficiency of RPs (%) was calculated from data obtained from dry matter of shoots and total dry matter. For the correlation between the parameters of P content in the plants and soil available P it was applied Pearson's correlation (P

  18. Effects of Eucalyptus plantations on detritus, decomposers, and detritivores in streams.

    Graa, Manuel A S; Pozo, Jess; Canhoto, Cristina; Elosegi, Arturo

    2002-04-30

    Vast areas of the Iberian Peninsula are covered by monocultures of the exotic tree Eucalyptus globulus. Given that (1) leaf litter produced in the riparian areas is the main energy source for small streams, and (2) trees differ in their nutrient content, chemical defenses, and physical attributes, eucalypt plantations have the potential to affect the biology of streams. Research teams from the University of Coimbra and the University of the Basque Country have been addressing the potential effects of eucalypt plantations at several levels of study. Here we review the main conclusions of these investigations. Eucalypt plantations produced less litter than some deciduous forests. However, there were marked differences in timing of litterfall: litter production peaked during autumn in deciduous forests, whereas in the eucalypt forests it tended to peak in summer and to be more evenly distributed throughout the year. Despite these differences, the average standing stock of organic matter was higher in the eucalypt than in the deciduous forest. This may be attributed to (1) the occurrence of spates or heavy rain in autumn, the period of maximum litter fall in deciduous forests, and (2) bark accumulation in eucalypt forests. Because of differences in leaf composition, the nutrient input in eucalypt forests seems to be lower than in deciduous forests. The rate of decomposition of eucalypt leaves was strongly dependent on nutrients in the water: in nutrient-poor waters it was slower than that of most other leaf species, whereas in nutrient-rich waters it can be as fast as alder--a fast-decaying species. The biomass and cumulative diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes colonizing leaves did not differ between eucalypt and other native leaf species, but fungal sporulation generally peaked 2 weeks later on eucalypt leaves. This lag disappeared when lipids (but not polyphenolics) were chemically removed from eucalypt leaves. Similarly, addition of eucalypt oils to culture media retarded or suppressed fungal growth. Streams bordered by Eucalyptus had lower diversity of fungal spores (but similar spore densities) in Portugal; less consistent patterns were found in similar experiments in Spain. Eucalyptus leaves proved to be poor food for shredders. Under laboratory conditions leaves of Eucalyptus ranked low in food selection experiments using native shredders. The same shredders failed to grow and died when fed exclusively eucalypt leaves. The removal of oils from eucalypt leaves resulted in increased feeding rates, whereas the transfer of oils to alder leaves resulted in decreased feeding rates. The effect of eucalypt plantations on stream invertebrate communities is not very consistent. In nutrient-poor waters, fewer invertebrates colonized eucalypt than alder leaves, but this effect was mitigated after a microbial conditioning period in nutrient-rich waters. Portuguese streams bordered by Eucalyptus had lower numbers of invertebrates than streams surrounded by deciduous forests. In Spanish streams differences were less marked and nonexistent when looking at the composition of the communities, which change more from year to year than from site to site. Most of the eucalypt streams studied in Portugal and Spain dried up in summer, a fact that might reflect an increase in soil hydrophobity produced by Eucalyptus plantations. The very short planting-to-harvest period of eucalypt plantations results in additional impacts, such as soil loss, siltation of streams, or reduced amounts of woody debris in stream channels, which affects their capacity to retain leaf-litter, as well as the availability of habitat for invertebrates and fish. The studies by the Portuguese and Spanish research teams confirm the importance of maintaining riparian buffer strips to reduce human impact on streams and rivers. PMID:12805976

  19. Pathogenicity evaluation of Cytospora eucalypticola isolated from Eucalyptus spp: cankers in Uruguay Avaliação da patogenicidade de Cytospora eucalypticola isolado de Eucalyptus spp: no Uruguai

    Raquel Alonso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytospora eucalypticola has been frequently associated with twig and stem cankers and as endophyte of Eucalyptus globulus and E. grandis in Uruguay. Mycelium discs of two C. eucalypticola isolates obtained from actively growing colonies were inoculated, both superficially and on experimentally wounded stems of E. globulus and E. grandis. No inoculated and control plants have shown any discoloration, gumosis or necrosis nor did they display lesions ten months after inoculation. Callus tissue was formed, partially or wholly occluding the wounds. The ability to penetrate healthy tissues and the inability to produce lesions evidenced that the presence of C. eucalypticola in twig and stem cankers could result from saprotrophic expansion of the endophytic mycelium in dying tissues, cankers probably being produced by different environmental stress conditions.Cytospora eucalypticola tem sido, freqüentemente, associado a lesões de pequenos ramos e cancros de caules e como endofíto de Eucalyptus globulus e E. grandis no Uruguai. Discos de micélio de dois isolados do C. eucalypticola obtidos de colônias crescendo ativamente foram inoculados superficialmente e em caules de E. globulus e E. grandis feridos experimentalmente. Não se observou exsudação de goma, descoloraçao, necrose, nem lesões dez meses depois nos controles. O tecido de calo foi formado, parcialmente ou totalmente fechando as feridas. A capacidade de penetrar tecidos saudáveis e a incapacidade de produzir lesões evidenciou que a presença de C. eucalypticola em cancro do caule pode resultar em uma expansão saprofítica do micélio em tecidos enfraquecidos. O cancro provavelmente foi produzido por algum tipo de estresse abiotico

  20. Modificao da cor original da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis atravs de tratamentos termorretificadores / Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia; Juliana de Oliveira, Lopes; Wanessa Aparecida, Santos.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se determinar a modificao da cor original da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden aps a termorretificao. Amostras de madeira foram termorretificadas sob diferentes condies de temperatura (180, 200, 215 e 230C) e tempo (15 minutos, 2 e 4 horas). As anlises co [...] lorimtricas foram realizadas por meio do sistema CIE L*a*b* com o auxlio do espectrofotmetro Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d. Todos os tratamentos termorretificadores causaram uma alterao na cor original da madeira. As madeiras termorretificadas apresentaram menores valores de L* (luminosidade), quando comparadas madeira no tratada (controle), caracterizando o escurecimento da madeira, principalmente para as condies mais severas de temperatura e tempo. As coordenadas cromticas a* e b* apresentaram comportamentos diferentes, dependendo da combinao temperatura-tempo. A modificao da cor original da madeira possibilitou a criao de novos padres de cor, podendo agregar maior valor madeira estudada. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230C) and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours). Color analysis were [...] performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness) values than untreated wood (control), characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b*) showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  1. Efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Lucas Amaral de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do intervalo de tempo entre coleta/preparo e estaqueamento no enraizamento de miniestacas em quatro clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, arranjo bifatorial com parcelas subdivididas, tendo os intervalos de tempo nas parcelas (0, 2 e 4 horas e clones nas subparcelas (C1, C2, C3 e C4, em três repetições de 192 plantas cada. Avaliou-se o enraizamento e a sobrevivência de miniestacas na saída da casa de vegetação e casa de sombra, a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a qualidade do sistema radicular de mudas aos 50 dias de idade. Em três dos quatro clones estudados, períodos de armazenamento das miniestacas superiores a 2 horas causam redução significativa no percentual de enraizamento e na sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias de idade. No entanto, o clone C2 apresenta a máxima eficiência técnica para enraizamento na saída da casa de sombra e para sobrevivência das mudas aos 50 dias, quando suas miniestacas são armazenadas por, respectivamente, 2,3 e 2,5 horas; assim como apresenta maior crescimento em altura, quando armazenadas por 4 horas. Em todos os clones, mudas provenientes de miniestacas armazenadas por 4 horas apresentam qualidade do sistema radicular inferior ao sistema radicular de mudas obtidas a partir de miniestacas com 0 e 2 horas de armazenamento.

