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Sample records for brushbox lemon-gum eucalyptus

  1. Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eucalyptus blatter, Eucalyptus bicostata, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Oil, Eucalyptus fructicetorum, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus Leaf, Eucalyptus odorata, Eucalyptus Oil, Eucalyptus polybractea, ...

  2. Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eucalyptus oil is used as a fragrance in perfumes and cosmetics. It is also used as a ... hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)Eucalyptus can increase the toxicity of herbs that contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). ...

  3. Eucalyptus energy plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    India has extensive plantations of eucalyptus, a fast-growing, native plant that can be used as wood, fuel, pulp, oil and honey, and erosion control. India raises eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. grandis, and E. Citriodara. The applications, environmental requirements, yields, and related species are summarized for each. 2 references. (DCK)

  4. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

    OpenAIRE

    Odair Bison; Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho; Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha Rezende; Aurélio Mendes Aguiar; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende3

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones...

  5. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio Rogério da, Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira, Machado; Jay, Deiner; Carlito, Calil Junior.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of dist [...] illated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  6. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  7. Enhancing Eucalyptus Community Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Mario Mereu; Matteo Dessalvi; Andrea Bosin; Giovanni Serra

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, the cloud computing model has moved from hype to reality, as witnessed by the increasing number of commercial providers offering their cloud computing solutions. At the same time, various open-source projects are developing cloud computing frameworks open to experimental instrumentation and study. In this work we analyze Eucalyptus Community Cloud, an open-source cloud-computing framework delivering the IaaS model and running under the Linux operating system. Our aim is...

  8. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalç?n ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  9. The Eucalyptus spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Barbuy, Beatriz; Campos, Rodrigo P.; Castilho, Bruno V.; Gneiding, Clemens; Kanaan, Antonio; Lee, David; Lepine, Jacques R. D.; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; de Oliveira, Ligia S.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Silva, J. M.; Strauss, C.; Taylor, Keith

    2003-03-01

    As part of the Brazilian contribution to the 4.2 m SOAR telescope project we are building the Integral Field Unit spectrograph, "SIFUS." With the aim of testing the performance of optical fibers with 50 microns core size on IFUs, we constructed a prototype of the IFU and a spectrograph that were installed at the 1.6 m telescope of the Observatório do Pico dos Dias (OPD), managed by Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA) in Brazil. The IFU has 512 fibers coupled to a LIMO microlens array (16 x 32) covering a 15" x 30" field on the sky. The spectrograph is a medium resolution instrument, operating in a quasi-Littrow mode. It was based on the design of the SPIRAL spectrograph built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The name Eucalyptus was given following the name of the native Australian tree that adapted very well in Brazil and it was given in recognition to the collaboration with the colleagues of the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The instrument first light occurred in the first semester of 2001. The results confirmed the possibility of using the adopted fibers and construction techniques for the SIFUS. We present the features of the instrument, some examples of the scientific data obtained, and the status of the commissioning, calibration and automation plans. The efficiency of this IFU was determined to be 53% during telescope commissioning tests.

  10. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

  11. SOIL FAUNA CHARACTERIZATION IN Eucalyptus spp. PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Garlet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810545Forest soils provide good conditions for the development and the establishment of soil fauna, manly by the deposition of litter. However, monoculture systems conducted in a single substrate by providing food, can promote the development of certain animal groups over others, causing outbreaks of pest species. The aim of this study was to characterize the soil fauna and its relationship with meteorological variables, in plantations of Eucalyptus spp. This study was conducted in six stands of Eucalyptus from three species: Eucalyptus dunni Maiden, Eucalyptus grandis Maiden and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake (clone hybrid and two ages (planted in 2006 and 2007.

  12. Eucalyptus oil in dentistry: A mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Agarwal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ancient Egyptians were familiar with many medicinal herbs andaware of their usefulness in treatment of various diseases. Eucalyptus oil is used to control several diseases derived from microbial infections. Eucalyptus oil has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied in human, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or effectiveness.Eucalyptus oil and its major component 1,8-cincole have antimicrobial effects. In this review, an unusual and a rare case of chemical injury secondary to the use of eucalyptus oil has been presented here.

  13. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R K; Hussey, Steven G; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Togawa, Roberto C; Pappas, Marilia R; Faria, Danielle A; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J; Strauss, Steven H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-19

    Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology. PMID:24919147

  14. Eucalyptus nitens Laminated Veneer Lumber

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Heather; Gea, Luis; Gaunt, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens es una especie de rápido crecimiento pero debido a una defoliación severa causada por el insecto Paropsis charybdis el area de plantación en Nueva Zelandia era muy limitada. En 1987 ensis (anteriormente Forest Research) liberó una avispa parasítica que controló exitosamente ésta peste. Desde entonces, E.nitens ha sido plantado para la producción local de pulpa kraft y para el mercado exterior de astillas en las regiones de Bay of Plenty/Taupo y Sou...

  15. Photosynthetic temperature responses of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; Loughead, S. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations of four year old Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Temperatures varied between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and were measured at approximately monthly intervals from early spring until midwinter. The photosynthetic temperature optimum was found to be linearly related to the average temperature of the preceding week during the entire nine month period. For E. globulus the optimum temperature for net photosynthesis increased from 17 degrees C to 23 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 degrees C to 16 degrees. The corresponding values for E. nitens were 14 to 20 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 to 19 degrees C. The photosynthetic performance of E. nitens was less sensitive to temperatures above and below the optimum than E. globulus. In a second experiment E. globulus clones were acclimated in temperature-controlled greenhouses, and in a shadehouse in four climatically different regions of Tasmania. A comparison of light response curves of the plants showed that the maximum rate of net photosynthesis was affected by the growth temperature, whereas apparent quantum efficiency remained unchanged. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

  17. Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf metabolite analysis [Metabolonote

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sample Set Information ID SE32 Title Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf metabolite analysis Descripti ... Reference Direct Submittion Comment version 1 The web ... resources and information related to the species u ...

  18. Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

  19. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family

    OpenAIRE

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G.; Myburg, Alexander A.; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. Results The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissu...

  20. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years. Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: Model I considered N pools contained in the litterfall, N pools in the soil microbial biomass and available soil N (mineral N; Model II considered the N pools in the soil, potentially mineralizable N and the export of N through wood harvesting; and Model III (N balance was defined as the difference between the initial soil N pool (0-10 cm and the export of N, taking the application of N fertilizer into account. Model I showed that N pools could supply 27 - 70 % of the N demands of eucalyptus trees at different ages. Model II suggested that the soil N pool may be sufficient for 4 - 5 rotations of 5 years. According to the N balance, these N pools would be sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for more than 15 rotations of 5 years. The organic pools contribute with different levels of N and together are sufficient to meet the N demands of eucalyptus for several rotations.

  1. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  2. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  3. Nitrogen balance in soil under eucalyptus plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Anjos Bittencourt Barreto; Antonio Carlos da Gama-Rodrigues; Emanuela Forestieri da Gama-Rodrigues; Nairam Félix de Barros

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the role of organic nitrogen (N) pools in the N supply of eucalyptus plantations is essential for the development of strategies that maximize the efficient use of N for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of organic N pools in different compartments of the soil-plant system and their contributions to the N supply in eucalyptus plantations at different ages (1, 3, 5, and 13 years). Three models were used to estimate the contributions of organic pools: M...

  4. Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae) Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Mora; Claudio Palma-Rojas; Pedro Jara-Seguel

    2005-01-01

    Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,4...

  5. EFFECT OF THE SAWING MODEL IN THE SAWNWOOD QUALITY OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Pereira da Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research carried out to evaluate the defects caused by growth stresses on boards produced from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii, using twodifferent sawing models. Logs tested came from fast growing plantations belonging to two diametricclasses. The first sawing model used aimed to produce mainly flat sawn boards and the second aimedto maximize the production of quarter-sawn boards. The results obtained pointed out that quartersawnboards were more prone to twist and bow. Splits were more evident in flat sawn boards. Bowwas only observed in flat sawn boards. As a result of the drying schedule used, collapse was not aproblem. Under the conditions of the study, regardless the species or log diameter, the best result isobtained when flat sawn boards are produced. Eucalyptus grandis was found to be a better species for producing sawnwood than Eucalyptus dunnii.

  6. Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

  7. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Pirraglia,; Ronalds Gonzales,; Daniel Saloni,; Jeff Wright; Joseph Denig

    2011-01-01

    Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental compositi...

  8. Disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus / Nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Elias Frank, Araújo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar, em um plantio de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foi utilizada a técnica de litter bags para a avaliação da decomposição. Ao todo, foram utili [...] zados 648 litter bags, com coletas mensais de 18 amostras, durante o período de 36 meses. A perda de massa foliar apresentou correlação positiva com a concentração de nutrientes, indicando que, quanto maior a perda de massa, maior a concentração dos elementos no folhedo remanescente. A decomposição da serapilheira foliar apresentou inicialmente imobilização de P, Fe, Mn e Zn, e disponibilização dos demais nutrientes. O P tornou-se disponível a partir do segundo ano, enquanto o Mn e o Zn, somente a partir do terceiro ano. Abstract in english This study had the objective to evaluate the nutrients release through leaf litter decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation, Eldorado do Sul-RS. We used the litterbags techniques to assess the decomposition. We used 648 litterbags, with 18 samples collected month [...] ly during 36 months. Mass loss leaf showed positive correlation with nutrients concentration, indicating that the higher mass loss, higher the nutrients concentration in litter remaining. Litter leaf decay initially showed P, Fe, Mn and Zn immobilization and release of the others, in the second year occurred P release and in the third year occurred Mn and Zn release, with Fe exception.

  9. Comparación del cariotipo de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae Comparison of karyotype of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron placas metafásicas mitóticas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Los cromosomas se observaron mediante aplastado de meristemas radiculares, previamente tratados con 8-Hidroxiquinolina y teñidos con la reacción de Feulgen. Las dos especies mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 22, con un nivel de simetría 1A y con tamaños cromosómicos que variaron entre 0,68 y 2,03 m m. El tamaño cromosómico promedio difirió significativamente al comparar entre E. globulus (1,42 m m y E. cladocalyx (1,02 m m (P Mitotic metaphase plates were analyzed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. The chromosomes were observed by squashing root tips, pre-treated with 8-Hydroxyquinoline and stained with the Feulgen reaction. Both, E. globulus and E. cladocalyx had a karyotype of 2n = 22, with 1A symmetry level, and chromosome sizes varying between 0.68 and 2.03 m m. Mean chromosome size differed significantly between E. cladocalyx (1.42 m m and E. globulus (1.02 m m (P < 0.01. The greater chromosomal size of E. globulus suggests a greater amount of DNA, probably originated by structural alterations. This evolutionary pattern of karyotype morphology might be associated, as well, with a high level of conservation in chromosome morphology.

  10. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi Setiadji; Andriati Amir Husin

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cemen...

  11. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, K; Zheng, H.; F. L. Chen; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Y. Wang; Wu, Y.F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; X. W. Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured an...

  12. Modeling of assortment yields in eucalyptus stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Ribeiro de Mendonça

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate models to estimate the assortment yield of clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid plantations with 3 x 3 m spacing in the Paraopeba city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. To estimate basal area and volume of the assortment yield data from permanent plots was used. To estimate the volume of assortments, we analyzed the logistic model with covariates and the Clutter model. The statistical standard error [Syx (%], bias (V, average of the differences (MD, and standard deviation of the differences (DPD, as well as the graphical analysis of the residuals were used to select the most accurate model. According to the analysis, the Logistic model obtained the best results for estimation of the yield in wood volume for energy and pulpwood. The methodology to estimate assortment of forest plantations was considered easy to use and accurate.

  13. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  14. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Aulus Estevão Barbosa; Paulo Marinho

    2005-01-01

    The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs), an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis), has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX). Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y) and cytosolic (TRXh), have been found in the transcriptome. Putativ...

  15. Eucalyptus globulus plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Glória Catarina Cintra da Costa

    2007-01-01

    A embriogénese somática (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padrão de micropropagação, desde a indução à aclimatização. A propagação clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefícios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um método efectivo de conseguir ganhos genéticos num curto espaç...

  16. Morfoanatomia da rizogênese adventícia em miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla / Morpho-anatomic of adventitious rhizogenesis in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Bueno, Goulart; Aloisio, Xavier; Lourdes, Iarema; Wagner Campos, Otoni.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal a caracterização morfoanatômica da rizogênese adventícia de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas de minicepas estabelecidas em minijardim clonal, conduzido em sistema semi-hidropônico [...] em canaletas com fertirrigação. Para a caracterização histológica do processo de rizogênese das miniestacas foram coletadas amostras teciduais aos 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 dias após o estaqueamento em casa de vegetação climatizada, para enraizamento. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA70%, desidratadas em série etílica e incluídas em metacrilato. Os resultados revelaram a origem endógena de primórdios radiculares a partir do câmbio vascular e, em alguns casos, a proliferação e a formação de uma massa de células desorganizadas (calos) em miniestacas dos clones avaliados, entre 8 e 12 dias de idade. Abstract in english The present work aimed to accomplish the histological analysis of the events involved in the adventitious rooting pattern of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The mini-cuttings were collected from a mini-stump and the rooting experiments were set up under mini-hedge indoor semi- [...] hydroponics by means of intermittent flooding fertirrigation. For histological analyses, the proximal ends of the mini-cuttings were collected after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 days after planting them at greenhouse. After fixation with FAA70%, the samples were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and infiltrated overnight in metracrilate resin, and finally embedded in resin. It was verified the endogenous origin of adventitious root primordia from vascular cambium, and in some cases, the formation and proliferation of calli at the proximal end of the mini-cuttings within 8 to 12 days.

  17. Genetic Control of Heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Corey J.; Freeman, Jules S; Rebecca C. Jones; Potts, Brad M.; Wong, Melissa M. L.; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F. G.; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

    2014-01-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals...

  18. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ghaffar; Muhammad Yameen; Shumaila Kiran; Shagufta Kamal; Fatima Jalal; Bushra Munir; Sadaf Saleem; Naila Rafiq; Aftab Ahmad; Iram Saba; Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves th...

  19. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  20. THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES AND COLOUR IN EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis DEHN.) WOOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O, Unsal; S, Korkut; C, Atik.

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is often applied to some wood species to improve dimensional stability. This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on some physical and mechanical properties and colour of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.), which has industrially high usage potential and large pl [...] antations in Turkey. Wood specimens from Tarsus, Turkey were subjected to heat treatment in varying temperatures and durations. After the heat treatment, hardness, swelling, ovendry density, and colour change of the wood specimens were tested in comparison with untreated specimens. The results showed that density, swelling, and hardness decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations while heat treatment made the colour of the wood specimens darker

  1. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  2. USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

  3. Utilização de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii para produção de painéis de partículas orientadas – OSB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade de utilização de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii para produção de painéis OSB. Foram produzidos em laboratório painéis com densidade nominal de 0,70 e 1,0 g/cm³, com 100% de partículas de Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus dunnii, além de painéis com mistura de 50% de Pinus taeda na camada interna do painel, com 50% de Eucalyptus grandis e 50% de Eucalyptus dunnii.. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis com densidade de 0,70 g/cm³, considerada padrão comercial, apresentaram valores de propriedades compatíveis com os requisitos da norma canadense (CSA e européia EN, e também em relação aos painéis de Pinus taeda usados como testemunhas. Os resultados dos ensaios mecânicos demonstraram incremento expressivo nos valores de MOE e MOR em flexão estática com aumento na densidade do painel, abrindo a probabilidade de uso de painéis com maior densificação para aplicações que requeiram maior resistência do painel OSB. Os resultados desta pesquisa indicam a viabilidade de utilização de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis como espécie alternativa para produção de painéis OSB no Brasil.

  4. Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii=Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Natal Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of three clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento total de raízes e a taxa de enraizamento por miniestaca foram avaliados a cada sete dias (0 - instante da estaquia, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias. Foram utilizadas as regressões logística e exponencial para a modelagem matemática da velocidade dos processos rizogênicos. O modelo logístico teve o melhor ajuste para o percentual de enraizamento, e o modelo exponencial para o comprimento total do sistema radicular. Os clones apresentaram diferentes velocidades de enraizamento. O tempo ideal de permanência das miniestacas dentro da casa de vegetação para o enraizamento está entre 35 a 42 dias, podendo variar em função do material genético.

  5. Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii / Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Ivar, Wendling; André Ebling, Brondani; Marla Alessandra, Araujo; André Luís Lopes da, Silva; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas) no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de tr [...] ês clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento total de raízes e a taxa de enraizamento por miniestaca foram avaliados a cada sete dias (0 - instante da estaquia, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 e 56 dias). Foram utilizadas as regressões logística e exponencial para a modelagem matemática da velocidade dos processos rizogênicos. O modelo logístico teve o melhor ajuste para o percentual de enraizamento, e o modelo exponencial para o comprimento total do sistema radicular. Os clones apresentaram diferentes velocidades de enraizamento. O tempo ideal de permanência das miniestacas dentro da casa de vegetação para o enraizamento está entre 35 a 42 dias, podendo variar em função do material genético. Abstract in english It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings) inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of t [...] hree clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting), 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.

  6. Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tonimara de Souza, Cândido; André Costa da, Silva; Lúcio Mauro da Silva, Guimarães; Hélvio Gledson Maciel, Ferraz; Norton, Borges Júnior; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new foliar disease caused by Teratosphaeria pseudoeucalypti on eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. urophylla x E. globulus and E. nitens x E. globulus) in Brazil is described . The disease is characterized by leaf spots of variable sizes and shapes, resulting in leaf blight and premature defoliation. Base [...] d on the morphological characteristics and multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the EF-1?, ?-T and ITS-2 gene regions of five isolates, the fungus was identified as T. pseudoeucalypti. This is the first report of this pathogen outside Australia and a method for sporulation in culture is described.

  7. Empirical modeling of eucalyptus wood processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajo, J.C.; Alonso, J.L.; Lage, M.A.; Vazquez, D. (Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with NaOH solutions in order to obtain substrates highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The experiments performed in the extraction and hydrolysis stages followed an incomplete factorial design. Temperature, NaOH concentration and extraction time were considered as independent variables. Their influence on five dependent variables (defined to measure the extraction yield, the chemical composition of processed samples and the enzymatic conversion) was assessed using second order, empirical models. In addition to the experimental results, other aspects related to the extraction selectivity are discussed. (orig.).

  8. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

    2002-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

  9. Modeling of basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using nondestructive methods / Modelagem da densidade básica da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla por métodos não destrutivos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Allan Motta, Couto; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a precisão da utilização de variáveis não destrutivas na inferência sobre a densidade básica das madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla. Foram utilizados 27 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla e 22 clones de Eucalyptus grandis oriundos de teste clon [...] al implantado em Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. Após a avaliação por técnicas não destrutivas de resistografia e penetração por um pino à pressão constante (Pilodyn®), os indivíduos foram abatidos e retirados discos a 2, 10, 30, 50 e 70% da altura comercial, além destes, foram extraídos também discos a 1,30 metros do solo. A densidade básica da madeira foi determinada pelo método de imersão em água. Os clones avaliados apresentaram valores em densidade básica variando de 0,412 a 0,609 g.cm-3 aos 42 meses e 0,408 a 0,664 g.cm-3 aos 54 meses. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram densidade básica média superior em relação aos de Eucalyptus grandis. A variável amplitude apresentou melhor relação com a densidade básica comparada a penetração por um pino à pressão constante. A avaliação não destrutiva pode ser utilizada em uma pré-seleção massal de materiais genéticos, destinando-os posteriormente a uma avaliação mais precisa e confiável. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of nondestructive variables in inferring basic density of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. A total of 27 clones of Eucalyptus urophylla and 22 clones of Eucalyptus grandis were used, sourced from a clonal trial set up in [...] Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. After evaluation using nondestructive techniques of resistography and pin penetration at a constant pressure (Pilodyn®), individuals were felled and disks were removed from the 2%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% portions of the merchantable height section, and also from the portion 1.30 m above ground level. Basic density was determined by the water immersion method. Values of basic density ranged from 0.412 to 0.609 g.cm-3 for clones at age 42 months and from 0.408 to 0.664 g.cm-3 for clones at age 54 months. The clones of Eucalyptus urophylla provided higher values of average basic density in relation to Eucalyptus grandis. The variable 'amplitude' had better correlation with basic density in comparison with pin penetration at a constant pressure. Nondestructive evaluation can be used in mass preselection of genetic materials, prior to subjecting them to a more accurate, reliable evaluation.

  10. Resistência biológica da madeira tratada de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana a fungos apodrecedores em ensaios de laboratório / Biological resistance of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana woods treated to the decay fungi under laboratory conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magnos Alan, Vivian; Elio José, Santini; Karina Soares, Modes; Alencar, Garlet; Weslley Wilker Corrêa, Morais.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a resistência biológica da madeira tratada de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana sob a ação de organismos biodeterioradores em ensaios de laboratório. Para tanto, foram utilizadas árvores de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana, ambas com 16 [...] anos de idade, as quais foram desdobradas em tábuas e submetidas ao tratamento preservativo em autoclave com arseniato de cobre cromatado (CCA). Em seguida, confeccionaram-se os corpos de prova para condução do ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado com os fungos Trametes versicolor e Gloeophyllum trabeum, seguindo as recomendações da norma ASTM. A partir dos resultados obtidos, observou-se para o fungo Trametes versicolor que o tratamento preservativo foi eficiente na redução da degradação biológica da madeira das duas espécies, com redução da perda de massa em 35,17 e 82,31% para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectivamente, já para o fungo Gloeophyllum trabeum, a perda de massa foi reduzida em 6,79 e 96,65%, em comparação à testemunha. Com base nas condições de realização do presente estudo observou-se que o tratamento preservativo com CCA é eficiente no aumento da resistência biológica da madeira a ação dos fungos apodrecedores Trametes versicolor e Gloeophyllum trabeum. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was conver [...] ted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA). Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  11. Fitogeografía y ecología del género Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Granados-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza el género Eucalyptus, que deriva su nombre de las palabras griegas eu, que significa bien, y kalypteim, que significa cubierto. Estas plantas desempeñan un papel importante en los bosques cerrados de Australia meridional, donde suelen ser árboles de hasta 200 años que constituyen una etapa de transición entre los bosques naturales más antiguos dañados por los incendios y los bosques pluviales cerrados. Los eucaliptos son originarios de Australia y algunos países de Asia sudoriental, donde crecen en condiciones muy diversas de pluviosidad y temperatura. Se conocen más de 500 especies de eucaliptos. Algunos árboles tienen una altura de hasta 90 m pero en zonas abiertas de vegetación baja y de escasa pluviosidad anual son muy corrientes las formas enanas de eucalipto, llamadas ?mallees?, cuyo largo fuste subterráneo permite al árbol sobrevivir a los periodos de sequía. Cuando se planta fuera de su hábitat natural muchas especies de Eucalyptus han mostrado un alto grado de tolerancia a las latitudes y altitudes extremas. Las primeras grandes plantaciones se iniciaron en el Brasil en 1904. En la actualidad, ese país tiene más de un millón de hectáreas de plantaciones de eucaliptos. Más de 100 países por todo el mundo cultivan eucaliptos en plantaciones, países como México, España, Portugal, Marruecos, Argentina, los Estados Unidos y muchos otros.

  12. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kelly J; Romanel, Elisson; Jones, Rebecca C; Klocko, Amy; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Hefer, Charles A; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Naithani, Sushma; Ranik, Martin; Wesley-Smith, James; Solomon, Luke; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Myburg, Alexander A; Strauss, Steven H

    2015-06-01

    As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages, and compared these with transcriptomes of diverse vegetative tissues, including leaves, roots, and stems. A subset of 4807 genes (13% of protein-coding genes) were differentially expressed between floral buds of either stage and vegetative tissues. A similar proportion of genes were differentially expressed among all tissues. A total of 479 genes were differentially expressed between early and late stages of floral development. Gene function enrichment identified 158 gene ontology classes that were overrepresented in floral tissues, including 'pollen development' and 'aromatic compound biosynthetic process'. At least 40 floral-dominant genes lacked functional annotations and thus may be novel floral transcripts. We analyzed several genes and gene families in depth, including 49 putative biomarkers of floral development, the MADS-box transcription factors, 'S-domain'-receptor-like kinases, and selected gene family members with phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains. Expanded MADS-box gene subfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis included SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), SEPALLATA (SEP) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. These data provide a rich resource for functional and evolutionary analysis of genes controlling eucalypt floral development, and new tools for breeding and biotechnology. PMID:25353719

  13. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aulus Estevão, Barbosa; Paulo, Marinho.

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs), an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis), has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST cl [...] usters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX). Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y) and cytosolic (TRXh), have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

  14. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF INBRED AND OUTBRED Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Abjaud Estopa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Inbred and outbred Eucalyptus clone were assessed aiming to check the possible loss of vigor in the initial germinationphases and growing in nursery and in t field conditions. Offsprings from two commercial clones were assessed as inbreds (C01 andC02 and as hybrids (C01 x C03 and C02 x C03. The work consisted of two phases. The first one was in the nursery, in a completelyrandom design, with 4 treatments and 6 reps, in plots with 30 tubes with only one seed. The second one, in the field, used a randomizedcomplete block design, with 4 treatments and 6 reps, with 18 plants per plots. The percentage of germination, germination speed index,survival and plant height were assessed at 35, 50, 65 and 80 days in the nursery and, in the field, the percentage of survival with 6months and plant height with 2, 4 and 6 months. It was concluded that the germination, survival and the growing of plants resultedfrom inbred were similar to the hybrid, showing that the loss of vigor is not expressive for those characters in initial developmentalphases of Eucalyptus spp.

  16. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Estevão Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs, an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis, has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX. Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y and cytosolic (TRXh, have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

  17. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  18. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exigências do mercado consumidor.

  19. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55Nmg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0nm, respectively. The addition of 9wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. PMID:26794952

  20. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  1. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Berenice K. de, Alcântara; Daniel, Pizzaia; Fernando A., Piotto; Lucélia, Borgo; Gilvano E., Brondani; Ricardo A., Azevedo.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A peroxidação lipídica e alongamento de raiz de Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram estudados em resposta às condições de estresse com alumínio (Al), um metal conhecido por limitar a produtividade agrícola em solos ácidos, principalmente devido à redução do crescimento radicular. No [...] Brasil, o híbrido Grancam 1277 (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis) tem sido plantado na região do "Cerrado", local com grande ocorrência de solos ácidos. O presente estudo mostra que o híbrido teve redução de crescimento das raízes e aumento dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica, após 24h de tratamento com 100 µM de Al. No entanto, um possível processo de tolerância começou após este período, uma vez que foram observadas redução na peroxidação lipídica e recuperação de alongamento da raiz após 48h de exposição Al. A compreensão da dinâmica temporal de tolerância ao Al pode ser útil principalmente para selecionar genótipos mais tolerantes e também para identificar genes de interesse para aplicação em bioengenharia. Abstract in english Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al), a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. [...] grandis × E. camaldulensis) has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  2. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeancarlos Moreno; Gabriel López; Raúl Siche

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, t...

  3. MECANIC PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF PLYWOOD PANELS OF Eucalyptus dunnii AND Eucalyptus dunnii/Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Jaeger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of eucalyptus has been spreading out in Brazil and in several wood processing sectors. Apprehension relatedto lack of raw material in the south of Brazil makes eucalyptus an alternative for the substitution or use together with pine for makingplywood panels. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two types of plywood panels: one that isproduced with alternate plates of Eucalyptus dunnii and Pinus taeda (T1 and the other entirely with E. dunnii (T2. The results showedthat the elasticity module (MOE in T1 was inferior to T2, but with variance presenting higher value, indicating smaller stability of thetested material. This behavior was noticed in cutting directions, perpendicular and parallel. The module of rupture (MOR showedsimilar values in both directions of cutting, but T1 showed higher variances only in the transversal direction. The resistance to cuttingin the glue line in the treatment with cool water was similar in both treatments, with T2 presenting higher variance. On the same test16% of the pieces of T1 came off during pre-treatment. When put to boil, T2 obtained better results, even though it presented a higherpercentage of pieces coming off during pre-treatment.

  4. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  5. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43o28'N, and longitude 3o48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  6. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND OF BORON IN HYBRIDS CLONES OF Eucalyptus grandis WITH Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Luiz Vaz de Arruda Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To characterise symptoms of macronutrient and boron deficiencies in hybrid clones ofEucalyptus grandis with Eucalyptus urophylla, a trial was conducted using nutrient solution, withtreatments including complete solution and minus N, minus P, minus K, minus Ca, minus Mg, minus Sand minus B with four replicates. Descriptions of the symptoms were made monthly, 4 months afterthe establishment of the treatments. Samples of leaves were collected to determine nutrient concentrations,taking the fifth and sixth leaf as standards, counted from the tip of the branches in both upperand lower parts of the crown. Another sampling was performed, collecting only leaves with deficiencysymptoms,for N, P, K and Mg using old leaves and for Ca, S and B young leaves. The sequence of symptomsappearance was N, P, B, K, Ca, Mg and S. Nutrients concentrations in leaves of treatments withomitted nutrients were lower as compared to leaves of the complete treatment, indicating that thesymptoms described were really due to the deficiency effect. The nutrient concentration of leaves withhigh symptoms was smaller than those for the fifth and sixth leaves, except for calcium. Eventhough,these leaves appeared to be adequate to predict nutritional deficiencies in Eucalyptus. The highestintensity of symptoms occurred for boron and the lowest for sulphur.

  7. Nutrient relations during an eucalyptus cycle at different population densities

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Palha Leite; Ivo Ribeiro Silva; Roberto Ferreira Novais; Nairam Félix de Barros; Júlio César Lima Neves; Ecila Mercês de Albuquerque Villani

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize nutrient availability with the requirements of eucalyptus during a cultivation cycle, the nutrient flow of this system must be well understood. Essential, for example, is information about nutrient dynamics in eucalyptus plantations throughout a cultivation cycle, as well as impacts on soil nutrient reserves caused by the accumulation and subsequent export of nutrients via biomass. It is also important to quantify the effect of some management practices, such as tree population...

  8. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Anna-Stiina Jääskeläinen

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The de...

  9. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  10. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry. PMID:25394796

  11. Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from 15 Eucalyptus species in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Murray, Frank; Lyons, Tom

    Monoterpene and isoprene emission rates of 15 Eucalyptus species were measured using an air exchange chamber technique and GC-FID analysis. The normalised monoterpene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C) of these Eucalyptus species ranged from zero for E. forrestiana to 5.4±2.2 μg g -1 h -1 (or 871±33 μg m -2 h -1) for E. globulus. The dominant monoterpene compounds emitted from these Eucalyptus species were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and limonene. The normalised isoprene emission rates (leaf temperature 30°C, PAR flux 1000 μmol m -2 s -1) ranged from 5.3±1.6 ( E. botryoides) to 69±34 μg g -1 h -1 ( E. globulus) or from 0.74 ( E. cladocalyx) to 9.5 mg m -2 h -1 ( E. rudis). Based on monoterpene emission rate data from four Eucalyptus species ( E. globulus, E. robusta, E. rudis, and E. sargentii), there were clear exponential relationships between leaf temperature and monoterpene emission rate for these Eucalyptus species. The mean exponential value ( β value) of the four Eucalyptus species was 0.103±0.012 K -1.

  12. Elaboração de modelo de previsão de preço da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. / Eucalyptus spp. wood price forecasting model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naisy Silva, Soares; Márcio Lopes da, Silva; José Luiz Pereira de, Rezende; João Eustáquio de, Lima; Kaio Henrique Adame de, Carvalho.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de elaborar um modelo para prever o preço da madeira em pé de Eucalyptus spp. em Itapeva (SP) e Bauru (SP), utilizando a metodologia de Box & Jenkins (1976) em observações mensais, cobrindo o período de maio de 2002 a janeiro de 2008. Os resultados obtidos in [...] dicaram que o modelo adequado para efetuar as previsões do preço da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. em Itapeva e Bauru foram, respectivamente, um ARIMA (0,1,4) e um ARIMA (2,1,2). Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to establish a price forecasting model of Eucalyptus spp. wood in Itapeva (SP) and Bauru (SP), using Box & Jenkins (1976) methodology in monthly observations, from May 2002 to January 2008. The results shows that the appropriate models for forecasting Eucalyptus spp. [...] wood price in Itapeva (SP) and Bauru (SP) were, respectively, ARIMA (0,1,4) and ARIMA (2,1,2).

  13. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ? 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ? 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  14. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies according to species. It is 3.4% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni, 2.5% for Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus and 1.6% for Eucalyptus diversicolor. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cladocalyx are characterized by an average yield less than 1%, i.e. 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The average yields of the two hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus diversicolor are 2.9% and 1.4% respectively. The combinations Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus grandis are characterized by the lowest yields, i.e. 1%, 0.8% and 0.8% respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition shows that the hybrids Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus globulus spp. maideni give 1,8-cineole rates superior to 70%, which is required by the users. Comparatively to Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the essential oils of the other crosses reveal a slight decrease in percentage of this product. However, increases of the alpha-pinene and p-cymene contents have been recorded. In general, all products detected in essential oils have average percentages intermediate between those of parental species. Hybridization of eucalyptus can improve the quality and the quantity of eucalyptus essential oils.

  15. EUCALYPTUS NITENS COMO MATERIA PRIMA PARA TABLEROS DE PARTICULAS EUCALYPTUS NITENS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Poblete W; Rodrigo Burgos O

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) Maiden como materia prima para tableros de partículas. Se controlaron la densidad de la madera, las dimensiones de las partículas obtenidas, el coeficiente de esbeltez y el valor pH de las partículas. Se fabricaron tableros con densidades entre 450 y 750 kg/m³ y se determinaron las propiedades flexión, tracción perpendicular, densidad de los tableros, hinchamiento y absorción de agua a las 2 y 24 horas. Se ca...

  16. Identification and characterization of homeobox genes in Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graça Celeste Gomes, Rocha; Régis Lopes, Corrêa; Anna Cristina Neves, Borges; Claudio Bustamante Pereira de, Sá; Márcio, Alves-Ferreira.

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcriptional factors, usually involved in molecular control of plant developmental patterns. They can be divided into several classes according to conserved sequences within the homeobox region and the presence of specific additional sequences. Based on these conserved seque [...] nces, we developed a search procedure to identify possible homeobox genes in the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (FORESTs) database. We were able to identify 50 Eucalyptus sequences (EST-contigs) containing the homeodomain sequence. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to this ESTs-contigs and 44 of them were found to have similarities with one of three well-known homeobox classes: Bell, Knox and HD-Zip, and their sub-classes. However, no EST-contig grouped with the fourth important homeobox class, the PHD-finger homeobox. On the other hand, two sequences have showed pronounced similarity to the Arabidopsis thaliana Wuschel gene, considered an "atypical" homeobox gene. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression pattern of these putative Eucalyptus homeobox genes revealed the presence of ten distinct expression groups. Combining phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns for some of the Eucalyptus genes revealed interesting aspects about some of the potential homeobox genes, which might lead to a better understanding of the Eucalyptus biology and to biotechnological applications.

  17. Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese eucalyptus forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

    2001-07-01

    Emission to the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Eucalyptus globulus was studied in the laboratory with young specimen, and in the field with adult trees. Eucalyptus emits both monoterpenes and isoprene. The leaves of young trees emit at higher rates than the leaves of adult trees. The emission of isoprene is highly predominant during the day. The emission of isoprene is dependent on temperature and solar radiation. The emission rate follows the Guenther algorithm if a based emission factor of 32 {mu}gg{sub dw} {sup -1}h{sup -1} is used, increasing with temperature, to a maximum at 40{sup o}C. At higher temperatures there is a decrease in the emission rate. The main C{sub 10} emitted is 1,8-cineol. Cineol emissions increase exponentially with temperature, and are also seasonally dependent. Application of the emission algorithm to the Portuguese eucalyptus forests shows that during summer isoprene and monoterpene emissions by eucalyptus are of the same order of anthropogenic VOC production. Furthermore, in certain regions, in the center-north of Portugal, where eucalyptus forests are predominant, isoprene emissions can reach an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic production of VOCs during daytime periods in July and August. (Author)

  18. Identification and characterization of homeobox genes in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Celeste Gomes Rocha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcriptional factors, usually involved in molecular control of plant developmental patterns. They can be divided into several classes according to conserved sequences within the homeobox region and the presence of specific additional sequences. Based on these conserved sequences, we developed a search procedure to identify possible homeobox genes in the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (FORESTs database. We were able to identify 50 Eucalyptus sequences (EST-contigs containing the homeodomain sequence. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to this ESTs-contigs and 44 of them were found to have similarities with one of three well-known homeobox classes: Bell, Knox and HD-Zip, and their sub-classes. However, no EST-contig grouped with the fourth important homeobox class, the PHD-finger homeobox. On the other hand, two sequences have showed pronounced similarity to the Arabidopsis thaliana Wuschel gene, considered an "atypical" homeobox gene. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the expression pattern of these putative Eucalyptus homeobox genes revealed the presence of ten distinct expression groups. Combining phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns for some of the Eucalyptus genes revealed interesting aspects about some of the potential homeobox genes, which might lead to a better understanding of the Eucalyptus biology and to biotechnological applications.