  2. EFEITO DA VAPORIZAO NA SECAGEM DE TBUAS DE Eucalyptus grandis / EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Raphael Nogueira, Rezende; Jos Tarcsio, Lima; Luana Els de Ramos e, Paula; Jos Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da vaporizao na taxa de secagem e na qualidade da secagem de tbuas de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isso, utilizou-se uma madeira proveniente de um plantio da Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, Brasil, com idade de 24 anos. rvores foram abatidas e suas t [...] oras foram desdobradas por um sistema de corte tangencial. Dividiu-se a carga de tbuas metade, sendo uma delas para secagem com vaporizao e outra sem vaporizao. Na secagem com vaporizao, aps a fase de aquecimento, houve um tratamento de 3 horas a 90C e 100% de umidade relativa. A secagem ocorreu em estufa de secagem convencional e foram realizadas medies de defeitos e determinao da taxa de secagem. Os resultados indicaram que a vaporizao foi eficiente, aumentando a taxa de secagem em 15% e reduzindo defeitos de secagem de 20 a 52%. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were [...] felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90C of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control). The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  3. Technical and economic study of a mobile system for extraction of eucalyptus essential oil

    Gisele Aparecida Vivan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of essential oils has become increasing in Brazil, especially considering the benefits that certain substances can add to health and range of cosmetics, toiletries and drugs that originate in its processing. Based on these conditions and in the vast area of the Rio Grande do Sul where it is being implanted the culture of eucalyptus, this study seeks ways to boost the economic structure of culture, seeking to generate new business opportunities through the extraction of oil contained in the leaves Eucalyptus, a byproduct of the paper industry, the current main economic interest of culture. Based on these assumptions, it was elaborated a conceptual design of a mobile equipment able to meet the processing demand of the crop, determining a diagram processing flow and fitting the equipment to meet this demand. Subsequently, it was evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of deploying the mobile extraction system for essential oil of eucalyptus in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, conducting technical studies for the improvement and efficiency of the conceptual design and economic feasibility analysis to determine variables that determine the success of the project. It was conclude that the conceptual design has beneficial aspects, especially regarding the mobility, flexibility of use, minimization of empty spaces and water use in semi-closed circuit. In the analysis of economic feasibility, the simulated scenarios showed positive values for Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return above the minimum rate of attractiveness and capital Payback relatively short, even for the scenarios considered critical.

  4. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    Li, Fagen; Zhou, Changpin; Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  5. Toxicologa aguda oral del Eucalyptus Saligna SM. por el mtodo de las clases

    Mara del Carmen, Len Padilla; Imilla, Casado Alfonso; Jhoanet, Jacas Molina,; Jos Luis, Cadenas Freixas; Carmen, Lpez Gmez.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarroll en la Unidad Provincial de Toxicologa Experimental de Camagey con el objeto de realizar el estudio toxicolgico agudo del Eucalytus saligna Sm. Para el desarrollo del mismo se utiliz el mtodo de las clases de toxicidad aguda, a partir de dosis prefijdas de 25, 2 [...] 00 y 2000 mg/kg PC. La especie empleada fue Rathus rathus, lnea Wistar, con un peso corporal comprendido entre 150 y 200 g. Se observaron signos txicos en la dosis de 2 000 mg/kg PC tales como: letargo, somnolencia y disminucin de la respuesta a estmulos; y en la dosis de 200 mg/kg PC no se observaron estos. Se pudo comprobar que la decoccin de Eucalyptus saligna Sm. no es txica, al no ocurrir mortalidad a la dosis de 2 000 mg/kg que es la dosis lmite segn la norma utilizada. Abstract in english Present paper was developed in Provincial Unit of Experimental Toxicology in Camagey province, to carry out acute toxicology study of Eucalyptus saligna Sm, where authors used class method of acute toxicity, from prefixed dose of 25,200 and 2 000 mg/kg of body weight (B.W.). Strain used as Rathus r [...] athus, Wistar line, weighing from 150 g to 200 g. In dose of 2 000 mg/kg of BW, toxic signs were observed, including lethargy, somnolence and a decrease in stimuli response; but not in dose of 200 mg/kg of B.W. We confirmed that Eucalyptus saligna Sm. decoction isn't toxic, since there wasn't mortality with dose of 2 000 mg/kg, which according to standard used, is the limit dose.

  6. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2, concentrations (c1 /ca). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c1 /ca measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c1 /ca and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the physiological response of Eucalyptus globulus to drought stress. Measurement and interpretation of phloem sap sugar concentration constitutes a potentially useful tool for both plantation management and ecophysiological research

  7. Classification of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids under different water availability based on biometric traits

    Claudia D. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The eucalyptus grows rapidly and is well suitable to edaphic and bioclimatic conditions in several regions of of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids grown under different water availability conditions.Area of study: The study was performed in south-eastern of BrazilMaterial and Methods: We evaluated five commercial hybrids cultivated in pots with the substrate maintained at 65, 50, 35 and 20% maximum water retention capacity. The evaluation was based on the following characteristics: total height (cm, diameter (mm, number of leaves, leaf area (dm2, and dry weight (g plant-1 of leaf, stem + branches,   root, shoot and total and root/shoot ratio.Main results: All the characteristics evaluated were adversely affected by reduced availability of water in the substrate. The hybrids assessed performed differently in terms of biometric characteristics, irrespective of water availability. Water deficit resulted in a greater reduction in the dry weight production compared to number of leaves, diameter and height. Hybrids H2 and H5 have favorable traits for tolerating drought. The hybrid H2 shows a stronger slowdown in growth as soil moisture levels drop, although its growth rate is low, and H5 increases the root/shoot ratio but maintains growth in terms of height, even under drought conditions.Research highlights: The results obtained in our experiment show that productive hybrids sensitive to drought could also perform better under water deficit conditions, maintaining satisfactory growth despite significant drops in these characteristics.Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; water deficit; drought tolerance. 

  8. Processing conditions analysis of Eucalyptus globulus plywood bonded with resol-tannin adhesives.

    Stefani, P M; Peña, C; Ruseckaite, R A; Piter, J C; Mondragon, I

    2008-09-01

    Phenol-formaldehyde resol containing mimosa tannin extract was employed to produce plywood panels with two plies from Eucalyptus globulus veneers. The effect of processing conditions and tannin content on the gelation time of the adhesive in the glue line was evaluated by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA). These results were related with shear strength and wood failure of glue line in the final panels. Hazardous petrochemical phenol could be partially substituted in resols in industrial applications by addition of mimosa tannin extracts. PMID:18024109

  9. ADDITION OF Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. BARK TO Pinus elliottii ENGELM PARTICLEBOARD PRODUCTION

    Edvá Oliveira Brito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of particleboards manufactured with Eucalyptus pellitabark added to Pinus elliottii wood. The mechanical properties evaluated were static bending (modulus of rupture and modulus ofelasticity and tensile strength perpendicular to surface, while the physical ones were thickness swelling and water absorption. UreaformaldehydePB 2346 adhesive was used in the rates of 6% and 8%, in particleboard manufacturing. The bark/wood rates were:0/100, 10/90, 20/100 and 30/70, with three repetitions to each treatment. Bark inclusion into particleboard production showed to betechnically possible, according to physical and mechanical results obtained.

  10. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured Eucalyptus perriniana Cells

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-O-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by E. perriniana cells. Incubation of cultured E. perriniana cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-O-b-D-gentiobioside.

  11. Heat-induced colour changes of pine (Pinus pinaster) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) wood

    Esteves, Bruno; Marques, António Velez; Domingos, Idalina; Pereira, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Heat treatment of Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus wood was carried out by hot air in an oven for 2–24 h at 170–200 C and by steam in an autoclave for 2–12 h at 190–210 C. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were determined by the CIELAB method on radial, tangential and transverse sections of untreated and treated wood, and their variation with regard to the treatment (DL*, Da* and Db*) were calculated in percent. For untreated eucalypt wood, lightness (L*) varied betw...

  12. Heat induced colour changes of pine (Pinus pinaster) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) wood

    Esteves, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Heat treatment of Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus wood was made by hot air in an oven during 2 to 24 h at 170-200 ºC and by steam in an autoclave during 2 to 12 h at 190- 210 ºC. The colour parameters L*, a* and b* were determined by the CIELAB method on radial, tangential and transverse sections for untreated and treated wood, and their variation with the treatment (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) were calculated in percent. In the untreated woods, for eucalypt wood lightness (L*) varied between...

  13. Water balance analysis of a watershed dominated by Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in Felixlandia (MG, Brazil)

    Surian-Gamba, Otávio; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Garcia-Leite, Hélio; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    Commercial eucalyptus plantations are commonly associated to excessive water use despite the fact that numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences among species and environmental systems. In fact, the analysis of its impact on water balance depending on specific environmental conditions is essential to guarantee its sustainability. The water balance of Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in the Basin Creek of Riacho Fundo in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil) is presented through a study of 2.6 years of measurements in a catchment of 719.9 ha. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships among precipitation, interception and evapotranspiration of eucalyptus plantations, for evaluating the weight on flow and effective precipitation. A triangular weir with a set of level- and baro-logger were used for measuring flow. Rainfall was measured with 2 pluviometers and evaporation using two evapotranspirometers Soil Control, Model JR-200mm. For througfall, eight plots of 136.5 m² each were installed with twelve pluviometers. To estimate the stemflow, the empirical equation Et = - 0.060 + 0.053 (P) was used, where P is the precipitation. The effective precipitation was calculated by summing of the througfall value plus the stemflow. The losses by interception were obtained by the difference between precipitation and effective precipitation. The analysis was carried out on the monthly and annual scales. The results showed that the measured rainfall was close to the average for the region, reaching values close to 1200 mm. The interception of the eucalyptus plantation for the period was approximately 12% of the external precipitation. There were neither significant relationships between flow and evapotranspiration nor between flow and effective precipitation, which shows the complexity of water components at the catchment scale. This is likely associated to the delay effect of the subsurface flow. The average flow for the period of study was 37.8 liters per second, approximately equivalent to 13.8% of the rainfall. For the dry season, mean daily flows of 18.3 liters per second were recorded (equivalent to 6.7% of the rainfall) whereas 51.4 liters per second were measured for the rainy season (18.8% of the rainfall). These results illustrated the high inter-annual variability of the catchment responses as well as the low component of runoff on the rainfall. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The authors are very grateful to CNPq for the concession of the post-doctorate scholarship to the last author.

  14. Complementary regulation of four Eucalyptus CBF genes under various cold conditions

    Navarro, M.; MARQUE, G; Ayax, C.; Keller, G; Borges, J. P.; Marque, C.; Teulières, C.

    2009-01-01

    CBF transcription factors play central roles in the control of freezing tolerance in plants. The isolation of two additional CBF genes, EguCBF1c and EguCBF1d, from E. gunnii, one of the cold-hardiest Eucalyptus species, is described. While the EguCBF1D protein sequence is very similar to the previously characterized EguCBF1A and EguCBF1B sequences, EguCBF1C is more distinctive, in particular in the AP2-DBD (AP2-DNA binding domain). The expression analysis of the four genes by RT-qPCR reveals ...

  15. Advancing Eucalyptus genomics: identification and sequencing of lignin biosynthesis genes from deep-coverage BAC libraries

    Kudrna David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus species are among the most planted hardwoods in the world because of their rapid growth, adaptability and valuable wood properties. The development and integration of genomic resources into breeding practice will be increasingly important in the decades to come. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries are key genomic tools that enable positional cloning of important traits, synteny evaluation, and the development of genome framework physical maps for genetic linkage and genome sequencing. Results We describe the construction and characterization of two deep-coverage BAC libraries EG_Ba and EG_Bb obtained from nuclear DNA fragments of E. grandis (clone BRASUZ1 digested with HindIII and BstYI, respectively. Genome coverages of 17 and 15 haploid genome equivalents were estimated for EG_Ba and EG_Bb, respectively. Both libraries contained large inserts, with average sizes ranging from 135 Kb (Eg_Bb to 157 Kb (Eg_Ba, very low extra-nuclear genome contamination providing a probability of finding a single copy gene ≥ 99.99%. Libraries were screened for the presence of several genes of interest via hybridizations to high-density BAC filters followed by PCR validation. Five selected BAC clones were sequenced and assembled using the Roche GS FLX technology providing the whole sequence of the E. grandis chloroplast genome, and complete genomic sequences of important lignin biosynthesis genes. Conclusions The two E. grandis BAC libraries described in this study represent an important milestone for the advancement of Eucalyptus genomics and forest tree research. These BAC resources have a highly redundant genome coverage (> 15×, contain large average inserts and have a very low percentage of clones with organellar DNA or empty vectors. These publicly available BAC libraries are thus suitable for a broad range of applications in genetic and genomic research in Eucalyptus and possibly in related species of Myrtaceae, including genome sequencing, gene isolation, functional and comparative genomics. Because they have been constructed using the same tree (E. grandis BRASUZ1 whose full genome is being sequenced, they should prove instrumental for assembly and gap filling of the upcoming Eucalyptus reference genome sequence.

  16. Effect of hemicellulose liquid phase on the enzymatic hydrolysis of autohydrolyzed eucalyptus globulus wood

    Romaní, Aloia; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Pereira, Francisco B.; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, Eucalyptus globulus wood was pretreated under non-isothermal autohydrolysis process at 210, 220, and 230 °C, obtaining a pretreated solid with high cellulose content and a hemicellulosic liquid phase (HLP) containing mainly xylose, acetic acid, furfural, xylooligosaccharides, and phenolic compounds. The maximum concentration of xylooligosaccharides (8.97 g/L) and phenolic compounds (2.66 g/L) was obtained at 210 and 230 °C, respectively. To evaluate the effect of HLP addition on...

  17. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity

    Topiař, M. (Martin); Sajfrtová, M. (Marie); Pavela, R.; Machalová, Z. (Zdeňka)

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction combined with two fractionation methods, sorption and series of separators, was applied on Eucalyptus globulus leaves in order to maximize the insecticidal activity of extracts against Leptinotarasa decemlineata larvae. The major compounds in the essential oil isolated with the yield 26.7 mg/g were 1,8-cineole (42.6 wt%), -pinene (10.7 wt%) and globulol (5.9 wt%). The concentration of total volatiles in the extracts varied from 2.8 to 59.5 wt%, depending on the...

  18. PRODUCTIVITY AND SURVIVAL OF Eucalyptus benthamii MINISTUMPS IN HYDROPONICS SYSTEM AND IN PLASTIC TUBES

    Ana Catarina Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the productivity and survival of Eucalyptus benthamii ministumps from seminal origin, handled in hydroponics systems and in plastic tubes. The survival differences was not verified among the handling systems studied, while for the productivity of the ministumps the hydroponic systems presented best results, with average of 8,1 minicuttings per ministumps per collection in comparison with 4,1 for the plastic tubes system. These results allowed to conclude that the handling of the ministumps in tubes and in hydroponic systems is technically viable, being the latter a more promising alternative for production of vegetative propagules of the species.