  19. SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rozas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con temperaturas no superiores a los 50°C, con un bajo potencial de secado e incluyeron tratamientos de vaporizado para recuperar colapso y reducir tensiones de secado. Se evaluaron contenidos de humedad inicial y final, densidad básica, gradientes de humedades, grietas, contracciones, tensiones y alabeos, determinando finalmente su aprovechamiento en pisos, blocks y muebles. Los resultados indican que la madera de Eucalyptus nitens presenta una fuerte evaporación superficial, generando altos gradientes de humedad, contracciones prematuras a nivel de superficie y tensiones de secado bajo el P.S.F, originando grietas superficiales e internas. Cuando el colapso es severo, debido a la baja resistencia mecánica de la pared celular de la madera, se generan grietas superficiales e internas en la madera. El mejor aprovechamiento se obtuvo para madera radial, donde el Eucalyptus globulus registró entre 52 y 81% para blocks, entre 48 y 91% para piso y entre 38 y 89% para muebles. El Eucalyptus nitens registró entre 60 y 71% en blocks, entre 59 y 61% para piso y entre 52 y 63% para muebles. La pérdida por nudos en Eucalyptus globulus fluctuó entre 3 y 22% en madera radial y entre 5 y 24% para madera tangencial. Para Eucalyptus nitens, en tanto, fluctuó entre 12 y 19% y entre 15 y 34% para los cortes antes señalados. La pérdida por grietas en Eucalyptus globulus varió entre 3 y 10% para madera radial y entre 15 y 21% para tangencial. En el Eucalyptus nitens ésta fluctuó entre 3 y 13% y entre 5 y 38%. Lo anterior, permite concluir que la madera de corte radial es la mejor opción para ser utilizada en estas aplicacionesDrying tests on both Eucalyptus nitens and globulus radial and tangential timber were carried out at Universidad del Bío-Bío Laboratories, under the approach of the D98I1018 FONDEF Project to be later validated at an industrial scale. A 30 mm-thick, 1.8 meter-long and random with scantling was used at a laboratory level, while the one applied at industrial level showed 32 mm of thickness, the lengths of which ranging from 2.1 to 2.8 meters, and variable widths. As general rule, mild drying programs were used, at temperatures not higher than 50°C, and having low drying potential. In turn, such programs included steaming based treatment with the purpose of overcoming collapse and reduce drying tensile. The following was assessed: initial and final moisture content, basic density, moisture gradients, checks, shrinkage, tensile and warpage, to finally specify their utilization in flooring, blocks and furniture. Outcomes have shown that Eucalyptus nitens timber features a high surface evaporation, thus generating high moisture gradients, early shrinkage at surface level, along with below P.S.F. drying related tensile, which, in turn, brings about surface and internal checks. When collapse turns to be severe, and because of timber cell wall mechanical strength, both surface and internal checks show up. A better utilization was achieved for radial timber, where Eucalyptus globulus values ranged from 52 to 81% in the case of blocks, form 58 to 91% with respect to flooring, and between 38 and 89% in the case of furniture. Eucalyptus globulus figures ranged from 60 to 71% for blocks, from 59 to 61% for flooring, and between 52 and 63% in the case of furniture. Losses caused by knots in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 22% in the case of radial timber, while the tangential one featured a 5 to 24% variation. On the other hand, Eucalyptus nitens timber showed variations from 12 to 19%, and from 15 to 34% for the above mentioned cuts. Check related losses in Eucalyptus globulus ranged from 3 to 10% in the case of radial timber, while tangential wood showed a 15 to 21% variation. Eucalyptus nitens featured variations from 3 to 13% and between 5 and 38%. Out of the above we may conclude that radial cut timber turns out to be the best option when being used in such applications

  20. Painéis de madeira aglomerada de resíduos da laminação de diferentes procedências de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Eucalyptus cloeziana / Wood paticleboards made from residues obtained in the veneer production of eucalypt species and provenances

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Fábio Akira, Mori.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se fazer a avaliação de 15 procedências de espécies de Eucalyptus cloeziana,Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna, com idade de 31 anos, sendo que esse teste foi instalado no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram fabricados 6 painéis aglomerados para cada pro [...] cedência, a partir dos resíduos gerados pela laminação desse material. Foi utilizado o adesivo uréia-formaldeído com 8%, e parafina a 1%, ambos com base nos seus respectivos teores de sólidos. Os painéis foram prensados à temperatura de 160ºC, pressão específica de 3,92MPa por tempo de 8 minutos. A partir dos resultados concluiu-se que: em absorção de água, destacou-se a espécie Eucalyptus saligna; em inchamento em espessura, a procedência 43 mostrou melhor desempenho dentro da espécie de Eucalyptus grandis; foram obtidos resultados superiores para Eucalyptus cloeziana no que se refere à compressão e MOE; para Eucalyptus grandis, a procedência de número 10695 apresentou melhores propriedades de MOE e MOR. De forma geral, a procedência 10.695 e as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis foram as que apresentaram maiores potenciais para a produção de painéis aglomerados. Abstract in english This work aimed the evaluation of 15 (fifteen) provenances of three eucalypt species: Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The trees were 31 years old and the test was developed in the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Six particleboards for each provenance we [...] re made by using the residues generated in the veneer production of this material. It was used urea-formaldehyde at 8% resin level and paraffin at 1%, both according to their respective solid content. The boards were produced by using a pressing cycle with temperature of 160 ºC, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm² and pressing time of 8 minutes. From the results, it was concluded that the specie Eucalyptus saligna was the best one in terms of water absorption. The 43 provenance of Eucalyptus grandis showed the best development of thickness swelling. Superior results of compression and elastic modulus were found to Eucalyptus cloeziana. The provenance of number 10695 of the specie Eucalyptus grandis presented the best results for elastic and rupture modulus. In general, the provenance 10695 and species of Eucalyptus grandis showed the greatest potential for production of particleboard.

  1. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exigências do mercado consumidor.

  2. Novos insetos sugadores (Hemiptera atacando Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claubert Wagner de Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. The migration of pests of plants native to eucalyptus can cause significant losses in production. Been reported to occur of the leafhopper Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae and Membracis lunata Fabricius (Hemiptera: Membracidae in Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. (Myrtaceae in the municipality of Couto de Magalhães de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The species were observed in eucalyptus plants in the vegetative stage in the field. The occurrence of these insects attacking eucalyptus indicates their migration from fruit trees to the new host and is not recommended to install eucalyptus forests near areas with fruit trees.

  3. FUEL PROPERTIES AND SUITABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS BENTHAMII AND EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURII FOR TORREFIED WOOD AND PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pirraglia,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is the process of heating a material in the absence of oxygen, a pretreatment that represents a promising option for biofuels. Two eucalyptus species harvested in South Carolina, E. benthamii and E. macarthurii, were processed in a torrefier, and wood pellets were manufactured. Eucalyptus represents a promising biomass source in southern U.S. due to fast growth rates and the availability of cold-tolerant plantations. Analyses of moisture content, proximate and elemental composition, and net heating value of “light roasted” wood were assessed. The heating value of the eucalypts and pellets was enhanced by 19% (average, compared to the original material, while the moisture and volatiles content were drastically reduced. This reduction leads to an increase in the amount (w/w of carbon, enhancing the energy content in the material. Thus, torrefaction is useful for improving the heating value of woody biomass, consuming little external energy due to recirculation and burning of gases for the process. The pellets showed increased energy density, providing improved properties for transportation and handling.

  4. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  5. Tamanho de parcelas experimentais para Eucalyptus saligna Smith Experimental plot size for Eucalyptus saligna Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, aos 15 meses de idade e aos 5 anos e meio de idade. Os experimentos foram instalados no Horto Florestal Barba Negra em área de produqdo da empresa Riocell S/A, localizada no município de Barra do Ribeiro - RS. O método utilizado para determinação do tamanho ótimo de parcelas foi o de Pimentel Gomes - ESALQ/USP. Os resultados demonstram que o tamanho ótimo de parcelas para plantas com 5 anos e meio de idade é de 9 a 25 plantas úteis medidas, e para o experimento com 15 rneses de idade a parcela ideal é de 4 plantas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the experimental plots size of Eucalyptus saligna Smith with 5.5 years old and for fifteen months old. The experiment were stablished in Barba Negra Garden Market located in Barra do Ribeiro District, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Pimentel Gomes - E S ALQ/USP method's was used. It was observed that the optimal experimental plots size may range from 9 to 25 plantas for five year old trees and four plants to 15 m onths old.

  6. Toxidez de zinco no crescimento e nutrição de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de doses excessivas de Zn no crescimento e nutrição do eucalipto, em casa de vegetação. Mudas de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla foram crescidas em vasos contendo 2 L de solução nutritiva de Clark, adicionando-se doses crescentes de Zn: 0, 400, 800, 1.200 e 1.600 miM fornecidas como ZnSO4. Após cinco semanas, as plantas exibiram clorose internerval, escurecimento das raízes e inibição do crescimento, mesmo nas doses mais baixas do metal. A dose crítica de Zn na solução (para redução de 10% na matéria seca da parte aérea em E. maculata foi de 170,3 miM, e em E. urophylla, 73,0 miM. Os níveis críticos de toxidez de Zn na planta foram de 853 mg kg-1 em E. maculata, e 697,8 mg kg-1 em E. urophylla. Esses resultados indicam que E. maculata é mais tolerante ao Zn do que E. urophylla. Altas doses de Zn reduziram as concentrações de Fe e Ca na matéria seca da parte aérea a níveis considerados deficientes para o crescimento das duas espécies. A translocação de Fe das raízes para a parte aérea foi reduzida, independentemente da espécie, de 21% no controle para apenas 2% em 1.600 miM de Zn, indicando forte relação entre a queda na produção de matéria seca e a ocorrência da deficiência induzida de Fe nas plantas.

  7. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ≤ 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  8. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  9. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands. PMID:26239647

  10. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. ? ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. ? The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  11. Variación genética en plántulas de Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Martínez Hernández

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa en plántulas de 7 meses de edad pertenecientes a 42 familias de polinización libre de tres especies de Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. resinifera, y E. rudis. El ensayo se estableció en condiciones de vivero con germoplasma colectado en plantaciones establecidas en la cuenca del Valle de México. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de variación significativa (P?0.05 entre especies y entre familias dentro de especies para las variables altura, diámetro, número de hojas y número de ramas, aunque no en el área foliar. A nivel de especies se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las variables relacionadas con la acumulación y distribución de biomasa, excepto en el peso seco de las hojas. También se encontró una variación significativa (P?0.01 a nivel de familias dentro de especies en el peso seco del tallo, el peso seco de hojas y la biomasa aérea mientras que el peso seco de las ramas y la biomasa de raíz no presentaron una variación significativa entre las familias. El componente de variación de familias dentro de especies aportó del 2 al 12 % de la variación fenotípica total, mientras que las especies contribuyeron sólo del 0.5 a 7.5 de esta variación. El mayor porcentaje de variación se presentó dentro de parcelas, con valores de 80 a 90 % del total en todas las variables de crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa de las plántulas.

  12. Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-06-01

    The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

    2014-07-01

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. PMID:24950963

  14. Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

  15. Identification and frequency of transposable elements in Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício, Bacci Jr.; Rafael B.S., Soares; Eloíza, Tajara; Guilherme, Ambar; Carlos N., Fischer; Ivan R., Guilherme; Eduardo P., Costa; Vitor F.O., Miranda.

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TE) are major components of eukaryotic genomes and involved in cell regulation and organism evolution. We have analyzed 123,889 expressed sequence tags of the Eucalyptus Genome Project database and found 124 sequences representing 76 TE in 9 groups, of which copia, MuDR and FA [...] R1 groups were the most abundant. The low amount of sequences of TE may reflect the high efficiency of repression of these elements, a process that is called TE silencing. Frequency of groups of TE in Eucalyptus libraries which were prepared with different tissues or physiologic conditions from seedlings or adult plants indicated that developing plants experience the expression of a much wider spectrum of TE groups than that seen in adult plants. These are preliminary results that identify the most relevant TE groups involved with Eucalyptus development, which is important for industrial wood production.

  16. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Setiadji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

  17. Structural characterization of residual hemicelluloses from hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Li, Han-Ying; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, an environmental-friendly hydrothermal pretreatment of Eucalyptus fiber followed with alkali post-treatment was developed to produce bioethanol efficiently. This biorefinery process allowed all major components of biomass being converted into high value-added products. The chemical and structural features of the residual hemicelluloses isolated with alkali from the hydrothermal pretreated Eucalyptus fiber, were comparatively investigated. Sugar and spectral analyses indicated that the hemicelluloses were mainly composed of glucuronoxylans, and especially hemicelluloses prepared at higher temperature (180°C) contained higher contents of glucomannans and ?-glucan. Hydrothermal pretreatment resulted in a significant hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages in xylan backbone, and thus the molecular weight of the hemicelluloses was significantly reduced from 56,520 to 7780g/mol with the increase of temperature. This suggested that a combination of hydrothermal pretreatment at low temperatures (100-140°C) and alkali post-treatment was an effective technique for isolating of hemicelluloses from Eucalyptus fiber. PMID:24867208

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO COMPENSADO FENÓLICO DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparação, foram produzidos também painéis com lâminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído com duas formulações distintas. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa específica superior e menor redução na espessura em relação às demais espécies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistência da linha de cola demonstraram não haver diferenças estatísticas entre as espécies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexão estática, os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relação a Pinus taeda. Em relação aos efeitos de diferentes formulações do adesivo, não foram constatadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceção da resistência da linha de cola no teste úmido.

  19. Avaliação da qualidade do compensado fenólico de Eucalyptus grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do compensado de Eucalyptus grandis para uso exterior. Para efeitos de comparação, foram produzidos também painéis com lâminas de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído com duas formulações distintas. Os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram massa específica superior e menor redução na espessura em relação às demais espécies. Os resultados dos ensaios de resistência da linha de cola demonstraram não haver diferenças estatísticas entre as espécies. Tanto para o MOR, quanto para o MOE em flexão estática, os painéis de Eucalyptus grandis apresentaram resultados estatisticamente iguais a Araucaria angustifolia e superiores em relação a Pinus taeda. Em relação aos efeitos de diferentes formulações do adesivo, não foram constatadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para as propriedades avaliadas, com exceção da resistência da linha de cola no teste úmido.

  20. A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    D. TAMILVENDHAN; ILANGOVAN.V

    2011-01-01

    A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that...

  1. Carbon Storage in a Eucalyptus Plantation Chronosequence in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Du; Fuping Zeng; Wanxia Peng; Kelin Wang; Hao Zhang,; Lu Liu; Tongqing Song

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of carbon (C) allocation across different stages of stand development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis plantations are not well understood. In this study, we examined biomass and mineral soil C content in five development stages (1, 2, 3, 4–5, and 6–8 years old) of a Eucalyptus stand in southern China. The tree biomass C pool increased with stand age and showed a high annual rate of accumulation. Stems accounted for the highest proportion of biomass C sequestered. The C pool in ...

  2. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  3. Antimicrobial and antifungal properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Eucalyptus largiflorens and Eucalyptus intertexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safaei-Ghomi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 μg/disk and rifampin (5 μg/disk were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and nystatin (100 μg/disk for antifungal studies. The results of MIC study revealed that the essential oil has a stronger activity and broader spectrum than those of methanol extracts. It is interesting to point out that the oils had even greater potential of antimicrobial activities than those of 1,8-cineole as their main component.

  4. Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus / In vitro multiplication of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus globulus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvano Rodrigues, Borges; Aloisio, Xavier; Leandro Silva de, Oliveira; Aline Pontes, Lopes; Wagner Campos, Otoni.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 [...] clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina) e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético). Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones. Abstract in english The present study aimed to evaluate the response of hybrid Eucalyptus globulus clones in MS and JADS culture media during the in vitro multiplication phase. The explants were originated from the in vitro establishment phase of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus clones, being 11 clones with three [...] in vitro introductions, and of six Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus clones, being two clones with three introductions. The clones were subcultivated monthly in MS and JADS culture media, with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.01 mg L-1 of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid). It was concluded that: the MS culture medium was superior in terms of the multiplication rate; most of the clones were established in the in vitro multiplication phase, whereas some clones appeared recalcitrant in this phase of the micropropagation; the multiplication rate presented a tendency to increase in the first subcultures with a subsequent fall for most of the clones.

  5. Dendroenergetical characterization of Eucalyptus benthamii trees Caracterização dendroenergética de árvores de Eucalyptus benthamii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Alves de Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Eucalyptus benthamii has shown to be the most proeminent specie for regions with frost incidence. The objective of this work was to classify selected Eucalyptus benthamii trees for breeding by importance ordening dendrometric and energetic characteristics, useful for this work 91 disks of DBH were collected, from three plantations at Guarapuava municipality, Parana state, with geographical coordinates 25º 23’ 26’’ S e 51º 27’ 15” E and 1,120 m high. Wood basic density, volume, mass, superior calorific power, energertic density and energetic potential were evaluated. Charcoal yield, condensed and non-condensable gases, fixed carbon, volatiles, ashes, superior calorific power and energetic potential were also evaluated. From the measured characteristics, at the field and laboratory for each individual, multivariable analysis were performed using the main compounds and factorial analysis with the aim of identifying those variables which presented larger contribution for total variance. At E. Benthamii tree selection for energy production, most of the attention should be driven to the variables mass, volume, wood energetic potential and charcoal energetic potential.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.31.65.09

    Eucalyptus benthamii é a espécie que mais tem se destacado para finalidade energética em áreas de ocorrência de geadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi classificar por ordem de importância as características dendroenergéticas de matrizes selecionadas para melhoramento dessa espécie. Foram coletados discos do DAP de 91 árvores de três áreas de plantio no Município de Guarapuava, PR, de coordenadas geográficas 25º 23’ 26’’ S e 51º 27’ 15’’ E, e 1.120 m de altitude. Na madeira avaliaram-se densidade básica, volume, massa, poder calorífico superior, densidade energética e potencial energético, e no carvão avaliaram-se rendimento, gases condensáveis e não condensáveis, carbono fixo, voláteis, cinzas, poder calorífico superior e potencial energético. A partir das características mensuradas, no campo e laboratório para cada indivíduo, efetuou-se a análise multivariada dos componentes principais e de fator com o objetivo de identificar as variáveis que apresentam maior contribuição para a variância total. Com vistas à obtenção de energia, deve-se dar maior importância para as variáveis: massa, volume, potencial energético da madeira e potencial energético do carvão.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.31.65.09

  6. Produção e decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii / Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Robson Schaff, Corrêa; Márcio, Viera; Elias Frank de, Araújo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção continuada de madeira em plantios comerciais exige conhecimento do processo de ciclagem de nutrientes, que envolve, entre outros aspectos, a produção e a decomposição de serapilheira. Assim, neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar a influência das variáveis climáticas na produção de serapilh [...] eira e de seus componentes, além de avaliar a taxa de decomposição de serapilheira em um povoamento de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. Para a execução do estudo, foram instaladas 4 parcelas de 20 m x 20 m, em cada uma foram instalados 4 coletores para as frações folhas, galhos finos e miscelânea da serapilheira e 3 subparcelas para a coleta da fração galhos grossos. O tecido vegetal coletado foi utilizado para o cálculo da deposição e da correlação existente entre variáveis climáticas e deposição. As variáveis climáticas utilizadas, com base mensal, foram temperatura média, temperatura máxima média, temperatura mínima média, precipitação pluviométrica, umidade relativa média, velocidade média do vento, evapotranspiração e radiação solar média, ambas fornecidas por uma estação experimental. Já, para a avaliação da decomposição da serapilheira foram coletadas aleatoriamente 4 amostras quadradas de 0,25 m de lado em cada parcela, utilizadas para a determinação do coeficiente de decomposição (K), meia vida (t0,5) e tempo de decomposição de 95% da serapilheira (t0,95). A produção mensal de serapilheira foi fracamente correlacionada com variáveis climáticas e apresentou média anual de 7,4 Mg ha-1, sendo composta predominantemente pela fração folhas (60%). A decomposição de serapilheira foi considerada lenta. Abstract in english The sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposi [...] tion in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K), half life (t0,5 ) and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 ). The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%). The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  7. Seletividade do herbicida saflufenacil a Eucalyptus urograndis / Selectivity of saflufenacil to Eucalyptus urograndis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.R.R, Pereira; D, Martins; A.C.P, Rodrigues; G.S.F, Souza; L.A, Cardoso.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As áreas com plantios florestais estão constantemente em expansão, e a interferência das plantas daninhas alteram o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de eucalipto, pois estas competem por água, nutrientes, espaço e luz. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a seletividade do herbicida saflufen [...] acil, aplicado com e sem óleo mineral Dash, em plantas de Eucalyptus urograndis, em diferentes locais de aplicação (planta, solo e solo + planta). O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 11, sendo três locais de aplicação do herbicida na planta e 11doses do herbicida saflufenacil combinadas ou não com o adjuvante Dash. Cada parcela constou de um vaso com uma planta. Os tratamentos usados foram: 0, 25, 25+Dash (0,5% v/v), 50, 50+Dash (0,5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200 g i.a. ha-1 . Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de fitointoxicação durante 56 dias após aplicação (DAA). Avaliouse, ainda, a altura, o diâmetro de caule e a biomassa seca das plantas. Todas as doses testadas de saflufenacil sem adjuvante mostraram-se seletivas às plantas de E. urograndis, independentemente do local de aplicação. A adição de Dash aos tratamentos proporcionou injúrias severas às plantas nas avaliações iniciais, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, com a recuperação total destas no fim do ensaio, aos 56 DAA. A aplicação do herbicida em mistura com adjuvante somente no solo não causou intoxicação às plantas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Forest plantation areas are constantly expanding. However, weed interference affects the growth and development of eucalyptus plants, as they compete for water, nutrients, space, and light. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide saflufenacil, applied with or wit [...] hout the mineral oil Dash, on Eucalyptus urograndis at different application sites (plant, soil and soil + plant). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 11 factorial, with three sites for herbicide application on the plant and eleven saflufenacil doses combined or not with the adjuvant Dash. Each plot consisted of a vase with a plant. Treatments were 0, 25, 25 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 50, 50 + Dash (0.5% v/v), 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 g a.i. ha-1. Visual evaluations of plant intoxication were carried out for 56 days after application (DAA). Height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants were also evaluated. The saflufenacil doses tested without adjuvant proved to be selective for the plants of E. urograndis, independent of the application site. The addition of Dash to the treatments caused severe injuries to the plants at the initial assessments, when applied on the plants, with full recovery at the end of the test at 56 DAA. Herbicide application combined with the adjuvant only in the soil did not cause plant toxicity to the eucalyptus plants.

  8. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  9. Termorretificação e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / Heat treatment and color of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; Elias de Sá, Farias; Teodorico Alves da, Silveira.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação pode ser utilizada na alteração da cor da madeira, tornado-a semelhante às madeiras tropicais de maior valor agregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações colorimétricas na madeira de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 140, 170, 200 e 230 °C, por três, cinco e sete ho [...] ras. Corpos de prova de 2 × 2 × 2 cm foram secos em estufa e termorretificados para avaliação de claridade (L), matriz vermelho (a*), matriz amarelo (b*), saturação (C) e ângulo de tinta (H). A claridade (L*) reduziu-se a partir de 140 °C; a matriz vermelho (a*), a partir de 140 °C por cinco horas; a matriz amarelo (b*), a saturação e o ângulo de tinta reduziram-se a partir de 170 °C. A temperatura se mostrou mais efetiva na alteração da cor do que o tempo. A termorretificação escureceu a madeira e pode ser uma alternativa para ampliação do uso do material. Abstract in english Heat treatment can be used to change the color of timber, adding value to it. In this study, we aimed to evaluate changes in color of Eucalyptus grandis wood subjected to 140, 170, 200, and 230 °C for three, five, and seven hours. Samples of 2 × 2 × 2 cm were dried and heat treated to evaluate light [...] ness (L), a* coordinate (green-red coordinate), b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H). Lightness (L *) decreased as from 140 °C. a* coordinate (green-red coordinate) decreased as from 140 °C for five hours. b* coordinate (blue-yellow coordinate), saturation (C), and tonality angle (H), saturation, and ink angle reduced as from 170 °C. Temperature was more effective than time to change the color of timber. Heat treatment darkened the wood and can be an alternative to add value to this material.

  10. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii, E-mail: rich@cs.ucsb.ed [Computer Science Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States) and Eucalyptus Systems Inc., 130 Castilian Dr., Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  11. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  12. In silico survey of resistance (R) genes in Eucalyptus transcriptome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano, Barbosa-da-Silva; Ana C., Wanderley-Nogueira; Raphaela R.M., Silva; Luiz C., Berlarmino; Nina M., Soares-Cavalcanti; Ana M., Benko-Iseppon.

    Full Text Available A major goal of plant genome research is to recognize genes responsible for important traits. Resistance genes are among the most important gene classes for plant breeding purposes being responsible for the specific immune response including pathogen recognition, and activation of plant defence mech [...] anisms. These genes are quite abundant in higher plants, with 210 clusters found in Eucalyptus FOREST database presenting significant homology to known R-genes. All five gene classes of R-genes with their respective conserved domains are present and expressed in Eucalyptus. Most clusters identified (93) belong to the LRR-NBS-TIR (genes with three domains: Leucine-rich-repeat, Nucleotide-binding-site and Toll interleucine 1-receptor), followed by the serine-threonine-kinase class (49 clusters). Some new combinations of domains and motifs of R-genes may be present in Eucalyptus and could represent novel gene structures. Most alignments occurred with dicots (94.3%), with emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) sequences. All best alignments with monocots (5.2%) occurred with rice (Oryza sativa) sequences and a single cluster aligned with the gymnosperm Pinus sylvestris (0.5%). The results are discussed and compared with available data from other crops and may bring useful evidences for the understanding of defense mechanisms in Eucalyptus and other crop species.

  13. Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelica Aparecida Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2 em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou-se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3. Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético.Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2 obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoculation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3. Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

  14. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  15. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between −3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  17. Anti-trypanosomal Potential of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Kabiru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis in both the human and animal forms has been confronted with multidimensional problems that include paucity of drugs, resistance, high cost, prolonged treatment protocol and adverse side effects. The main objective of this study was to explore alternative sources of antitrypanosomal agents from the leaves, stem and root barks of Eucalyptus camaldulensis The plant parts were sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water; and the extracts screened for antitrypanosomal activity. Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei were administered intraperitoneally doses ranging from 200-600 mg/kg body weight/day of the extracts for 21 consecutive days. One control group was treated with 3.5mg/kg bodyweight of berenil while the other control group was left untreated. The methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf produced complete cure for the animals in the different dose groups and survived as long as those treated with the standard drug, berenil, although the clearance time was faster for the standard drug. Sub inoculation of healthy mice with the blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF of the cured mice did not result in infection, thus indicating a complete and permanent cure. Acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf confirmed the safety of the extract because no mortality was recorded even at 5000 mg/kg bodyweight. However, the extract had no prophylactic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of E. camaldulensis leaf gave 10 fractions, with only fractions 8 and 9 exhibiting minimal antitrypanosomal activities that were not comparable to those of the crude extract and the standard drug (p?0.05. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenes, steroids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and fatty acids in both the crude extract and fraction 9; while fraction 8 contained only terpenes, steroids and fatty acids. Data from GC-MS analysis of the two fractions indicated likely components to be methyl esters, amides, long chain alkenes and alcohols. The result of this study shows that the methanol extract of E. camaldulensis (leaf has immense potential for the development of drugs against African trypanosomiasis.

  18. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    M. CALLISTO; F. A. R. Barbosa; Moreno, P.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

  19. Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators

    OpenAIRE

    C C6rdova; M. Barrandeguy; Navarrete, E.

    2012-01-01

    The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm)...

  20. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, K; Zheng, H.; F. L. Chen; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Y. Wang; Wu, Y.F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; X. W. Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological proper...

  1. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Emilie; Klopp Christophe; Noirot Céline; Novaes Evandro; Kirst Matias; Plomion Christophe; Gion Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during t...

  2. Afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus and leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Jesús; Basaguren, Ana; Elosegi, Arturo; Molinero, Jon; Fabre, Eric; Chauvet, Eric

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that decomposition of leaf species in streams is influenced by afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus, we compared decay rates, nutrient levels, fungal biomass and macroinvertebrate assemblages on alder and eucalyptus leaf litter in three streams (two headwaters under different forests, and a mid reach) of the Agüera catchment (northern Spain). Whatever the reach, alder always decomposed significantly faster than eucalyptus. Litter contents in nitrogen and phosphorus ro...

  3. The green-leaved variant of Eucalyptus largiflorens: a story involving hybridization and observant local people

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Robert F.; Zubrinich, Tatia M.

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus largiflorens (Black Box) is the most common tree in the Chowilla anabranch system on the Murray River floodplain. It typically has dull, glaucous, grey-green leaves. Occasional trees with smaller, glossy green leaves (Green Box) occur scattered amongst the Black Box. In areas with increasing salinity, they usually appear much healthier than adjacent, normal Black Box trees. Green Box plants are intermediate between normal Eucalyptus largiflorens plants and Eucalyptus gracilis plant...

  4. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method / Transformação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis via agrobiobalistica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evânia Galvão, Mendonça; Vanessa Cristina, Stein; Flávia Pereira, Balieiro; Carolina Delfin Fernandes, Lima; Breno Régis, Santos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus destaca-se no cenário silvicultural mundial devido à sua adaptabilidade, crescimento rápido e produção de fibra de baixo custo e com alta qualidade. O melhoramento convencional do gênero é dificultado, principlamente, pelo seu longo ciclo de vida, tornando a transformação genética impor [...] tante ferramenta para esse propósito. Esse processo requer o desenvolvimento de protocolo eficiente de progagação in vitro para indução, regeneração e seleção que permita a obtenção de plantas transgênicas a partir de grupos de células transformadas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avalair a formação de calos e otimizar o protocolo de transformação genética de folhas e calos através da infecção por A. tumefaciens. Para a formação de calos foram avaliados dois meios de cultura: meio de cultura MS supplementado com auxina e citocinina (M1) e meio de cultura MS com concentração de nitrogênio reduzida e suplementado com auxinas, citocininas e água de coco (M2). Para estabelecer o protocolo de transformação genética de E. camaldulensis, as folhas foram expostas à técnica de agrobiobalística, utilizando-se o bombardeador com micropartículas para realizar ferimentos nos tecidos; e A. tumefasciens EHA 105 contendo o vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS) para a transferência do gene, enquanto para a transformação genética dos calos estes foram somente infectados com A. tumefasciens. Em ambos os experimentos foi avaliada a influência de diferentes períodos de infecção. O meio de cultura M2 promoveu os melhores valores de volume, massa seca e massa fresca. A transformação genética de folhas através da técnica de agrobiobalística foi efetiva, sendo possível observar a expressão transiente do gene gus, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os períodos de infecção (4, 6 e 8 min). Os calos infectados por 15 e 30 min com A. tumefasciens também apresentaram expressão transiente do gene gus quando foram tranferidos para meio de cultura de regeneração e seleção e apresentaram formação de brotos. Abstract in english Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for th [...] is purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1) and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2). To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun), to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS), for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes). The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  5. Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2 apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66. Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3.Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated from coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2 presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66. Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

  6. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisto, M; Barbosa, F A R; Moreno, P

    2002-02-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus. PMID:12185924

  7. Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entre 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento.

  8. Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis / Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jussara Bertho, Fantinatti; Roberto, Usberti.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entr [...] e 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento. Abstract in english This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 a [...] nd 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Private Clouds Eucalyptus versus CloudStack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz M.Ali AL-Mukhtar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available the number of open source cloud management platforms is increasing day-by-day. The features of these software vary significantly and this creates a difficulty for the cloud consumers to choose the software based on their business and scientific requirements. This paper evaluates Eucalyptus and CloudStack, the two most popular open source platforms used to build private Infrastructure as a service (IaaS clouds. The performance of virtual machines (VMs initiated and managed by Eucalyptus and CloudStack are evaluated in terms of CPU utilization, memory bandwidth, disk I/O access speed, and network performance using suitable benchmarks. Different VM management operations such as add, delete and live migration are also assessed to determine which cloud solution is more suitable than other to be adopted as a private cloud solution. As a further performance testing, a simple web application has been implemented on the both clouds to evaluate their suitability in web application hosting.

  10. PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD HYBRIDS AND CHARCOAL AT THREE AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vássia Carvalho Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present studied was investigated hybrids of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in three different ages. Wood and charcoal characteristics as well as the influence of wood characteristics on the charcoals produced were evaluated. Chemical analyzes (extractives, lignin, ash, elemental analysis, basic density and calorific value - PCS were performed for wood. The charcoals were produced in a muffle type furnace with a heating rate of 1.67 °C.min-1 and an end temperature of 450 °C. Volatile material content, ash content, fixed carbon content, elemental analysis and gravimetric yield of the pyrolysis process were performed for the charcoals. An increase in density values , extractives content, carbon content and C/H rate were observed with the maturity of the tree. Other features such as ash content and S/G ratio decreased with the age of the tree. Greater gravimetric yield in charcoal and non-condensable gases were found in more mature materials.

  11. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Harakava.

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported i [...] n other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

  12. Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available he sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K, half life (t0,5 and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 . The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%. The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  13. Dinâmica de decomposição e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus no sul do Brasil / Litter decomposition and nutrients in Eucalyptus Urophylla X Eucalyptus Globulus Hybrid Stand in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Marcos Vinicius Winckler, Caldeira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada, sua decomposição e a taxa de disponibilização de nutrientes em um plantio híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram demarcadas quatro parcelas (20 m Ã- 20 m) e, em cada uma delas, [...] foram coletadas estacionalmente (entre março de 2007 e dezembro de 2010) quatro amostras de forma aleatória. A quantidade de serapilheira estocada sobre o solo foi, em média, de 14,0 Mg ha-1.O coeficiente de decomposição foi de 0,54, com tempo médio para a renovação (1/K) de 1,86 anos e tempo médio para decomposição de 50 e 95% da serapilheira em 1,29 e 5,59 anos, respectivamente. O potássio apresentou o maior coeficiente de devolução (0,52), seguido por B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu; consequentemente, o potássio apresentou menor tempo médio de residência na serapilheira (0,91 anos). Abstract in english In this study, we aimed to determine the litter accumulation stock, its decomposition and nutrient release in an Eucalyptus urophylla Ã- Eucalyptus globulus hybrid plantation in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state. Four plots were demarcated (20 m Ã- 20 m) and four samples w [...] ere seasonally sampled (from March 2007 to December 2010) at random. Average litter accumulation on soil was 14.0 Mg ha-1. Litter accumulated showed 0.54 decomposition coefficient with average renewal time (1/K) of 1.86 years and average time to litter decomposition of 50, and 95% of litter in 1.29 and 5.59 years, respectively. Potassium presented the highest turnover (0.52), followed by B > Mg > S = Mn > P > N = Ca > Zn > Cu and consequently the lowest average residence time in the litter (0.91 years).

  14. BENDING STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF POLES OF ARGENTINEAN Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    E.A Torrán; M. A Sosa Zitto; A.D Cotrina; J. C Piter

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of an investigation regarding the determination of bending strength and stiffness in full-size poles of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis. The importance of accurately knowing the mechanical properties of this material has increased with the increasing demand of utility poles of this species and with the use of modern procedures aimed at achieving a reliable and economical structural design. For this purpose an empirical research project with two samples con...

  15. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuejing; Bortolini, Christian; Chen, Menglin; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-02-14

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes. PMID:25573466

  16. Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus globulus por embriogénese somática

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Glória Catarina Cintra da Costa

    2007-01-01

    A embriogénese somática (ES) foi investigada em Eucalyptus globulus com vista a desenvolver um protocolo padrão de micropropagação, desde a indução à aclimatização. A propagação clonal de E. globulus recorrendo a ES tem o potencial de ir ao encontro das necessidades industriais de material de alta qualidade e uniforme, e de rapidamente capturar os benefícios dos programas de melhoramento, sendo encarada como um método efectivo de conseguir ganhos genéticos num curto espaç...

  17. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago L. Romanelli; Marcos Milan; Rafael Cesar Tieppo

    2012-01-01

    Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environm...

  18. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Cui, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a serious issue for public health and represent one of the major challenges of modern medicine. In this work, a selective antimicrobial strategy based on triggering of pore-forming toxin, which is secreted by infective bacteria, was designed to fight Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity is realized by employing Eucalyptus citriodora oil as antibiotic which in this study is encapsulated in nanoliposomes.

  19. Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan; Allsopp, Mike H

    2013-08-15

    We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other. PMID:23629013

  20. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Israel González,; Sami Boufi; Maria Angels Pèlach; Manel Alcalà; Fabiola Vilaseca; Pere Mutjé

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these di...

  1. A case study of Eucalyptus globulus fingerprinting for breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Maria Margarida; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Ribeiro, Carla; Cunha, Fátima; Araújo, José; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Marques, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    • Introduction Tree genetic improvement programs usually lack, in general, pedigree information. Since molecular markers can be used to estimate the level of genetic similarity between individuals, we genotyped a sample of a Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus breeding population—a reference population of 125 individuals—with 16 microsatellites (SSR). • Materials and methods Using genotypes from the reference population, we developed a simulation approach to recurrently generate (105...

  2. Eucalyptus globulus wood fractionation by autohydrolysis and organosolv delignification

    OpenAIRE

    Romaní, Aloia; Garrote Velasco, Gil; López Baldovín, Francisco; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This work provides an assessment on the fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus wood by sequential stages of autohydrolysis (to cause the solubilization of hemicelluloses) and organosolv pulping (to dissolve lignin, leaving solids enriched in cellulose). With this approach, valuable products (hemicellulose-derived saccharides, sulphur-free lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates with low contents of residual hemicelluloses) are obtained in separate streams, according to the biomass refinery a...

  3. Wood and pulp properties of two Eucalyptus globulus wood samples

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, A; Anjos, O.; Simões, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports experimental data about wood chemical composition (extractives and lignin content), fibre characteristics, kraft cooking behaviour and papermaking potential of two wood samples of Eucalyptus globulus (one industrial chip sample and another obtained from a clone tree). The samples were submitted to the kraft cooking and bleaching processes in order to evaluate its pulping potential. The experimental results showed that the clone tree requires mi...