  19. Respuesta fotosintética del eucalyptus grandis a la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo

    Mejía de Tafur, María Sara; Burbano Diaz, Ronal Arturo; Garcia Davila, Mario Augusto

    2014-01-01

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira (950 msnm, 24oC y 75% de HR) se estableció un experimento bajo condiciones semi-controladas para evaluar la respuesta fotosintética de plantas jóvenes de Eucalyptus grandis al estrés hídrico. Se empleó un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas con 16 tratamientos (4 niveles de agua y 4 clones) y cuatro repeticiones, como parcela principal se utilizó el nivel de agua y los clones en las sub - parcelas. El análisis estadístico de los dato...

  20. Biological aspects of Dirphia moderata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) on Eucalyptus cloeziana and Psidium guajava

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; João Paulo de Mello Felipe; Glauco da Cruz Canevari; Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke; José Cola Zanuncio; José Eduardo Serrão

    2008-01-01

    An egg mass of Dirphia moderata Bouvier was collected around a branch of Eucalyptus cloeziana to register the occurrence and to study the biological aspects of this species fed with leaves of E. cloeziana or P. guajava at 25 ± 2º C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 h. The duration and viability of the larva stage of D. moderata was 56.01 days and 80.00% and 55.79 days and 72.5% for its caterpillars fed with the first and second host plants, respectively. The duration (days)...

  1. Technical Review on Live Virtual Machine Migration Techniques for Eucalyptus Cloud

    Jay H. Sheth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing has emerged as the most trust worthy and secure technology amongst its users. Migration of virtual machine is an important aspect of this technology. Migration of instances makes data centers and clusters handier in the terms of its administration and management. Intrinsically, Migration is done to boost the processing power of computers and it is done by procuring the power management, load balancing, fault tolerance, reducing response time and increasing the quality of service. Because the use of this technique is highly dependent on cloud computing infrastructure architecture in some cloud infrastructure, such as Eucalyptus the virtual machine migration technique has not been used yet.

  2. Salinity effects in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Combretum quadrangulare: ecophysiological and morphological studies.

    Luangjame, Jesada

    1990-01-01

    In a study of two salt-tolerant tree species, Combretum quadrangulare and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, results from a greenhouse experiment with NaCl salinity of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% were compared with those of a field study on non-saline and saline soils in north-eastern Thailand. Determination of optimum gas exchange and development and evaluation of photosynthetic models with and without water deficit were included. Shoot height and diameter growth, shoot internode length, root length/bi...

  3. Homeopathic and larvicide effect of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil against Aedes aegypti

    Patrícia Aparecida Mançano Cavalca; Maria Isabel Gomes de Assumpção Lolis; Bruno Reis; Carlos Moacir Bonato

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work to study the homeopathic and larvicide effect of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil on Aedes aegypti. Essential oil had high larvicide effect with LC50 and LC90 of 0.38 and 0.27 mg mL-1, respectively. Generally, the homeopathy of essential oil affected the A. aegypti development stages. Dynamizations 6CH, 9CH and 12CH reduced the mean number of larvae when compared to that of control. Mean number of mosquitoes decreased through homeopathic dynamization 30CH. Results showed ...

  4. Measurements and modelling of interception loss from a Eucalyptus plantation in southern India

    Measurements of interception loss from a nine year old plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Karnataka, southern India, are described. Annual interception losses are low, ∼10% of the rainfall, compared with many other tree species. The results are used to optimize the parameters in a detailed stochastic model operating on hourly data. This model is used to develop a simpler daily model allowing the extrapolation of the results no longer time periods and the prediction of interception loss using only measurements of daily rainfall. The implications of these results are considered in the context to the total water use of eucalypt plantation

  5. Novos insetos sugadores (Hemiptera) atacando Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae) em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Claubert Wagner de Menezes; Marcus Soares; Sebastião de Assis Júnior; Arley Fonseca; Evaldo Pires; José dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    A migração de pragas de plantas nativas para a eucaliptocultura pode causar perdas significativas em sua produção. Foi relatada a ocorrência das cigarrinhas Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Membracis lunata Fabricius (Hemiptera: Membracidae) em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae) no município de Couto de Magalhães de Minas, em Minas Gerais, Brasil. As espécies foram observadas em plantas de eucalipto em fase vegetativa no campo. A ocorrência desses insetos at...

  6. Phytoremediation potential of cadmium-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus under different coppice systems.

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Xie, Xianming

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the phytoremediation potential of Eucalyptus globulus in Cd contaminated soil through two different harvest methods. Although replanting is more expensive than coppicing and produces less aboveground biomass, more Cd can be removed from the soil with roots removal at each harvest as the E. globulus absorbs vast majority of heavy metals in non-metabolically active parts like roots. Despite the higher cost of replanting in a single harvest, when phytoremediation efficiency and total duration are considered as important factors, the replanting treatment should be recommended as an appropriate method which can decrease the phytoremediation time obviously. PMID:25543544

  7. Growth curve and development of the internal calli structure of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn

    Evnia Galvo Mendona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to elucidate the growth curve of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. calli analyzing their anatomical modifications. A sigmoid aspect of the growth curve of the calli fresh matter was observed, with five different phases (lag, exponential, linear, deceleration and decline. In the lag phase, the highest growth percentage 87%, was observed, which reduced during the evaluation period to 17% in the linear phase. As for the anatomical analyses, cellular multiplications was observed during the lag and exponential phases and increase in cell size during the linear phase, promoting the calli volume growth and the establishment of the globular conformation.

  8. INFLUENCE OF THE CROSS-SECTION ON IULTRASONIC VELOCITY IN Eucalyptus citriodora

    Fabiana Goia R de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the variation of ultrasonic velocity in the cross-section of Eucalyptus citriodora. Ultrasonicmeasurements were taken with an experimental V-Meter 54 kHz and 150 kHz apparatus. Tests were carried out with initial crosssectionof 12 cm x 12 cm, varying until 12 cm x 1 cm and constant length (50 cm. The results showed that longitudinal ultrasonicvelocity decreased as the ratio between base and height (b/h decreased. The geometrical shape of the specimen influences theultrasonic measurements.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC containing aqueous and ethanolic Eucalyptus camaldulensis L. leaves extract against Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil from the eucalyptus tree (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L. is used today in many over the counter cough and cold products, to relieve congestion. Eucalyptus oil is also used in creams and ointments to relieve muscle and joint pain, and in some mouthwashes. In this study Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves extracted with water and ethanol 96°and the antimicrobial effects of extracts were evaluated by “using the method of Collins” and “disk agar diffusion method”. Antimicrobial properties of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC films containing 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/ml concentration of the extract studied against on Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435. The results showed that aqueous and alcoholic extract were quite effective in 2000 μg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and have inhibition effect, while both extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves were performed for each microorganism. Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC for bacteria was performed using the dilution method. The edible films containing mangrove extract presented more effective impact on the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes than Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p<0.05. The result indicates extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves have the greatest effect on gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. As a result, aqueous and ethanloic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves, have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  10. Dinmica da serapilheira e transferncia de nitrognio ao solo, em plantios de Pseudosamanea guachapele e Eucalyptus grandis Contribution of litter and nitrogen to soil under Pseudosamanea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a deposio de serapilheira e a transferncia de N associada s folhas e fololos desse resduo em plantios puros e consorciado de guachapele (Pseudosamanea guachapele e eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, aos sete anos de idade, em Seropdica, RJ. No ano de avaliao (2000/2001 a deposio anual de serapilheira nos diferentes plantios no diferiu significativamente 12,75 Mg ha-1 (guachapele; 11,84 Mg ha-1 (eucalipto e 12,44 Mg ha-1 (consorciado. Mesmo com pequena participao na composio da serapilheira em plantio consorciado (11% do total depositado, a leguminosa proporciona reduo no tempo mdio de residncia dos resduos no solo de 0,3 ano, comparativamente ao plantio puro de eucalipto.The litter deposition and nitrogen content on litter leaves were studied on seven years old pure and 1 1 mixed stand of guachapele (Pseudosamanea guachapeleand eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis. There was no difference in litter deposition among species in pure or mixed crop 12.75 Mg ha-1 for guachapele, 11.84 Mg ha-1 for the eucalyptus and 12.44 Mg ha-1 for the mixed crop. The legume three contribution to the mixed stand was only 11% of the total, but reduced by 0.3 year the time of residue residence on the soil.

  11. Cambios en indicadores de calidad de suelos de ladera reforestados con pinos (Pinus caribaea) y eucaliptos (Eucalyptus robusta) / Changes in quality indicators of hillside soils reforested with pines (Pinus caribaea) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta)

    Rosa M., Hernndez-Hernndez; Elizabeth, Ramrez; Ignacio, Castro; Sandra, Cano.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mantener la calidad del suelo es crtico para la sostenibilidad ambiental, aspecto especialmente importante para suelos tropicales de ladera. Varias fracciones de la materia orgnica (MO) del suelo se han reconocido como buenos indicadores de su calidad y resiliencia. Por tanto, el carbono orgnico, [...] sus fracciones pesadas y ligeras, la biomasa microbiana, la respiracin basal y los cidos hmicos y flvicos, adems de la estabilidad de los agregados, se evaluaron en suelos de ladera que rodean el embalse de La Mariposa, que suministra agua potable a Caracas, Venezuela, donde la vegetacin ha cambiado debido al incremento demogrfico. Con un muestreo estratificado al azar se tomaron tres muestras de suelos (0-10 cm; cada una con 10 submuestras) en tres parcelas de 20 x 30 m (unidades experimentales), de cuatro suelos adyacentes de ladera de bosques hmedos (BH), sabanas secundarias (SS), plantaciones de pinos (Pin) y eucaliptos (Eu) (tratamientos). El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la reforestacin con pinos y eucaliptos en suelos de laderas sobre indicadores de su calidad. Mediante A de V (una va) y usando la prueba de Tukey (p Abstract in english Maintaining soil quality is critical for environmental sustainability, an especially important aspect for tropical hillside soils. Several fractions of soil organic matter (OM) have been recognized as good indicators of soil quality and resilience. Therefore, organic carbon, light and heavy soil fra [...] ctions, microbial biomass, basal respiration, humic and fulvic acids as well as aggregate stability were evaluated in hillside soils which surround the Reservoir La Mariposa, which supplies drinking water to the city of Caracas, Venezuela, where the vegetation has changed due to population increase. Using randomized stratified sampling, three soil samples (0-10 cm; each with 10 subsamples) were taken from three 20 x 30 m plots (experimental units), from four adjacent soils pertaining to humid forests (BH), secondary savannas (SS) and pine (Pin) and eucalyptus (Eu) (treatments) plantations. The objective was to determine the effect of reforestation on quality indicators using pines and eucalyptus in hillside soils. Using analysis of variance (one way) and Tukey test (p

  12. Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil

    Walter Murillo-Arango

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B. Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico.Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B. Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

  13. Correlaes da altura e dimetro com tenses de crescimento em rvores de Corymbia citriodora e Eucalyptus urophylla Height and diameter correlations with growth tensions in trees of Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla

    Alexandre Monteiro Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso mltiplo das florestas plantadas pelo setor industrial de base florestal vem aumentando gradativamente. Hoje, a utilizao da madeira de eucalipto para fins mais nobres j uma realidade. Porm, algumas limitaes como a presena de tenses de crescimento so responsveis por grandes perdas no setor. As tenses de crescimento geram rachaduras de topo em toras e tbuas e tambm empenamentos nas peas aps o desdobro. Dentro desse contexto, este trabalho objetivou avaliar essas tenses em diferentes classes diamtricas e alturas, em indivduos de Corymbia citriodora e Eucalyptus urophylla, usando o mtodo no destrutivo da medio da deformao residual longitudinal (DRL, ao redor da circunferncia dos troncos das rvores. As deformaes residuais longitudinais, associadas s tenses de crescimento para Corymbia citriodora e Eucalyptus urophylla, respectivamente, foram, em mdia, de 0,106 e 0,092 mm. O efeito da classe diamtrica em Corymbia citriodora evidenciou correlao negativa significativa com a DRL, enquanto a altura no mostrou qualquer tendncia quando relacionada com a DRL dessa espcie. Em Eucalyptus urophylla foi possvel observar que tanto a correlao com o dimetro altura do peito (DAP quanto com a altura foi significativa, apresentando coeficientes negativos, ou seja, as tenses de crescimento foram menores em rvores com maiores DAP e maiores alturas.The multiple-use of planted forests by the forest products industrial sector has been increased gradually. Today, eucalyptus wood is used for nobler applications. However, some limitations, such as the presence of growth stresses, are responsible for great losses in the sector. Growth stresses generate cracks in the tops of logs and boards followed by warping. In this context, the objectives of the present work were to evaluate the growth stresses in individual Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla with different diameter and height classes, by the longitudinal residual strain (LRS nondestructive method, around the trees circumference. The average longitudinal residual strain, associated to the Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus urophylla growth stresses, were 0.106 and 0.092 mm, respectively. For Corymbia citriodora, the diameter at breast height (DBH had a negative significant correlation with the LRS, while the height did not show a significant correlation. For Eucalyptus urophylla, a negative significant correlation between LRS and both variables, DBH and height, was observed. Indeed, growth stresses were lower for greater DBH and heights.

  14. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp. seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    C.M.M. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid, GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis, and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materiais cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark, em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp., GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.. Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado.

  15. Transferability of microsatellite markers located in candidate genes for wood properties between Eucalyptus species

    Cintia V. Acuña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study:  To analyze the feasibility of extrapolating conclusions on wood quality genetic control between different Eucalyptus species, particularly from species with better genomic information, to those less characterized. For this purpose, the first step is to analyze the conservation and cross-transferability of microsatellites markers (SSRs located in candidate genes.Area of study: Eucalyptus species implanted in Argentina coming from different Australian origins.Materials and methods: Twelve validated and polymorphic SSRs in candidate genes (SSR-CGs for wood quality in E. globulus were selected for cross species amplification in six species: E. grandis, E. saligna, E. dunnii, E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis.Main results: High cross-species transferability (92% to 100% was found for the 12 polymorphic SSRs detected in E. globulus. These markers revealed allelic diversity in nine important candidate genes: cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3, the transcription factor LIM1, homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT, shikimate kinase (SK, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 2 (XTH2, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD and peroxidase (PER.Research highlights: The markers described are potentially suitable for comparative QTL mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding (MAB and for population genetic studies across different species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus.Keywords: validation; cross-transferability; SSR; functional markers; eucalypts; Symphyomyrtus.