  4. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to eval...

  5. Studies on the eucalyptus leaf disease complex in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Márcia Filipa Lopes Rosendo de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Native from south eastern Australia, Eucalyptus globulus is the main species in eucalypts plantations in Portugal. The most serious foliar disease in eucalypt plantations is linked to Mycosphaerella senso lato, which affects young trees in the juvenile phase foliage causing leaf necrosis. This disease results in reduced growth rate of the host and lower wood volume, thus causing significant productivity losses. The most common name for this disease was Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease that became ...

  6. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ??of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  7. Soil microbial properties in Eucalyptus grandis plantations of different ages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.T, Cortez; L.A.P.L, Nunes; L.B, Rodrigues; N, Eisenhauer; A.S.F, Araújo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are increasingly used in Brazil to produce wood and energy, although the long-term consequences for ecosystem processes have rarely been evaluated. We investigated the soil microbial properties (soil microbial C, N, respiration, carbon use efficiency, and microbial C-to-N rati [...] o) among Eucalyptus grandis plantations of differing ages (1 to 4 years) in Northeast Brazil. An adjacent native forest was used as a reference. In general, soil microbial properties decreased in initial years of land-use change, but recovered to conditions comparable to an adjacent native forest after four years in the rainy season, but not in the dry season. The varying effects of Eucalyptus plantations and native forests between seasons may reflect differences in soil microbial communities with different responses to environmental conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring and microbial community analysis in order to adequately assess and understand the impacts of exotic forest plantations on soil microbial properties.

  8. Characterization of abiotic stress genes from different species of eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)

  9. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Yasodha; R. Sumathi; P. Chezhian; S. Kavitha; M. Ghosh

    2008-04-01

    Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. Recently, many genomic programmes are underway leading to the accumulation of voluminous genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences in public databases. These sequences can be utilized for analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) available in the transcribed genes. In this study, in silico analysis of 15,285 sequences representing partial and full-length mRNA from Eucalyptus species for their use in developing SSRs or microsatellites were carried out. A total of 875 EST-SSRs were identified from 772 SSR containing ESTs. Motif size of 6 for dinucleotide and 5 for trinucleotide, tetranucleotide, and pentanucleotides were considered in locating the microsatellites. The average frequency of identified SSRs was 12.9%. The dinucleotide repeats were the most abundant among the dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide motifs and accounted for 50.9% of the Eucalyptus genome. Primer designing analysis showed that 571 sequences with SSRs had sufficient flanking regions for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer synthesis. Evaluation of the usefulness of the SSRs showed that EST-derived SSRs can generate polymorphic markers as all the primers showed allelic diversity among the 16 provenances of E. tereticornis.

  10. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

  11. SECADO DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS Y GLOBULUS Y SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN BLOCKS, PISOS Y MUEBLES Drying of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus for Block, Furniture and Flooring

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rozas; Reinaldo Sánchez; Paula Pinedo

    2005-01-01

    Ensayos de secado en madera radial y tangencial de Eucalyptus nitens y globulus fueron realizados en laboratorios de la Universidad del Bío-Bío en el marco del Proyecto FONDEF D98I1018 y posteriormente validados a escala industrial. A escala de laboratorio, la escuadría utilizada fue de 30 mm de espesor, 1.8 m de largo y ancho aleatorio. A escala industrial en tanto, fue de 32 mm de espesor, largos de 2.1 y 2.8 m, con anchos variables. En general, los programas de secado fueron suaves, con te...

  12. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.

  13. Controle genético da regeneração in vitro em progênies de Eucalyptus grandis Genetic control of in vitro regeneration of Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos David Vera Bravo; Antônio Natal Gonçalves; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias; Roland Vencovsky

    2008-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o controle genético da regeneração direta in vitro a partir de plântulas de Eucalyptus grandis, foram utilizadas sementes de 10 progênies de polinização aberta da população base, origem Atherton, localizada em Anhembi, Estado de São Paulo. Vinte dias de cultivo após a germinação, 196 segmentos distais dos hipocótilos por progênie foram inoculados in vitro num Delineamento em Blocos Completos Aleatorizado Generalizado, com duas unidades experimentais por bloco e sete ...

  14. Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis / Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a [...] ientes do Horto Florestal de Mandurí, SP, pertencente ao Instituto Florestal de São Paulo. Em cada uma das toras foi inserido um termopar próximo ao seu centro. Posteriormente, as toras foram vaporizadas a 90 ºC e 100% de umidade relativa, durante 20 horas. Um coletor de dados registrou as temperaturas, no interior do material, durante o tratamento térmico. Conclui-se que o modelo de Steinhagen et al. (1980) não pode ser diretamente aplicado à espécie em estudo, e propõem-se fatores de correções para a utilização do modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, desenvolvido por Steinhagen et al. (1980), para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to [...] e `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980) model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980), for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

  15. Densidade básica e variação dimensional de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Specific density and dimensional variation of a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrício Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Robert Cardoso, Sartório.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de rápido crescimento como as do gênero Eucalyptus apresentam sérios problemas durante as diversas fases de processamento de desdobro, secagem e beneficiamento. Assim, este trabalho objetivou estudar as propriedades físicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptu [...] s grandis de duas idades, provenientes de regeneração florestal por talhadia simples e por reforma, em diferentes intensidades de desbaste, com diâmetros entre 28,0 e 30,0 cm. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato de maior idade com intervenção de dois desbastes (E2) apresentou os maiores valores médios da densidade básica ao longo do fuste e na direção medula-casca, além de menores contrações volumétricas médias e menor fator anisotrópico médio (1,66). Apesar de o extrato E1, com talhadia e 70 meses de idade, cujo fator anisotrópico médio foi igual a 1,92, ser próximo do extrato E3, em que foi realizada apenas uma reforma aos 70 meses de idade, com fator anisotrópico igual a 2,04 ao longo do fuste, o extrato E1 apresentou os menores resultados de densidade básica média e retratibilidade média na primeira tora em relação à segunda. O mesmo comportamento foi verificado na contração volumétrica. O coeficiente de anisotropia na tora 2 foi menor do que na tora 1, nos extratos E1 e E3. Abstract in english Fast growing species as those belonging to the gender Eucalyptus present serious problems during the various phases of sawing, drying and processing. Thus, this work aimed to study the physical wood properties of a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis at two ages originated fro [...] m coppice and replacement regeneration at different thinning intensities, with diameters between 28.0 and 30.0 cm. The results showed that the extract of older aged wood with two thinning interventions (E2) presented the highest mean values for specific gravity along the stem and in the position pith to bark, as well as lower average volumetric contractions and lower average anisotropic factor (1.66). Although extract E1, with coppice at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 1.92, was close to extract E3, with only one replacement at the age of 70 months and anisotropic factor equal to 2.04 along the stem, it presented the lowest specific gravity and average shrinkage values for log 1 in relation to log 2. The same behavior was verified for volumetric contraction. The anisotropy factor in log 1 was lower in relation to log 2 in extracts E1 and E3.

  16. LEVANTAMENTO DE SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA EM PLANTAÇÕES DE Eucalyptus spp. EM CUIABÁ, ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Nunes Marques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento populacional de espécies da família Scolytidae em plantios de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Dehnh. Dehnh., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com auxílio de armadilhas etanólicas, modelo escolitídeo-Curitiba, no município de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso, de março de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram utilizadas 24 armadilhas, sendo seis por talhão/espécie de Eucalyptus. As coletas foram quinzenais e divididas em dois períodos: seco (maio-outubro e chuva (novembro-abril. Foram coletados um total de 19.153 indivíduos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 42 espécies. Nos períodos seco e chuvoso foram coletados 9.865 e 9.288 indivíduos respectivamente. Nos talhões de Eucalyptus pellita e de Eucalyptus urophylla, foram coletados as maiores quantidades de indivíduos em ambos os períodos analisados. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912; Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801 e Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934 foram, quantitativamente, as espécies mais importantes nos plantios das quatro espécies de Eucalyptus.

  17. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

  18. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhariri, Mahmoud; Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Refai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%). Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment. PMID:26884765

  19. Primeros estudios sobre asociaciones tróficas de interés para la sanidad forestal en Eucalyptus spp. / Preliminary studies on trophic associations of interest for forest health in Eucalyptus spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana M., Cuello; Andrea V., Andorno; Carmen M., Hernández; Vicente, Dell' Arciprete; Eduardo N., Botto.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo muestreos sobre las principales plagas de eucaliptos y sus enemigos naturales en dos sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se cuantificó la abundancia de las plagas sobre diversas especies de eucaliptos y se registraron los insectos entomófagos asociados, con el fin de identific [...] ar las interacciones que podrían ser utilizadas en estrategias de control biológico de las plagas estudiadas. Se presenta una red trófica cualitativa Eucalyptus - plaga - enemigo natural. Abstract in english Main eucalyptus pests and their entomophagous natural enemies were surveyed in two localities of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Pest abundance was quantified on different Eucalyptus species and the entomophagous insects associated were registered in order to identify interactions which can be use [...] d in biological control strategies. A preliminary qualitative trophic web Eucalyptus - pest - natural enemy is presented.

  20. Inonotus splitbergeri a stem pathogen of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay Inonotus splitbergeri um patógeno do caule de Eucalyptus globulus no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN MARTÍNEZ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Inonotus splitbergeri é relatado pela primeira vez o Uruguay causando podridáo-do-lenho de Eucalyptus globulus. Durante as tempestades ocorre o tombamento de árvores, mesmo daquelas totalmente enfolhadas.

  1. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    OpenAIRE

    C.M.M. Silva; FERREIRA, L. R.; Ferreira, F.A.; G.V. Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid), GE 463 (E. ur...

  2. EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITY, CONTENT AND NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCY IN GENOTYPES OF Eucalyptus spp. IN JEQUITINHONHA VALLEY, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Erli de Faria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization of eucalyptus species can provide more productive hybrids and with a high efficiency of nutrient absorption and, or, nutrient use, depending on the combined species. In this context, the present work was undertaken in the Jequitinhonha Valley region, Minas Gerais, and its objectives were: to determine the productivity, content and use efficiency of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in interspecific hybrids of Eucalyptus spp. In each plot, the diameters were measured at breast height (DBH in all the trees, and three trees with diameter similar to the average mean were felled. The volume of the trees was estimated by the Smallian method, using the height, diameter and the bark thickness at the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The fresh weight of the wood, bark, leaves and branches was determined in the field, and samples from them were collected for the determination of dry matter. The log samples consisted of collected disks with bark, from the base and at 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the commercial height. The samples of vegetable tissues were analyzed for: N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The results obtained did not show significant differences for the production of crown biomass between the eucalyptus hybrids of the same age. However, the production of log biomass presented significant differences and the naturally pollinated hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla were 50.0 % and 69.0 % more productive compared with the hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Also, these hybrids allocated larger amount of biomass in the log (92.3 % in relation to the crown (7.7 %, and they were more efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The conclusions were that: 1 same aged hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural or controlled pollinations did not differ in their crown biomass; 2 log biomass was reduced in the hybrids from controlled pollination between Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis; 3 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla from natural pollination were more productive and more efficient in the absorption and efficiency of use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and 4 hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla with descendants of the crossing of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with Eucalyptus grandis are less productive and less efficient in the absorption and use of N, P, K, Ca and Mg.

  3. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Eucalyptus-A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Matthew J; Holland, Barbara; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2015-07-01

    We assess phylogenetic patterns of hybridization in the speciose, ecologically and economically important genus Eucalyptus, in order to better understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Eucalyptus globulus pollen was applied to 99 eucalypt species, mainly from the large commercially important subgenus, Symphyomyrtus. In the 64 species that produce seeds, hybrid compatibility was assessed at two stages, hybrid-production (at approximately 1 month) and hybrid-survival (at 9 months), and compared with phylogenies based on 8,350 genome-wide DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Model fitting was used to assess the relationship between compatibility and genetic distance, and whether or not the strength of incompatibility "snowballs" with divergence. There was a decline in compatibility with increasing genetic distance between species. Hybridization was common within two closely related clades (one including E. globulus), but rare between E. globulus and species in two phylogenetically distant clades. Of three alternative models tested (linear, slowdown, and snowball), we found consistent support for a snowball model, indicating that the strength of incompatibility accelerates relative to genetic distance. Although we can only speculate about the genetic basis of this pattern, it is consistent with a Dobzhansky-Muller-model prediction that incompatibilities should snowball with divergence due to negative epistasis. Different rates of compatibility decline in the hybrid-production and hybrid-survival measures suggest that early-acting postmating barriers developed first and are stronger than later-acting barriers. We estimated that complete reproductive isolation can take up to 21-31 My in Eucalyptus. Practical implications for hybrid eucalypt breeding and genetic risk assessment in Australia are discussed. PMID:25777461

  4. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  5. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included ?- pinene (38.6 %, ? -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and ?-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  6. Propagation of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) by organ and tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.J.; McComb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Micropropagation methods are described for the production of clonal lines from Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) seedlings. Nodal explants from mature trees can also yield shoot cultures, but a high frequency of contamination occurs among such explants. Uncontaminated callus cultures can be produced from mature trees by culturing stamen filaments and shoots can subsequently be regenerated from this callus. The rooting percentage of shoot cultures from either nodes or stamen callus of mature trees is low compared with that from seedling explants. Considerable variation was observed between trees in the ability of stamen callus to regenerate shoots and in the frequency of rooting. (Refs. 27)

  7. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ? The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ? Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. ? Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. ? Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

  8. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gez.garcia@gmail.com [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short rotation crop. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ethanol based formulations were assessed and compared with conventional gasoline from a cradle to grave perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol production related activities and as forest practices oriented to the biomass production were the main hot spots.

  9. Influência do sistema de corte basal de miniestacas na propagação clonal de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii / Influence of basal cutting system of minicutings in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii hybrid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alan Ferreira, Batista; Glêison Augusto dos, Santos; Luciana Duque, Silva; Franco Freitas, Quevedo; Teotônio Francisco de, Assis.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de miniestaquia permitiu o estabelecimento de florestas clonais em larga escala. Porém, pouco se avançou no seu manejo em viveiro para genótipos recalcitrantes. Assim, esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sistema de cortes na base de miniestacas na produção de mudas de um [...] clone híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii. Desta forma, foram realizadas três avaliações: 1) sobrevivência aos 30 dias em casa de vegetação; 2) enraizamento aos 45 dias em casa de sombra; e 3) aproveitamento final aos 60 dias na área de rustificação. O índice de enraizamento foi determinado com base no percentual de sobrevivência. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados constituído de três tratamentos: 1) miniestacas com corte na base perpendicular (testemunha); 2) miniestacas com corte na base em bisel (corte diagonal) e 3) miniestacas cortadas perpendicularmente, com três incisões longitudinais na base. Foram avaliadas quatro blocos de 228 plantas por bloco. Os resultados de enraizamento foram superiores a 80% nos melhores tratamentos e indicam que a propagação do clone via miniestaquia é viável, não apresentando comportamento recalcitrante. Os sistemas de corte basal das miniestaca em bisel e as incisões não favoreceram a formação de raízes. Abstract in english Mini-cutting technique has allowed establishing large scale clonal forests. However small progress has been observed in nursery management practices for recalcitrant genotypes. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of different base cut systems in mini-cuttings for seedlings production of [...] a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii. Three evaluations were performed: 1) survival in the greenhouse at the 30th day; 2) number of rooted seedlings in the shade house at the 45th day; and 3) viable seedlings in the hardening area at the 60th day. Rooting evaluation was based on survival rate. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replications and three treatments: 1) perpendicular cut at the base of mini-cuttings (control); 2) bevel cut at the base of mini-cuttings (diagonal cut); 3) perpendicular cut at the base of mini-cuttings with three longitudinal incisions in the base. Four blocks were assessed, each block was composed by 228 plants. The results of rooting were over 80% in the best treatments, indicating that the clone propagation is feasible using mini-cutting technique, and it does not show a recalcitrant behavior. The basal cut system in bevel and in longitudinal incisions did not favor rooting.

  10. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couloux Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

  11. APLICAÇÕES DA MICROPROPAGAÇÃO NA CLONAGEM DE EUCALYPTUS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, en Brasil, dentro de las diversas técnicas de propagación in vitro, la micropropagación ha sido la que mayor interés científico y económico ha despertado en el campo forestal. De hecho, es la técnica más difundida por sus aplicaciones prácticas. Los primeros estudios fueron realizados en la década de los 50's. Entre 1970 y 1980 fueron establecidos algunos laboratorios de cultivo de tejidos. El presente trabajo es una revisión y una síntesis de la información de las aplicaciones de la micropropagación en la clonación de Eucalyptus en los programas de silvicultura clonal de Brasil.

  12. Evaluation of wood volume in young eucalyptus trees with and without irrigation

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    Adriano da S. Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management has mostly been performed without criteria and, studies in relation to field-irrigated eucalyptus development are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate wood volume equations based on stem (trunk diameter of two eucalyptus hybrids in initial development, with and without irrigation. The experiment was set up in Aquidauana, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from April, 2011 to March, 2012, with the eucalyptus hybrids, Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Grancam and Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Urograndis. Evaluations were performed during the first year of crop development in which five mathematical models were tested for estimation of wood volume (Berkhout; Koperzik & Gehrhardt; Exponential; Brenac; Hohenald & Krenn. The best models for estimation of wood volume of young plants are Brenac, Exponential and Hohenald & Krenn. The Brenac equation shows highest precision for estimating wood volume as a function of diameter at 5 cm height from the ground, with precision greater than 99% for plants up to 12 months of age, regardless of the use of irrigation.

  13. Plywood boards of Eucalyptus: a case study of species and provenances

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    Fábio Akira Mori

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating 15 provenances of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalypotus salignafor multilaminated plywood boards manufacturing. Six boards for each provenance were made. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive with320g/m² glue content was used. The utilized pressing cycle was of 15kgf/cm², at the temperature of 150ºC during 10 minutes. From theresults obtained regarding the physical properties, the species of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Eucalyptus saligna performed better. In themechanical tests, MOE presented itself above the demands of the norm with the exception of provenance 7785 of Eucalyptus saligna,in which stress was performed parallel to the cover fibers. For parallel MOR, only the provenances 9789 and 10695 of Eucalyptusgrandis and 97852 of Eucalyptus cloeziana managed to reach the demands of the norm ABNT 31:000.05-001/2. For shearing stressand failure in wood, all the provenances and species showed themselves above the demands, with the exception of 10634; 48 and 9753of Eucalyptus grandis.

  14. Occurrence of proscopiidae in Eucalyptus spp.: analysis of the infestations and spatial distribution

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    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to report the occurrence of proscopiidae and to quantify its infestation and spatial distribution in one experimental plantation of eucalypt clones. The study was conducted in an experimental field with eucalypt hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (clones GG100, Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (H13 and of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (VM01. The plantation was established in three continuous blocks with 512 plants with 3 m x 2 m, in Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Infestation of proscopiidae insects was detected two months after planting . The insects were collected for identification. The attacked trees were geo-referenced and the injuries were quantified. The spatial pattern of proscopiidae he attack was determinated using the location information of the damaged plants, which have been submitted to a quadrats analyses using Morisita and binomial dispersion indexes. All the collected insects have been identified as Tetanorhynchus smithi Rehn, 1904 (Orthoptera, Proscopiidae. The infestation differed significantly among the three eucalypts clones and aggregated spatial pattern of attack was observed. This is the first report of this species of proscopiidae in eucalyptus in Mato Grosso State.

  15. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels / Avaliação do potencial de uso de nove espécies do gênero Eucalyptus para produção de lâminas e compensados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Setsuo, Iwakiri; Jorge Luis Monteiro de, Matos; José Guilherme, Prata; Rosilani, Trianoski; Leandro Soares da, Silva.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de uso de nove espécies de Eucalyptus na produção de lâminas e painéis compensados multilaminados. As lâminas foram obtidas num torno laminador piloto com espessura nominal de 2,0 mm. Foram obtidos os valores de rendimento total e em t [...] rês classes de qualidade para as nove espécies estudadas. Os painéis compensados foram produzidos em laboratório, com cinco lâminas de 2,0 mm de espessura, utilizando a resina fenol-formaldeído, com gramatura de 360 g/m² (linha dupla). Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 10 kgf/cm², temperatura de 140ºC e tempo de prensagem de 10 minutos. Os resultados de laminação indicaram que, com exceção de E. phaeotricha e E. pellita, todas as demais espécies de Eucalyptus apresentaram rendimento médio em laminação acima de 50%. Os resultados de ensaios de cisalhamento da linha de cola e flexão estática paralela e perpendicular, demonstraram que as espécies de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta e Eucalyptus pellita, apresentam grande potencial dentro dos parâmetros estudados neste trabalho para produção de lâminas e compensados para uso exterior. Abstract in english The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield a [...] ccording to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m² (double line). The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm², a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  16. Deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. por fungos xilófagos / Deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. wood by xylophagous fungi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Ferreira da, Silva; Juarez Benigno, Paes; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Edson Luiz, Furtado; Fábio Ramos, Alves.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se esta pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade de deterioração de fungos isolados de madeiras de Eucalyptus spp. e realizar a análise química da madeira deteriorada, para verificar quais dos seus componentes sofreram maiores alterações em consequência do ataque. O experimento foi [...] conduzido no Laboratório de Biodeterioração da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, no município de Jerônimo Monteiro, ES. Doze fungos foram utilizados, destes, nove foram provenientes de culturas puras isoladas a partir de fragmentos de cepas de madeiras de eucalipto deterioradas, coletadas em três localidades distintas, e três culturas puras com reconhecida capacidade de deterioração que foram utilizadas como padrão de comparação. Dos fungos testados, os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2 exibiram boa capacidade de deterioração da madeira de Eucalyptus spp. O cerne de eucalipto teve maior resistência natural que o alburno, mas os fungos foram capazes de degradar ambas as madeiras. De modo geral, houve um incremento no teor de extrativos totais na madeira deteriorada (cerne e alburno), para os Basidiomiceto 1 e Basidiomiceto 2. Nas madeiras de cerne de Eucalyptus grandis houve decréscimo no teor de extrativos para ambos Basidiomicetos. Com relação à holocelulose (celulose + hemiceluloses), ocorreram pequenas diferenças entre as madeiras sadias e deterioradas (variações médias em torno de 1%). Dos fungos testados, o Basidiomiceto 2 causou maior degradação da lignina quando comparado ao Basidiomiceto 1. Abstract in english This research aimed to test the deteriorating ability of fungi isolated from Eucalyptus spp. wood and perform chemical analysis of wood deteriorated, to verify which components of wood suffered major changes in the light of the attack. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratório de Biodeterioraç [...] ão da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil. A total of 12 fungi were used, and nine of these came from pure cultures isolated from fragments of stumps of eucalypt woods deteriorated, collected in three distinct locations, and three with recognized capacity of deterioration that were used as the standard of comparison. The Basidiomycetous fungi 1 and 2 showed high capacity of deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. The heartwood of eucalypt showed a greater natural resistance than the sapwood, but the fungi were able to degrade both them. In general, there were, an increase in the content of extractives in wood damaged (heartwood and sapwood), for Basidiomycetous 1 and Basidiomycetous 2. The heartwood of Eucalyptus grandis there was a decrease in extractives content for both Basidiomycetes. To the holocelulose (cellulose and hemicelluloses), there were small differences between the healthy and damaged wood (mean variations around 1 %). The Fungi, Basidiomycetous 2 caused a greater degradation of lignin as compared to the Basidiomycetous 1.

  17. Produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis em substratos orgânicos alternativos / Seedling production of Eucalyptus grandis on alternative organic substrates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da, Silva; Mateus Tonini, Eitelwein; Maurício Roberto, Cherubin; Cristiano, Fabbris; Sidinei, Weirich; Renes Rossi, Pinheiro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos referentes ao descarte de resíduos orgânicos urbanos e agroindustriais tornaram-se imprescindíveis pela possibilidade de seu uso na produção de mudas florestais e pelo impacto ambiental que seria provocado pelo descarte inadequado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de [...] Eucalyptus grandis submetidas a diferentes tipos e combinações de substratos orgânicos urbano e agroindustriais. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos constituídos por diferentes substratos e proporções de combinação dos mesmos (100% Composto Orgânico de Lixo Urbano (COLU); 100% Composto Orgânico de Resíduo Agroindustrial (CORA); 100% Substrato Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Comercial; 25% CORA + 75% Comercial; 25% COLU + 75% Solo; 50% COLU + 50% Comercial; 50% CORA + 50% Comercial; 50% Comercial + 50% Solo e 100% Solo) e 12 repetições. Avaliaram-se altura da planta, diâmetro do colo, número de folhas, comprimento entre nós, massa fresca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, massa seca total, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento do sistema radicular, volume do sistema radicular, raio médio das raízes, área superficial específica do sistema radicular e estabilidade de torrão. Os substratos contendo composto orgânico de lixo urbano apresentam grande potencialidade de uso como substratos alternativos na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de substrato comercial ao composto orgânico de lixo urbano possibilita crescimento do sistema radicular e parte aérea das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. A mistura de 50% de substrato comercial e 50% composto orgânico de resíduo agroindustrial proporciona maior crescimento de diâmetro de caule em relação aos tratamentos contendo solo ou em relação ao composto orgânico de resíduos agroindustriais. Abstract in english Studies regarding the disposal of urban and agro-industries waste have become essential for the possibility of their use in forest seedling production and the environmental impact that would be caused by improper disposal. The study was developed to evaluate the growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedling [...] s submitted to different types and combinations of urban and agro-industrial organic substrates. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 10 treatments consisting of different substrates and proportions combinations of them (100% organic compost urban waste (COLU), 100% organic compost of the agro-industrial residue (CORA); 100% commercial substrate; 25% (COLU)+ 75% Commercial; 25% CORA +75% Commercial; 25% COLU + 75% soil; 50% COLU +50% Commercial; 50% CORA +50% Commercial; 50% Commercial + 50% soiland 100% Soil) and 12 repetitions. It was evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, length between node, fresh weight of shoot and root dry mass of shoots and roots, total dry weight, main root length, root system length, root volume, average root radius, specific surface area of the root system and stability of clod.The substrates containing organic compost urban show great potential for use as alternative substrates for the production of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of commercial substrate to organic compost allows the urban growth of root and the shoot of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis. A mixture of 50% commercial substrate and 50% organic compound of agro-industrial waste provide more stem diameter growth compared to treatments containing soil or over the organic compound of agro-industrial waste.

  18. Alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden / In vitro elongation of minicutings of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden genotypes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio Carlos, Navroski; Lia Rejane Silveira, Reiniger; Mariane de Oliveira, Pereira; Aline Ritter, Curti; Aline Ferreira, Paim.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brotações com pequeno alongamento poderão apresentar reduzida formação de raízes se forem diretamente cultivadas em meios de enraizamento ou, ainda, resultar em mudas de baixa qualidade para aclimatização. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o alongamento in vitro de genótipos de Eucalyptus dun [...] nii sob diferentes concentrações de Ácido Giberélico (GA3). Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio nutritivo MS reduzido à metade da concentração de sais (¹/2 MS) suplementado com 0,5 mg L-1 de Ácido alfa-Naftaleno Acético (ANA), 0,1 mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP), e variando-se o GA3, conforme tratamentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo bifatorial 6 x 4, resultante da combinação de seis genótipos e quatro concentrações de GA3 (0,0; 0,2; 0,4 e 0,8 mg L-1). Após 30 dias de cultivo in vitro, foram efetuadas as avaliações. Para a maioria dos genótipos, a ausência de GA3 resultou no maior número de brotações alongadas por explante e maior comprimento de gemas alongadas. Em geral, os genótipos que apresentaram maior número de brotações também tiveram brotações maiores. Com o emprego da maior concentração testada de GA3, observou-se mais de 50% de calogênese em um dos genótipos e intensidade diferenciada nos demais. GA3 não apresenta efeito no alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus dunnii e, inclusive, em sua presença os genótipos reduzem o número de brotações alongadas e o comprimento das brotações, aumentando a formação de calos. Os genótipos de Eucalyptus dunnii avaliados apresentam desempenho in vitro diferenciado em relação ao alongamento, o qual é passível de seleção. Abstract in english Shoots that have short lengths may present low percentage of survival if they are directly grown on rooting media, or give rise to low quality seedlings for the acclimatization phase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii minicuttings under differen [...] t concentrations of giberellic acid. Minicuttings were prepared and inoculated under aseptic conditions on MS nutritive medium with half of the salt concentration (¹/2 MS). We used fixed concentrations of NAA (0.5 mg L-1) and BAP (0.1 mg L-1) varying GA3 according to the treatment. The experiment was conducted in a randomized design, using a 6 x 4 factorial scheme, where the levels of factor "A" refer to different genotypes and the levels of factor B, the concentrations of GA3 (0.0; 0.2; 0.4, and 0.8 mg L-1), each replicate was composed of a flask containing three explants. Thirty days after in vitro culture, evaluations were performed. For most genotypes, the absence of GA3 produced the highest number of elongated shoots for explant and a longer length of elongated shoots. In general, genotypes with the highest number of shoots also had larger shoots. The non-addition of GA3 to the nutritive medium did not promote calli formation, reaching over 50% in the use of higher concentration of GA3 tested (0.80 mg L-1). The calli formation was different in different genotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has no effect on in vitro elongation of Eucalyptus dunnii. In the presence of GA3 genotypes reduce the number of elongated shoots and shoot length, increasing the formation of calli. The genotypes of Eucalyptus dunnii evaluated present differently in relation to in vitro elongation, which is able to be selected.

  19. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

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    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (α-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus.

  20. Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita

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    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

  1. Seleção de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de compensados / Selection of clones of Eucalyptus urophylla for plywood production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Bárbara Maria Ribeiro, Guimarães; Stefânia Lima, Oliveira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a avaliação de 6 clones oriundos da Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) para a confecção de painéis compensados multilaminados. Foram produzidos 6 painéis para cada clone estudado. Utilizou-se adesivo fenol-formaldeído com gramatura de 320g/m². O c [...] iclo de prensagem seguiu os seguintes parâmetros: pressão de 1,47MPa, temperatura de 150ºC e tempo de 10 minutos. A partir dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla se apresentam com grande potencial para a produção de painéis compensados multilaminados, uma vez que apresentaram valores de suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas acima dos referenciados em literatura e, significativamente, superiores aos exigidos pelas normas ABNT 31:000.05-00/2 (flexão estática) e EN 314-2 (resistência ao cisalhamento), sendo considerados para uso como forma de concreto (FOR). O clone que se destacou em todas as propriedades físico-mecânicas, com melhores resultados, foi o 36. Abstract in english This work aimed at the evaluation of six (6) Eucalyptus urophylla clones of Companhia Mineira Metais - Unidade Agroflorestal (VM-AGRO) for making particleboard panels. Six (6) panels to each clone studies were produced. About 320g/m² of Phenol phormol aldehyde adhesives Were utilized. The pressing c [...] ycle parameters were: pressure of 1.47MPa, temperature of 150ºC and 10 minutes of pressing time. It was concluded that clones of Eucalyptus urophylla show a great potential for production of particleboard panels, since they presented values of physical and mechanical properties above the ones referenced in literature and highly superior to those required by the ABNT Standards 31:000.05-00/2 (static bending) and EN 314-2 (shearing resistance), the tested clones can be used for producing concrete mold (FOR). The clone which stood out the most in all the properties tested was the clone 36.

  2. Attenuation of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Eucalyptus globulus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhaee, Alireza; Bokaeian, Mohammad; Saravani, Mohsen; Farhangi, Ali; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2009-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) was used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia in diabetes has been associated with increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage to tissue compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in the diet (20 g/Kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant power in plasma and liver homogenate, as well as glycated-Hb (HbA(1C)) o...

  3. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

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    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  4. Favorable conditions for Xanthomonas axonopodis infection in Eucalyptus spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela A., Neves; Lúcio M. S., Guimarães; Hélvio G. M., Ferraz; Acelino C., Alfenas.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Xanthomonas axonopodis is one of the main foliar pathogens for Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil. It induces leaf blight and defoliation of seedlings in the nursery and young plants in the field. However, little is known about thefavorable conditions for infection. The establishment and developme [...] nt of bacterial leaf blight caused by X. axonopodis in eucalyptus was studied for different leaf ages, temperatures and leaf wetness durations. Disease severity increased with leaf age, and the highest severity was observed on the fourth pair of completely expanded leaves (from the apex to the base). A higher level of bacterial colonization was also observed on the fourth pair of leaves quantified as bacterial cells/cm2 of leaf area. Twelve hours of free water on the leaf surface, prior to inoculation, was essential to promote a severe infection. However, with the increase in the leaf wetness duration, a decrease in disease severity was observed. The optimal temperature for disease development was 26-30ºC.

  5. Evaluation of Eucalyptus sawmill log to obtain structural parts

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    Thiago Campos Monteiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The control over the products of the sawing of logs is important for the management of the sawmill and also to reduce environmental impacts. The yield and the time study are parameters for the assessment of unfolding in a sawmill. This study aimed to evaluate the yield and the time study of the sawing of Eucalyptus logs during the production of structural parts. This work used ten logs of Eucalyptus grandis from a plantation with 15 years of age, taken from an area of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. In the experimental sawmill of UFLA the logs were sawn using a band saw and the planks were resawn in a circular saw. The structural parts followed the dimensions laid down in the NBR 7190 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 1997. The parts produced were measured and calculated yield. The times of all stages of the process were obtained using a stopwatch and then analyzed the time actually sawing and the processing time of logs and planks. The average of yield for the production of main parts was 20.9% and secondary part was 22.9%. Average yield of sawing was satisfactory if compared with the values ??obtained in other studies. The circular saw compared to band saw showed higher percentage of effective time sawing of wood. The effective time of sawing was less than half the total processing time of the logs.

  6. Effects of Cadmium on Some Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shariat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals including cadmium produced as a result of urban, industrial and agricultural activities lead to the water pollution. Also, considering the growing need for silviculture in Iran, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive research on fast growing and evergreen species of Eucalyptus and their role in heavy metals' absorption. To achieve this goal, Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were grown in pots containing silica and irrigated with a mixture of nutrient solution and cadmium chloride in 5, 10 and 15 m M for 10 months. Root and leaf samples were harvested and the amount of cadmium in stem, root and leaf organs was measured. Also, some morphological and physiological characteristics were determined including soluble sugar and praline. The analysis indicated that the cadmium concentrations of 15 mM treatment in the root, leaf and stem were 585, 142 and 87 mg/kg D.W., respectively. Proline content increased with the increase of Cadmium concentration while the content of pigments decreased. The result of this research shows that eucalypt has the potential of cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. Therefore, the plant can be used to decrease the environmental pollutions.

  7. Effect of Albino ophiostoma strains on Eucalyptus nitens extractives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana, Coloma; Laura, Reyes; José, Navarrete; Julio, Alarcón; Lilian, Delgado; Renato, Vera; Priscilla, Ubilla; Karen, Vásquez; José, Becerra.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood extractives promote pitch formation during pulp and paper manufacturing. To date, this problem has been controlled by extended storage of the chips and/or chemical additives. Biotreatment of the wood prior to pulping provides an alternative that not only decreases the negative impact of the ext [...] ractives but may also improve the kraft pulping efficiency. This initiative seeks to verify the quantity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus nitens wood extractives following biotreatment with three albino fungi species (Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum). Eucalyptus nitens wood chips were sprayed with spore suspensions of Ophiostoma piliferum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma floccosum albino strains (1 × 10(8) spore concentration). After 7 and 21 days of fungal treatment, the extractive content was determined via Soxhlet extraction with an 80:20% n-hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture. The Ophiostoma floccosum F1A94, Ophiostoma piliferum F2D8 and Ophiostoma piceae F2A68 strains proved to be most capable of bioreduction with reductions of 35,1%, 33,2% and 29,3%, respectively. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which demonstrated that most of the tested strains could reduce the ?- sitosterol content.

  8. Effect of Albino ophiostoma strains on Eucalyptus nitens extractives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana, Coloma; Laura, Reyes; José, Navarrete; Julio, Alarcón; Lilian, Delgado; Renato, Vera; Priscilla, Ubilla; Karen, Vásquez; José, Becerra.

    Full Text Available Wood extractives promote pitch formation during pulp and paper manufacturing. To date, this problem has been controlled by extended storage of the chips and/or chemical additives. Biotreatment of the wood prior to pulping provides an alternative that not only decreases the negative impact of the ext [...] ractives but may also improve the kraft pulping efficiency. This initiative seeks to verify the quantity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus nitens wood extractives following biotreatment with three albino fungi species (Ophiostoma floccosum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma piliferum). Eucalyptus nitens wood chips were sprayed with spore suspensions of Ophiostoma piliferum, Ophiostoma piceae and Ophiostoma floccosum albino strains (1 × 10(8) spore concentration). After 7 and 21 days of fungal treatment, the extractive content was determined via Soxhlet extraction with an 80:20% n-hexane:ethyl acetate solvent mixture. The Ophiostoma floccosum F1A94, Ophiostoma piliferum F2D8 and Ophiostoma piceae F2A68 strains proved to be most capable of bioreduction with reductions of 35,1%, 33,2% and 29,3%, respectively. The chemical composition of the extract was analyzed via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which demonstrated that most of the tested strains could reduce the ?- sitosterol content.