  16. Farmers experience on Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa, Infestation on Eucalyptus Species in East Africa

    Understanding indigenous knowledge and practices is important in facilitating the development and introduction of pest management technologies that meet farmers aspirations. The apper documents farmer's knowledge, perceptions and control practices of gall-forming wasps, leptocybe invasa Fisher and LaSalle in Uganda and Kenya with the aim of developing integrated management of the pest. Although the vast majority of farmeres interviewed had observed that symptoms of L. invasa infestation on Eucalyptus, very few of them were aware of causative agent. They reported the infestation as causing reduced growth rate, tree deformation and mortality. However farmers did not attempt to control the infeatation because they did not know suitable control methods and/or the casuse. Less than 20% of the farmers had recieved advice on L. invavsa, suggesting poor flow of tree pest information to farmers. Even after observing severe L. invasa, most farmers interviewed still wanted to plant Eucalyptus and they saw trees as source of several products and services, especially firewood and construction materials. As plantation forestry is developed and promoted, there is a need to integrate farmers' knowledge about tree pests into the development processes in order to improve their management practices

  17. Simulation of the use of wooden floors of Eucalyptus sp and Corymbia maculate

    Marcelo Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomic, physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of wood provides important information for the indication of its best usage. However, to make these woods possible to become a good option in the wooden floors market, it is necessary to perform tests that simulate the real conditions of their practical use. These tests simulate the stomping of high-heeled shoes with small pressure areas, the dragging and falling of objects, the resistance to the surface abrasion and the friction offered during the walking of people. The difficulty of selection of new wood to manufacture floors is in the absence of specific physical-mechanical reference values. The present work intended to characterize the Eucalyptus cleziana F. Muell, Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell and Corymbia maculata Hook woods, regarding the properties of basic density, shrinkage, application of rolling roll, of static and dynamic friction, denting caused by loads applied on small areas, impact of falling steel sphere and resistance to abrasion. It was noticed that the woods may be used to the manufacturing of floors, according to results obtained and through comparisons with literature results.

  18. REMOVAL OF METAL IONS FROM SYNTHETIC WASTEWATER BY ADSORPTION ONTO EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENIS TREE LEAVES

    N. T ABDEL-GHANI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus Camaldulenis tree leaves were used to study adsorption of several cations (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from wastewater within various experimental conditions. The dried leaves of Eucalyptus Camaldulenis were used at different adsorbent/metal ion ratios. The influence of pH, contact time, metal concentration, and adsorbent loading weight on the removal process was investigated. Batch adsorption studies were carried out at room temperature. The adsorption efficiencies were found to be pH dependent, increasing by increasing the pH in the range from2.5 to 8.5. The equilibrium time was attained after 90-120 minutes and the mximum removal percentage was achieved at an adsorbent loading weight of 1.5 g/50ml mixed ions solution. The removal order was found to be Pb (II> Cu (II >Cd (II> Zn (II.This study isone ofthefirstreportsof removal of the highly toxic Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+and Pb2+in mixed systems based on the adsorption by natural materials. The potential of application for the treatment of solutions containing these heavy metals in multimetal solutions is indicated

  19. Variation in volatile leaf oils of 13 Eucalyptus species harvested from Souinet arboreta (Tunisia).

    Elaissi, Ameur; Marzouki, Hanène; Medini, Hanène; Larbi Khouja, Mohamed; Farhat, Farhat; Lynene, Fréderic; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Chemli, Rachid

    2010-04-01

    Hydrodistillation of the dried leaves of 13 species of the genus Eucalyptus L' Hér., viz., E. bicostata Maiden, Blakely & Simmonds, E. cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth., E. exerta F. Muell., E. gigantea Hook. f., E. gunnii Hook. f., E. macarthurii Deane & Maiden., E. macrorrhyncha F. Muell., E. maidenii F. Muell., E. odorata Behr., E. pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel, E. sideroxylon A. Cunn. ex Woolls, E. tereticornis Sm., and E. viminalis Labill., harvested from Souinet arboreta (region of Ain Draaham, north of Tunisia) in June 2006, afforded essential oils in yields varying from 0.5+/-0.2 to 3.9+/-0.4%, dependent on the species. E. cinerea and E. exerta provided the highest and the lowest percentage of essential oil amongst all the species examined, respectively. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 142 components, representing 81.5 to 98.9% of the total oil. The contents of the different samples varied according to the species. The main components were 1,8-cineole (1), followed by cryptone, spathulenol (4), p-cymene (2), viridiflorol (6), globulol (7), beta-eudesmol, alpha-terpineol (5), limonene (8), D-piperitone, alpha-pinene (3), cuminal, and gamma-eudesmol. The principal component and the hierarchical cluster analyses separated the 13 Eucalyptus leaf essential oils into three groups, each constituting a chemotype. PMID:20397231

  20. FORMULATION OF AN ANTI-DERMATOPHYTE CREAM FROM HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS LEAVES

    E Moghimipour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, there has been an increasing incidence of fungal infections, and because of drug resistance and toxicity associated with long-term treatment with antifungal drugs, search for new drugs to treat fungal infections is ongoing. The aim of the present study was to formulate herbal antifungal cream containing hydro-alcoholic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis as an anti-dermatophytic preparation and evaluate its physicochemical properties and stability. Firstly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of E. camaldulensis was determined against various dermatophyte species by in vitro tube dilution technique. To select the best cream formulation, one general formula of cleansing cream was considered and then corrected. The best base formula was chosen according to its monotonousness, straightness and external attractiveness. The formulation containing 1% of the plant extract was prepared and controlled by standard methods. Finally, a cream containing bees wax 10%, liquid paraffin 58.8%, hard paraffin 1.2%, spermaceti 5%, borax 1.5%, tween 80 1.5%, 0.15% methyl paraben, 0.05% propyl paraben, 0.15% lactic acid, 1% Eucalyptus extract and water was chosen as the best formulation. The final product was a w/o emulsion cream with suitable appearance and desirable physicochemical stability. Due to the stability of the extract in the cream formulation, it can be formulated for treatment of fungal skin infections.

  1. Green synthesis of Fe nanoparticles using eucalyptus leaf extracts for treatment of eutrophic wastewater

    Wang, Ting; Jin, Xiaoying [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian (China); Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@unisa.edu.au [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian (China); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized through a one-step room-temperature biosynthetic route using eucalyptus leaf extracts (EL-Fe NPs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) confirmed the successful synthesis of the spheroidal iron nanoparticles. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) indicated that some polyphenols are bound to the surfaces of EL-Fe NPs as a capping/stabilizing agent. Reactivity of EL-Fe NPs was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater and results indicated that 71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD were removed, respectively. This demonstrated the tremendous potential of EL-Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater. - Highlights: •Fe NPs were firstly synthesized through a one-step using eucalyptus leaf extracts. •Fe NPs was evaluated by remediating swine wastewater. •71.7% of total N and 84.5% of COD was removed. •Fe NPs for in situ remediation of eutrophic wastewater.

  2. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  3. Initial analysis of the Eucalyptus super clone fertilized with swine wastewater sludge

    Elaino Paula Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of waste has gradually increased due to the large swine production and with this comes the concern about the final destination of the product. This study aimed to analyze the initial behavior of Eucalyptus super clone (AEC 1528, fertilized with swine sludge and compared to chemical fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications, with the volumes: 1.25, 2.5, 5 liters; 0 liters of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer. The plants were irrigated with water from a well at the Rio Verde University, increasing the amount according to plant growth. After 120 days, we evaluated the height of the plants, stem diameter, relation between stem diameterand plantsheight, weight of the fresh matter, weight of the dry matter,root weight, leaf areaand mortality. There were significant differences in relation to plant height, the fresh matterweightand the dry matterweight. For the other characteristics there was no negative influence with the use of different volumes of sewage sludge in eucalypts hybrid. It was observedthat, the application of biosolids (sludge from swine is an effective alternative fertilizer in eucalyptus plantations.