  9. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DA MADEIRA DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis L. G. Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus grandis em relação a características tecnológicas da madeira. Foram selecionadas 63 árvores matrizes, pertencentes a um povoamento comercial localizado no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. As árvores foram abatidas e, com base nos dados dendrométricos, calculou-se o volume comercial com e sem casca, o fator de forma, a conicidade e a relação altura/diâmetro. Quanto à madeira, foi analisada a massa específica básica, os percentuais volumétricos de cerne, alburno e casca, as rachaduras de topo das toras e das tábuas, os empenamentos e os defeitos visuais das tábuas, tais como nós e bolsa de resina. A massa específica básica, cuja média inclui a madeira dessa espécie entre as moderadamente leves a pesadas, mostrou uma tendência decrescente entre o DAP e 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, crescente até 100% da mesma. O percentual volumétrico de cerne apresentou valores médios crescentes desde a base até 25% da altura comercial e, a partir daí, diminuiu até 100% da altura comercial, sendo que a média geral foi de 75,7%. O comprimento médio das rachaduras de topo em tábuas de Eucalyptus grandis foi de 63%. A alta porcentagem de rachaduras de topo foi atribuída à posição de retirada das tábuas, próxima à medula. Já a variabilidade das rachaduras de topo encontrada para as toras (CV=60% possibilita a seleção de árvores com menor tendência em apresentar esse defeito.

  10. Genomic patterns of species diversity and divergence in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Myburg, Alexander A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2015-06-01

    We examined genome-wide patterns of DNA sequence diversity and divergence among six species of the important tree genus Eucalyptus and investigated their relationship with genomic architecture. Using c. 90 range-wide individuals of each Eucalyptus species (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. dunnii and E. camaldulensis), genetic diversity and divergence were estimated from 2840 polymorphic diversity arrays technology markers covering the 11 chromosomes. Species differentiating markers (SDMs) identified in each of 15 pairwise species comparisons, along with species diversity (HHW ) and divergence (FST ), were projected onto the E. grandis reference genome. Across all species comparisons, SDMs totalled 1.1-5.3% of markers and were widely distributed throughout the genome. Marker divergence (FST and SDMs) and diversity differed among and within chromosomes. Patterns of diversity and divergence were broadly conserved across species and significantly associated with genomic features, including the proximity of markers to genes, the relative number of clusters of tandem duplications, and gene density within or among chromosomes. These results suggest that genomic architecture influences patterns of species diversity and divergence in the genus. This influence is evident across the six species, encompassing diverse phylogenetic lineages, geography and ecology. PMID:25678438

  11. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  12. WOOD VAPORIZATION EFFECT ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Roberto Haselein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaporization effects on the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression, crushing strength and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction on logs and sawn wood of two sources of Eucalyptus dunnii. The mechanical attempts were performed under the Copant standards in the  climatized conditions (12%. To do so, about two thirds of the logs, with a diameter between 20-30 cm, were vaporized at 100o C and 100% of relative humidity for 20 hours, while  the  remaining  logs  were  kept  as  control.  From  each  log,  a  central plank radially directed with eight centimeter of thickness was taken, from which small beams of 8 cm x 8 cm were taken. Half of the small beams from the vaporized logs were once again submitted to vaporization under the same previously described conditions for a period of 3 hours, thus obtaining three different levels of comparison (control, vaporized on logs and presteaming wood. The results showed a remarkable reduction on the crushing strength in parallel compression to the fiber and shear strength (radial and tangential direction with the vaporization on the two conditions and sources of Eucalyptus dunnii used. On the other hand, the crushing strength at limit of proportionality on perpendicular compression and modulus of elasticity in parallel compression did not show any change with the vaporization.

  13. Efecto del laboreo sobre la eficacia de herbicidas y el crecimiento de Eucalyptus spp. / Effect of Tillage Intensity on Herbicide Efficacy and Eucalyptus spp. Productivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana, Villalba; Cristian, Montouto; Julio, Cazaban; Pablo, Caraballo; Oscar, Bentancur.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La eliminación de la competencia de malezas en el cultivo de Eucalyptus es fundamental en las etapas iniciales de crecimiento hasta el cierre de copa. En el Uruguay, el control de malezas en el surco de plantación se realiza básicamente con herbicidas premergentes, los cuales se asocian a una prepar [...] ación de suelo muy estricta en relación al afinado para mejorar así la efectividad de los herbicidas, con el consecuente incremento de los costos de producción y de los riesgos de erosión. Se estudió el efecto del tipo de laboreo en la fila (una pasada de excéntrica; dos pasadas de excéntrica, la última con una rastra de dientes; igual al anterior, seguido de acamellonado) sobre la efectividad de los herbicidas premergentes y sobre el crecimiento del clon Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus. Los tratamientos herbicidas fueron oxifluorfen 240 g/ha, oxifluorfen 480 g/ha, isoxaflutole 150 g/ha, sulfentrazona 300 g/ha, sulfentrazona 400 g/ha, diclosulam 42 g/ha + acetoclor 1800 g/ha, acetoclor 1800 g/ha, oxifluorfen 240 g/ha+ acetoclor 1800 g/ha. La mayor intensidad en el laboreo disminuyó la infestación inicial de malezas. La eficiencia de los herbicida premergentes sobre la cobertura total de malezas no interaccionó con el tipo de laboreo. Los tratamientos selectivos de mayor control de malezas fueron isoxaflutole y oxifluorfen + acetoclor. Abstract in english Weed interference in Eucalyptus must be eliminated early before treetop closure. In Uruguay, weed control in the planting rows is done with preemergent herbicides. This practice, that is performed in conjunction with rigorous soil preparation to ensure herbicide effectiveness, entails high productio [...] n costs and erosion risks. We studied the effect of the type of within-row tillage (1) one pass of a heavy offset disk harrow, 2) two offset disk passes including a tooth harrow in the second pass, and 3) the same treatment followed by mounding of the rows) on preemergent herbicide efficacy and growth of Eucalyptus (a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globules). The herbicides evaluated were: oxifluorfen 240 g/ha; oxifluorfen 480 g/ha; isoxaflutole 150 g/ha; sulfentrazone 300 g/ha; sulfentrazone 400 g/ha; diclosulam 42 g/ha + 1800 acetochlor g/ha; acetochlor 1800 g/ha; oxifluorfen 240 g/ha + acetochlor 1800 g/ha. There was no interaction between preemergent herbicide effectiveness and tillage on total weed cover. The best treatments for selective weed control on the Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus hybrid clone were isoxaflutole (150g/ha) and oxifluorfen (240g/ha) + acetochlor (1800g/ha).

  14. Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duarte

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation of C. neoformans var. gattii in our country. A total of 100 Eucalyptus trees, distributed among 13 zones, located in the center, northeast, east and west of Santafé de Bogotá, were studied. Flowers, fruits, leaves, barks and Eucalyptus debris were collected. The samples were processed by extraction with saline solution containing antibiotics, cultured in selective media and the isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Twenty-seven isolates of 9 Cryptococcus sp. were recovered from 21 Eucalyptus trees, from 5 zones. One C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A was recovered. The Cryptococcus associated with Eucalyptus is important because this is the first study done in our country.

  15. Miniestaquia seriada no rejuvenescimento de clones de Eucalyptus / Serial minicuttings technique as a rejuvenation method for Eucalyptus clones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivar, Wendling; Aloisio, Xavier.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da técnica de miniestaquia seriada em quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis, quanto à sobrevivência, ao enraizamento e ao crescimento em altura e diâmetro de colo das mudas. Foram realizados sete subcultivos pela miniestaquia seriada, por enraizamento [...] sucessivo de brotações de minicepas, em casa de vegetação durante 25 dias, seguido de aclimatação por dez dias em casa de sombra e avaliação final das mudas aos 50 dias de idade, em pleno sol. A miniestaquia seriada mostrou efeito positivo, principalmente em relação aos clones que apresentaram menor potencial de enraizamento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of serial minicuttings technique in four clones of Eucalyptus grandis, regarding to survival, rooting and growth in height and diameter of the seedlings. Seven subcultures, by serial minicuttings technique, through successive rooting of the s [...] prouts were accomplished. Rooting was carried out in a greenhouse during 25 days, followed by ten days acclimatization at shadow house, and final evaluation of the seedlings at 50 days, in the sun. The serial minicuttings technique showed positive effect, mostly for difficult rooting clones.

  16. Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

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    Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  17. Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii: (II sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas em função das coletas e estações do ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a técnica de miniestaquia na clonagem de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii ao longo das estações do ano quanto à sobrevivência e enraizamento de miniestacas. As minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas durante 352 dias em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico em leito de areia com solução nutritiva fornecida por gotejamento, efetuando-se 27 coletas sucessivas de brotações durante as quatro estações do ano (primavera, verão, outono e inverno. Mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca durante 10 segundos em solução hidroalcoólica (1:1 v/v de concentração de 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco repetições e vinte miniestacas por repetição. O enraizamento das miniestacas variou conforme o clone e mostrou-se muito sensível às estações do ano e às oscilações da temperatura. Os melhores índices de enraizamento foram registrados nas estações mais frias onde variou de 19,59% a 56,20% e os menores nas estações mais quentes, com 4,62% a 8,50%. Os clones H19 e H20 apresentaram os maiores índices de enraizamento nas quatro estações do ano.

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden AND Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, AS A SUPPLY FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out at Universidade de Brasília at the Wood Products of Forestry Laboratory (IBAMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Two species of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana were studied to supply the furniture making industry. The wood of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden shows physical properties (density and retractibility and mechanical properties (static bending and hardness very suitable for the industry of wood furniture. Such characteristics are complemented by its excellent behaviour in machining and also good finishing with varnishes. The colour and patterns the wood bring to the consumers a good feeling as well as for the furnitures built with such a species. The wood of Eucalyptus cloeziana, in spite of its mechanical and physical properties higher than those of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, presents good characteristics for the manufacture of furniture. Its grey-olive colouring is consistent with a good choice and taste for the consumers. However, some precaution must be observed during the machining of the wood. This wood’s hardness makes it suitable for parquetry.

  19. Species adaptability, seed availability and prospects for improvement of eucalyptus in Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrevia, M.; Balloni, E.A.; Pinto, J.E. Jr.; Jacob, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing study into possible improvement of Eucalyptus spp. in plantations, data are presented from all existing trials and experimental plantings in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Growth, uniformity, form and fruiting are indicated.

  20. Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T. From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

  1. Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four eucalyptus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David R; Masic, Dino; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Guy, Jonathan H

    2009-06-01

    The results of this study suggest that certain eucalyptus essential oils may be of use as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in the management of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. At a level of 0.21 mg/cm(2), the essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora achieved 85% mortality in D. gallinae over a 24 h exposure period in contact toxicity tests. A further two essential oils from different eucalyptus species, namely E. globulus and E. radiata, provided significantly (P eucalyptus essential oils regarding their chemical compositions. There appeared to be a trend whereby the essential oils that were composed of the fewer chemical components were the least lethal to D. gallinae. It may therefore be the case that the complexity of an essential oil's chemical make up plays an important role in dictating the toxicity of that oil to pests such as D. gallinae. PMID:19089590

  2. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, the main product of Eucalyptus oils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Rodríguez; Wilson, Sierra; Sonia, Rodríguez; Pilar, Menéndez.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest industry in Uruguay has grown considerably during the last decade. Eucalyptus plantations account for 74% of the forested land, with Eucalyptus globulus being the most widely distributed species. This industry is dedicated exclusively to the production of wood without exploiting the by-pr [...] oducts (leaves and small branches). Eucalyptus leaves are known to contain important amounts of essential oils composed primarily of 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trymethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). In this work, the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole, is achieved using a native bacterium (Rhodococcus sp.) which was isolated from the soil of Eucalyptus forest. A 98% of bioconversion was achieved. Three different optically pure compounds were obtained, and they were identified as 2-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole, 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole and 2-oxo-1,8-cineole.

  3. Characterization of isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, pathogenic to Eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eder, Marques; Carlos H., Uesugi; Marisa A.S.V., Ferreira; Denise V. de, Rezende.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of biovar 2 of Ralstonia solanacearum pathogenic to eucalyptus "urograndis" hybrid by means of biochemical tests, as well as evaluation of host range and identification by PCR with primers for species, biovar and phylotype. Carbohydrate utiliz [...] ation assays revealed that the eucalyptus isolates belong to phenotype Tropical of biovar 2 (2T). From artificial inoculations it was possible to reproduce symptoms or recover the bacterium from: eucalyptus, potato, tomato, eggplant, datura, geranium, turnip, mustard, nasturtium, beetroot, sunflower, bean, French marigold, horseradish tree, and cashew. The PCR assays confirmed that the isolates belong to biovar 2, phylotype II of the bacterium. The confirmation of new biovar naturally infecting eucalyptus indicates that R. solanacearum easily adapts to new hosts.

  4. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    M. CALLISTO; F. A. R. Barbosa; Moreno, P.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrat...

  5. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it was the most dimensionally instable clone, whereas considering maximum volumetric shrinkage, clone 1 was the most stable. Eucalyptus grandis presented the least basic density and was the most stable, while Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density and was the most dimensionally instable.

  6. PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

  7. Efecto de los sistemas de riego en la rentabilidad de plantaciones de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus) / Effect of irrigation system type on profitability of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emilio, Guerra; Miguel Á., Herrera; Fernando, Drake.

    2010-02-15

    Full Text Available El riego es utilizado con mayor frecuencia para establecer plantaciones, con el fin de aumentar el crecimiento y la productividad por superficie. Se estudió el efecto de tres sistemas de riego: microaspersión (T1), goteo (T2) y surco (T3), en la rentabilidad de una plantación de eucalipto (Eucalyptu [...] s globulus), en el Valle Central de la Región del Bío Bío, Chile. La variable proyectada a la edad de cosecha fue el incremento volumétrico de los árboles. Para calcular costos de T1 y T2 se usó una base de datos de 200 predios agrícolas de diferentes superficies con instalación e implementación de estos sistemas. Para T3 se aplicaron costos actualizados de construcción y mantención de las estructuras requeridas para la evaluación financiera. La rentabilidad se determinó mediante el valor actual neto (VAN), valor económico del suelo (VES), y tasa interna de retorno modificada (TIRm). La rentabilidad para T1 y T2 tuvo valores negativos, es decir, estas técnicas de riego no generaron beneficios económicos. El riego por surco (T3) fue rentable para el volumen proyectado a los ocho y diez años de edad de cosecha, obteniéndose con los tres indicadores los mayores retornos al usar una tasa de descuento de 8 % y a un precio de la madera pulpable de 32 US$ m-3 ssc. El VAN fue 989 US$ ha-1 y 1106 US$ ha-1, el VES fue 2152 y 2406 US$ ha-1, y la TIRm 10.4 % y 10.1 %. Estos resultados justifican la utilización del riego por surco (T3) como una técnica eficiente del manejo integrado para una plantación de eucalipto de alta productividad. Abstract in english Irrigation is used increasingly in establishment of forest plantations in order to increase growth and productivity. The effect on profitability of a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation in the Central Valley of the Bío Bío Region, Chile, of three irrigation systems was studied: microsprinkle [...] rs (T1), drip irrigation (T2) and surface irrigation (T3). The variable projected to harvest age was the volumetric increase of the trees. To calculate costs of T1 and T2, a database was used of 200 agricultural operations of varying size where these systems were installed and implemented. For T3, current costs of construction and maintenance of the structures required were used for financial evaluation. Profitability was determined using net present value (NPV), potential land value (PLV) and modified internal return rate (MIRR). Profitability with Tl and T2 had negative values; that is, these irrigation techniques did not generate economic benefits. Surface irrigation (T3) was profitable for the volume projected to eight and ten years harvest age. The greatest returns were obtained with the three indicators using a discount rate of 8 % and a price of pulp wood of US$ 32 m-3 ssc. NPV was US$ 989 ha-¹ and US$ 1106 ha-1; PLV was US$ 2152 and 2406 ha-1, and MIRR was 10.4 % and 10.1 %. These results justify the use of surface irrigation (T3) as an efficient technique in the integrated management of a high-producing eucalyptus plantation.

  8. Effect of fiber wall chemistry on pulping processes of novel Eucalyptus hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Muguet Soares, Marcelo Coelho dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates relevant issues regarding the use of Eucalyptus wood: the factors affecting energy consumption during wood defibration, with focus on fiber wall chemistry and the assessment of wood quality from a wide range of novel Brazilian Eucalyptus hybrids. The obtained results are reflected to mechanical and traditional chemical processes. Wood refining experiments were carried out in laboratory scale, with and without chemical pretreatment: alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp...

  9. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson B. G. da Silva; Magali R. da Silva; Danilo Simões

    2014-01-01

    To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1); vermiculi...

  10. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINHEIRO P. C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG. The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

  11. Survey to Evaluate Escape of Eucalyptus spp. Seedlings from Plantations in Southeastern USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mac A. Callaham Jr.; Stanturf, John A.; William J. Hammond; Rockwood, Donald L.; Evelyn S. Wenk; Joseph J. O'Brien

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biomass-based energy in the southeastern Unites States has led to increased need for fast-growing tree species. Several Eucalyptus species exhibit characteristics that make them attractive in the bioenergy context. However, some of these also possess traits that suggest they could become invasive. To make a preliminary assessment of the risk of seedling establishment in the vicinity of Eucalyptus plantations, we conducted surveys at 3 sites in South Carolina and 16 sites in Florid...

  12. Decomposition of Fire Exposed Eucalyptus Leaves in a Portuguese Lowland Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Mafalda; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia; Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A.S.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    We compared fire exposed with normal abscised eucalyptus leaves incubated in a stream running through eucalyptus plantations in central Portugal, in terms of breakdown rates, microbial activity, diversity and macroinvertebrate abundance. Although leaves exposed to fire had lower nutritional value, mass loss was similar for both leaf types (k = 0.0089-0.0095 d-1 for fire and k = 0.0084-0.00103 d-1 for normal leaves). Fungal biomass was similar among treatments, whereas sporulation and microbia...

  13. Estimation of eucalyptus forest plantations carbon sequestration potential in Uruguay with the CO2fix model

    OpenAIRE

    Juntheikki, Joni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this thesis is to estimate the carbon sequestration potential in eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. This study also aims to show how beneficial these plantations are for carbon sinks. The aim of this research is calculate total carbon balance in eucalyptus plantations and compare the results to degraded lands. This study is first-of-its-kind study in Uruguay, but not unique globally. The objective was to use a modeling approach to formulate the results. The methodology of this ...

  14. Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Carla; Natal-Da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food o...

  15. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Araújo Pedro; Brito Michael dos; Souza Uiara; Viana Julianade Oliveira Fernandes; Mazzafera Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, whi...

  16. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a ...

  17. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. Silva; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Neto, Carlos P.; Simões, Pedro C.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Eduardo L. G. Oliveira; Domingues, Rui M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obta...

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  19. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. C. C., PINHEIRO; T. J., RAAD; M. I., YOSHIDA.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The [...] kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG). The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

  20. Energy performance of a production system of eucalyptus Desempenho energético de uma produção de eucalipto

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago L. Romanelli; Marcos Milan

    2010-01-01

    Maximizing yields is opposed to the goal of minimizing the use of inputs. In the context of system rationalization, the addition of non-economic parameters in the decision making and the magnitude of eucalyptus plantation in Sao Paulo State, Brazil led to this study. The objective was to establish the flows and to evaluate the performance of energy transformations on eucalyptus production. The evaluated system presented three alternatives of soil acidity management: lime, ash and sludge appli...

  1. Implicações nutricionais com base em diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus / Nutritional implications based in different intensities of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus biomass harvesting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio, Viera; Mauro Valdir, Schumacher; Peter, Trüby; Elias Frank, Araújo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de nutrientes para futuros plantios em um sítio florestal está relacionada principalmente à, intensidade de colheita aplicada. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar as implicações nutricionais causadas pelas diferentes intensidades de colheita da biomassa de um povoamento de Eucal [...] yptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus com dez anos de idade, em Eldorado do Sul - RS. A avaliação das implicações nutricionais conforme a intensidade de colheita florestal foi analisada levando em consideração: o estoque de nutrientes entre o sistema solo - planta; os efeitos da colheita dos diferentes componentes da biomassa acima do solo na remoção dos nutrientes; o número de rotações e a taxa de remoção de nutrientes conforme o sistema de colheita utilizado e o coeficiente de utilização biológica dos nutrientes. Com a colheita da madeira com casca, todos os nutrientes teriam uma remoção superior a 45% de sua quantidade acumulada na biomassa total acima do solo. Entretanto, removendo apenas a madeira comercial, que apresenta o maior coeficiente de utilização de nutrientes, a porcentagem de remoção para os nutrientes, com exceção do Cu e Zn, seria inferior a 50%, chegando até 10% no caso do Ca, em relação ao total contido na biomassa. O fósforo e o cálcio poderão ser os principais nutrientes a tornarem-se limitantes na produtividade nas próximas rotações, pois as estimativas de rotações potenciais estão próximas a um, quando realizada a colheita da madeira com casca Abstract in english Nutrients available for future plantation is mainly related to the harvest system applied. Based on this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional implications caused by difference biomass harvest intensities in the Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus 10 years-old in Eldorado do Sul - RS. N [...] utritional implications assessment was analyzed and taken into account: nutrients balance between soil-plant system; harvest effects of the different aboveground components in the nutrients removal; rotation numbers and nutrients removal rate in relation to harvest system used and nutrients biological utilization rate. With the harvest of wood with the bark all the nutrients removal would suffer more than 45% of the total amount accumulated in aboveground biomass. However, removing just the wood, which has the highest nutrients utilization rate, the nutrients removed percentage, except by Cu and Zn, will be less than 50% and up to 10% in the case of Ca in relation to the total biomass contained. Phosphorus and calcium can be the main nutrients which become limited in the next rotation productivity, because the potential rotation estimates are close to one, when wood with bark are harvested. Key words: forestry production; nutrients stock; nutrients available

  2. MICROPROPAGACIÓN DE EUCALIPTO (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EN EL SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden micropropagation in a temporary immersion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Castro R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo procedimiento para la multiplicación in vitro mediante el sistema de inmersión temporal de plantas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden procedentes de árboles elite. La mayor eficiencia de multiplicación se estableció a una frecuencia óptima de inmersión cada 12 h con una duración de 3 min. La aplicación adicional de un flujo de aire fresco cada 6 h durante 3 min disminuyó la hiperhidratación de las plantas durante el proceso. Este procedimiento comprendió dos pasos: la brotación o multiplicación múltiple y la elongación de brotes. El mejor tratamiento para la inducción de brotes axilares o multiplicación se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS con los nitratos reducidos a la mitad + 0,5 mg L-1 de benciladenina (BA, con volúmenes de 55,5 mL por grupo de brotes durante tres semanas. La elongación tuvo lugar en el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS más ácido indolbutírico (AIB 1,0 g L-1, durante tres semanas. La utilización de este protocolo permitió obtener un promedio de 260 plantas competentes de E. grandis. Las plantas con tamaño mayor a 2 cm se relacionaron positivamente con una mayor supervivencia durante la fase de aclimatización.A new procedure is described for in vitro multiplication using the temporary immersion system for plants (Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden coming from elite trees. The optimum multiplication frequency was established at every 12 h with a duration of 3 min. The additional application of a stream of fresh air every 6 h for 3 min diminished the hyper-hydration of the plants during the process. The procedure involved two steps: shooting and elongation of buds. The best treatment for induction of axillary buds was obtained in the culture medium MS (Murashige and Skoog with the nitrates reduced to half strength plus 0.5 benciladenin (BA mg L-1, with volumes of 55.5 mL per group of buds for three weeks. The elongation took place in the MS culture medium plus indol butiric acid (IBA 1.0 g L-1 for three weeks. The use of this protocol allows producing an average of 260 competent plants of E. grandis. Shoots taller than 2 cm were positively related with higher survival during the acclimatization phase.

  3. Effect of eucalyptus wood vinegar on rubberwood infestation by Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasin, M

    2013-01-01

    Wood degradation caused by fungi, termites, and insects, is a major problem for the rubberwood industry. The potential of wood vinegar as rubberwood preservative was studied. The infestation rates of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on rubberwood samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar for 24 hours were observed in laboratory conditions. Both non-choice and choice experiments were included. The effects of eucalyptus wood vinegar treatment depended on its concentration. In the non-choice experiments, rubberwood samples treated with 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar had the highest resistance to C. gestroi infestation, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 50% and 25% treatments. However, in the choice experiments the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the treatments with varied wood vinegar concentration. Untreated control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi in both non-choice and choice experiments, but their relative loss of mass in the non-choice experiments was not significantly different from samples treated with 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar. Hence, 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar was not effective as rubberwood preservative against C. gestroi attack. The results suggest that eucalyptus wood vinegar acts as a rubberwood preservative against termites, provided the treatment is done without dilution. About 50% dilution still has some efficacy, while lower concentrations are not effective. PMID:25145252

  4. Eucalyptus Biomass and Volume Estimation Using Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Furlan Gama

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to establish a relationship between volume and biomass with interferometric and radiometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar response from planted Eucalyptus saligna forest stands, using multi-variable regression techniques. X and P band SAR images from the airborne OrbiSAR-1 sensor, were acquired at the study area in the southeast region of Brazil. The interferometric height (Hint = difference between interferometric digital elevation model in X and P bands, contributed to the models developed due to fact that Eucalyptus forest is composed of individuals whose structure is predominantly cylindrical and vertically oriented, and whose tree heights have great correlation with volume and biomass. The volume model showed that the stand volume was highly correlated with the interferometric height logarithm (Log10Hint, since Eucalyptus tree volume has a linear relationship with the vegetation height. The biomass model showed that the combination of both Hint2 and Canopy Scattering Index—CSI (relation of s°VV by the sum of s°VV and s°HH, which represents to the canopy interaction were used in this model, due to the fact that the Eucalyptus biomass and the trees height relationship is not linear. Both models showed a prediction error of around 10% to estimate the Eucalyptus biomass and volume, which represents a great potential to use this kind of technology to help establish Eucalyptus forest inventory for large areas.

  5. Eucalyptus (gracilis, oleosa, salubris, and salmonophloia) essential oils: their chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Marzoug, Hajer Naceur; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Couderc, François; Abderraba, Manef; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2010-08-01

    Essential oils of four different Eucalyptus species (Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus salmonophloia, Eucalyptus oleosa, and Eucalyptus gracilis) grown in southern Tunisia were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as well as their chemical compositions. According to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, chemical compositions of the Eucalyptus species E. salubris (27 compounds; 99.2%), E. salmonophloia (31 compounds; 99.2%), E. oleosa (32 compounds; 97.6%), and E. gracilis (18 compounds; 97.7%) were identified. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 12.0-52.8 mg/mL, whereas in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay, E. oleosa (176.5 +/- 3.1 mg/L) gave the best inhibition result. To evaluate antimicrobial activity, all essential oils were tested against bacteria (two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative), two yeast, and two fungi. Essential oils exhibited an interesting antibacterial activity against all microorganisms tested (activity was better against Gram-positive bacteria) except for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Correlations between chemical composition and biological and antioxidant activities were studied. PMID:20482281

  6. Production cost of biomasses from eucalyptus and elefant grass for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marie Roger Quéno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work established the unit energy cost generated from biomass of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp. and elephant grass (Pennisetum sp. and applied a sensitivity analysis to verify the influences of factors such as the silviculture of eucalyptus, production volume of each species, the cost of land and the interest rate. It was shown that the treatment of eucalyptus in very short rotation of 2 years with reform of stand every 6 years has a average cost of production higher than the traditional treatment of short rotation of 6 years with reform only at the age of 18. It was also observed that eucalyptus has a Production Cost on average of R$ 4,41 /Gj, lower than the elephant grass which is on average of R$ 5,44/Gj, which however has a higher annual capacity of dry matter production. The elephant grass has the possibility to compete with eucalyptus when a set of conditions is met: discount rate higher than or equal to 8%, High price of land, and elephant grass high volume production, greater than or equal to 35 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and year.

  7. USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Lotfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

  8. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  9. Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production / Análise multivariada aplicada à avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Allan Motta, Couto; Thiago de Paula, Protásio; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Thiago Andrade, Neves; Vânia Aparecida de, Sá.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se selecionar clones de Eucalyptus com finalidades energéticas, utilizando as técnicas multivariadas de componentes principais e de agrupamento. Foram avaliados 25 clones de Eucalyptus aos 54 meses de idade. Foram determinados os teores dos componentes elementares (C, H e O [...] ), de lignina, extrativos totais e cinzas, a densidade básica, o poder calorífico superior e a densidade energética. As duas técnicas multivariadas empregadas para a avaliação e seleção dos clones de Eucalyptus para a produção de bioenergia foram eficientes, sendo observadas similaridades entre os grupos de biomassa formados por elas. Pela análise de agrupamento, foram obtidos cinco grupos distintos, sendo que o grupo um, formado pelo clone U060, possui maior potencial como fonte de energia. Os clones G084, G122, G023 e U108 possuem menor desempenho energético. Abstract in english This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, [...] H and O), lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

  10. Estabelecimento, multiplicação e alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Establishment, multiplication and elongation in vitro of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden

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    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cloro ativo (NaOCl na assepsia de explantes para o estabelecimento in vitro, bem como benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA para a multiplicação e alongamento de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. As minicepas fornecedoras de propágulos para introdução in vitro foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram desinfestados com 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0% (v/v de cloro ativo durante 10 min e inoculados em meio de cultura MS. Na obtenção de brotações múltiplas, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS suplementado com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Na fase de alongamento, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de ANA. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados, obtendo-se 45%, 46% e 66% de estabelecimento do clone H12, H19 e H20, respectivamente. A concentração de BAP que resultou na maior proliferação de gemas axilares para o clone H12 aos 60 dias foi estimada na faixa de 0,25 e 0,30 mg L-1. Aos 60 dias, a faixa entre 0,25 e 0,75 mg L-1 de ANA promoveu o maior número de brotações alongadas do clone H12.This work aimed to evaluate different concentrations of active chlorine (NaOCl in explant asepsis for the establishment in vitro as well as of benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA in the multiplication and elongation of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Ministumps, which supply shoots for introduction in vitro, were cultivated in a clonal mini garden under semi-hydroponic system. Nodal segments of clones H12, H19 and H20 were disinfested with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v of active chlorine during 10 minutes and inoculated in MS medium. In the multiplication phase, culture ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of BAP was used. In the elongation phase, ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of NAA was used. No interaction occurred between the studied levels, with 45%, 46% and 66% of establishment of clones H12, H19 and H20, respectively. The BAP concentration that resulted in the highest axillary's bud proliferation for clone H12 at 60 days was estimated in the range of 0.25 to 0.30 mg L-1. At 60 days, the range between 0.25 to 0.75 mg L-1 of NAA, promoted the highest number of elongated shoots for H12 clone.

  11. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

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    Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning, with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

  12. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis / Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabricio Gomes, Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva, Oliveira; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva; Mauro Eloi, Nappo; Mario, Tomazelo Filho.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da mad [...] eira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste), com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas. Abstract in english Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in the clonal hybrid wood Eucalyptus urophylla [...] x Eucalyptus grandis grown in three silvicultural extracts. The dendrometric data were analyzed by regression analysis. The results show that the hybrid presents similar behavior to other eucalypt of the same species grown in other places with sapwood thickness in E1 (coppice with 70 months and one thinning), with little variation along the stem. All evaluated trees presented, in general, a low taper along the stem with very little bark volume among the extracts. The Pearson Correlation studied nine dendrometric parameters, seven physical and three mechanical properties. The parameters were evaluated, longitudinally, in three meter sections along the stem and in the pith-bark position in the first two logs according to the Pearson's Correlation. The coefficients demonstrated a strong correlation among the properties, with basic density being highly correlated to the other characteristics and anisotropic coefficient, important in the process of sawing and drying wood, as well as sapwood thickness. The correlation to the height relationship wasn't significant to the linear and volumetric shrinkage. Radial variation showed a good correlation among all the evaluated mechanical properties in the two first logs. On the other hand, the physical properties in the radial position didn't present significant correlations with tangential shrinkage.

  13. QUALITY OF SAWN TIMBER DRYING OF Eucalyptus dunnii

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    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

  14. Phyllosphere mycobiota of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and E. globulus Labill.

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    Ljaljevi?-Grbi? Milica V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of phyllosphere microfungi of two Eucalypti species (E. camaldulensis and E. globulus was investigated using moist chamber method. A total of 19 different taxa of phyllosphere microfungal community were identified in leaves and seed bearing capsules. Aspergillus niger was the most frequent isolate in both investigated Eucalyptus species along with Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. Saprotrophic species occurred more frequently in Eucalypti phyllosphere compared to plant pathogens. Epiphytes were quantitatively prevalent. Microscopic analyses of E. globulus phylloplane microfungal community revealed potential inhibitory effect of Trichoderma viride against Eucalypti pathogenic species Seimatosporium eucalypti which formed aberrant, collapsed conidia. The study of phyllosphere mycobiota is of significant importance, considering that numerous leaf inhabiting fungi are in complex interactions with each other and their host plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DE Eucalyptus paniculata Smith

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    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração natural de Eucalyptus paniculata, originada por semeadura natural, foi avaliada com o objetivo de identificar o potencial desse método de regeneração. Foram instaladas amostras de 4 m2, sistematicamente distribuídas na área regenerada, nas quais foram avaliadas a quantidade de plantas, diâmetro das plantas e a distância de um ponto a árvore mais próxima. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que nenhuma parcela estava vazia e que 70% desses espaços vazios apresentavam área de até 1 m2. Em 56% das parcelas encontrou-se de 2 a 5 plantas. Na idade de 6 a 7 anos, em 55% das parcelas, o diâmetro da maior planta foi superior a 10 cm. A distribuição das árvores possibilita realizar desbastes seletivos no povoamento, garantindo sua produtividade futura.

  16. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

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    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  17. Características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake / Charcoal characteristics of an Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake clone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar a variabilidade existente nas características do carvão de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla aos 6 anos, plantado no município de Martinho Campos, MG. As árvores foram distribuídas em três classes de diâmetro e a amostragem consistiu na ret [...] irada de discos, de 2,5 cm de espessura, a 2%, 10%, 30% e 70% da altura comercial, além de um a 1,30 m do solo (DAP) e, a partir deste ponto, de metro em metro até a altura comercial. Foram tomadas amostras ao longo do raio nos discos, considerando os dois lados em relação à medula. As amostras foram carbonizadas em forno elétrico de laboratório, sendo determinados os rendimentos e a qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que para a primeira carbonização, a classe diamétrica influenciou significativamente o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão vegetal, em líquido pirolenhoso e o teor de cinza do carvão vegetal produzido, e que o rendimento em gás não condensável, o teor de materiais voláteis e o de carbono fixo não foram influenciados pela classe diamétrica; para a segunda carbonização o rendimento gravimétrico aumentou da casca para a medula, para todas as classes diamétricas e ocorreu redução dessa característica com a diminuição das classes diamétricas e que os valores de densidade relativa aparente tenderam a aumentar no sentido medula-casca, em todas as classes diamétricas. Abstract in english This work determined the variability existent in the characteristics of the charcoal of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla at 6 years of age, planted in the municipal district of Martinho Campos, MG. The trees were distributed into three diameter classes and the sampling consisted [...] of the removal of 2,5 cm thick disks at 2%, 10%, 30% and 70% of the commercial height, besides one at 1.30m from the soil (DBH) and starting from this point meter by meter until the commercial height. Samples were taken along the disk radius, considering the two sides in relation to the core. The samples were carbonized in an electric laboratory oven and the yield and the quality of the produced charcoal were determined. It was concluded that for the first carbonization, the diametric class significantly influenced the gravimetric yield in wood charcoal and in pyroligneous liquid, the ash level of the charcoal produced. The non-condensable gas yield, the level of volatile materials and that of fixed carbon were not influenced by the diametric class. For the second carbonization, the gravimetric yield of charcoal increased from the bark to the pith, in all diametric classes and there was a reduction for this characteristic with the decreasing diametric classes and the apparent relative density values tended to increase from pith to bark in all diameter classes.

  18. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taur, D J; Kulkarni, V B; Patil, R Y

    2010-05-01

    In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. PMID:21808553

  19. Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil

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    D J Taur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml.

  20. Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermelli, Claudio; Fabio, Anna; Fabio, Giuliana; Quaglio, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was determined for 120 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 20 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 40 isolates of S. agalactiae, 20 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 40 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 30 isolates of H. parainfluenzae, 10 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two viruses, a strain of adenovirus and a strain of mumps virus, all obtained from clinical specimens of patients with respiratory tract infections. The cytotoxicity was evaluated on VERO cells by the MTT test. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the Kirby Bauer paper method, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration. H. influenzae, parainfluenzae, and S. maltophilia were the most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae. The antiviral activity, assessed by means of virus yield experiments titered by the end-point dilution method for adenovirus, and by plaque reduction assay for mumps virus, disclosed only a mild activity on mumps virus. PMID:17972131

  1. Avaliação da regeneração natural de Eucalyptus paniculata Smith.

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    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A regeneração natural de Eucalyptus paniculata, originada por semeadura natural, foi avaliada com o objetivo de identificar o potencial desse método de regeneração. Foram instaladas amostras de 4 m2, sistematicamente distribuídas na área regenerada, nas quais foram avaliadas a quantidade de plantas, diâmetro das plantas e a distância de um ponto a árvore mais próxima. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que nenhuma parcela estava vazia e que 70% desses espaços vazios apresentavam área de até 1 m2. Em 56% das parcelas encontrou-se de 2 a 5 plantas. Na idade de 6 a 7 anos, em 55% das parcelas, o diâmetro da maior planta foi superior a 10 cm. A distribuição das árvores possibilita realizar desbastes seletivos no povoamento, garantindo sua produtividade futura.

  2. Nodule culture and regeneration of Eucalyptus grandis hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrag, E; Lesney, M S; Rockwood, D J

    1991-02-01

    Callus of three superior Eucalyptus grandis hybrids was induced from immature inflorescences, floral parts, shoot tips, zygotic embryos, and hypocotyl explants on various auxin (2,4-D or NAA) and cytokinin (kinetin) supplemented media. Hypocotyl callus initiated on 4 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin formed massive nodular structures, and shoots and roots after four weeks on hormone free-medium. Callus from all other expiants turned brown and died upon transfer to hormone free or reduced hormone media. The nodular structures originating from hypocotyl-callus were maintained by subculture for over three years and retained the ability to form thousands of shoots. Shoots were successfully rooted (98% rooting) and plantlets developed were transferred to mist-greenhouse and then to greenhouse conditions with 95% survival. Plantlets were grown for six months in the greenhouse without sign of abnormal growth. PMID:24220718

  3. Estresse hídrico em plantio de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla, em função do solo, substrato e manejo hídrico de viveiro / Water stress in the planting of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, due to soil, substrate and water management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane Luísa Wadas, Lopes; Iraê Amaral, Guerrini; Magali Ribeiro da, Silva; João Carlos Cury, Saad; Cristiano Freitas, Lopes.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar em campo os níveis de estresse hídrico das mudas de Eucalyptus grandis vs. Eucalyptus urophylla selecionado para tolerância ao déficit hídrico, em função dos substratos, do manejo hídrico e dos solos. As mudas foram produzidas em dois viveiros distintos do Estad [...] o de São Paulo: com o substrato Plantmax estacas® (PLX) em Bofete (SP) e com a mistura em partes iguais de casca de arroz carbonizada e vermiculita (CAC), em Ibaté (SP). A partir dos 60 dias após a estaquia (DAE), durante a rustificação as mudas foram manejadas com cinco frequências de irrigação por subsuperfície: F1 - irrigado uma vez ao dia, F2 - irrigado duas vezes ao dia, F3 - irrigado três vezes ao dia, F4 - irrigado quatro vezes ao dia e FD - mantido em irrigação, restabelecendo a capacidade de campo até o plantio aos 90 DAE, em um solo argiloso e outro arenoso. Foram realizadas avaliações dos níveis de estresse (brando, moderado e severo), que afetaram a sobrevivência nos dois solos, por meio de censo aos 15 e aos 30 dias após o plantio. Com relação aos níveis de estresse avaliados, verificou-se pouca influência do substrato, porém onde ocorreu o PLX proporcionou menores percentuais de plantas afetadas. Independentemente do tipo de solo onde as mudas foram plantadas, os sintomas de estresse nas plantas, de modo geral, foram semelhantes. O manejo de viveiro não influenciou na sobrevivência das mudas, embora tenham ocorrido algumas diferenças estatísticas quando se usaram CAC e plantio no solo arenoso, porém sem tendência clara de comportamento. Os critérios relativos à implantação foram mais determinantes na sobrevivência das mudas no campo até os 30 dias após o plantio, indicando a necessidade de replantio. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of water stress in Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings selected for water deficiency, considering substrate water management and types of soil. The seedlings were produced in two distinct nurseries: the Plantmax estacas® substrate [...] (PLX) in Bofete(SP) and in a mix with equal proportions of rice carbonized husks and vermiculite (CAC) in Ibaté (SP). Sixty days after cutting (DAE) and farther, during hardening, the seedlings were managed with five underwater irrigations, restoring the field conditions: F1: irrigated once a day, F2: irrigated twice a day, F3: irrigated three times a day, F4: irrigated four times a day and FD: maintained under irrigation, until water saturation until planting at 90 DAE, in a clayie soil and in a sandy soil. Evaluations on the low, moderate and high water stress levels that affect survival in the two types of soil at 15 and 30 days after planting. Little influence of substrates to the water stress levels was observed. However, a lesser percentual of affected seedlings was observed in PLX. Independent of the type of similar symptoms of water stress was observed, independently of type of soil. Nursery management does not affect seedling survival, even though statistical differences were detected when CAC and sandy soil were tested, however, without clear seedlings performance. Factors related to the planting process were more important on the field seedlings survival, until 30 days after planting, exhibiting the necessity of planting again.

  4. Myrtus comunis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubik Jelena D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cytotoxicity of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-buthanol, and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. was examined against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 using MTT and SRB assays. The results showed significant cytotoxic potential of examined extracts, with IC50 values ranging from 7 to 138 ?g/ml for M. communis and 3-250 ?g/ml for E. camaldulensis. The two plants generally expressed similar activity, and no significant difference in cell line’s sensitivity towards extracts was observed. The results indicate to M. communis and E. camaldulensis as candidates for thorough chemical analyses for identification of active compounds, and eventually for attention in the process of discovery of new natural products in the control of cancer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173037 i br. 172058

  5. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (1H,1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  6. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence. PMID:26013018

  7. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  8. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  9. Population genetic analysis and phylogeny reconstruction in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) using high-throughput, genome-wide genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Dorothy A; Nicolle, Dean; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, César D; Carling, Jason; Kilian, Andrzej; Myburg, Alexander A; Grattapaglia, Dario; Vaillancourt, René E

    2011-04-01

    A set of over 8000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers was tested for its utility in high-resolution population and phylogenetic studies across a range of Eucalyptus taxa. Small-scale population studies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus urophylla demonstrated the potential of genome-wide genotyping with DArT markers to differentiate species, to identify interspecific hybrids and to resolve biogeographic disjunctions within species. The population genetic studies resolved geographically partitioned clusters in E. camaldulensis, E. cladocalyx, E. globulus and E. urophylla that were congruent with previous molecular studies. A phylogenetic study of 94 eucalypt species provided results that were largely congruent with traditional taxonomy and ITS-based phylogenies, but provided more resolution within major clades than had been obtained previously. Ascertainment bias (the bias introduced in a phylogeny from using markers developed in a small sample of the taxa that are being studied) was not detected. DArT offers an unprecedented level of resolution for population genetic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies across the full range of Eucalyptus species. PMID:21310251

  10. Qualidade de painéis aglomerados homogêneos produzidos com a madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla / Quality of homogeneous particleboard produced with Eucalyptus urophylla clone wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Farinassi, Mendes; Lourival Marin, Mendes; Lilian Lima, Mendonça; José Benedito, Guimarães Júnior; Fábio Akira, Mori.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de painéis aglomerados homogêneos de baixa densidade. Foram avaliados seis clones de Eucalyptus urophylla com 94 meses de idade, plantados no municipio de Paracatu-MG, sendo utilizada como parâmetro de [...] comparação a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Para cada clone de Eucalyptus urophylla e também para o Pinus oocarpa foram produzidos seis painéis com o adesivo uréia-formaldeido no teor de 6%, densidade nominal de 0,60 g/cm³, pressão especifica de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de 8 minutos. Os clones de Eucalyptus urophylla apresentaram potencial para produção de painéis aglomerados convencionais de baixa densidade. Os clones 62 e 28 obtiveram os melhores resultados em todas as propriedades fisico-mecânicas avaliadas, apresentando propriedades iguais ou superiores as obtidas para os painéis produzidos com a madeira de Pinus oocarpa. Com relação à norma de comercialização CS 236/1966 apenas o clone 28 atendeu a todos os requisitos. Nenhum dos clones avaliados atendeu a norma EN 312/2003. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla clones to produce homogeneous particleboard of low-density. Six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla were evaluated, at 94 months of age and planted in Paracatu-MG. Pinus oocarpa wood was used as a reference. For each Eucalyptus urophylla c [...] lone and also for Pinus oocarpa, six panels were produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive in the concentration of 6%, nominal density of 0.60 g/cm³, specific pressure of 40kgf/cm², temperature of 160ºC and a time of 8 minutes. Eucalyptus urophylla clones presented potential for production of conventional particleboard of low density. Clones 62 and 28 showed the best results for all physical and mechanical properties evaluated, presenting properties equal or superior to those obtained for the panels produced with Pinus oocarpa wood. In relation to CS 236/1966 standard, only the clone 28 met all the requirements. None of the clones meets EN 312/2003 standard.

  11. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species. PMID:25632486

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND BIODEGRADING ENZYMES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM EUCALYPTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ananda et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirty endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus citriodora. Among thirty endophytic fungal isolates, four (P3MT1, P3MT2, OP4MT2 and P7ML2 are consistently producing compounds which are inhibiting Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans even after 10 generations tested under dual culture, well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. P3MT1 and OP4MT2 are inhibiting even a filamentous fungi Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungal isolate OP4MT2 showed highest zone of inhibition (20 mm against Penicillium chrysogenum among two test fungi. The crude ethyl acetate extract of P3MT1 isolate showed highest zone of inhibition against Candida albicans (19 mm by both well and disc diffusion method when compared to other fungal isolates. Another four fungal isolates (P3ML1, P6MT1, P5MT1 and P2MT1 from the same set of thirty isolates showed positive for the secretion of amylase, protease and laccase enzymes in agar plate method. Two endophytic fungal isolates (P6MT1 & P2MT1 among thirty are able to oxidize guaiacol indicating the presence of Lignin degrading enzymes. Four fungal isolates indicated presence of laccase enzymes by qualitative test were able to decolorize both methylene blue and aniline blue (synthetic dyes in solid and liquid media. The quantitative estimation of percent decolorization of synthetic dyes by spectrophotometric method confirmed more than 90 % reduction in color is made possible by the endophytic fungi. All these fungal strains with good bioactivity are of worth studying in detail for the purification and characterization of the active compounds and enzymes.

  13. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. PMID:22960456

  14. Efeito dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla / Effect of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Bueno, Goulart; Aloisio, Xavier; Narcisio Zeferino, Cardoso.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos reguladores de crescimento AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. As miniestacas foram coletadas no minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia em canaletas. O delineamento exper [...] imental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 5 x 4, constituído de dois reguladores de crescimento (AIB e ANA), cinco doses de AIB e ANA e quatro clones, em quatro repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 plantas/repetição. Foram feitas avaliações em casa de vegetação, casa de sombra e pleno sol, quanto ao porcentual de sobrevivência, altura, diâmetro de colo e massa seca da parte aérea e radicular das miniestacas enraizadas. Conclui-se que a utilização do AIB nas doses entre 500 e 2.000 mg L-1 mostrou-se mais eficiente do que o ANA nos quatro clones estudados. Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of the growth regulators IBA and ANA on the rooting of minicuttings of four clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla. The minicuttings were collected in a clonal minigarden under a hydro phonic system in small gutters. The experimen [...] t was arranged in a randomized design with plots in a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial constituted of two growth regulators (IBA and ANA), five doses of each growth regulator and four clones, in four repetitions and plots of 16 plants per repetition. The evaluations were carried out in a greenhouse, a shade house and in the open sun for survival rate, height, stem diameter and dry mass of the aerial and root parts of the rooted minicuttings. It was concluded that using IBA in doses between 500 and 2,000 mg L-1 was more efficient than using ANA for the four clones studied.

  15. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for this purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1 and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2. To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun, to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS, for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes. The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  16. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  17. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality.

  18. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neimar de Freitas, Duarte; Decio, Karam; Elizabeth Uber, Bucek; Maria Rita Scotti, Muzzi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence [...] of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  19. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  20. Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus / Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edival Ângelo Valverde, Zauza; Michele Margarido Fonseca, Couto; Luiz Ântonio, Maffia; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculaç [...] ão. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto. Abstract in english Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin) against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4) [...] urediniospores /mL) and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

  1. Eficiência de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do Eucalyptus Efficacy of systemic fungicides in controlling Eucalyptus rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edival Ângelo Valverde Zauza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos curativo e protetor e o tempo de absorção de fungicidas sistêmicos no controle da ferrugem do eucalipto. Azoxyztrobin, triadimenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin apresentaram 100% de ação curativa quando aplicados até quatro dias após a inoculação. Aplicados após sete dias, apenas azoxystrobin, tebuconazole e epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin mantiveram o efeito curativo. Aos 10 dias depois da inoculação, os fungicidas reduziram a infecção, mas não controlaram totalmente a doença. Além do efeito curativo, azoxystrobin e triadimenol proporcionaram efeito protetor quando aplicados até 21 dias antes da inoculação de P. psidii. Avaliou-se o tempo mínimo de absorção de azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadimenol e trifloxystrobin. Esses quatro fungicidas foram absorvidos pela planta em todos os intervalos testados - 30, 60, 90 e 120 min - e inibiram a infecção de P. psidii em mudas de eucalipto.Curative and protective effects of systemic fungicides (azoxystrobin, triadmenol, tetraconazole, tebuconazole and the mixture epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin against eucalyptus rust were evaluated. To evaluate the curative effect, eucalyptus plants were sprayed with an inoculum suspension (2 x 10(4 urediniospores /mL and with each fungicide after 0, 4, 7, or 10 days. For the protective effect, the plants were sprayed with each fungicide and with the inoculum suspension after 0, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. The number of pustules/leaf, sori/foliar area, and urediniospores/sorus was determined on the first two apical leaves. The best curative effect was achieved with azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, and triadimenol, since the number of sori/foliar area and urediniospores/sorus was reduced when applied up to 7 days after inoculation. Regarding protective effect, azoxystrobin and triadimenol were the most effective fungicides, as no pustules formed on the leaves up to 21 days after spray. Azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, triadmenol and trifloxystrobin were absorbed within 30 min after application and no P. psidii infection was detected.

  2. Resistance of Eucalyptus pellita to rust (Puccinia psidii) / Resistência à ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) em Eucalyptus pellita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marisângela Rodrigues, Santos; Lúcio Mauro da Silva, Guimarães; Marcos Deon Vilela de, Resende; Leonardo Novaes, Rosse; Karina Carnielli, Zamprogno; Acelino Couto, Alfenas.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem do eucalipto (Puccinia psidii) é atualmente uma das principais enfermidades em plantios comerciais de eucalipto no Brasil. Dentre as diferentes espécies de eucalipto, Eucalyptus pellita é apontada como uma promissora fonte de resistência. Neste trabalho estudou-se o controle genético da r [...] esistência à ferrugem em E. pellita por meio de inoculações em condições controladas de 441 plantas oriundas de quatro progênies. As inoculações foram realizadas com o isolado monopostular UFV-2, raça 1. Todas as progênies segregaram para resistência à ferrugem, sendo o número de plantas resistentes superior em todos os cruzamentos. Modelos de herança baseados em poucos genes não explicaram totalmente os padrões de segregação obtidos. A herdabilidade no sentido restrito da resistência à ferrugem foi estimada entre 32,7% a 37,3%. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a resistência à ferrugem em E. pellita é complexa, sendo governada por genes de efeito maior e menor. Abstract in english Eucalypts rust (Puccinia psidii) is currently one of the major diseases in commercial eucalypt plantations in Brazil. The primary method of disease control is the use of resistant genotypes, and, among the different species of Eucalyptus, E. pellita is indicated as a promising source of resistance. [...] In this work, the genetic control of rust resistance in E. pellita through inoculations under controlled conditions of 441 plants from four full-sibling families was studied. Inoculations were performed using the monopostular isolate UFV-2, race 1. All families tested segregated for rust resistance, and the number of resistant plants was higher than susceptible in all crosses. Inheritance models based on few genes did not fully explain the observed segregation patterns, and the narrow-sense heritability of rust resistance was estimated between 32.7% and 37.3%. The results suggested that rust resistance in E. pellita is complex and is controlled by major- and minor-effect genes.

  3. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Aboveground Biomass of Hybrid Eucalyptus Plantation Forest

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    Siti Latifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change.  The present investigation was carried out to determine carbon sequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical validity and accuracy in predicting biomass and carbon, based on determination coefficient (R and correlation coefficient (r, aggregative deviation percentage (AgD, and the average deviation percentage (AvD. The best general model to estimate the biomass of hybrid Eucalyptus was Y = 1351,09x^0,876. e^(0,094.  Results showed that hybrid Eucalyptus had an average above-ground biomass in year 0 (the land without the eucalyptus trees up to year 3 as large as 1.36, 11.56, 43.18, and 63.84 t ha. The carbon content of hybrid Eucalyptus were 0.61, 5.2, 19.43 t^(-1, and 28,73  t^(-1 C ha while the carbon sequestration potential were 2.23, 19.08, 71.31, and 105.43 t^(-1 CO  ha^(-1 respectively.Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, model, hybrid Eucalyptus, plantation forest

  4. Presence of the Eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli and its parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon in Portugal: first record, geographic distribution and host preference

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Manuela; Boavida, Conceição; Durand, Nicolas,; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel,Zvi

    2009-01-01

    The Eucalyptus gall wasp Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and its parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were observed for the first time in Portugal, in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Data on the distribution of O. maskelli in Portugal, differences in the susceptibility of two host species, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and parasitism by C. chamaeleon are given.

  5. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil / Influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a macrofauna associada a Salvinia auriculata no Sudeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., CALLISTO; F. A. R., BARBOSA; P., MORENO.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a influência de plantações de Eucalyptus sobre a composição e a estrutura de comunidades de macroinvertebrados associados à macrófita aquática Salvinia auriculata Aublet, em um lago de altitude, margeado por Mata Atlântica secundária e plantações de Eucalyptus. Comparando a diversidade [...] de larvas de Chironomidae (Díptera, Insecta) entre as duas margens, foi evidenciada maior diversidade na margem com Eucalyptus. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a predominância de taxa carnívoros entre a macrofauna pode ser o principal fator controlador da diversidade de organismos nas áreas circundadas por plantações de Eucalyptus. Abstract in english The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the d [...] iversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta) larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  6. CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden E Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell VISANDO AO SEU APROVEITAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

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    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se desenvolveu na Universidade de Brasília e no Laboratório de Produtos Florestais (IBAMA, Brasília, DF. Foram estudadas duas espécies de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus cloeziana para confecção de peças mobiliárias. A madeira de E. grandis apresenta propriedades físicas (densidade e retratibilidade e mecânicas (flexão estática e dureza extremamente positivas para a indústria moveleira, sendo complementado por seu bom desempenho perante equipamentos e máquinas, além de receber bem produtos de acabamento. A cor da madeira e o seu desenho levaram os consumidores a mostrar ótima aceitação do móvel fabricado com a espécie. A madeira de Eucalyptus cloeziana, apesar de mostrar propriedades físicas e mecânicas com valores mais elevados que as do Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, apresenta características desejadas para indústria moveleira. A sua coloração cinza oliva é uma opção para o consumidor. Alguns cuidados especiais com essa espécie deverão ser tomados durante operações com máquinas e equipamentos. Os valores da propriedade dureza apresentados por essa madeira a indicam para fabricação de piso.

  7. Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis / Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Murillo-Arango; Pedronel, Araque Marín; Beatriz, Henao Murillo; Carlos A, Peláez Jaramillo.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente) de u [...] na emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B). Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico. Abstract in english Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent) of an oil/water [...] emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B). Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

  8. Actividad insecticida de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis Insecticide activity of oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil

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    Walter Murillo-Arango

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el aceite esencial extraído de especies del género Eucalyptus, entre estas Eucalyptus tereticornis, ofrece un importante potencial para el control de hongos patógenos e insectos plaga y de importancia médica. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad anti-insecto (aguda, crónica y repelente de una emulsión aceite/agua del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus tereticornis, en función de su composición química y fraccionamiento. Métodos: se prepararon emulsiones aceite/agua con aceite esencial previamente extraído, separado y caracterizado, y 2 de sus fracciones (A y B. Se evaluó su actividad anti-insecto mediante bioensayos con Drosophila melanogaster. Se determinó la fitotoxicidad foliar sobre plántulas de Phaseolus vulgaris. Resultados: el aceite completo mostró considerable actividad repelente e insecticida aguda que guarda relación con su composición química. La actividad insecticida aguda de las fracciones disminuyó de manera notable con respecto a la mostrada por el aceite completo, sin embargo, no se observaron efectos significativos sobre la actividad repelente. En ningún caso se presentó fitotoxicidad foliar sobre frijol. Conclusión: el aceite esencial de esta especie de eucalipto posee actividad anti-insecto considerable y podría formularse directamente como insecticida para el control de insectos de interés agrícola y médico.Introduction: the essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus species, including Eucalyptus tereticornis, offers significant potential for control of fungal pathogens and insect pests and medical importance. Objectives: to evaluate the anti-insect activity (acute, chronic and repellent of an oil/water emulsion of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil in terms of their chemical composition. Methods: oil/water emulsion was prepared with essential oil previously extracted, separated and characterized, and two of its fractions (A and B. Their anti-insect activity was evaluated through bioassays on Drosophila melanogaster. Foliar phytotoxicity was evaluated on seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results: the complete oil showed considerable acute repellent and insecticide activity related to its chemical composition. The acute insecticidal activity of the fractions decreased significantly if compare with that of the whole oil , but neither significant effects on the repellent activity nor phytotoxicity on the bean leaves were observed. Conclusions: the essential oil of this eucalyptus species has considerable anti-insect properties and could be formulated as an insecticide for the control of insects of agricultural and medical significance.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study / Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo de Eucalyptus globulus, xilitol e papaína: estudo piloto / Actividad antimicrobiana del aceite de Eucalyptus globulus, xilitol y papaína: estudio piloto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valéria de Siqueira, Mota; Ruth Natalia Teresa, Turrini; Vanessa de Brito, Poveda.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus e das substâncias xilitol e papaína, frente aos micro-organismos: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli e Candida albicans. MÉTODO Utilizou-se a av [...] aliação antimicrobiana in vitro, por meio do teste da difusão em ágar e avaliação do diâmetro do halo de inibição das substâncias testadas. A clorexidina 0,5% foi utilizada como controle. RESULTADOS Observou-se que o óleo de Eucalyptus globulus apresentou inibição superior à da clorexidina quando aplicado ao Staphylococus aureus, e inibição idêntica quando aplicado aos micro-organismos Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris e Candida albicans. A papaína 10% apresentou efeito antimicrobiano inferior ao da clorexidina em relação à Candida albicans. O xilitol não apresentou inibição dos micro-organismos testados. CONCLUSÃO O óleo de Eucalyptus globulus possui atividade antimicrobiana contra diferentes micro-organismos e parece ser uma alternativa viável como agente germicida, portanto, recomendam-se novas investigações. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro del aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus y las sustancias xilitol y papaína, ante los microorganismos: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli y Candida albicans. MÉTODO Se utilizó la eva [...] luación antimicrobiana in vitro, por medio de la prueba de la difusión en agar y evaluación del diámetro del halo de inhibición de las sustancias probadas. La clorhexidina al 0,5% fue utilizada como control. RESULTADOS Se advirtió que el aceite de Eucalyptus globulus presentó inhibición superior a la de la clorhexidina cuando aplicado al Staphylococus aureus, e inhibición idéntica cuando aplicado a los microorganismos Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris y Candida albicans. La papaína al 10% presentó efecto antimicrobiano inferior al de la clorhexidina con relación a la Candida albicans. El xilitol no presentó inhibición de los microorganismos probados. CONCLUSIÓN El aceite de Eucalyptus globulus tiene actividad antimicrobiana contra diferentes microorganismos y parece ser una alternativa viable como agente germicida, por lo que se recomiendan nuevas investigaciones. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. ME [...] THOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  10. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.) seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution / Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M.M., Silva; L.R., Ferreira; F.A., Ferreira; G.V., Miranda.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materia [...] is cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark), em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp.), GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis) e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.) e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla) x Eucalyptus sp.) e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.). Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado. Abstract in english Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under g [...] reenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid), GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis), and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid) were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla) x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid) and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids) in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.

  11. Tolerance of eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp. seedlings to imazapyr in nutritive solution Tolerância de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. ao imazapyr, em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr has presented excellent results in controlling coppices in stand reforms of eucalypt forests, despite differences in the efficacy levels. To find out whether these different responses are caused by the genetic variability of the cultivated materials, two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with different imazapyr doses in a hydroponic system in plastic vases containing 2,500 mL solution. The clones IEF-1 (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid, GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis, and MN 445 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid were used in the first assay, and IEF-1, IEF2 (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. hybrid and the clones 129 and 7182 (E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. hybrids in the second assay. Thirty days after transplanting the seedlings to a nutritive solution, imazapyr was applied to the solution at doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 and 3.20 muL L-1. Clone GE 463 proved to be more tolerant to imazapyr than clones IEF-1 and MN 445 in the first assay; however, in the second, clone 7182 was the most tolerant. Thus, doses should also be differentiated when controlling coppices, according to the cultivated clone.O imazapyr tem apresentado excelentes resultados no controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com eucalipto, porém têm sido verificados diferentes níveis de eficiência. Com o intuito de averiguar se as diferentes respostas encontradas podem ser devido à variabilidade gênica dos materiais cultivados, foram realizados dois bioensaios em casa de vegetação, utilizando diferentes doses de imazapyr, sob sistema hidropônico (solução de Clark, em vasos plásticos contendo 2.500 ml de solução. No primeiro ensaio trabalhou-se com os clones IEF-1 (híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus sp., GE 463 (E. urophylla x E. grandis e MN 445 (híbrido de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp. e, no segundo , com IEF-1, IEF-2 (híbrido de (E. grandis x E. urophylla x Eucalyptus sp. e os clones 129 e 7182 (híbridos de E. grandis x Eucalyptus sp.. Trinta dias após o transplantio das mudas para solução nutritiva, fez-se a aplicação de imazapyr à solução nas doses de 0,00; 0,05; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80; 1,60; e 3,20 miL L¹. O clone GE 463 mostrou-se mais tolerante ao imazapyr que os clones IEF-1 e MN 445, no primeiro ensaio; já no segundo, o clone 7182 foi mais tolerante. Os clones apresentaram comportamento distinto entre si quanto à presença de imazapyr em solução, indicando que para o controle de rebrota as doses também podem ser diferenciadas, de acordo com o clone cultivado.

  12. Efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência de juntas colodas com lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus saligna Smith e chapas de fibra de densidade média (MDF) / Air relative humidity and temperature cycle effects on the resistence of glued joints between bords of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberbord (MDF)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benedito Rocha, Vital; Antônio da Silva, Maciel; Ricardo Marius, Della Lucia.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ciclos de umidade relativa e temperatura do ar na resistência da linha de cola, em juntas coladas entre lâminas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e lâminas de chapa de fibras de média densidade (MDF) cujas densidades foram iguai [...] s a 0,60, 0,66, e 0,72g/cm³, respectivamente. Foram empregados adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e uréia-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150,0g/m² e 180,0g/m², respectivamente, em face simples. O teor médio de umidade no momento da colagem foi igual a 14%. Foram observadas diferenças significativas tanto na resistência da linha de cola quanto na percentagem de falha na madeira provocada pela composição das amostras, etapa de equilíbrio e tipo de adesivo. Os valores mais elevados de resistência foram observados nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna após a primeira etapa de equilíbrio, enquanto os menores valores ocorreram nas juntas combinando lâminas de eucalipto e MDF. Considerando apenas as lâminas de madeira, os valores mais elevados de falha na madeira foram observados nas juntas coladas entre lâminas de Eucalyptus grandis. Nas amostras compostas de madeira de eucalipto e lâminas de MDF, a porcentagem de falha foi total e o rompimento ocorreu exclusivamente no interior da chapa de MDF. Observou-se interação significativa entre a composição das amostras lâminas e o tipo de adesivo, em que os valores mais altos de resistência ocorreram nas juntas coladas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna e adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído. Abstract in english The objectives of this work was to evaluate the effect of air relative humidity and air temperature cycles on glue line resistance of glued veneer joints of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Densities of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna wood and MDF we [...] re equal to 0,60, 0.66, e 0.72g/cm³ respectively. Medium viscosity polyacetate and urea-formaldehyde adhesives were applied at rate 150g/cm² and 180g/cm², respectively, on one face. Sample mean moisture content was 14%. Relative humidity and temperature cycles affected both resistance and percentage of wood failure. Higher values of resistance were observed on the glue line between Eucalyptus saligna wood after equilibrium on the first cycle. The lowest values were always observed on the glue line between wood veneer and MDF. Considering only wood, the highest wood percentage failure was observed among Eucalyptus grandis veneer samples. On the glue line between eucalyptus veneer and MDF the failure always occurred inside the MDF. Considering the interaction between samples composition and adhesive type, it was observed that the highest resistance occurred with Eucalyptus saligna veneer using urea-formaldehyde adhesive.

  13. Spacing and Genotype on Height and Diameter Growth of Four Eucalyptus under Short Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balozi B Kirongo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic change in tree height, diameter at breast height (dbh, and ground line diameter (gld at different density was studied. Trial sites were established in Chepkoilel and Nangili areas of western Kenya.  Eight tree species (2 hybrid eucalyptus clones; GC 10 and GC 167, 1 eucalyptus local landrace, 2 agroforestry (Grevillea robusta and Markhamia lutea, 1 pure eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis, and 2 preferred local species (Maesopsis eminii and Khaya nyasica were planted on each site. This paper however focuses on the effect of spacing  on the height, dbh, and  gld growth of the 4 eucalyptus genotypes viz (2 eucalyptus hybrid clones, 1 eucalyptus local landrace, and 1 pure Eucalyptus grandis. These were planted at 10 different spacings (0.6-, 0.8-, 1.0-, 1.2-, 1.4-, 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.0-, 2.2-, and 2.4-by-1.0 m; these being some of the most common spacings used by farmers in a Nelder radial experimental design in 4 replications. Measurements of height, dbh, and gld were taken at intervals of 6 months over 3 years. The data was subjected to an analysis of variance to determine if there were statistically significant (p = 0.05 differences in tree growth with spacing levels.  The results showed that tree growth  was significantly  influenced  by spacing  and genotype  with  the  best  spacing being  2.4-by-1.0 m, indicated that the relative growth rates of height dbh, gld, and increased with increasing the distance between trees but decreased with age. After 3 years the best spacing for optimal overall tree growth was 2.4-by-1.0 m and GC10 being the outstanding genotype. Of the 2 sites, trees performed better in Nangili. The results from this study further pinpoint the importance of species-site-matching using improved germplasm and planting trees at the correct spacing for optimal growth.Keywords: tree growth, spacing, eucalyptus hybrid clones, short rotation forestry, species site matching

  14. Substituição parcial de fosfato solúvel por natural na implantação de Eucalyptus benthamii e Eucalyptus dunnii no Planalto Sul catarinense / Partial substitution of soluble phosphate by rock phosphate in the planting of Eucalyptus benthamii and Eucalyptus dunnii in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Patrícia Rosa, Dias; Luciano Colpo, Gatiboni; Paulo Roberto, Ernani; David José, Miquelluti; Djalma Miler, Chaves; Gustavo, Brunetto.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A adubação fosfatada é importante para o crescimento inicial do eucalipto, porque suplementa o solo na fase de maior demanda da cultura. O fosfato solúvel (FS) é a fonte comumente utilizada para esse fim, pois apresenta dissolução rápida no solo; contudo, tem custo mais elevado que os fosfatos natur [...] ais (FNs), que por sua vez têm dissolução mais lenta. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de FN como substituinte parcial do FS para o fornecimento de P para Eucalyptus benthamii e E. dunnii. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no campo, um com cada espécie, no município de Otacílio Costa, SC, no período de novembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela principal, testou-se a presença ou ausência do FN (0 ou 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte FN de Bayovar) e nas subparcelas testaram-se as doses de FS (0, 75; 150; e 300 kg ha-1 de P2O5, usando a fonte superfosfato triplo). Foram realizadas medidas de diâmetro à altura do colo e altura das árvores aos 340 dias, após a aplicação das fontes de P. Os resultados evidenciaram que a adubação fosfatada aumentou o crescimento em diâmetro e altura e incrementou o volume das plantas de E. benthamii e E. dunnii, durante o primeiro ano de cultivo. O E. benthamii foi mais exigente à adubação fosfatada, mas permitiu a substituição parcial da dose de fosfato solúvel por fonte de menor solubilidade. Não houve resposta do E. dunnii à aplicação de fosfato natural, devendo a adubação ser realizada com fosfato solúvel. Abstract in english Phosphorus fertilization is important for the initial growth of eucalyptus. Soluble phosphate (SP) sources are commonly used for this purpose because they offer fast dissolution in the soil, but these sources have higher costs than rock phosphate (RP), which has lower solubility. The aim of this stu [...] dy was to evaluate the use of RP as a partial substitute for SP for the initial supply of P to Eucalyptus benthamii and E. dunnii. Two field experiments were carried out (one with each species) in the municipality of Otacílio Costa, SC, Brazil, from November 2010 to December 2011. A randomized block experimental design in a split plot arrangement with three replications was used. In the main plot, the presence or absence of RP (0 or 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5 using Bayovar as a P source) was tested, and in the subplots, application rates of SP (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg ha-1 P2O5, using triple superphosphate) were tested. The diameter was measured at the root collar as well as tree height at 340 days after applying the P sources. The results showed that P fertilization promoted plant growth in diameter and height, increasing the volume of E. benthamii and E. dunnii during the first year of cultivation. E. benthamii was more demanding in P, but allowed partial replacement of soluble phosphate by a source with lower solubility. There was no response from E. dunnii to the application of rock phosphate, and fertilization should be performed only with soluble phosphates.

  15. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  16. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film: antibacterial effects against a clinical pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sugumar S; Mukherjee A3; Chandrasekaran N

    2015-01-01

    Saranya Sugumar, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus) nanoemulsion was formulated using low- and high-energy emulsification methods. Development of nanoemulsion was optimized for system parameters such as emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration, and emulsification methods to obtain a lower droplet size with greater stability. The minimized droplet diameter was achieved u...

  17. Relationships between microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength in Eucalyptus wood

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    Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many traits are known to be important in determining the value of Eucalyptus wood as sawn timber. The commercial importance of the microfibril angle (MFA for wood quality is well established for a range of softwoods, but is less clear for hardwood species. For instance, the relationships of MFA with wood stiffness and compressive strength are unknown in Eucalyptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between MFA and the modulus of elasticity (Ec0,m in compression parallel to grain and compressive strength (Fc0,k using juvenile wood of Eucalyptus grandis from fast-growing plantations. The correlation between wood stiffness and compressive strength was high (0.91. The cellulose microfibril angle presented a correlation of -0.67 with wood stiffness and of -0.52 with compressive strength in Eucalyptus juvenile wood. MFA was found to be important in determining the mechanical behaviour of wood and appears to be a useful parameter to indicate wood stiffness and strength in juvenile Eucalyptus from short-rotation plantations.

  18. Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators

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    C C6rdova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, control and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4 within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05 the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05. However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05. The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met was not affected (p ? 0.05 by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

  19. Biological Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Camendulensis on Some Fungi and Bacteria

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    Mehani Mouna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. These Eucalyptus camendulensis: has been selected for screening antibacterial. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum. The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determin the fungic activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

  20. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

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    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  1. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus and Schinus molle

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    Ana Karenth LÓPEZ-MENESES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential oils (EO of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L., thymus (Thymus capitatus L. pirul (Schinus molle L. were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 µL L–1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4% and fumonisin (31% production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.

  2. Phytoremediation efficiency OF CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Wang, Jinji

    2016-04-01

    The capacity of plants to uptake heavy metals from contaminated soils has shown great phytoremediation potential. The development, resistibility and Cd extraction of Eucalyptus globulus individuals from metalliferous and clean sites in different years were analyzed under a specific environment. Eucalyptus globulus planted in Guiyu for phytoremediation or cultivated in an uncontaminated, natural environment for economic purposes were transplanted to Yuecheng town, which, in recent years, has been involved in the e-waste dismantling and recycling business, to compare the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus trees grown in different environments. Trees cultivated in polluted areas can remove far more Cd and Hg from the contaminated soil than the individuals from clean soils because metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus can produce more biomass and uptake more heavy metals than nonmetalliferous plants per year. As polluted environments negatively affect the growth of plants, we speculated that the phytoremediation efficiency of metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus should decrease over time and that nonmetalliferous trees should adapt to the local environment. PMID:26458117

  3. Soil quality of first rotation Eucalyptus stands growing on an Andisol using soil microbial indicators

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, C6rdova; M, Barrandeguy; E, Navarrete.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential soil biological change due to the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations in volcanic soils has not been reported. The objective of this research was to assess the soil quality of Eucalyptus stands growing on a volcanic ash derived soil, compared with a natural forest (Nat-forest, cont [...] rol) and a Pinus radiata stand, previously established to the Eucalyptus stand. A complete randomised design was established (n=4) within Nat-forest and commercial plantations. Soil samples (10 cm) were taken in autumn, to measure soil microbial biomass (Cbiom) by soil fumigation-extraction, and CO2-C respiration (Cmin) from soil microorganisms by soil incubation. Metabolic quotient (q met) was calculated to compare (p ? 0.05) the microbial efficiency of the soil biomass between treatments. As expected, Nat- forest showed the largest Cbiom and Cmin (p ? 0.05). However, no differences were found between E. globulus, E. nitens and P. radiata (p ? 0.05). The low Cbiom and Cmic in Eucalyptus stands might be attributed to the effect of recalcitrant inputs of C from the previous pine plantation, although the efficiency of the soil microbial population (q met) was not affected (p ? 0.05) by the C quality of the plantations. Thus, it seems that Eucalyptus stands are not entirely detrimental to the soil quality of volcanic soils of temperate forest ecosystems.