  4. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Richardson B. G. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1; vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1; and vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff (1:1. These mixtures were added to 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg of controlled-release fertilizer per cubic meter of substrate. The substrates that do not support root development and have lower water retention, independently of the dose of controlled-release fertilizer, reduce the quality of the root system. For substrates with proper values of water retention, such as vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1 and vermiculite+carbonised rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1, the utilization of dose 2 kg of controlled-release fertilizer to each cubic meter is enough to promote cuttings with greater quality of the root systems and proper heights and stem diameters.

  5. Effect of nebulized eucalyptus on contamination of microbial plaque of endotracheal tube in ventilated patients

    Amini, Nazanin; Rezaei, Korosh; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Formation of biofilm and bacterial colonization within the endotracheal tube (ETT) are significant sources of airway contamination and play a role in the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study was conducted to examine the effect of nebulized eucalyptus (NE) on bacterial colonization of ETT biofilm. Materials and Methods: We performed a randomized clinical trial in three intensive care units (ICUs) of an educational hospital. Seventy intubated patients were selected and randomly divided into intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 35) groups. The intervention group received 4 ml (5%) of eucalyptus in 6 ml normal saline every 8 h. The placebo group received only 10 ml of normal saline in the same way. On extubation, the interior of the tube was immediately sampled using a sterile swab for standard microbiological analysis. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis in SPSS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In both samples, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most frequently isolated bacteria. In the control group, heavy colonization was greater than in the intervention group (P = 0.002). The frequency of isolation of K. pneumoniae in the intervention group was lower than in the control group (P contamination of the endotracheal tube biofilm in ventilated patients. Moreover, K. pneumoniae was the most sensitive to NE.

  6. Proteomic plasticity of two Eucalyptus genotypes under contrasted water regimes in the field.

    Bedon, Frank; Villar, Emilie; Vincent, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Mabialangoma, Andr; Chaumeil, Philippe; Barr, Aurlien; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2012-04-01

    Water deficit affects tree growth and limits wood production. In an attempt to identify the molecular triggers of adaptation mechanisms to water deficit in Eucalyptus, we investigated protein expression patterns of two ecophysiologically contrasted Eucalyptus genotypes. They were grown in the field in either natural conditions or irrigated for 7 weeks during the dry season in the Republic of Congo. At the phenotypic level, genotype (G), treatment (T) and/or G T interaction effects were observed for above- and below-ground biomass-related traits. At the molecular level, changes in protein abundance were recorded in leaves (acidic pH 4-7, and basic pH 7-11, proteomes) and stems (acidic proteome) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). One third of the detected protein spots displayed significant G, T and/or G T effects, and 158 of them were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Thus, several proteins whose molecular plasticity was genetically controlled (i.e. G T effect) were revealed, highlighting adaptive mechanisms to water deficit specific to each genotype, namely cell wall modification, cell detoxification and osmoregulation. Transcript abundances corresponding to G T proteins were also investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. These proteins represent relevant targets to improve drought resistance in this ecologically and economically important forest tree genus. PMID:22026815

  7. Tree biomass equations for short rotation eucalyptus grown in New Zealand

    Senelwa, K.; Sims, R.E.H. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Five species of eucalypts, namely Eucalyptus ovata, E. saligna, E. globulus, E. nitens and E. regnans were planted, sampled and harvested to develop regression equations to be used for non-destructive estimations of total tree dry weight when grown under a short rotation regime. A total of 458 trees were sampled between 2 and 5 years old. Their diameters ranged between 10 and 314 mm, heights 1.6-18.1 m and weights 0.4-199 kg. A number of equations were developed from these parameters and tested statistically. The best-fit equation for a group of Eucalyptus species incorporated the product of the square of the diameter (D{sup 2}) and height (H): tree dry weight (W) = 1.22D{sup 2*}H x 10{sup -4}. This equation predicted the above ground tree dry weight to within 20% accuracy. The equation developed for eucalypts would be suitable if directly applied to other tree crops such as Pinus radiata or Acacia dealbata under SRF management regimes. (author)

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. PMID:25009154

  9. Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus

    Silvano Rodrigues Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 dias em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias, três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação.

  10. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.

    Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported. PMID:25385212

  11. Stability of plant defensive traits among populations in two Eucalyptus species under elevated carbon dioxide.

    McKiernan, Adam B; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Price, Cassandra; Davies, Noel W; Potts, Brad M; Hovenden, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) mediate a wide range of ecological interactions. Investigating the effect of environment on PSM production is important for our understanding of how plants will adapt to large scale environmental change, and the extended effects on communities and ecosystems. We explored the production of PSMs under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) in the species rich, ecologically and commercially important genus Eucalyptus. Seedlings from multiple Eucalyptus globulus and E. pauciflora populations were grown in common glasshouse gardens under elevated or ambient [CO(2)]. Variation in primary and secondary chemistry was determined as a function of genotype and treatment. There were clear population differences in PSM expression in each species. Elevated [CO(2)] did not affect concentrations of individual PSMs, total phenolics, condensed tannins or the total oil yield, and there was no population by [CO(2)] treatment interaction for any traits. Multivariate analysis revealed similar results with significant variation in concentrations of E. pauciflora oil components between populations. A [CO(2)] treatment effect was detected within populations but no interactions were found between elevated [CO(2)] and population. These eucalypt seedlings appear to be largely unresponsive to elevated [CO(2)], indicating stronger genetic than environmental (elevated [CO(2)]) control of expression of PSMs. PMID:22318433

  12. Chemical composition of Eucalyptus spp. essential oils and their insecticidal effects on Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Silva, R A; Barros, R S; Sousa, R N; Sousa, L C; Brito, E S; Souza-Neto, M A

    2010-01-20

    The chemical composition of essential oils from three species of plants belonging to the Eucalyptus genus was determined and, their insecticidal effects on egg, larva and adult phases of Lutzomyia longipalpis were assessed. The insects were collected in the municipality of Sobral in the State of Ceará, Brazil. Five treatments with different concentrations were performed along with two negative controls, distilled water and Tween 80 (3%), and a positive control, cypermethrin (0.196mg/ml). The tests were carried out in plastic pots internally coated with sterile plaster and filled with a substrate made of rabbit feces and crushed cassava leaves. The eggs, larvae and adults were sprayed with the oils. The hatched larvae were counted for 10 consecutive days and observed until pupation. Insect mortality was observed after 24, 48 and 72h. E. staigeriana oil was the most effective on all three phases of the insect, followed by E. citriodora and E. globulus oils, respectively. The major constituents of the oils were Z-citral and alpha-citral (E. staigeriana), citronellal (E. citriodora) and 1,8-cineole (E. globulus). The Eucalyptus essential oils constitute alternative natural products for the control of L. longipalpis since the median effective concentration (EC(50)) values revealed relevant action as compared with other natural products, some of their chemical constituents are already known for their insecticidal activity and these oils are produced in commercial scale in Brazil. PMID:19896276

  13. Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils.

    Lucia, Alejandro; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Masuh, Hector

    2009-12-01

    Vapors of essential oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (E. gunnii, E. tereticornis, E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. cinerea, E. saligna, E. sideroxylon, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. viminalis and the hybrids E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis) and their major components were found to be toxic to Aedes aegypti adults, the yellow fever mosquito. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber and the number of knocked-down mosquitoes was recorded as function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that E. viminalis had the fastest knockdown time at of 4.2 min, on the same order as dichlorvos, a standard knockdown agent. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. The correlation between KT(50) values and calculated vapor pressures of the essential oil components showed that the fumigant activity of simple organic compounds in insects is correlated with their volatility. PMID:19592238

  14. Specific cutting energy consumption in a circular saw for Eucalyptus stands VM01 and MN463

    Erica Moraes de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies for continuous carbonization of Eucalyptus sp. require special care in wood cutting procedures. Choosing the right tool, cutting speeds and feed rates is important to manage time and energy consumption, both of which being critical factors in optimizing production. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of machining parameters on the specific cutting energy consumption of Eucalyptus sp. stands MN 463 and VM 01, owned by V&M Florestal. Tests were performed at the Wood Machining Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (DCF/UFLA. Moist logs 1.70m in length were used. The experiment was set up using a 3 x 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design (cutting speed x feed rate x number of teeth x tree stand. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% significance level. Greater cutting speeds, lower feed rates and the 40 teeth circular saw consumed more specific energy. Stand MN 463 consumed more specific energy. The combination of cutting speed 46 m.s-1, feed rate 17 m.min-1 and 24 teeth circular saw produced better specific energy consumption results for stand MN 463. As for stand VM 01, the combination of cutting speed 46 m.s-1, feed rate 17 m.min-1 and 20 teeth circular saw resulted in lower specific energy consumption.