  4. Automation of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry extraction of eucalyptus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Cláudia A; Lord, Heather; Christensen, Eva; de, Assis Teot?nio F; Caramão, Elina B; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2002-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) is employed to analyze fragrance compounds from different species of eucalyptus trees: Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis, and hybrids of other species. The analyses are performed using an automated system for preincubation, extraction, injection, and analysis of samples. The autosampler used is a CombiPAL and has much flexibility for the development of SPME methods and accommodates a variety of vial sizes. For automated fragrance analysis the 10- and 20-mL vials are the most appropriate. The chromatographic separation and identification of the analytes are performed with a Varian Saturn 4D GC-ITMS using an HP-5MS capillary column. Several compounds of eucalyptus volatiles are identified, with good reproducibility for both the peak areas and retention times. Equilibrium extraction provides maximal sensitivity but requires additional consideration for the effect of carryover. Preequilibrium extraction allows good sensitivity with minimal carryover. PMID:11954651

  5. Aplicação de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden = IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importância no setor florestal e muitos avanços na área do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns genótipos promissores ainda não possuem protocolos de multiplicação com técnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se avaliar concentrações de IBA na sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinação da dose de máxima eficiência técnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropônico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca em soluções hidroalcoólicas, cujas concentrações foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por três clones e cinco concentrações de IBA, com cinco repetições, contendo dez miniestacas por repetição. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizogênicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram até a maiorconcentração de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. Ministumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the minicutting basal portion was plunged in hydro-alcoholic solutions, whose concentrations were: 0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1 of IBA. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with the factors consisting of three clones and five IBA concentrations, with five replications, containing 10 minicuttings per replication. IBA positively influenced the minicutting rooting processes, with differentiated behavior between the clones, with 30.32 to 55.45% rooting variation. The positives increments occurred until the highest IBA concentration for H12 and H19 clones. However, the range between 4,000 and 6,000 mg L-1 ofIBA treatments promoted the best rooting results for the H20 clone.

  6. Tipos de Ruptura em Madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Modificada Termicamente / Types of Failures in Thermally-Modified Eucalyptus grandis Wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred Willians, Calonego; Elias Taylor Durgante, Severo; Aline Fernanda de, Brito.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os tipos de ruptura durante os ensaios mecânicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis modificada termicamente. Para tanto, tábuas centrais de 19 árvores de E. grandis com 5,9 anos de idade foram utilizadas nesse estudo. As tábuas foram secas até 10% de umid [...] ade, aplainadas com 32 mm de espessura e seccionadas em peças com 0,60 m de comprimento. Posteriormente, uma das peças foi mantida em seu estado original e as demais foram modificadas termicamente à 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC e 220ºC por 2,5 horas. De cada peça foram produzidos corpos-de­prova para os ensaios de compressão paralela às fibras e de flexão estática. O material foi aclimatizado em câmara climática com 21ºC e 65% de umidade relativa, no Laboratório de Secagem e Preservação da Madeira da FCA, UNESP, de Botucatu, SP, Brasil. Após os ensaios mecânicos, os tipos de ruptura foram caracterizados pela norma ASTM D-143 (2007). Os resultados mostraram que: (1) existe uma relação direta, pelo teste qui-quadrado, entre a temperatura do tratamento térmico e a ruptura frágil da madeira de E. grandis; e (2) a madeira dessa espécie quando modificada termicamente à 220ºC apresentou 100% de ruptura caracterizada como frágil. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the types of failures after the mechanical tests of thermally-modified Eucalyptus grandis wood. The present study utilized boards that contained the pith from 5 years and 11 months old Eucalyptus grandis trees. The boards were dried up to 10.0% moisture content, planing [...] to 32-mm thick, and cutted into smaller pieces measuring 0.60 m in length. Subsequently, one piece was kept in its original condition and others pieces were thermally-modified at 140ºC, 160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC and 220ºC over a period of 2.5 hours. Specimens were obtained for the compression-parallel­to-grain and static-bending tests. All of the specimens were placed in a climatic chamber (21ºC and 65% relative humidity) in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation in the Department of Natural Resources/Forest Sciences, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP, in Brazil. After the mechanical tests the types of failures were classified as recommended by ASTM D-143 (2007). The results show that: (1) there is a direct relationship between the heat treatment temperature and brittle wood by chi-square test; and (2) the E. grandis wood when thermally-modified at 220ºC presented 100% of fragile failure.

  7. Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberson Dibax

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tissues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plantas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. O tratamento mais eficiente em termos de regeneração indireta de gemas foi 2,7 µmol L-1 de ANA combinado com 4,44 µmol L-1 de BAP, o qual foi utilizado nos experimentos posteriores. A manutenção dos explantes no escuro durante os trinta primeiros dias elevou a porcentagem de explantes com calos e reduziu a morte dos explantes, em comparação com os que permaneceram na luz. Modificações da composição mineral do meio MS foram comparadas e mostraram que a redução de metade dos sais foi tão eficiente para a formação de gemas (54% dos explantes quanto o meio completo (47%. O meio de cultura com a concentração de íons nitrato e amônio reduzida à metade e 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se adequado para o alongamento e enraizamento das brotações que atingiram uma altura de 1 a 8 cm depois de 30 dias. O processo completo representa um protocolo eficiente para a regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, uma vez que reduz o número de etapas para a obtenção de plantas completas.

  8. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus

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    Leonardo David Tuffi Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature and localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinação da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies.

  9. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus / Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo David Tuffi, Santos; Marcela, Thadeo; Lourdes, Iarema; Renata Maria Strozi Alves, Meira; Francisco Affonso, Ferreira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinaçã [...] o da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas nas sete espécies, com maior densidade em E. pellita e menor em E. pillularis. Foram detectados histoquimicamente os seguintes compostos: lipofílicos, especificamente lipídios do tipo óleo essencial ou óleo-resina e lactonas sesquiterpénicas encontradas no lúmen das cavidades das sete espécies; e hidrofílicos, do tipo compostos fenólicos encontrados no mesofilo de todas as espécies estudadas e na epiderme de algumas delas. Não foram detectados alcalóides, polissacarídeos e proteínas totais. Os resultados confirmam a complexidade do produto secretado pelas cavidades, enfatizando a homogeneidade quanto à natureza destes compostos entre as espécies. Entretanto, os resultados quanto aos compostos fenólicos podem ser um indicativo de variações importantes nas adaptações e relações ecológicas, uma vez que demonstraram diferenças entre as espécies. Abstract in english This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature an [...] d localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.

  10. Nutritional content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stump leaves / Teor nutricional foliar em minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilvano Ebling, Brondani; Francisco José Benedini, Baccarin; Antônio Natal, Gonçalves; Marcílio de, Almeida.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os teores foliares nutricionais de minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii em relação a diferentes concentrações de Zn e B ao longo de sucessivas coletas de brotações. As brotações foram oriundas de minicepas fertirrigadas com soluções nutritivas variando nas concentrações de Zn e B ( [...] S1 - isento de Zn e B, S2 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn, S3 - 0,5 mg L-1 de B, S4 - 0,5 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S5 - 1,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B, S6 - 2,0 mg L-1 de Zn e B), sendo realizadas oito coletas de brotações do minijardim clonal. Ao longo do experimento foram determinados o teor nutricional foliar de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Considerou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes variaram significativamente em relação aos tratamentos avaliados, sendo que as soluções S5 e S6 apresentaram as melhores respostas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the foliar nutrient content in Eucalyptus benthamii mini-stumps treated with different Zn and B concentrations during successive shoot collections. Shoots were collected from mini-stumps fertigated with nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of Z [...] n and B (S1 - free of Zn and B; S2 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn; S3 - 0.5 mg L-1 B; S4 - 0.5 mg L-1 Zn and B; S5 - 1.0 mg L-1 Zn and B; S6 - 2.0 mg L-1 Zn and B). Eight shoot collections from the clonal mini-garden were performed. For each shoot collection, the nutritional content of the leaf was determined (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The experiment was conducted using a randomized design with a split plot and included three replications. The foliar macro and micronutrient contents varied significantly in relation to the treatments, and the S5 and S6 nutritive solutions presented the best responses.

  11. CREEP IN STRUCTURAL-SIZED BEAMS OF ARGENTINEAN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. C, Piter; C. F, Calvo; A. G, Cuffré; V. C, Rougier; M. A, Sosa Zitto; E.A, Torrán.

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper were obtained from a test carried out during the last series of a research project regarding the creep behaviour of Argentinean Eucalyptus grandis loaded in dry condition. A test with a sample containing 15 structural-sized beams was carried out during 470 days. 7 [...] pieces were free of pith and another 8 contained it. The results allow to compare the creep behaviour of these beams with previous data reported for both structural-sized and small-clear specimens of this timber species and also with those reported for other species. The effectiveness of the criteria adopted by overseas standards as well as those of Latin-American countries for calculating the creep deflections of this timber species under a long-term loading is analysed. The creep deflections obtained in the present research are higher than those calculated by means of the procedures of the Brazilian standard NBR 7190, the European standard Eurocode 5, the American standard National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the Peruvian standard. On the contrary, creep results obtained in this test are lower than those calculated according to the New Zealand standard NZS 3603, the Chilean standard NCh 1198 and the former German standard DIN 1052

  12. Eucalyptus nitens: nanomechanical properties of bark and wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Freddy; Valenzuela, Paulina; Gacitúa, William

    2012-09-01

    In this study, Eucalyptus nitens species was nano-characterized to determine variability in nanomechanical properties within the cellular ultra-structure between the bark and wood fibers. Three factors, including site (2 levels), family (2 levels) and fiber type (bark and wood) were analyzed using three response variables, including the elastic modulus ( E), hardness ( H) and ductility ratio ( E/ H) in the middle lamella ( ML) and the cell wall within the S2 layer. The results indicated significant differences for E S2 and H S2 when comparing fiber types: E S2?12.52 GPa and H S2?0.31 GPa for wood fiber and E S2?10.81 GPa and H S2?0.26 GPa for bark fiber. There is not statistically significant difference in ductility ratio ( E/ H) in S2 and ML between fiber types. These results indicate that bark and wood fibers can be used together or separately in the development of new composite materials and engineering products.

  13. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

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    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  14. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

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    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  15. Lignificação em calo de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

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    Hulda Rocha e Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810538Este estudo objetivou verificar o processo de lignificação em calos de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, desenvolvidos em meio Murashige e Skoog (1962 (MS, com diferentes concentrações dos reguladores de crescimento: ácido 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D (4,53; 11,32; 22,65; 45,30; 90,60 ?M e cinetina (KIN-6-furfurilaminopurina (0; 2,32; 4,65; 11,62; 23,25 ?M. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 5 (cinco repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental constituída por 5 (cinco frascos, contendo cada um três segmentos clonais, perfazendo-se 25 tratamentos. Os resultados foram estatisticamente avaliados e indicaram que concentrações mais altas de lignina foram associadas a uma concentração maior de 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D em relação à cinetina (KIN-6- furfurilaminopurina e que o 2,4 Diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, quando usado na ausência de cinetina (KIN- 6-furfurilaminopurina, em concentrações mais baixas, pode estimular de forma mais intensa a lignificação, do que quando usado na ausência de cinetina em concentrações mais altas. Os resultados indicaram, ainda, que calos muito oxidados e menos friáveis, estão relacionados a tratamentos onde a concentração de lignina é de mediana a alta.

  16. Influence of temperature on products yield of Eucalyptus microcorys carbonization

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    Renato da Silva Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During charcoal production different products are formed. These products are influenced primarily by the temperature of carbonization. Given that charcoal is the main input in the production of pig iron in Brazil, this study evaluated the influence of final temperature of carbonization of the products generated and also the influence of the radial and longitudinal sampling on the yield of each product. Samples were taken from internal and external position along the radius and also from three different heights from four Eucalyptus microcorys trees. The samples were carbonized in an electric furnace with an experimental water-cooled condenser and a collecting bottle of condensable volatile materials. The final temperatures of carbonization were 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900°C. The gravimetric yield, tar and non-condensable gases were calculated. The results showed no difference in the gravimetric yield in the longitudinal and radial positions studied, while the tar yield and non-condensable gases showed temperature variations of 700°C and 800°C and the variation of the gravimetric yield temperatures between 500°C to 900°C was 15%, the change of yield of tar from the radial direction of sampling was on average 8%, the variation of the yield of non-condensable gases in a radial sampling was on average 16%.

  17. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell.

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    Gilmara A. C. Fortes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated glycoside, 4-O-( 4’,6’-di-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-trans-p-coumaric acid, named microcoryn ( 1 , together with sixteen known phenolic compounds, 5-O-(6'-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-gentisic acid (2, ellagic acid (3, gallic acid (4, kaempferol (5, quercetin (6, 3-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (7, 2,3,6-tri-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (8, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (9, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (10, 4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl- b - D -glucose (11, gemin D (12, tellimagrandin I (13, tellimagrandin II (14, isocoriariin F (15, oenothein C (16, and oenothein B (17 were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys . The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data, especially by 2D NMR techniques. This is the first phytochemical investigation of this plant’s leaf extract.

  18. Colorimetry as grouping tool of eucalyptus clones wood

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    Márcio da Fonseca Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneity of wood color in a batch to be marketed is of fundamental importance, as it will reflect in products quality resulting from its processing. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate, through colorimetric technique, the colorimetric parameters of Eucalyptus spp. wood from 25 clones and classify them into groups, according to color similarity degree. It was determined the lightness (L*, red-green color coordinate (a*, yellow-blue chromatic coordinate (b*, chromaticity (C* and ink angle (h. Radial and tangential faces and three positions in the radial direction were characterized using a colorimeter. Comparing to tangential planes, the results showed that radial plane presented larger values of L* and h in wood near the bark. Furthermore, it was observed higher values of L* in samples from intermediate radial positions. Finally, it was found that, as radial growth ocurred, developed timber showed less intense yellow shades. The definition of the wood color tones will be useful in timber market in the homogenization of their products, which will facilitate their marketing.

  19. CHEMICAL DEFENSE RESPONSES IN Eucalyptus globulus (Labill PLANTS

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    CHRISTIAN TRONCOSO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the expression of defense compounds by the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus globulus plants subjected to attacks by the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid and abiotic mechanical damage using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID and mass detection (MS. The results show that both biological and mechanical attacks activated defense responses in the plants. We identified 34 compounds in the leaves of the treated plants. In the case of the plants damaged by C. eucalypti, four of the compounds differed from those of the control: three oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, exo-2-hydroxy cineole and thymol and one quinone (6-acethyl-flaviolin. In the case of the mechanical damage, five compounds differed from the control: three sesquiterpenes (alloaromadendrene, eremophilene, and caryophyllene-oxide, borneol, and 6-acethyl-flaviolin. According to the results, different compounds are biosynthesized when faced with biotic and abiotic inductions, indicating a certain level of specificity in the response of the plants to different types of damage.

  20. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  1. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways. PMID:26262563

  2. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  3. Optimization of agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation in eucalyptus camaldulensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to optimize Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Transformation was done by using LBA4404 containing binary plasmid pGA482 with uidA (Gus) gene under CamV35S promoter and nptII gene under nos promoter. For optimization, different explants (Cotyledonary leaves, plantlet leaves and hypocotyls of young In vitro plants and calli) with and without preculture were infected with a range of optical densities (O.D.600nm=0.3-0.6). Effect of different concentrations of Acetosyringone, infection time and co-cultivation time on transformation efficiency was evaluated. Confirmation of transformation was done through GUS histochemical staining and through PCR. Callogenesis and regeneration was found fast on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP. Highest transformation efficiency was obtained with bacterial suspension of O.D.600nm = 0.5 for non-precultured explants and O.D.600nm=0.3 for precultured explants. (author)

  4. Climate determines vascular traits in the ecologically diverse genus Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Harbusch, Marco; Wesolowski, Anita; Smith, Renee; Macfarlane, Craig; Tjoelker, Mark G; Reich, Peter B; Adams, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Current theory presumes that natural selection on vascular traits is controlled by a trade-off between efficiency and safety of hydraulic architecture. Hence, traits linked to efficiency, such as vessel diameter, should show biogeographic patterns; but critical tests of these predictions are rare, largely owing to confounding effects of environment, tree size and phylogeny. Using wood sampled from a phylogenetically constrained set of 28 Eucalyptus species, collected from a wide gradient of aridity across Australia, we show that hydraulic architecture reflects adaptive radiation of this genus in response to variation in climate. With increasing aridity, vessel diameters narrow, their frequency increases with a distribution that becomes gradually positively skewed and sapwood density increases while the theoretical hydraulic conductivity declines. Differences in these hydraulic traits appear largely genotypic in origin rather than environmentally plastic. Data reported here reflect long-term adaptation of hydraulic architecture to water availability. Rapidly changing climates, on the other hand, present significant challenges to the ability of eucalypts to adapt their vasculature. PMID:26743135

  5. Clones de Eucalyptus versus a produção de polpa celulósica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira é definida pelas combinações entre as diversas características intrínsecas da árvore em função do seu uso. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar essas características na madeira de clones de Eucalyptus visando à produção de polpa celulósica kraft de qualidade. Foram usados 15 clones, duas árvores de cada clone, num total de trinta árvores, todos com idades de 5,8 anos. As características avaliadas na madeira foram densidade básica, dimensões das fibras (comprimento da fibra, espessura de parede, diâmetro do lúmen e composição química (teor de celulose, lignina, hemicelulose, extrativos e cinzas. Foram realizados quatro cozimentos Kraft para cada árvore, utilizando diferentes cargas de álcali ativo, para estabelecer a curva de deslignificação da amostra. Essas cargas de álcali foram selecionadas após realização de cozimentos exploratórios, objetivando obtenção de número kappa próximo a 18 na parte mediana da curva. Nos cozimentos, foram avaliados o rendimento depurado, a viscosidade da polpa celulósica e o álcali consumido. Os resultados de rendimento variaram de 43,4 a 52,0 %, o teor de álcali ativo utilizado de 17,5 a 23,4 %, o álcali consumido de 15,5 a 20,0% e a viscosidade de 19,9 a 61,4 cP.

  6. POLIAMINAS COMO MARCADORES BIOQUÍMICOS DE SALINIDADE EM CALOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis

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    Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Marcadores bioquímicos têm sido usados na análise de plantas submetidas a vários tipos de estresse, entre eles a salinidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o estresse salino em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis em relação ao conteúdo de poliaminas. Explantes (hipocótilos obtidos de sementes foram inoculados em meio indutivo de calos e foram submetidos a diferentes níveis de NaCl e analisados aos 10, 20 e 30 dias de inoculação. As poliaminas livres foram extraídas, isoladas e quantificadas usando TLC (Cromatografia de Camada Delgada. O conteúdo de putrescina foi maior, enquanto que o conteúdo de espermidina apresentou decréscimo, em calos submetidos a condições salinas. Os resultados mostram que o acúmulo de putrescina está relacionado com a exposição a NaCl em calos de Eucalyptus urograndis. A diminuição do conteúdo de espermina pode ser usada como marcador bioquímico de calos de Eucalyptus sujeitos à salinidade.

  7. Consumo Foliar de Eucalyptus spp. por Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Wagner Calixto Morais

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. The productive potential of forest stands is reduced by pest occurrence among other factors. In Brazil, leaf-cutting ants are the most severe eucalypt pests. Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr is prevalent in the south east Brazil. However, scarce information about its potential damage for Eucalyptus forests is available. This work deals to quantifying the eucalypt leaf-consumption by such specie of leaf-cutting ant. Fresh leaves were taken from trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and served to different colonies of A. disciger, during 24 hours period, over eight different times. Leaf-consumption was calculated throughout fresh weights of leaves, before and after ants foraging. Each colony of A. disciger consumed 38.8 ± 3.2 g e 22.0 ± 2.3 g of eucalypt leaves, per day.

  8. Pre- and post-harvest vegetation changes in Eucalyptus (hybrid) plantation in Bettahalli (GKVK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, V.; Rao, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Data are given on the tree, shrub and herb and grass flora found in the undergrowth of a 9-year-old coppice Eucalyptus hybrid (E. tereticornis) plot and an adjoining plot clear felled of Eucalyptus in 1974 and allowed to regenerate for 9 years with no shrub cutting or weeding. The total number of species (especially herb) in the clear felled area was greater (53 compared with 28); Phyllanthus lawii, Erythroxylon (Erythroxylum), Ziziphus and sandal were dominant, and grasses luxuriant. Before eucalypts were grown in the area there was no vegetation (including grasses) which suggests that eucalypt establishment improves soil fertility and the chances for natural regeneration. In contrast, in farm woodlots of Eucalyptus in which leaf litter is swept and removed for fuel, soil quality remains poor and there is no natural regeneration.

  9. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

  10. Multivariate analysis applied to evaluation of Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production

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    Allan Motta Couto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to select Eucalyptus clones for bioenergy production by using of two multivariate techniques, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The analysis evaluated 25 clones of Eucalyptus at age 54 months. Determinations included the concentrations of elemental components (C, H and O, lignin, total extractives and ash, as well as basic density, higher heating value and energy density. Both multivariate methods being used to evaluate and select clones of Eucalyptus for bioenergy production proved effective, there being similarities between the biomass groups formed by them. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groupings, out of which cluster one, formed by clone U060, was found to have greater potential as a source of energy. Clones G084, G122, G023 and U108 had poorer energy performance.

  11. Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

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    VOIGT EDUARDO LUIZ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolithus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R. nigrescens decreased the level of these substances. The isolates from Eucalyptus seem to be more compatible towards E. dunnii than those from Pinus. The mechanisms involved could be related, at least in the cases of Pisolithus and Suillus, to the concentration of phenolics in roots.

  12. Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management

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    João Batista Rezende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

  13. PLANT-AND MICROBIAL-DERIVED BIOMARKERS IN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS CULTIVATED WITH EUCALYPTUS AND ACÁCIA

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    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987554Changes in the management system for the cultivation of different forest populations and the use of crop rotation can lead to changes in the quality of soil organic matter (SOM and vegetable residue deposition. This study evaluated the stage of decomposition and the contribution of plant and microbial compounds of microbial origin for SOM through biomarkers, such as phenols-derived lignin, carbohydrates and amino sugars in monoculture of eucalyptus of short-cycle (Eucalyptus urograndis (seven years compared to crop rotation system with acacia (Acacia mangium Willd. after eucalyptus monoculture; monoculture of eucalyptus of long-cycle (24 years and native vegetation (Atlantic Forest, as a condition of the original soil of the north coast of Espírito Santo state. To do so, it was estimated in samples of soil and litter the content of total organic C (TOC, total N (TN and the contents of lignin-derived phenols (VSC, the carbohydrates and the amino sugars derived from soil microbial activity and relationships acids and aldehyde groups vanilil ((Ac/Alvanilil and syringyl ((Ac/Alsyringyl of the lignin, relations hexoses/pentoses (H/P of the carbohydrates,  glucosamine/muramic acid (Gluc/Ac. Mur and glucosamine/galactosamine (Gluc/Gal of the amino sugars. The results indicated that litter of the monoculture of eucalyptus short-cycle has greater deposition of dry matter, lignin content (VSC and carbohydrates, C/N and VSC/N ratio; similar proportion of coarse litter, fine litter and C content and; lower N content in comparison to the crop rotation system with acacia. In the soil, acacia cultivation increases C, N and carbohydrates content, enlarge the acid/aldehyde ratio of vanilil grouping and the glucosamine/muramic acid ratio of amino sugars derived from microbial activity. The increase in time of eucalyptus cultivation (24 years increased C content and decreased the VSC/N ratio in SOM compared to the monoculture of eucalyptus short-cycle, but still having C and N content lower than in soil of acacia and native forest. The smallest Ac/Al ratio of phenol derived from lignin in soils cultivated with eucalyptus (in long and short-cycle indicates that the SOM is in lower stage of decomposition (oxidation than in the soil cultivated with acacia, and that under native forest. In the soils under acacia, followed by that of eucalyptus short-cycle, the highest glucosamine/muramic acid ratio suggested a greater contribution of fungi in SOM cycling, whereas in the native forest and eucalyptus long-cycle soils there is greater abundance of bacteria-derived compounds. In this sense, there was recovery in the quality of the soil cultivated with eucalyptus long-cycle and rotated with acacia in respect to the monoculture eucalyptus short-cycle.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Valéria de Siqueira; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended. PMID:25992819

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study

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    Valéria de Siqueira Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  16. Eucalyptus urograndis stem proteome is responsive to short-term cold stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela de Almeida, Leonardi; Natália Aparecida, Carlos; Paulo, Mazzafera; Tiago Santana, Balbuena.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus urograndis is a hybrid eucalyptus of major economic importance to the Brazilian pulp and paper industry. Although widely used in forest nurseries around the country, little is known about the biochemical changes imposed by environmental stress in this species. In this study, we evaluated [...] the changes in the stem proteome after short-term stimulation by exposure to low temperature. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protein identification, 12 proteins were found to be differentially regulated and successfully identified after stringent database searches against a protein database from a closely related species (Eucalyptus grandis). The identification of these proteins indicated that the E. urograndis stem proteome responded quickly to low temperature, mostly by down-regulating specific proteins involved in energy metabolism, protein synthesis and signaling. The results of this study represent the first step in understanding the molecular and biochemical responses of E. urograndis to thermal stress.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COLOR OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD CLONES

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    Cláudia Lopes Selvati de Oliveira Mori

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of wood characterization and standardization, this research evaluated the variability of woodcolor inside and among Eucalyptus spp clones, as well as radially and longitudinally inside the trunk through the quantitativecolorimetric color determination of clones of Eucalyptus wood., using CIELAB 1976 system, , through chromatic coordinates L*, a*,b*, C* e h. Eleven clones of natural Eucalyptus clones hybrids, cultivated at the Northwest of Minas Gerais State, were used. Theresults showed that: all colorimetric parameters were statistically different among clones, and among radial position of samples; itwas possible to identify both clones and samples position along the ray, producing wood of different colours, but tending to yellowishand reddish tonalities.

  18. Selection of fungi for accelerated decay in stumps of Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Frederico Aguirre de; Calonego, Fred Willians; Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Furtado, Edson Luiz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to select decay fungi for biological degradation of stumps and roots from Eucalyptus spp. in forest stands. Five fungal isolates were cultured. Subsequently, inoculated in accelerated-decay tests and field tests with tree stumps of Eucalyptus spp. present in a stand belonging to Votorantim Company were conducted. The results showed that: (1) the decay of stumps by Pycnoporus sanguineus and Ganoderma applanatum increased by up to 49.2% and 48.9%, respectively; (2) the enclosing stumps in a polyninyl chloride resulted in a reduced on the resistance due to enhanced decay as measured by an inpact penetrometer in the forest stands at Luiz Antônio, Capão Bonito, and Jacareí, SP, Brazil; and (3) the selected fungi did not show any pathogenic potential toward seedlings and adult trees. This study presents the foundation for the development of a biological system for stump removal in forest stands comprising Eucalyptus spp. PMID:22336745

  19. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Khaled, Sebei; Fawzi, Sakouhi; Wahid, Herchi; Mohamed Larbi, Khouja; Sadok, Boukhchina.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte [...] (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms includingStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). RESULTS: The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain ?-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata(arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSION: The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and ?-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostatashowed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Sebei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon, Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani, Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata. Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms includingStaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212, Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30, Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778. RESULTS: The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain ?-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%. Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea. The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte, E. bicostata(arboretum of Aindraham showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. CONCLUSION: The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59% and ?-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%. The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostatashowed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  1. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter-specific competition.

  2. BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, ?-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

  3. Hydrological implications of soil water-repellency in Eucalyptus globulus forests, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. J. D.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.; Ceballos, A.; Doerr, S. H.

    2000-05-01

    Soil water-repellency (hydrophobicity) is a widespread property of Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster forest soils in central and north littoral Portugal and is particularly severe during the summer dry conditions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of water repellency on overland flow and runoff generation at plot and catchment scales for two types of terrain with differing land management and degree of soil hydrophobicity: (i) highly hydrophobic land with regenerating eucalyptus forest following fire; and (ii) largely hydrophilic land on which deep-ploughing prior to planting eucalyptus seedlings had eliminated hydrophobicity. Overland flow responses were monitored over a 40-month period for two 8 m×2 m plots and streamflow was recorded continuously at gauging stations for two small catchments of predominantly regrowth eucalyptus and ploughed/planted eucalyptus, respectively. Soil hydrophobicity was assessed using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test. Seasonal variations in the factors influencing plot overland flow response were assessed for each land management type using multivariate analysis. For the regrowth eucalyptus plot, overland flow generation was found to be negatively correlated with antecedent soil moisture in summer (suggesting that hydrophobicity-linked Hortonian overland flow is then dominant), but positively related to throughflow in winter (suggesting that saturation overland flow generation in a hydrophilic-phase soil was at that time the dominant mechanism). In the ploughed/planted areas, negative correlations with soil moisture were found neither in summer nor winter. Rainfall amount (and in winter also antecedent precipitation) were found to be the variables most strongly and positively related to overland flow volume. The plot results are compared with streamflow responses for the small catchments.

  4. Características palinológicas de mieles de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.) y tréboles (Trifolium sp.) provenientes de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina / Palynological characteristics of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) and clover (Trifolium sp.) honeys from Argentinean Pampean Phytogeographic Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Cristina, Ciappini; María Susana, Vitelleschi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el perfil polínico de mieles de tréboles y de eucalipto de la Provincia Fitogeográfica Pampeana Argentina, con el fin de contribuir a su caracterización palinológica. Se realizó un análisis polínico cualitativo y se aplicaron técnicas estadísticas descriptiva [...] s y multivariadas, para conocer la distribución de frecuencia de los pólenes y caracterizar cada origen floral, según los pólenes acompañantes y los años de cosecha. Se analizaron 81 muestras de miel, de cuatro cosechas diferentes. Se encontraron 41 tipos morfológicos de polen, cuya variación por muestra osciló entre dos y ocho. El taxón presente en más del 80% de las mieles fue Eucalyptus sp. Los principales pólenes acompañantes encontrados pertenecieron a los tipos Helianthus annuus y Carduus sp., para ambos orígenes florales estudiados, y a la familia de las Brassicaceae, para las mieles de tréboles. Los años de cosecha estudiados mostraron diferentes espectros polínicos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the pollen profile of clover and eucalyptus honeys from the Phytogeographic Pampean Province of Argentina, in order to contribute to its palynological characterization. Qualitative pollen analysis was performed. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques we [...] re applied to determine the frequency distribution of pollen and characterize each floral origin by pollen and year of harvest. 81 samples of honey from four different harvests were analyzed. 41 morphological types of pollen were found, which variation per sample ranged from two to eight. Eucalyptus sp. was the taxon present in over 80% of the honeys. There were pollen of Helianthus annuus and Carduus sp. in clover and eucalyptus honeys but pollen of Brassicaceae was only present in clover honeys. Pollen spectra showed differences between the studied years.

  5. Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators for Bioenergy Sustainability as Applied to Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Virginia H.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Wesh, Beau M.; Eaton, Laurence M.

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus is a fast-growing tree native to Australia and could be used to supply biomass for bioenergy and other purposes along the coastal regions of the southeastern United States (USA). At a farmgate price of $66 dry Mg?1, a potential supply of 27 to 41.3 million dry Mg year?1 of Eucalyptus could be produced on about 1.75 million ha in the southeastern USA. A proposed suite of indicators provides a practical and consistent way to measure the sustainability of a particular situation where ...

  6. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Kumar Tyagi; Danka Bukvicki; Davide Gottardi; Giulia Tabanelli; Chiara Montanari; Anushree Malik; Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), ?-pinene (5%), and ?-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8...

  7. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption and basic papermaking properties were evaluated. Upon these results, they were considered as potential mixed base material for Kraft cooking. In previous research, significant differences were found between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus maidenii Kraft pulping behavior and no mixture was recommended. New results indicate a similar performance for each studied Eucalyptus species. However, the comparable demand in active alkali charges among them, suggests that mixtures could be successfully employed.

  8. Comparison between field performance of cuttings and seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus

    OpenAIRE

    João Gaspar, Maria; Borralho, Nuno; Lopes Gomes, António

    2005-01-01

    Comparaison des performances en forêt de plants issus de semis et de bouturage d'Eucalyptus globulus. Le recours à la multiplication végétative est un outil de première importance pour le déploiement des variétés améliorées d'Eucalyptus globulus. Cependant, l'existence de caractéristiques morphologiques distinctes entre plants issus de semis et plants issus de boutures laisse planer des doutes sur leurs effets sur la croissance et la qualité du bois. Dans cette étude, nous avons comparé la cr...

  9. Nutrition and growth in newly established plantations of Eucalyptus globulus in northwestern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, Agustín; López, Ángel, L.; Brañas, Jesús; Rodríguez-Soalleiro, Roque

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition et croissance dans les nouvelles plantations d'Eucalyptus globulus du nord ouest de l'Espagne. La croissance et l'état nutritionnel des plantations d'Eucalyptus globulus du nord-ouest de l'Espagne ont été étudiés en fonction des caractéristiques édaphiques et des techniques de préparation du site. La plupart des plantations sont installées sur des sols pauvres de profondeur moyenne. Bien que fertilisées à la plantation, la plupart des plantations révèlent des concentrations foliaire...

  10. The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil on the development of Musca domestica third stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Halim, Azza S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil (Camphor oil) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of the house-fly, Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50% 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9 % and 0.7% showed 100% larval mortality rate. At concentrations of 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% the larval mortality rate was 90%. On the other hand, the developed pupae did not emerge to adults. Eucalyptus globulus oil is safe, cheap and widely used in Medicine. So, it is recommended to be use in controlling larvae of M. domestica. PMID:16083072

  11. Compaction and soil fertility after eucalyptus harvesting using Feller Buncher and Skidder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Piedade Sodero Martins Pincelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, the impact of Feller Buncher and Skidder traffic in harvesting areas of eucalyptus in Mogi Guaçu, considering the compaction and fertilization effects in the range of soil next to the carrier during the cycle of forest growth. An increase in soil compaction, caused by machinery traffic in topsoil (0-10 cm, was observed in the area recently harvested. The soils of the study areas, with eucalyptus 1.4 and 6.0 years old, showed good fertility conditions, especially the older area, where decomposition of forest residues possibly contributed to such fertility.

  12. Densidad de la madera en clones de eucalyptus por densitometría de rayos X / Wood Density in eucalyptus clones by X-Rays Densitometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bibiana, Arango; Lida, Tamayo.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Brasil y en diversos países se han verificado avances significativos en la silvicultura clonal intensiva con diferencias marcadas entre clones de especies e híbridos de eucalyptus en lo referente a los parámetros de crecimiento y desarrollo. Al mismo tiempo, en los últimos años, se introdujo e [...] l concepto de uso múltiplo del leño de los árboles con la utilización de la madera como fuente de celulosa y papel, madera sólida y otras aplicaciones como estrategia de aumento de la rentabilidad del emprendimiento forestal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el índice de uniformidad de la madera y la variación de la densidad en el sentido radial por densitometría de rayos X de árboles de 8 años de edad de clones de eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, buscando posibilitar la optimización de su uso. Por sus características silviculturales se seleccionaron los 5 mejores clones de la especie e híbrido de las plantaciones clonales localizadas en el municipio de San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP de la Cia Suzano de Celulosa y Papel. Se caracterizaron 3 modelos de variación radial de la densidad y la formación de 3 tipos de madera (juvenil, de transición y adulta); el valor medio de densidad aparente de la madera en los clones fue de 0,46 y 0,54 g/cm³, para el eucalyptus grandis y E. grandis x urophylla, respectivamente. Abstract in english In Brazil, as in many other countries significant advances have been verified in intensive clonal silviculture with remarkable differences on parameters of growth and development between species clones and hybrids of eucalyptus. At the same time, during recent years the concept of multiple uses of t [...] ree logs to increase the yield of the forest enterprise as cellulose and paper and solid wood has been introduced. The present paper studies the wood uniformity index and radial variability of density using x-rays densitometry of 8 year clones eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla in order to optimize their use. This experiment was performent at Suzano Cellulose and Paper Company Clone Plantation in San Miguel de Arcanjo-SP-Brazil. The best five clones of the species and hybrid by their silviculture characteristics were selected. Three models of radial density variation were found and the formation of three different types of wood were characterized (youthful, of transition and adult); the average value of wood apparent density in clones was 0.46 and 0.54 g/cm³ for eucalyptus grandis and E. grandis x urophylla, respectively.

  13. Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis / Bioprospectionof Bacillus spp. as potential growth promoters in Eucalyptus urograndis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Ligia de Lima, Moreira; Fabio Fernando de, Araújo.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bact [...] érias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical characteristics of agronomic interest and correlation with the promotion of plant grow thin isolates of Bacillus sp. originating from the eucalyptus rhizosp here. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse. From the bacteria isol [...] ation from the rhizo sp here of plants from different cities of the western region of São Paulo, were obtained 127 isolates of Bacillus sp.. Biochemical testswere performed to characterize thebacterial isolateson the antagonism of pathogenic fungi, the production of auxin, ammonia and enzymatic activity. In the final ste pwe evaluated thepotentialof the isolates, previous lycharacterizedin laboratory conditions, to promote plant growth, using bacteria inoculation in eucalyptus seedling sand growing plants in a green house for 90 days. Eucalyptus growth were evaluated aiming to select the best strain sand to correlate the different variables asses sed. The bio prospecting protocol for Bacillus sp. Rhizosp here was valid to find promising rhizobacteria in increasing eucalyptus growth. Five isolates were selected as promising foracti on on growing eucalyptus. The antagonistic to pathogenic fungi and ammonia production found in isolate so frhizobacteria help fulin the initial selection of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria eucalyptus as significantly correlated with plant growth.

  14. Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna / Taux d'escompte et rotation forestière: le cas de l'Eucalyptus Saligna / Discount Rate and Timber Rotation: the Case of Eucalyptus Saligna

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo, Restrepo; Mauricio, Alviar.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Eucalipto es una de las especies de mayor importancia económica y ambiental en Colombia. El objetivo de este artículo es observar la relación existente entre la tasa de descuento y el año de corte del Eucalyptus Saligna, mediante el método de Fisher y Hotelling. La metodología consiste en calcula [...] r el máximo Valor Actual Neto y realizar un análisis del comportamiento del año de corte con respecto a la tasa de descuento. La región de estudio es el oriente antioqueño, de donde se tomaron datos suministrados por la reforestadora Doña María para una hectárea típica. Se encontró que el año de corte tiene una relación inversamente proporcional con la tasa de descuento, y que éste disminuye para tasas altas. Abstract in english Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling's method. The methodology consists of ca [...] lculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

  15. Eucalyptus essential oil action on mycorrhizal colonization and the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis in soil contaminated by copper Ação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na micorrização e no estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis em solo contaminado por cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of eucalyptus essential oil can optimize the growth of ectomycorrhizal isolates, which aid the establishment of forest species in soils contaminated by copper. The study aimed to determine the best application of eucalyptus essential oil in the formation of mycorrhizal seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis and its influence on the establishment of these seedlings in soil contaminated by copper. It was used the ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECM Pisolithus microcarpus. The application forms of the essential oil were evaluated in a greenhouse, by means of six treatments. Subsequently, the seedlings were transplanted and evaluated in soil contaminated by copper, greenhouse and field. It was determined height, diameter, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, copper content in plant, colonization and survival in the field. The essential oil of E. grandis supports the growth of mycorrhizal of eucalyptus seedlings, particularly when applied to the substrate. The application of essential oil increases the colonization, promoting growth and survival of seedlings under greenhouse conditions and field.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245

    A utilização do óleo essencial de eucalipto pode otimizar o crescimento de isolados ectomicorrízicos, os quais auxiliam o estabelecimento de essências florestais em solos contaminados por cobre. O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a melhor forma de aplicação do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis micorrizadas e sua influência no estabelecimento dessas mudas em solo contaminado por cobre. Utilizou-se o fungo ectomicorrízico (fECM Pisolithus microcarpus. As formas de aplicação do óleo essencial foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio de seis tratamentos. Posteriormente, as mudas foram transplantadas e avaliadas em solo contaminado por cobre, em condições de casa de vegetação e campo. Determinou-se altura, diâmetro, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raízes, teor de cobre na planta, colonização micorrízica e sobrevivência no campo. O óleo essencial de E. grandis favorece o crescimento de mudas de eucalipto micorrizadas, principalmente quando aplicado diretamente no substrato. A aplicação do óleo essencial aumenta a colonização micorrízica, favorecendo o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em condições de casa de vegetação e campo.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245

  16. EFFECT OF FREQUENCY OF IMMERSION AND AIR INJECTION ON IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Liparize de Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813321The objectives of this study were to evaluate different immersion frequencies (2, 4, 8 and 16 h andexplants supports (filter paper and foam of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clone insideRITA® bioreactors; and a ventilation system with additional air input coupled to the bioreactor containers.It was evaluated the explants fresh weight, number of shoots and hyperhydricity and in vitro axillary budmultiplication. The immersions every two and four hours and the filter paper showed higher growth andnumber of shoots, but caused a greater percentage of hyperhydric shoots. Under the conditions and systemtested, the additional air injection in the RITA® bioreactor did not influence the culture growth.

  17. Recovering of carbon fixation in a eucalyptus site after felling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A. M.; Pita, G. P. A.; Mateus, A.; Santos Pereira, J.

    2009-04-01

    Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an ultrasonic Gill anemometer R2, an open path analyzer IRGA LI-7500 and a microclimate unit at its top. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. For the 2002-2006 period, mean annual values of carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross production(GPP) and ecosystem respiration(Reco) were -533.3 gCm-2, 1628.6 gCm-2 and 1095.2 gCm-2. Seasonal patterns of carbon fixation for the five years showed a decrease in July-August periods due to highest air temperatures, atmospheric water vapour deficits and stomata partial closure to prevent water transpiration losses. For the period 2002-2006, the dry year of 2005 with a precipitation of about 390 mm, corresponded to the smaller carbon fixation of 390 gCm-2. Similarly, values of Reco, GPP and estimated leaf area index (less than three) were also minimal in 2005. Water use efficiency, WUE (ratio GPP/precipitation) was maximum in summer periods and in driest years, reaching values of about 12g/L-1. Recovery of carbon sink capacity, after the felling, begun after August 2007. The 2007 and 2008 annual NEE values were respectively 105.8 gCm-2 and -35.78 gCm-2. This negative value of NEE for 2008 is indicative of a carbon sink recovery. Annual Reco values for 2007 and 2008 were respectively 1059.03 gCm-2 and 1148.21 gCm-2. For GPP the annual values of 2007 and 2008 were respectively 953.24 gCm-2 and 1148.10 gCm-2. After the felling, stems rapidly grew and monthly GPP increased from 32 gCm-2 to 114 gCm-2 from January to October 2007. In November and December 2007, GPP decreased as a consequence of less solar radiation and frost in the young plants. In 2008 monthly GPP increased again till September. In the last three months of 2008, GPP diminished as a consequence of lack of water loss by evapotranspiration and the thinning. The results showed a chronological tendency for carbon fixation of the eucalyptus site according to physiological status of plants, concerning age and physical environmental factors.

  18. Micropropagation of eucalyptus saligna sm. from cotyledonary nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus saligna is an important woody plant used to lumber and cellulose. The aim of this research was to establish a protocol for micropropagation of this species from cotyledonary nodes. Plantlets with 16 days old were used as a donor explants. The induction of cotyledonary nodes consisted of two parts: a dark culture followed by a light culture. Basal medium was MS added with 30g.L-1 sucrose, 10% coconut water and solidified with 7g.L-1 agar. For the dark culture the media were supplemented with 3.6 micro M NAA (Naftalenoacetic acid) and 4.4 micro M BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and for the light culture the media were supplemented with 2.7 micro M NAA and 1.1 micro M BAP. The period for dark and light culture was 20 days. Shoots were multiplied on MS medium, 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 1.1 micro M BAP. Shoots were elongated on MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Shoots were rooting on half-strength MS salts. Acclimatization was performed in a hydroponics floating system. Moreover, the shoot multiplication in liquid medium with different CaCl/sub 2/ levels was carried out under agitation. Organogenesis of cotyledonary nodes was characterized by simultaneous occurrence of shoot and callus. Shoots presented hyperhydricity under liquid medium, however, the CaCl/sub 2/ reduces the hyperhydricity in liquid medium; nevertheless, it had been not effective in eliminating hyperhydricity due to toxicity of chlorine. The hydroponics acclimatization results in 90% plant survival. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of E. saligna was suitable established and can be used for clonal propagation or genetic transformation. (author)

  19. BEHAVIOR OF GLUED JOINTS OF EUCALYPTUS sp. SAWN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated eucalypt wood adhesion capacity. The material evaluated was a commercial sawn wood composed by a blend of species of the genus Eucalyptus. The adhesives used were resorcinol-formaldehyde and polyvinila acetate (PVAc. The wood was segregated in three density with 0% of moisture content: class 1; 2 and 3 that, when combined (class1 x class1; 2x2; 3x3; 1x2; 1x3; 2x3 resulted in six treatments. The performance of the adhesion was evaluated by the shear strength to parallel compression and by wood failure in the glue line. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the adhesion of the combinations of wood/adhesive presented satisfactory performance. The average shear strength of the joints were shown equivalent to the shear strength of the solid wood with similar performance of adhesion in the two adhesives. In general, resorcinol-formaldheyde adhesive presented higher values (74.41% for wood failure in the joints, but similar to all treatments. The adhesion of samples of higher density presented lower performance probably when only the values of wood failure are considered. The values for the strength of glued joints, in general, were similar when analyzed the results achieved with the resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive- base 140,56 Kgf/cm2. To polyvinila acetate the values of wood failure decrease when the density increase (65.94%, but the resistance in the glue line was positively affected (140.25 Kgf/cm2. In general, the density influenced the adhesion of the joints for the employed adhesives.

  20. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  1. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 μmol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 μg Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 μg C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

  2. NANOINDENTACIONES Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA EN MADERA DE EUCALYPTUS NITENS CON MICRO Y MESO GRIETAS NANOINDENTATIONS AND ULTRASTRUCTURE IN EUCALYPTUS NITENS WITH MICRO AND MESOCRACKS

    OpenAIRE

    William Gacitua E; Aldo Ballerini A; Jean Pierre Lasserre; David Bahr

    2007-01-01

    Se desarrolló una metodología basada en nanoindentaciones y análisis de la ultraestructura de células de madera de Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) para explorar los factores que generan la aparición de fallas en la madera debido a tensiones de crecimiento. Se estudió madera normal y madera con mesogrietas. Existieron diferencias significativas en la frecuencia de vasos y módulo de elasticidad de la pared S2 entre los dos tipos de madera estudiadas. Se identificó como causa de la fractura ...

  3. Entomofauna polinizadora de Eucalyptus nitens en huertos semilleros del centro sur de Chile Pollinator insects of Eucalyptus nitens in a clonal seed orchard in South Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    María-José Sanzana; Luis E. Parra; Hugo A Benítez; Jaime Espejo

    2012-01-01

    Las variaciones que se pueden observar en los ensambles de polinizadores de especies exóticas, en respuesta a cambios en las variables ambientales o florales, no han recibido mucha atención. Este trabajo constituye la primera aproximación sobre la abundancia de especies polinizadoras, asociadas al Eucalyptus nitens en un huerto semillero clonal de la hacienda Rucamanqui, localidad de Huépil (37º 15' S y 71º 55' O), región del Biobío. Entre octubre y noviembre de 2010, se examinó la variación ...

  4. Water use, water limitation, and water use efficiency in a Eucalyptus plantation Utilización del agua, limitación hídrica y eficiencia del uso del agua en una plantación de Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    JOSE LUIZ STAPE; DAN BINKLEY; Ryan, Michael G.; ANTONIO DO NASCIMENTO GOMES

    2004-01-01

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production worldwide, but the ecophysiology of resource limitation on growth remains poorly quantified. We investigated the production ecology of a 3.4- to 5.4- year-old plantation of clonal Eucalypus grandis x urophylla in northeastern Brazil on a sandy Oxisol during two years (one wet, and one with normal rainfall). We measured wood production and estimated water use (transpired water) in control and irrigated treatments. W...

  5. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus / Efeito da idade e da classe diamétrica nas propriedades da madeira de Eucalyptus clonal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilma Michele Santos, Santana; Natalino, Calegario; Marina Donária Chaves, Arantes; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da idade e da classe diamétrica sobre as características físicas, térmicas e químicas de um clone de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus urophylla. O material utilizado neste estudo com 34, 48, 61, 74 e 86 meses de idade, foi proveniente [...] de área de reflorestamento, de propriedade da GERDAU S.A., sendo selecionadas duas árvores em cada idade por classe diamétrica, respeitando a proporção de cada parcela lançada nos locais amostrados. As características físicas: densidade básica da madeira, massa seca e o estoque de carbono; químicas: holocelulose, teor de extrativos totais, lignina total, cinzas; análises elementar e térmica da madeira foram determinadas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a maioria das características da madeira foi influenciada pela idade e classe diamétrica. A espécie estudada apresentou grande potencial para produção de massa seca e geração de energia na forma de calor, que pode ser convertida em energia mecânica e eletricidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, [...] 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  6. Tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: pelo método de substituição de seiva / Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh: juvenile wood by sap displacement method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo Marcel de Arruda, Torres; Juarez Benigno, Paes; José Augusto de, Lira Filho; José Wallace Barbosa do, Nascimento.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, analisar a qualidade do tratamento preservativo da madeira juvenil de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e verificar a influência da inversão das peças na solução preservativa, na distribuição, na penetração e na retenção do CCB, ao longo das peças tratadas pelo método [...] de substituição de seiva. Árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram coletadas na Zona Rural do Município de Rio Tinto - PB, de um povoamento com quatro anos. No povoamento foram escolhidas, aleatoriamente, cinco árvores, sendo três de maior diâmetro. Para o tratamento da madeira, empregou-se o método de substituição de seiva por transpiração radial utilizando-se uma solução de 2% de ingredientes ativos de borato de cobre cromatado (CCB) e comparou-se o efeito da inversão das peças na solução preservativa. A distribuição, a penetração e a retenção foram melhores nas peças invertidas, quando comparadas àquelas não-invertidas na solução preservativa. Abstract in english The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulen [...] sis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB) and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

  7. Site Productivity of Clone and Seed Raised Plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis in Southeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Pérez-Sandoval; Armando Gómez-Guerrero; Aurelio Fierros-González; William R. Horwath

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between soil variables and forest productivity of Eucalyptus urophylla (Eu) and E. grandis (Eg) was studied in commercial forest plantations (CFP) in Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. The group of Eu included seed and clone raised plantations and the Eg group included only seed raised plantations. Tree measurements and soil sampling were carried out at 56 500-m2 plots. Two soil depths (0 - 20 and 20 - 40 cm) were sampled and analyzed for phy...

  8. Paneles unidos de canto y contrachapados fabricados con madera juvenil de Eucalyptus nitens Edge-glued panels and plywoods manufactured with juvenile Eucalyptus nitens wood

    OpenAIRE

    JUSTO LISPERGUER M; CARLOS ROZAS M

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo evalúa la calidad de la unión adhesiva en madera sólida de Eucalyptus nitens de 11 años. Con esta finalidad se fabricaron paneles unidos de canto utilizando PVA (acetato de polivinilo) como adhesivo. Se midieron las propiedades físico-mecánicas de estos paneles y se compararon con las propiedades de paneles unidos de canto fabricados con madera de Pinus radiata de 25 años. Como resultado de estos ensayos se encontró que los paneles a base de E. nitens presentan valores pro...

  9. Productividad de la cosechadora forestal en plantaciones comerciales de eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) / Productivity of a forest harvester in commercial eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Imelda, Vargas Abasolo; Leonardo, Sánchez Rojas; Rigoberto, Vargas Carballo; Enrique, Serrano Gálvez; Diego Ernesto, Lira González.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la productividad de una cosechadora en plantaciones de eucalipto en Huimanguillo, Tabasco. En el trabajo de campo se realizó un estudio de tiempos y movimientos de jornadas completas durante nueve días, se registraron las actividades que involucraron a la cosechadora forestal y a su operad [...] or. En particular, se identificaron actividades improductivas causadas por fallas en la cosechadora y la falta de capacitación del operador. Al considerar las ocho horas efectivas laborales, la cosechadora trabaja 75.9% de su capacidad, mientras que 21% del tiempo total por turno corresponde a mantenimiento correctivo, de manera principal, por rompimiento de mangueras del aceite hidráulico; así mismo, el afilado de la sierra es el que más repercute en dicho mantenimiento. Se determinó que se carece de un programa de mantenimiento preventivo y en la cosecha se identificaron actividades improductivas. Para el análisis de productividad, se aceptó el modelo de la forma y = a + bx + cx². Los modelos de regresión usados son válidos cuando el volumen de producción mínimo es igual o mayor a 0.0126 m³, lo cual corresponde al volumen de una troza de 8 cm de diámetro por 2.5 m de largo. La información se evaluó con y sin tiempos improductivos (TI). La productividad máxima se obtiene cuando hay un volumen promedio del arbolado de 0.5534 m³ y se genera una productividad de 25.4147 m³h-1; para el segundo caso, ocurre con un volumen promedio del arbolado de 0.56627 m³ y una productividad de 27.7661 m³h-1. Abstract in english The evaluation of productivity of a forest harvester was conducted in Eucalyptus plantations in Huimanguillo, Tabasco state. Field work included a full-time study of time and movements for nine days, where all activities that involved forest harvesting and its operator were registered. Unproductive [...] activities were identified as caused by the harvester´s failures and the operator´s lack of training. Considering the eight effective working hours, the harvester works at 75.9% of its capacity, 21% of the total time per shift corresponds to corrective maintenance, mainly due to the breaking of the hydraulic oil hoses. It was concluded that no preventive maintenance program exists. At harvest, unproductive activities were detected, as well as a lack of a preventive maintenance program. For the productivity analysis, a model of the y = a + bx + cx² form was accepted. The regression models used are valid when the minimum volume of production is equal to or greater than 0.0126 m³, which corresponds to the volume of a log of 8 cm in diameter and 2.5 m long. The information was evaluated with and without unproductive activities (IT). The maximum productivity is obtained when there is an average volume of 0.5534 m³ generating a productivity of 25.4147 m³h-1. For the second case, the maximum profit occurs with an average volume of 0.56627 m³ and productivity per hour of 27.7661 m³h-1. A lower profit was generated when including unproductive activities compared with the ideal way that harvester should work.

  10. Analysis of the Impact of the Use of Eucalyptus Biomass for Energy on Wood Availability for Eucalyptus Forest in Portugal: a Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Tomé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of energy diversification and profitable forest resource exploitation, increasing the use of biomass residues for energy can play an important role by using local sources of energy, reducing carbon emissions and fossil-energy use, providing additional revenue for the forest sector, and also reducing the risk of forest wildfires. Regional simulators can help forecast available wood and biomass and allow evaluation of possible future conflicts of interest and their consequences for society. This paper focuses on improving an existing regional forest simulator (SIMPLOT so that it can be applied to study research questions related to increasing the use of eucalyptus biomass for bioenergy and the related consequences for wood available for pulp. Biomass modules were integrated into SIMPLOT so that different sources of biomass used for energy could be accounted for. The updated version of the simulator was used to assess the impact of different biomass demands for bioenergy, combined with different afforestation alternatives on the wood available for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal. SIMPLOT's forecasts indicated that the eucalyptus forest is unable to satisfy wood demand even when pulp afforestation areas are doubled, regardless of the biomass demand considered. Also, the simulation results showed that, with the tested afforestation rates, eucalyptus forest cannot meet high increases in demand for wood.

  11. Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

  12. Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

  13. Does Diatomaceous Earth Control Leaf-Cutter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Eucalyptus Plantations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Wilcken, Carlos F; Neves, Daniela A; Pogetto, Mario H F A D; Carmo, Janaina B; Guerreiro, Julio C; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-06-01

    Genus Atta includes some of the most important Formicidae leaf cutter ants which cause extensive damage to the eucalyptus plantations. Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, one of the chief pests in Brazilian reforestation, can restrict and reduce forest productivity by its intense and constant leaf-cutting activities on plants at all stages. Therefore, the demand for new products to control A. sexdens rubropilosa indicates the study of the utilization of the dry powder formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE) against this pest in the eucalyptus cultivars. The study was conducted using 120 colonies of A. sexdens rubropilosa in Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla Blake (Myrtaceae) (urograndis) stand. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments (1, 10, 25, and 50?g/m2 of DE, 6.0?g/m2 sulfluramid bait per square meter of loose soil, and the control) with five replications, each with four colonies of this ant. Diatomaceous earth was applied to the active A. sexdens rubropilosa ant holes, and the sulfluramid bait was applied in bulk in a localized manner. The control efficacy of A. sexdens rubropilosa with DE was low, showing values similar to that of the control, and, for this reason, it cannot be used to control this ant. The bait with sulfluramid showed higher efficacy than those of the other treatments. PMID:26470237

  14. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topia?, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zde?ka

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210. ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.371, year: 2014

  15. Mass spore production and inoculation of Calonectria pteridis on Eucalyptus spp. under different environmental conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael F., Alfenas; Olinto L., Pereira; Rodrigo G., Freitas; Camila S., Freitas; Miguel A.D., Dita; Acelino C., Alfenas.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Calonectria pteridis is one of the most important causal agents of Calonectria leaf blight (CLB) of Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil, which is a limiting factor for growth of Eucalyptus plantations. In this study we developed standard procedures for in vitro mass spore production and inoculation of C. pter [...] idis for screening plant species and clones for resistance to CLB. The isolates used in this study were identified using similarity in DNA sequence to reference strains. Among six media tested, glucose asparagine agar induced the highest sporulation production and a significantly enhanced sporulation was found by scraping the aerial mycelium and temporarily submersing the cultures in tap water, followed by drying and additional incubation of the culture. We also demonstrated that the severity of CLB on excised leaves of two Eucalyptus spp. clones increased significantly when the inoculated leaves were incubated in the dark. The optimal temperature for infection was 26ºC when plants were incubated for 48 hours post-inoculation in a mist chamber and then maintained in a greenhouse (25ºC±5ºC) for 50 days. This study identifies environmental conditions to improve spore production and inoculation procedures of C. pteridis for selection of resistant Eucalyptus spp.

  16. Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: natalina.mateus@edunet.sp.gov.br; Yamashita, Marcelo Takeshi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: yamashita@itapeva.unesp.br; Madi Filho, Tufic [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  17. Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  18. MIXED AND MONOSPECIFIC STANDS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACKWATTLE. II – FINE ROOT BIOMASS DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fine root biomass density (FRBD in mixed and monospecific stands of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla and Acacia mearnsii (black wattle in Bagé-RS (Southern Brazil. An experimental trial was installed with three treatments: 100% Eucalyptus (100E; 100% Acacia mearnsii (100A; 50% Eucalyptus + 50% Acacia mearnsii (50E:50A. The trial was carried using a randomized block design with three replicates. The fine root (? 2.0mm biomass density was determined 8 and 18 months after planting the trees. Soil samples were collected, with a cylindrical extractor auger (d = 7.0 cm, from four depths (0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 20 and 20 - 30 cm at each sampling point. After 8 months, the FRBD distribution was the same in both species and in all soil layers, reaching the maximum projection at 125 cm from the tree trunk. After 18 months, the root biomass density was higher in the monospecific black wattle stand than in the monospecific eucalyptus stand and the mixed stand. The fine root biomass density was highest in the 5 - 10 cm layer close to the trunk, for the planting row spacing, the planting line and the diagonals between two planting lines. Knowledge about fine root growth and distribution in soil at initial stages of stand development may help in decision-making for intensive forestry, thus ensuring more efficient use of soil resources.

  19. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  20. Production and development of eucalyptus seedlings in function of doses of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Tertulino Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P on the survival in the nursery and early development in the field of clonal Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and five replicates of 30 plants per replicate. At the end of the cycle (90 days, 15 seedlings were used for determining the dry matter accumulation and nutrient concentration in the shoot. The rest was planted in the field to determine the percentage of survival and early development. The treatments consisted of four doses of P fertilization (0.0, 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 mg plant-1. To obtain high quality seedlings in conditions similar to this experiment it is required doses of P in the range from 3.6 to 3.8 mg plant-1. Doses greater than 4 mg plant-1 affect the development and quality of eucalyptus seedlings. An adequate phosphorus fertilization of eucalyptus seedlings increase, by about 30%, the percentage of surviving seedlings in the field.

  1. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima. PMID:25703618

  2. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  3. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS: A MULTIPURPOSE TREE

    OpenAIRE

    Hardel Danendra kumar; Sahoo Laxmidhar

    2011-01-01

    The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus globulus. The results of the above studies support the use of these plants for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethnobotanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

  4. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS: A MULTIPURPOSE TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardel Danendra kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of Eucalyptus globulus. The results of the above studies support the use of these plants for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethnobotanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.

  5. Produção de painéis compensados estruturais com diferentes composições de lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados estruturais produzidos com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, var. hondurensis e var. bahamensis com diferentes composições de lâminas. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com dimensões de 50 x 50 cm, utilizando-se cinco lâminas de 2,2 mm, com as seguintes composições: (1 painéis com todas as lâminas de mesma espécie/variedades (T1, T2, T3 e T4; e (2 painéis com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna de forma intercalada com as lâminas de três variedades de Pinus caribaea (T5 a T10. Os painéis produzidos exclusivamente com lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna apresentaram valores superiores de resistência da linha de cola aos esforços de cisalhamento, MOE e MOR paralelo e perpendicular. A composição dos painéis com lâminas das duas espécies/variedades de forma intercalada não influenciou, de forma significativa, a resistência da linha de cola e MOE e MOR perpendicular. A disposição das lâminas de Eucalyptus saligna na capa dos compensados resultou em maiores valores de MOE e MOR paralelo. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas avaliadas foram satisfatórios, em comparação com os valores de referência apresentados na literatura e com aqueles requisitos mínimos requeridos pela norma técnica, indicando a viabilidade de produção de painéis compensados do tipo "combi" com combinação de espécies de folhosas e coníferas.

  6. Correlations between pulp properties of eucalyptus clones and leaf volatiles using automated solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Cláudia A; De Assis, Teotônio F; Ledford, Edward B; Dariva, Claudio; Fachel, Jandyra; Christensen, Eva; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2003-12-31

    Analysis of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) of 14 Eucalyptus clones has been performed using an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography (GC)/ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) method. Correlations between pulp properties of Eucalyptus clones and the BVOC of their leaf headspaces were studied. The compounds alpha-terpineol and the sesquiterpene beta-eudesmol were positively correlated with S5, a property related to the hemicelluose content in the pulp. Qualitative results obtained with automated HS-SPME were sufficient to group together the same species and related hybrids through cluster analysis and were confirmed through principal component analysis. A preliminary separation of the essential oils of Eucalyptus dunnii through comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) showed approximately 580 peaks compared to approximately 60 in a typical GC/ITMS first-dimension chromatogram. The potential of HS-SPME coupled to GC x GC to improve the separation of Eucalyptus volatiles and other plant essential oils looks extremely promising for new applications of unsupervised learning methods. PMID:14690363

  7. Maternal inheritance of the chloroplast genome in Eucalyptus globulus and interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnon, A E; Vaillancourt, R E; Tilyard, P A; Potts, B M

    2001-10-01

    The utility of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in Eucalyptus, either as a molecular marker for genetic studies or as a potential vehicle for genetic manipulation, is based on knowledge of its mode of inheritance. Chloroplast inheritance in angiosperms can vary among and within species, and anomalous inheritance has been reported in some interspecific-hybrid combinations. In Eucalyptus, abnormalities of pollen-tube growth occur in a number of interspecific-hybrid combinations, and this might increase the likelihood of anomalous chloroplast transmission. We used a rapid PCR technique to determine chloroplast heritability in 425 progeny of Eucalyptus, comprising 194 progeny of the premier pulpwood species E. globulus and 231 interspecific hybrids between E. globulus and E. nitens (F1, F2, and backcrosses). At this sampling intensity, no pollen-mediated transmission of cpDNA was found in any of the 40 families tested. The results are discussed with reference to chloroplast engineering and the use of cpDNA as a seed-specific marker in phylogeographic studies of Eucalyptus. PMID:11681607

  8. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghaffar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan. EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%, α-pinene (31.4%, citrinyl acetate (13.3%, eugenol (11.8% and terpenene-4-ol (10.2% were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani. Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively. The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  9. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Yameen, Muhammad; Kiran, Shumaila; Kamal, Shagufta; Jalal, Fatima; Munir, Bushra; Saleem, Sadaf; Rafiq, Naila; Ahmad, Aftab; Saba, Iram; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (31.4%), citrinyl acetate (13.3%), eugenol (11.8%) and terpenene-4-ol (10.2%) were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively) followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively). The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications. PMID:26593893

  10. Distribución Radial de Polifenoles en Troncos de Eucalyptus grandis: Radial Distribution of Polyphenols in the Stems of Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E., Núñez.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los polifenoles colorean las pulpas y pueden interferir en los procesos de pulpado. No se conocen trabajos sobre su distribución en Eucalyptus grandis. Se midió la variación radial de concentración de polifenoles en cinco individuos de E. grandis de 7 y 18 años de edad. Se utilizó etanol azeotrópico [...] para la extracción de la madera reducida a virutas. Los resultados concuerdan con el patrón general citado en la bibliografía. En los árboles de 7 años hubo en proporción más polifenoles en la albura que en los de 18. No se notaron diferencias significativas en los espectrogramas de absorción UV entre los anillos de los árboles de 18 años. Un espectrograma diferente en uno de 7, indicaría la existencia de hibridación. La concentración de polifenoles alrededor de un nudo dio cuatro veces más alta que en la madera de la misma edad. Abstract in english Polyphenols color pulps and may interfere in the pulping process. No research works on the distribution in E. grandis are known. The radial variation of polyphenol concentration in five E. grandis individuals aged 7 and 18 years old was measured. Azeotropic ethanol was used for the extraction of the [...] wood reduced to shaving. Results are in accordance with the general pattern cited in the bibliography. In 7 year old trees, there were relatively more polyphenols in the sapwood than in those of 18. No significant differences were noticed in the UV absorption spectrograms among the rings of the 18 year-old trees. A different spectrogram in one aged 7 would indicate the existence of hybridation. The concentration of poliphenols around one of the knots was four times as high than in the wood of the same age.

  11. Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile / Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Ide M; Cecilia, Ruiz G; Ariel, Sandoval C; Juan, Valenzuela E.

    Full Text Available La presencia del chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus, fue reportada por primera vez en el país en junio de 2009, como resultado del Programa de Vigilancia Forestal del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Insecto succionador cuyo daño lo ocasionan tanto ninfas como adultos al alimentarse [...] de la savia de sus hospederos desde las hojas. Cuando las poblaciones aumentan, se produce una fuerte reducción de la tasa fotosintética de las hojas, lo que puede provocar una disminución del crecimiento y en ocasiones producir la defoliación completa del árbol. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la detección de T. peregrinus, delimitar su área de distribución y establecer el rango de hospederos dentro de las especies del género Eucalyptus presentes en Chile. Para esto se instalaron trampas amarillas pegajosas en la región Metropolitana, comuna de Til-Til, y en la región de Valparaíso y se realizó una prospección nacional que abarcó las regiones con presencia de especies del género Eucalyptus. Se detectaron nueve puntos positivos (= presencia) en la región Metropolitana y uno en la región de Valparaíso. La detección de estados inmaduros y adultos de T. peregrinus sobre E. camaldulensis indica que el insecto se encuentra establecido en las regiones Metropolitana y de Valparaíso, Chile. Se dan a conocer las acciones a seguir dentro de las labores de control oficial ejecutadas por el SAG. Abstract in english The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was first reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When pop [...] ulations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims of this study were to confirm the detection of T. peregrinus, define its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence) were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the official control tasks performed by SAG.

  12. Fertilization during the establishment of a Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation in the northern Brazilian Amazon = Adubação no estabelecimento de um plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis na Amazônia setentrional brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de Freitas Iwata

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forestry plantations should be regarded as an alternative sustainable land-use system in degraded savannah areas. They contribute to the maintenance of productive processes in degraded soils that are of economic importance for local inhabitants; in addition, in the ecological sense, timber and non-timber products from planted forests reduce the exploitation pressure on native forests. Eucalyptus plantations on degraded savannahs in the northern Brazilian Amazon may help to reduce exploitation pressure on native forests. However, there is no information regarding the nutrients rates that would allow faster eucalyptus growth in that region. A trial was installed in an Yellow Latosol (Oxisol soil type adopting a one-half-type fractionalfactorial design with four rates of N, P, and K. Functions were adjusted for the dependent variables height, diameter at breastheight (DBH, leaf tissue nutrient content, and soil-chemical attributes. Interaction N versus K was observed on tree heightwith a maximum of 7.8 m recorded at 200 kg ha-1 of N and 50 kg ha-1 of K. Phosphorus fertilization promoted greater DBH growth with maximum value at 120 kg ha-1 of P; however, the highest gain was obtained at 30 kg ha-1 of P. The NPK rates that maximized Eucalyptus camaldulensis growth were 200, 30, and 50 kg ha-1, respectively. Plantações de eucalipto, em áreas de lavrado degradadas na Amazônia Setentrional brasileira, devem contribuir para diminuir a pressão de exploração em florestas nativas. Porém, não há informações sobre as doses de nutrientes que permitem o rápido crescimento do eucalipto nesta região. Um experimento para avaliar a resposta à adubação do Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi instalado em Latossolo Amarelo, adotando o delineamento fatorial fracionário com quatro doses de nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P e potássio (K. Funções foram ajustadas para as seguintes variáveis dependentes: altura, diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, conteúdo de nutrientes nas folhas e atributos químicos do solo. Foi observada interação NxK para a altura, com um máximo de 7,8 metros registrados com a dose de 200 kg ha-1 de N e 50 kg ha-1 de K. A adubação fosfatada promoveu o maior crescimento do DAP com o valor máximo obtido com a dose de 120 kg ha-1 de P; O maior ganho, entretanto, foi obtido com a dose de 30 kg ha-1 de P. As doses de NPK que maximizaram o crescimento do Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram 200, 30 e 50 kg ha-1, respectivamente.

  13. Detección de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae asociado a Eucalyptus spp. en Chile Detection of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae associated to Eucalyptus spp. in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ide M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del chinche del eucalipto, Thaumastocoris peregrinus, fue reportada por primera vez en el país en junio de 2009, como resultado del Programa de Vigilancia Forestal del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG. Insecto succionador cuyo daño lo ocasionan tanto ninfas como adultos al alimentarse de la savia de sus hospederos desde las hojas. Cuando las poblaciones aumentan, se produce una fuerte reducción de la tasa fotosintética de las hojas, lo que puede provocar una disminución del crecimiento y en ocasiones producir la defoliación completa del árbol. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron constatar la detección de T. peregrinus, delimitar su área de distribución y establecer el rango de hospederos dentro de las especies del género Eucalyptus presentes en Chile. Para esto se instalaron trampas amarillas pegajosas en la región Metropolitana, comuna de Til-Til, y en la región de Valparaíso y se realizó una prospección nacional que abarcó las regiones con presencia de especies del género Eucalyptus. Se detectaron nueve puntos positivos (= presencia en la región Metropolitana y uno en la región de Valparaíso. La detección de estados inmaduros y adultos de T. peregrinus sobre E. camaldulensis indica que el insecto se encuentra establecido en las regiones Metropolitana y de Valparaíso, Chile. Se dan a conocer las acciones a seguir dentro de las labores de control oficial ejecutadas por el SAG.The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was first reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG. Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When populations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims of this study were to confirm the detection of T. peregrinus, define its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the official control tasks performed by SAG.

  14. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto.

  15. Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuaifei; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Roux, Jolanda; Xie, Yaojian; Wingfield, Michael J; Zhou, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Many species in the Cryphonectriaceae cause diseases of trees, including those in the genera Eucalyptus and Syzygium. During disease surveys on these trees in southern China, fruiting structures typical of fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae and associated with dying branches and stems were observed. Morphological comparisons suggested that these fungi were distinct from the well known Chrysoporthe deuterocubensis, also found on these trees in China. The aim of this study was to identify these fungi and evaluate their pathogenicity to Eucalyptus clones/species as well as Syzygium cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were included in the study. Isolates were characterized based on comparisons of morphology and DNA sequence data for the partial LSU and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA, ?-tubulin and TEF-1? gene regions. After glasshouse trials to select virulent isolates field inoculations were undertaken to screen different commercial Eucalyptus clones/species and S. cumini trees for susceptibility to infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously identified South African Celoporthe isolates. Based on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons, four new Celoporthe spp. were identified and they are described as C. syzygii, C. eucalypti, C. guangdongensis and C. indonesiensis. Field inoculations indicated that the three Chinese Celoporthe spp., C. syzygii, C. eucalypti and C. guangdongensis, are pathogenic to all tested Eucalyptus and S. cumini trees. Significant differences in the susceptibility of the inoculated Eucalyptus clones/species suggest that it will be possible to select disease-tolerant planting stock for forestry operations in the future. PMID:21700641

  16. Índices de competição em árvores individuais de eucalipto / Competition indexes for individual eucalyptus trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabrina Bolzan, Martins; Carlos Pedro Boechat, Soares; Helio Garcia, Leite; Agostinho Lopes de, Souza; Renato Vinícius Oliveira, Castro.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cinco índices de competição independentes da distância, em árvores individuais de plantios comerciais de eucalipto, e verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para o crescimento em diâmetro e altura, bem como a probabilidade de mortalidade para t [...] rês classes de produtividade. Foram avaliados dados de 30 parcelas permanentes de plantios clonais híbridos, não desbastados, de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Os índices de competição foram avaliados por meio do coeficiente de correlação simples e o teste F?parcial, juntamente com o teste de identidade, para verificar a possibilidade de ajuste de uma equação única para três classes de produtividade. O índice de área basal foi o que apresentou o melhor desempenho. Ao contrário do observado quanto ao crescimento em diâmetro e altura, para a probabilidade de mortalidade, foi possível o ajuste de uma única equação para as três classes de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate five distance?independent competition indexes, in individual trees of an eucalyptus commercial plantation, and to verify the possibility of fitting a single equation for growth and height, as well as the probability of mortality for three yield classes. Dat [...] a from 30 permanent plots of unthinned clonal hybrids of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla forest, were analyzed. The competition indexes were evaluated through the simple correlation coefficient and the partial?F test, together with an identity test to verify if a single equation could be adjusted for the three yield classes. The basal area index performed better than other competition indexes. Contrarily to what was found for diameter and height, it was possible to adjust a single equation for the three yield classes for the probability of mortality.

  17. Estimating biophysical properties of eucalyptus plantations using optical remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joao V.; Xavier, Alexandre C.; de Almeida, Auro C.; da Costa Freitas, Corina

    1998-12-01

    The feasibility of the inversion of optical remote sensing products to measure critical biophysical properties of Eucalyptus Forests at regional scales is investigated here. The biophysical variables used were leaf area Index, LAI, Diameter at Breast Height, DBH, Height and Age of Eucalyptus stands pertaining to a combination of different genetic materials (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrids) and propagating systems (seeds or cuttings) and management system (planting and coppicing). The field sampling was done daily during 3 months, from April to June 1997, and covered 130 stands of minimum sizes of 9 hectares, within an Eucalyptus farming area of about 800 km2, centered at 19 degrees South, 42 degrees West, Brazil. The stands ranged from 12 to 84 months old. The measurements of LAI were done using two pairs of LAI-2000 (LICOR) under conditions of diffuse light. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, SAVI, were derived from a LANDSAT-TM image acquired on June 5, 1997. Furthermore, a mixture model technique was applied to derive three new parameters: fraction of green vegetation, FGV, fraction of shadow, FSH, and fraction of soil, FS. Regression analysis were done between biophysical variables and remote sensing products. Linear correlation with coefficients of determination, R2, as high as 0.8 were found between LAI versus FGV and LAI versus SAVI, on all genetic materials. In general, SAVI was shown to give better estimates of LAI than NDVI, which is explained by the openings in the canopy as the Eucalyptus grow older. The correlation with the other biophysical variables (Height and DBH) were also shown to be significant, although the R2 ranged from 0.4 to 0.6. The correlation between FGV and SAVI was higher than 90% such that they can be used to estimate Eucalyptus biophysical parameters with the same statistical significance.