  15. Botryosphaeria species from Eucalyptus in Australia are pleoanamorphic, producing dichomera synanamorphs in culture.

    Barber, Paul A; Burgess, Treena J; Hardy, Giles E St J; Slippers, Bernard; Keane, Philip J; Wingfield, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Species within the genus Botryosphaeria include some of the most widespread and important pathogens of woody plants, and have been the focus of numerous taxonomic studies in recent years. It is currently accepted that anamorphs of Botryosphaeria belong to two distinct genera, Fusicoccum and Diplodia. Species within the genus Fusicoccum commonly produce aseptate, hyaline conidia. In the present study, fungi were isolated from foliage and wood of Eucalyptus in native forests and plantations in Australia. Although these fungi produced Dichomera anamorphs in culture, they clustered within the Fusicoccum clade of Botryosphaeria based on their ITS sequence data. Four species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, B. parva, B. ribis and B. australis produced Dichomera conidia in culture. The Dichomera synanamorphs are described for these four species of Botryosphaeria. In addition, falling within the Fusicoccum clade of Botryosphaeria, two species were found to be distinct from previously described Botryosphaeria spp. based on their ITS sequences, but synonymous with D. versiformis and D. eucalypti. These observations are currently unique to isolates from host trees within the genus Eucalyptus in Australia, and the pleoanamorphic nature of these species is discussed. PMID:16353635

  16. Determinao das deformaes residuais longitudinais decorrentes das tenses de crescimento em Eucalyptus spp.

    Rafael Beltrame

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985741O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de determinar as deformaes residuais longitudinais (DRL, decorrentes das tenses de crescimento em rvores em p e vivas de diferentes clones de Eucalyptus spp. Para tanto, foram selecionados 12 clones do gnero Eucalyptus com nove anos de idade, por meio das maiores reas basais (G. Foram selecionadas 12 rvores de cada clone, onde foram medidas as variveis de densidade bsica (DB, espessura de casca (EC, dimetro a altura do peito (DAP e altura total (H. As medies da DRL foram realizadas, com o auxlio do extensmetro (Growth Strain Gauge, pelo mtodo CIRAD-Fort. As leituras foram realizadas em quatro posies ao redor do tronco da rvore. Em relao aos nveis das DRL, os resultados obtidos no estudo indicaram que os clones apresentaram grandes variaes entre si, apresentando um valor mdio considerado elevado quando comparado com resultados encontrados na literatura. O clone 8 se destacou por apresentar os menores nveis de deformao, sendo considerado um material recomendado para programas de melhoramento gentico e para produo de madeira slida. J o clone 1, apresentou os maiores valores das DRL. Ocorreram variaes das DRL, ao longo da circunferncia do tronco das rvores, sendo mais acentuadas na linha referente posio Leste. Analisando as correlaes entre as variveis, verificou-se que as DRL apresentaram correlaes significativas com a EC, DAP e o volume total da rvore em p (VOL.

  17. Management of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici by leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora

    Fusarium wilt of chili (Capsicum annum L.) is an important disease in Pakistan that causes significant yield losses. In the present study, pathogenicity test was conducted using four strains of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici and ten chili varieties. It revealed that strain B was the most pathogenic strain and variety sky red was the most susceptible while variety Anchal was the most resistant against F. oxysporum strain B. Antifungal bioassays were conducted to find out antimycotic effect of extracts of fruit, bark and leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora (Hook.) against F. oxysporum. Ten concentrations (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 5%) of methanolic extracts of each plant part were employed against the target pathogen. Leaf extract imparted the maximum (up to 98%) and significant suppression in fungal growth while fruit and bark extracts proved less effective exhibiting only 50-60% reduction in fungal mycelial growth. The work concludes that methanolic extract of leaves of E. citriodora have potential to restrain the disastrous effects of the pathogenic fungus as the plant extracts of Eucalyptus conferred about 85% disease control in chilli plants with significantly high intensity of defense related enzymes under pathogenic stress. (author)

  18. HEXENURONIC ACID REMOVAL FROM UNBLEACHED KRAFT EUCALYPTUS PULP BY PEROXYMONOSULFURIC ACID

    XIMENA PETIT-BREUILH

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of peroxymonosulphuric (Ps acid to remove hexenuronic acid (HexA present in unbleached eucalyptus kraft pulps was evaluated here. HexA is formed during pulping and is held responsible for reagent consumption during bleaching. Laboratory experiments, using oxygen predelignified eucalyptus kraft pulps (kappa number around 9, treated at 20-110C and 0.2-1.0%Ps, were conducted here, Experimental results show that Ps effectively removed both HexA and lignin, even under mild conditions. Selectivity towards HexA increased at higher temperature and lower Ps loads. However, at lower temperatures and higher Ps concentrations, cellulose was also attacked. As a result of Ps pre-treatment, ClO2 savings in pulp bleaching in the range 40-79% were determined here. Moreover, all Ps pretreated pulps yielded higher brightness than untreated pulps. Furthermore, lower AOX emissions occurred as a result of lower ClO2 loads. However, moderate Ps pre-treatment conditions were necessary to obtain a bleached pulp with acceptable mechanical properties. Results reported here show that HexA removal by Ps offers an interesting option for industrial implementation, both from an economic and environmental point of view

  19. Monitoring of defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus plantations using Landsat 5-TM

    Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2010-05-01

    The amount of foliage is one of the primary physiological controls of plant functioning, which ultimately influences plant survival and growth. Repeated severe defoliation events have been linked to reduced growth rates and tree mortality in Eucalyptus forests throughout the world. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health. In this study the potential of spectral mixture analysis for defoliation monitoring is evaluated. A novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), was developed and successfully applied to Landsat 5 TM data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. Results show that considerable variability in the degree of defoliation exists as well as in stand age amongst sites. In this study significantly improvement of the link between spectral unmixing and defoliation is observed by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for the multispectral (R² no age correction = 0.55 vs. R² age correction = 0.73).

  20. A model for predicting the growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedling stands in Bolivia

    Guzman, G.; Morales, M.; Pukkala, T.; Miguel, S. de

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most planted species in the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia, where growing conditions are different from most places where eucalyptus have been studied. This prevents a straightforward utilization of models fitted elsewhere. In this study a distance-independent individual-tree growth model for E. globulus plantations in Bolivia was developed based on data from 67 permanent sample plots. The model consists of sub-models for dominant height, tree diameter increment, height-diameter relationship and survival. According to model-based simulations, the mean annual increment with the optimal rotation length is about 13 m3 ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 on medium-quality sites and 18 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 yr -1 on the best sites. A suitable rotation length for maximizing wood production is approximately 30 years on medium sites and 20 years on the most productive sites. The developed models provide valuable information for further studies on optimizing the management and evaluating alternative management regimes for the species. (Author) 22 refs.