  18. Adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus ao Estado do Rio Grande do Sul / Adaptability for Eucalyptus multi species hybrids in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gleison Augusto, Santos; Marcos Deon Vilela, Resende; Luciana Duque, Silva; Antônio, Higa; Teotônio Francisco, Assis.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a adaptabilidade de híbridos multiespécies de Eucalyptus em quatro ambientes do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os ensaios foram realizados nas áreas da empresa CMPC Celulose Riograndense, nos Municípios de Minas do Leão (Horto Florestal Cambará), Encruzilhada do Su [...] l (Horto Florestal Capivara), Dom Feliciano (Horto Florestal Fortaleza) e Vila Nova do Sul (Horto Florestal São João). No ano 2007 foi implantada uma rede de testes clonais com 146 clones de Eucalyptus, pertencentes a 34 diferentes espécies e, ou híbridos, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 30 repetições e uma planta por parcela (Single Tree Plot). Aos 3 anos de idade, foram mensurados o diâmetro à altura do peito (dap) e a altura total (Ht) das árvores dos experimentos. O incremento médio anual (IMA) foi calculado de acordo com o volume individual por clone e o estande de plantas no hectare na idade de avaliação do teste clonal. Concluiu-se que em um programa de melhoramento do eucalipto a análise simultânea de produtividade, estabilidade e adaptabilidade deve ser preferida em relação ao simples ordenamento de valores genotípicos. Na seleção simultânea, destacaram-se entre os melhores materiais genéticos do ordenamento, híbridos do tipo "three-way cross", formados por três diferentes espécies de Eucalyptus. Os híbridos mais promissores para a geração de clones superiores foram E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) e E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) e E. grandis x E. urophylla. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the adaptability multi species hybrid of Eucalyptus in four environments in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The tests were conducted in the areas of CMPC Celulose Riograndense in the municipalities of Minas do Leão (Cambará farm), Encruzilhada do Sul (C [...] apivara farm), Dom Feliciano (Fortaleza farm) and Vila Nova do Sul (São João farm). A network of clonal tests was established in 2007with 146 clones of Eucalyptus, belonging to 34 different species and, or hybrids, in a randomized block design with 30 replications in single tree plot). The diameter at breast height (dbh) and total height (Ht) of trees at three years of old were measured. The mean annual increment (MAI) was calculated according to the volume per individual clone and plant stand in hectare at the evaluation age of the clonal test. It was concluded that in a breeding program for Eucalyptus, the simultaneous analysis of productivity, stability and adaptability should be done rather than the simple ordering of genotypic values. "Three-way cross" Hybrid-type made up of three different species of Eucalyptus stood out among the best genetic materials in the simultaneous selection. The most promising hybrids for the generation of higher clones were E. urophylla x (E. camaldulensis x E. grandis), E. grandis x (E. urophylla x E. grandis), E. saligna x (E. grandis x E. urophylla) and E. grandis x E. kirtoniana (E. robusta x E. tereticornis) and E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE SITIO FORESTAL PARA Eucalyptus camaldulensis MEDIANTE ÍNDICES EDÁFICOS EN ARGIUDOLES Y ARGIACUOLES, ARGENTINA Evaluation of the quality forest site for Eucalyptus camaldulensis through edaphic indexes in Argiudolls and Argiacuolls, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    J.E. Baridón; J.W. Lanfranco; R.M. Marlats; Vázquez, M.

    2001-01-01

    La introducción de Eucalyptus sp. en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, debido a factores económicos y de mercado, hace necesario conocer el potencial productivo de los diferentes sitios. En zonas sin indicadores biológicos, la elaboración de modelos de pronóstico de rendimientos basados en indicadores edáficos podría ser una alternativa metodológica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la calidad de sitio forestal para Eucalyptus camaldulensis mediante una metodología de índices ed...

  20. Lignin isolated from steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips by phase separation and its affinity to Trichoderma reesei cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ai; Funaoka, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus lignin without steam explosion. Clearly, the steam explosion process depolymerized native lignin, and simultaneously, promoted polymerization via labile benzyl positions. The steam-exploded eucalyptus lignin adsorbed more Trichoderma reesei cellulase; however, its enzymatic activity was less than that of eucalyptus lignin that did not undergo steam explosion. It is evident that pretreatment potentially affects the affinity between lignin and cellulase and the resultant saccharification efficiency. PMID:23711881

  1. Mycorrhizal colonization and phenolic compounds accumulation on roots of Eucalyptus dunnii maiden inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi / Colonização e acumulação de compostos fenólicos em raízes de Eucalyptus dunnii maiden infectadas com fungus ectomicorrízicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EDUARDO LUIZ, VOIGT; VETÚRIA LOPES DE, OLIVEIRA; ÁUREA MARIA, RANDI.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a compatibilidade entre Eucalyptus dunnii e os fungos ectomicorrízicos Hysterangium gardneri e Pisolithus sp. - isolados de Eucalyptus spp.-, Rhizopogon nigrescens e Suillus cothurnatus - isolados de Pinus spp.-, in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus colonizaram as raízes [...] . As micorrizas de Pisolithus sp. apresentaram manto e rede de Hartig; as de H. gardneri e S. cothurnatus apresentaram apenas manto. S. cothurnatus provocou aumento de fenóis nas raízes; Pisolithus sp. e R. nigrescens provocaram diminuição dessas substâncias. Os fungos isolados de Eucalyptus parecem mais compatíveis em relação a E. dunnii do que os de Pinus. A concentração de fenóis nas raízes parece estar envolvida nesse fenômeno, particularmente em relação a Pisolithus sp. e S. cothurnatus. Abstract in english Compatibility between Eucalyptus dunnii and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hysterangium gardneri and Pisolithus sp. - from Eucalyptus spp. -, Rhizopogon nigrescens and Suillus cothurnatus - from Pinus spp.-, was studied in vitro. Pisolithus sp., H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus colonized the roots. Pisolit [...] hus sp. mycorrhizas presented mantle and Hartig net, while H. gardneri and S. cothurnatus mycorrhizas presented only mantle. S. cothurnatus increased phenolics level on roots. Pisolithus sp. and R. nigrescens decreased the level of these substances. The isolates from Eucalyptus seem to be more compatible towards E. dunnii than those from Pinus. The mechanisms involved could be related, at least in the cases of Pisolithus and Suillus, to the concentration of phenolics in roots.

  2. Ciclagem e balanço de nutrientes no sistema solo-planta em um plantio de Eucalyptus sp., no Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides Gatto; Angela Pereira Bussinguer; Fabiana Campos Ribeiro; Gileno Brito de Azevedo; Maria Cristina Bueno; Marina Morais Monteiro; Pierre Farias de Souza

    2014-01-01

    As espécies do gênero Eucalyptus são as mais plantadas no mundo, tornando-se solução para diminuir a pressão sobre as florestas nativas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a biomassa seca e sua distribuição nos diferentes compartimentos das árvores (folhas, galhos, casca, lenho e raízes), bem como examinar o conteúdo de macronutrientes dela e o balanço de nutrientes no sistema solo-planta, em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, aos 60 meses de idade, na Fazenda Água Limpa, no Distri...

  3. Development and Testing of New Gene-Homologous EST-SSRs for Eucalyptus gomphocephala (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Bradbury; Ann Smithson; Siegfried L. Krauss

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: New microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) primers were developed from Eucalyptus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and optimized for genetic studies of the southwestern Australian tree E. gomphocephala, which is severely impacted by tree health decline and habitat fragmentation. Methods and Results: A total of 133 gene-homologous EST-SSR primer pairs were designed for Eucalyptus, and 44 were screened in E. gomphocephala. Of these, 17 produced reliable amplificati...

  4. Estimation of Eucalyptus plantations above ground biomass in Brazil using ALOS/PALSAR L-band data

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdadi, N; le Maire, G.; Fayad, I.; Bailly, J.S; Nouvellon, Y.; Lemos, C.; Hakamada, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the L-band SAR backscatter sensitivity to forest biomass for Eucalyptus plantations. The results showed that the radar signal is highly dependent on biomass only for values lower than 50 t/ha, which corresponds to plantations of approximately three years of age. Next, Random Forest regressions were performed to evaluate the potential of PALSAR data to predict the Eucalyptus biomass. Regressions were constructed to link the biomass to both radar signa...

  5. Effects of harrowing and fertilisation on understory vegetation and timber production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation in central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Fabião, António; Carneiro, M; M. C. Martins; M.A. Silva; Hilário, L.; Lousã, M.; Madeira, M.

    2008-01-01

    Harrowing and fertilisation are common practices at middle rotation in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Central Portugal. In order to clarify the effects of such practices on understory vegetation and timber production, a field trial was installed in a 5-year-old first rotation eucalyptus plantation, in a region with mixed oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. Four treatments that involved harrowing (H), fertilisation (F), harrowing and fertilisation (HF), and cont...

  6. Effects of harrowing and fertilisation on understory vegetation and timber production of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation in Central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, M; Fabião, António; M. C. Martins; Fabião, André; Silva, M. Abrantes; Hilário, L.; Lousã, M.; Madeira, M.

    2008-01-01

    Harrowing and fertilisation are common practices at middle rotation in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Central Portugal. In order to clarify the effects of such practices on understory vegetation and timber production, a field trial was installed in a 5-year-old first rotation eucalyptus plantation, in a region with mixed oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. Four treatments that involved harrowing (H), fertilisation (F), harrowing and fertilisation (HF), and cont...

  7. Use of fractional factorial design for selection of nutrients for culturing Paecilomyces variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    J.B.Almeida e Silva; U. A. Lima; M.E.S. Taqueda; F.G. Guaragna

    1998-01-01

    A eucalyptus hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed by treating eucalyptus wood chips with sulfuric acid. The hydrolysate was used as the substrate to grow Paecilomyces variotii IOC-3764 cultured for 72 or 96 hours. The influence of the inhibitors, nutrients and fermentation time was verified by a 28-4 and, subsequently, a 25-1 fractional factorial design. The effects of the inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural), nutrients (rice bran, urea, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfat...

  8. Infestation of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore on Thirteen Eucalyptus Species and Their Relationship with the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Lucia; Cecilia Naspi; Eduardo Zerba; Héctor Masuh

    2016-01-01

    Glycaspis brimblecombei is a pest insect that affects Eucalyptus genus and was firstly detected in Argentina in 2005. The main objective of this study is to determine the correlation between the level of infestation and chemical composition of essential oils extract. In an experimental plantation of 13 Eucalyptus species, the natural presence of the psyllid in the adaxial and abaxial faces of the leaves was determined and the mean number of individuals per species was calculated. The essentia...

  9. Patterns of hybridization and asymmetrical gene flow in hybrid zones of the rare Eucalyptus aggregata and common E. rubida

    OpenAIRE

    Field, D. L.; Ayre, D. J.; Whelan, R. J.; Young, A G

    2010-01-01

    The patterns of hybridization and asymmetrical gene flow among species are important for understanding the processes that maintain distinct species. We examined the potential for asymmetrical gene flow in sympatric populations of Eucalyptus aggregata and Eucalyptus rubida, both long-lived trees of southern Australia. A total of 421 adults from three hybrid zones were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. We used genealogical assignments, admixture analysis and analyses of spatial genetic...

  10. Genetic dissection of growth, wood basic density and gene expression in interspecific backcrosses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Kullan Anand Raj; van Dyk Maria M; Hefer Charles A; Jones Nicoletta; Kanzler Arnulf; Myburg Alexander A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background F1 hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla are widely grown for pulp and paper production in tropical and subtropical regions. Volume growth and wood quality are priority objectives in Eucalyptus tree improvement. The molecular basis of quantitative variation and trait expression in eucalypt hybrids, however, remains largely unknown. The recent availability of a draft genome sequence (http://www.phytozome.net) and genome-wide genotyping platforms, combined wit...

  11. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Vitor Farago; Tomoe Nakashima; Josiane Padilha de Paula; Adilson Sartoratto; Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales Maia; Patrícia Mathias Döll-Boscardin; Carla Cristine Kanunfre

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related t...

  12. SILVICULTURAL BEHAVIOR OF CLONES AND SPECIES/PROVENANCES OF HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus sp. IN NORTHWEST OF MINAS GERAIS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Massote Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the behavior of clone seedlings of natural hybrid of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh-Eucalyptusurophila S. T. Blake, identified as clones 8, 9, 11, and 12. Eucalyptus species/provenance were: APS-V (Eucalyptus camaldulensis,Zimbabue Africa provenance, USA (Eucalyptus urophylla, Avaré, Brazil provenance, EpK (Eucalyptus pellita Kuranda, Australiaprovenance and EcP (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Petford, Autrália provenance. The Experiment was established in four plantingspacing (3x2m; 6x2m; 6x3m and 6x4m. The experimental design was the entirely casualized block in a factorial outline (8x4x3, witheight genetic materials (four clones and four species/provenances, four spacing and three repetitions totaling 96 parcels. Thecollection of data was accomplished at 9.4 years of age. The survival, DAP, was evaluated the total height, the individual volume andfor hectare. The obtained data were submitted to the of Scott-Knott average test at 5% of probability. The results showed that, for DBHand volume per plant the interaction clones/provenance x spacing was significant; the volume per hectare decreased as the spacingincreased; the height was not affected by spacing, but was affected by the genetic material; for survival, the interaction clones/provenances x spacing was significant.

  13. Spatial distribution of water use by eucalyptus plantations in a small catchment in Guangxi, South China: a modelling and GIS approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Dongjun

    2009-01-01

    Industrial plantations of eucalyptus are sharply increasing in Asia. Although supplying raw material for the pulp and paper industry, easing deforestation on native forests and increasing carbon sequestration to help counter global warming, there are several concerns about the environmental effects of industrial eucalyptus plantations. These concerns include invasiveness of eucalyptus and loss of biodiversity, loss of land for food production, loss of soil fertility due to short rotation time...

  14. Effect of the plantation age on the use of Eucalyptus stands by medium to large-sized wild mammals in south-eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Timo TPC; Lyra-Jorge MC; Gheler-Costa C; Verdade LM

    2014-01-01

    In São Paulo State, in Southeastern Brazil, the Eucalyptus plantations have been replacing large areas which were formerly occupied by pastures used for livestock production. Such land use change may affect the habitat use by wildlife in these anthropic landscapes. In this region, the commercial Eucalyptus plantations of the paper and cellulose industry usually take from 6 to 7 years to be harvested. During its production cycle, the Eucalyptus stands vary from an open savanna-like environment...

  15. Identification and comparison of the yield and composition of essential oil constituents of four Eucalyptus species adapted to the climatic conditions of Khorramabad

    OpenAIRE

    Karamian Reza; Mohammadian Ali; Hassanimoghadam Esfandiar; Alizadeh Lila; Keshvari Mahtab; Hosseini Seyed Masih; Beyranvand Kolsoum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Eucalyptus has more than 400 species, while only a few species of this genus have been imported in Iran. In this study we aimed to investigate chemical compounds of the essential oils of Eucalyptus species adapted in Lorestan climate. Methods: In this study, the fresh young leaves of four different Eucalyptus species including E. suggrandis, E. globulus subsp. bicostata, E. nitens and E. globulus subsp. maidenii were collected in spring (the middle of May) in khorramabad, Iran. ...

  16. Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira / Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Odete Alves de, Souza; José de Castro, Silva; Ricardo Marius Della, Lucia; Wescley Viana, Evangelista.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de [...] plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a conso [...] rtium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during parallel-to-the-grain and mortising sawing. Woods from the clones tested seem very appropriate for furniture production. In fact, the samples did not show any difficulties during machining.

  17. Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Alves de Souza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira.The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a consortium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during parallel-to-the-grain and mortising sawing. Woods from the clones tested seem very appropriate for furniture production. In fact, the samples did not show any difficulties during machining.

  18. Eucalyptus sp. SEEDLING RESPONSE TO POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND SOIL WATER1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Teixeira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A considerable portion of Brazil‘s commercial eucalypt plantations is located in areas subjected to periods of water deficit and grown in soils with low natural fertility, particularly poor in potassium. Potassium is influential in controlling water relations of plants. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of potassium fertilization and soil water potential (?w on the dry matter production and on water relations of eucalypt seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. The experimental units were arranged in 4x4x2 randomized blocks factorial design, as follow: four species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, four dosages of K (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3 and two soil water potentials (-0.01MPa and -0.1 MPa. Plastic containers with 15 cm diameter and 18 cm height, with Styrofoam base, containing 3.0 dm3 of soil and two plants per container were used. Soil water potential was kept at –0.01MPa for 40 days after seeding. Afterward, the experimental units were divided into two groups: in one group the potential was kept at -0.01MPa, and in the other one, at -0.10 MPa. Soil water potential was controlled gravimetrically twice a day with water replacement until the desired potential was reestablished. A week before harvesting, the leaf water potential (?, the photosynthetic rate (A, the stomatal conductance (gs and the transpiration rate were evaluated. The last week before harvesting, the mass of the containers was recorded daily before watering to determine the consumption of water by the plants. After harvesting, total dry matter and leaf area were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, to Tukey's tests and regression analyses. The application of K influenced A, gs and the transpiration rate. Plants deficient in K showed lower A and higher gs and transpiration rates. There were no statistical differences in A, gs and transpiration rates in plants with and without water deficit. The addition of K reduced the consumption of water per unit of leaf area and, in general, plants submitted to water deficit presented a lower consumption of water.

  19. Seleção de genitores de Eucalyptus grandis e de Eucalyptus urophylla para produção de híbridos interespecíficos utilizando REML/BLUP e informação de divergência genética Selection of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla parents for the production of interespecific hybrids using REML/BLUP and genetic diversity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças de Barros Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 363 progênies de meios-irmãos de Eucalyptus urophylla e de 245 progênies de meios-irmãos de E. grandis, visando à seleção de genitores para a produção de híbridos interespecíficos em cruzamentos controlados em dialelo circulante, com base em seus valores genéticos preditos. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em Guanhães, MG, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, parcelas lineares de seis plantas para E. urophylla e oito plantas para E. grandis, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 2,0 m. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados adotando-se modelos mistos com uso do procedimento REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viesada para diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, altura total (ALT e volume individual (VOL. A predição dos valores genéticos foi feita somente para (DAP, característica que foi utilizada para seleção. Em E. urophylla, foram obtidas as estimativas de herdabilidade no sentido restrito de 0,2785 e de acurácia da ordem de 61%, e em E. grandis, herdabilidade de 0,2247 e acurácia de 53%. A seleção dos 100 genitores de cada espécie individualmente proporcionará ganhos genéticos na ordem de 20,6% em E. urophylla e de 16,4% em E. grandis. Ganho genético para DAP em torno de 35,0% poderá ser obtido com o cruzamento dos 10 indivíduos selecionados para cada espécie, portadores das maiores estimativas de divergência genética.Predicted parental genetic values of 363 half-sib Eucalyptus grandis and 245 half-sib E. urophylla progenies were evaluated for selection to produce interspecific hybrids in controlled crosses in a circulating diallel. The essays were conducted in Guanhães, Minas Gerais, in a complete randomized block design in five replications, row plots of six E. urophylla and eight E. grandis plants in 3.0 x 2.0 m spacing. The genetic parameters were estimated by mixed models using the REML / BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood / best linear unbiased prediction procedure for diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (TH and individual volume (VOL traits. The genetic values were only predicted for diameter at breast height (DBH, to which the selection was performed. The estimated heritability values in the restricted sense for Eucalyptus urophylla were 0.2785 and for accuracy 61%, and 0.2247 and 53% in Eucalyptus grandis, respectively. Selection of 100 parents of each species individually will provide genetic gains of 20.6 % in Eucalyptus urophylla and of 16.4 % in Eucalyptus grandis. A genetic gain for diameter at breast height around 35.0% can be obtained by crosses among the first 10 selected individuals of each species and carriers of the greatest genetic divergences.

  20. Workflow to improve the forest management of Eucalyptus globulus stands affected by Gonipterus scutellatus in Galicia (Spain) using remote sansing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Taboada, María Flor; Lorenzo Cimadevilla, Henrique; Rodríguez Pérez, José Ramón; Picos Martín, Juan

    2004-01-01

    In Spain there are more than 500.000 ha. of Eucalyptus plantations. There represent 3,5 % of the national forest and the 25 % of the timber harvested. Galicia monocultures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations cover 177.679 ha. and mixed stands of eucalyptus cover 200.000 ha. more. This high productivity has been powered by the absence of pests and pathogens. However, since 1991 the health and productivity of these stands has been threatened by the Eucalyptus snout beetle, which causes a...

  1. Crescimento de raizes e da parte aérea de clones de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla e de Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp submetidos a dois regimes de irrigação no campo Performance of Eucalyptus spp clones under different levels of soil water availability in the field - root and aboveground growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Gonçalves dos Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou subsidiar a seleção de genótipos de eucalipto para plantio em ambientes com disponibilidade variável de água no solo, através da análise do crescimento de raízes na fase inicial de estabelecimento da planta no campo e de sua associação com o crescimento das plantas adultas. Foram utilizados os clones 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 e 1277 de eucalipto, sob dois regimes de irrigação, a partir de seis meses de idade, em condições de campo, no norte do Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi estabelecido em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. O crescimento em altura aos 38 meses de idade não variou significativamente entre os tratamentos de irrigação, enquanto em diâmetro e volume nessa mesma idade foi significativamente superior nas plantas do tratamento irrigado em relação ao não-irrigado, sendo os clones 1260 e 0321 os mais produtivos. O clone 1277 apresentou menor sensibilidade à deficiência hídrica, o que pode ser atribuído ao intenso crescimento do sistema radicular. O clone 1250 apresentou menor crescimento em altura e diâmetro, possivelmente em razão de apresentar menor crescimento do sistema radicular, o que torna esse clone mais suscetível à deficiência hídrica. Com base nas avaliações realizadas, o clone 1250 não deve ser recomendado para regiões com déficit hídrico acentuado, e os demais clones estudados podem ser estabelecidos em regiões com regime hídrico semelhante ao da região objeto deste estudo, destacando-se os clones 1260 e 0321, por apresentarem maior produção volumétrica. Em condições de déficit hídrico mais acentuado, o clone 1277 é o mais promissor, em razão de não ter apresentado redução no crescimento, quando sob deficiência hídrica acentuada no solo.Below and aboveground growth of four Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla and one Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus spp clones identified as 0063, 0321, 1250, 1260 and 1277, were studied in the field under varying water availability. The objective of the study was to select eucalypt genotypes to be planted in sites with varying soil water availability. The experiment was set in Northeastern Brazil, Inhambupe, Bahia (Latitude - 11º47'00''S; Longitude - 38º21'00''W and Altitude - 154 m, with mean annual rainfall of 950 mm. Two levels of irrigation were applied six months after the seedlings have being planted in the field: (a irrigated when weekly rainfall was lower than 10 mm and, (b non-irrigated - plants received water only from rainfall. Root distribution and biomass were determined six months after planting, just before the irrigation treatment started, in order to characterize root growth of each clone. Height and diameter at breast height (DBH were measured at the age of 38 months. There was no significant difference (P=0.05 in height growth at this age between irrigation treatments, but there were differences in growth among clones: clone 1260 was significantly taller than the others. DBH and volume were significantly larger for irrigated plants; however, there was a tendency of clone 1277 to maintain growth even under drought. Clone 1260 followed by the 0321 presented the highest volume by the age of 38 months in both dry and wet soil conditions. The growth rate of clone 1277 is lower than for clones 1260 and 0321, but, due to its root production and distribution deep in the soil profile, it survives and grows in sites with low soil water availability. Clone 1250 showed great reduction in volume when under water stress, probably due to its poor root growth, i.e., this clone is not recommended for dry sites.

  2. Crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Eremanthus erythropappus sob diferentes formulações de substrato / Growth of Eucalyptus grandis and Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings under different substrate formulas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas Amaral de, Melo; Gabriel de Assis, Pereira; Edson Júnio Costa, Moreira; Antonio Claudio, Davide; Eduardo Vinícius da, Silva; Luís Antônio Fonseca, Teixeira.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis e Eremanthus erythropappus, além de analisar o custo do substrato produzido, em função de diferentes formulações utilizadas. Dessa forma, para cada espécie, foi utilizado um experimento instalado em [...] delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com as dez formulações de substrato contendo esterco de curral curtido, casca de arroz carbonizada, fibra de coco - estes variando nas proporções de 0, 30, 60 e 90% - e vermiculita média (10%). Ao final do processo de produção, foram quantificados: o percentual de sobrevivência, a altura da parte aérea e o diâmetro do coleto das mudas. Além disso, foi calculado o custo para produzir um metro cúbico de cada um dos dez substratos analisados. Verificou-se que os substratos influenciam significativamente o crescimento de ambas as espécies, sendo que o esterco influenciou de forma negativa no crescimento das mudas de candeia, enquanto, para o eucalipto, influenciou positivamente. O aumento de proporções de esterco diminuiu o custo por metro cúbico de substrato. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival and growth of Eucalyptus grandis and Eremanthus erythropappus seedlings, besides analyzing the cost of the substrate produced according to the different formulas used. To this end, for each species, a completely randomized experimental design was ca [...] rried out with ten substrate formulas containing cattle manure, carbonized rice husk, coconut fiber (at the proportions of 0, 30, 60 and 90%), and vermiculite (10%). At the end of the production process, the following variables were quantified: survival percentage, shoot height, and stem diameter of seedlings. Moreover, the cost to produce one m³ of each of the ten substrates analyzed was calculated. It was verified that the substrates significantly influenced the growth of both species: cattle manure negatively affected the growth of candeia seedlings and positively influenced the growth of eucalyptus seedlings. Increasing proportions of cattle manure reduced the cost per m³ of substrate.

  3. Vergamento da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis plasticizada por vaporização e cozimento / Solid wood bending of Eucalyptus grandis wood plasticized by steam and boiling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus Lemos, Peres; Rafael de Avila, Delucis; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O vergamento de madeira foi utilizado ao longo dos séculos para a produção de objetos grandes, como estruturas de embarcações ou pequenos utensílios. Mesmo com constantes estudos de vergamento, há carência de melhorias de processo e inclusão de madeiras de baixo valor comercial. Assim, o presente tr [...] abalho analisou a madeira vergada de Eucalyptus grandis tratada por diferentes tempos de exposição à vaporização e ao cozimento. Foram analisados o número de tipos de defeitos por peça vergada (Nºdef), a variação no teor de umidade perante os tratamentos (?Tu), a pressão de extremidade (Pe) e a perda de forma circular (Pf). Verificou-se que as variáveis diferem significativamente entre os tipos de tratamento de vaporização e cozimento, exceto para o Nºdef. Os tempos de tratamento não apresentaram efeito significativo. Concluiu-se que a espécie é aceitável para vergamentos em raios inferiores ao utilizado no presente estudo. Adicionalmente, a vaporização mostrou ser o melhor tratamento, por apresentar melhores parâmetros de qualificação. Abstract in english Wood bending has been used for centuries in the manufacturing not only of large objects, such as boat structures, but also small objects, like musical instruments. Despite a large number of studies on bending, process improvements and inclusion of low added-value timber are still insufficient. Hence [...] , this study proposes a bent wood analysis of Eucalyptus grandis treated with different steam and boiling exposure times. We analysed the number of failure types per sample (N.of f), moisture content variation in the treatments (?Tu), end pressure (Pe) and spring back (Pf). The variables showed significant differences between steaming and boiling, except for N.of f. Different treatment times did not show significant effects. We conclude that Eucalyptus grandis timber is suitable for bending at smaller radius than the one adopted in this study. Furthermore, steaming is better than boiling due to its higher qualification parameters.

  4. Química e colorimetria da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden termorretificada / Chemical and color changes in heat treated Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio José Vinha, Zanuncio; João Rodrigo Coimbra, Nobre; Javan Pereira, Motta; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A termorretificação visa melhorar as características para agregar valor à madeira através da aplicação de calor. O objetivo foi avaliar as alterações químicas e colorimétricas da madeira termorretificada de Eucalyptus grandis submetida a 170, 200 e 230 ºC por 3, 5 e 7 h. Os teores de extrativos, lig [...] nina, holocelulose, composição elementar e os parâmetros colorimétricos foram determinados. Os teores de extrativos aumentaram nos tratamentos a 170 °C e diminuíram a partir de 200 °C, enquanto o teor de lignina total aumentou e o de holocelulose diminuiu a partir de 200 °C. O teor de carbono aumentou e o de oxigênio diminuiu a 230 °C por 5 e 7 h. A termorretificação reduziu a claridade, matriz vermelho (a*) e matriz amarelo (b*) da madeira de eucalipto em todos os tratamentos. Abstract in english The heat treatment aims to improve the features to add value to the wood through the application of heat. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and colorimetric changes in Eucalyptus grandis wood heat treated at 170, 200 and 230 °C for three, five and seven hours. The content of ex [...] tractives, lignin, holocellulose, elemental composition and colorimetric parameters were determined. The extractives content increased in treatments at 170 °C and decreased from 200 °C, while total lignin increased and holocellulose decreased from 200 °C. The carbon content increased and oxygen content decreased at 230 °C for five and seven hours. The heat treatment reduced lightness, a* coordinate (red coordinate) and b* coordinate (yellow coordinate) of eucalyptus wood in all treatments.

  5. Determinação da densidade básica da madeiras de Eucalyptus por diferentes métodos não destrutivos / Determination of Eucalyptus basic density by different non-destructive methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana de Fátima Gomes, Gouvêa; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; José Lívio, Gomide; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; Carlos Rogério, Andrade; Isabel Cristina Nogueira, Alves.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos não destrutivos vêm se tornando importante alternativa para predições das características da madeira. A facilidade e precisão das predições têm feito com que muitas empresas adotem estes novos métodos. A avaliação da qualidade da madeira por técnicas mais simples e rápidas é uma necessida [...] de fundamental na qualificação de florestas de Eucalyptus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar diferentes métodos de avaliação não destrutiva da madeira, a saber: (1) Resistógrafo, (2) Pilodyn e (3) Espectroscopia de Infravermelho Próximo-NIRS para predição da densidade básica da madeira. Neste estudo foram utilizados seis clones de eucalipto, com 3 anos de idade, plantados comercialmente com espaçamentos de 3,0 x 3,3m. As amostras foram coletadas no Estado de Minas Gerais, em diferentes regiões (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce e Santa Bárbara). Foram utilizadas cinco árvores por clone. A técnica para estimativa da densidade básica que apresentou maior precisão foi a resistografia, seguida do NIR e, finalmente, do Pilodyn. Abstract in english Non-destructive methods are becoming an important alternative for predicting the wood characteristics. The predictions ease and accuracy have led many companies to adopt these new methods. Assessing the wood quality by simpler and faster techniques is a fundamental need in the Eucalyptus forests qua [...] lification. This study aimed to investigate some different methods of wood nondestructive evaluation, namely: "(1) Resistograph, (2) Pilodyn, and (3), and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)" to predict the wood basic density. Six different three-year-old eucalyptus clones, planted commercially in the spacing of 3.0 x 3.3, were used for this study. The samples were collected in Minas Gerais, from different regions (Cocais, Guanhães, Rio Doce, and Santa Bárbara). We used five trees per clone. The technique to estimate the basic density with the highest accuracy was resistograph followed by the NIR and finally Pilodyn..

  6. Prediction of the modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus grandis through two nondestructive techniques / Predição do módulo de elasticidade de Eucalyptus grandis por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de, Cademartori; André Luiz, Missio; Darci Alberto, Gatto; Rafael, Beltrame.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou estimar o módulo de elasticidade à flexão estática da madeira de cerne e alburno de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio de duas técnicas não destrutivas: ultrassom e ondas de tensão. Para tal, 60 amostras de cerne e alburno foram preparadas. Os testes não destrutivos foram reali [...] zados por meio de um equipamento de ultrassom e um de ondas de tensão, enquanto que os testes destrutivos de flexão estática foram realizados em uma máquina universal de ensaios. Os principais resultados mostraram que a madeira de cerne apresentou melhor comportamento nos ensaios não destrutivos, quando comparada à madeira de alburno. No entanto, o melhor modelo matemático foi obtido considerando-se cerne e alburno, quando estes foram analisados por meio da técnica ultrassônica. Dessa maneira, concluiu-se, no presente estudo, que as técnicas de ondas de tensão e ultrassom podem ser empregadas com o intuito de estimar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to estimate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) at static bending of Rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis) heartwood and sapwood through two nondestructive techniques: ultrasound and stress wave. Sixty samples of heartwood and sapwood were prepared. Nondestructive tests were performed us [...] ing ultrasound and stress wave timer equipment, while destructive tests were carried out in a universal machine through static bending tests. The main results showed that the heartwood presented better behavior than the sapwood in the non-destructive tests. However, the best model was obtained considering both wood types through the ultrasonic technique. Therefore, stress wave and ultrasonic techniques could be employed to estimate the modulus of elasticity of Rose gum wood.

  7. Utilização do pó de basalto em substratos para mudas de Eucalyptus grandis / Use of basalt dust in substrates for Eucalyptus grandis seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tiago, Ehlers; Guilherme Oliveira Santos Ferraz de, Arruda.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O pó de rocha basáltica é um resíduo de mineração com potencial para ser reutilizado como um componente de substratos florestais, por conter elementos minerais importantes, como os macronutrientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do pó de basalto, adicionado em diferentes dosagens a m [...] isturas com vermiculita e composto comercial de turfa, no desenvolvimento de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, aos 180 dias após a semeadura. Analisados os dados morfológicos indicadores de qualidade de mudas florestais - como altura da parte aérea (h), diâmetro do coleto (d) e relação entre altura da parte aérea e diâmetro do coleto (h/d) - , concluiu-se que o pó de basalto, em dosagens de 10 a 20%, adicionado a substratos com misturas de vermiculita e composto à base de turfa, é um componente com potencial favorável ao desenvolvimento da altura da parte aérea e do diâmetro do coleto, nas mudas de Eucalyptus grandis. Observou-se também a emergência da parte aérea e a sobrevivência das mudas, cujo percentual, para ambas, foi 100%. Abstract in english Basalt rock dust is a residue of basaltic rock mining with potential to be reused as a component of forestry substrates because of its important mineral elements, such as the macronutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of residual basalt dust, mixed in different strengths with vermiculi [...] te and organic compound made from peat, in seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, 180 days after sowing. After analysis of the morphological indicators of quality forest seedlings, such as aerial part height (h), stem diameter (d), and aerial part height/stem diameter ratio (h/d), it was possible to conclude that basalt dust, in doses of 10 to 20% added to the substrates with mixtures of vermiculite and peat compost, is a component with favorable potential to the development of aerial part height and stem diameter in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. It was also possible to observe that both the emergence of the aerial part and the seedling survival reached 100%.

  8. Simulação em uso dos pisos de madeira de Eucalyptus sp e Corymbia maculata / Simulation of the use of wooden floors of Eucalyptus sp and Corymbia maculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Martins; José Reinaldo Moreira da, Silva; José Tarcísio, Lima; Marcos Tadeu Tiburcio, Gonçalves; Alexandre Petusk, Filipe.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização anatômica, física, mecânica e química da madeira fornece informações importantes para sua melhor utilização. Contudo, para que madeiras se tornem boa opção para o mercado de pisos, adicionalmente é necessária a realização de ensaios que simulem suas reais condições em serviço. Esses [...] ensaios simulam o pisoteio executado pelos sapatos de salto com pequenas áreas de pressão, o arraste e a queda de objetos, a resistência à abrasão da superfície e o atrito oferecido durante o deslocamento de pessoas que caminham sobre ele. Grande dificuldade da seleção de novas madeiras para pisos está na ausência de valores de referência físico-mecânicos. O presente trabalho visou a caracterizar as madeiras de Eucalyptus clöeziana F. Muell, de Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell e de Corymbia maculata Hook, para as propriedades de densidade básica, retratibilidade, aplicação de carga rolante, de atrito estático e dinâmico, endentação causada por cargas aplicadas em pequenas áreas, impacto da esfera de aço cadente e resistência à abrasão. Foi observado que as madeiras estudadas podem ser utilizadas para a confecção de pisos, de acordo com seus resultados obtidos e por meio de comparações com resultados de literatura. Abstract in english The anatomic, physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of wood provides important information for the indication of its best usage. However, to make these woods possible to become a good option in the wooden floors market, it is necessary to perform tests that simulate the real conditions [...] of their practical use. These tests simulate the stomping of high-heeled shoes with small pressure areas, the dragging and falling of objects, the resistance to the surface abrasion and the friction offered during the walking of people. The difficulty of selection of new wood to manufacture floors is in the absence of specific physical-mechanical reference values. The present work intended to characterize the Eucalyptus clöeziana F. Muell, Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell and Corymbia maculata Hook woods, regarding the properties of basic density, shrinkage, application of rolling roll, of static and dynamic friction, denting caused by loads applied on small areas, impact of falling steel sphere and resistance to abrasion. It was noticed that the woods may be used to the manufacturing of floors, according to results obtained and through comparisons with literature results.

  9. Efecto de poda y raleo en el área foliar de Eucalyptus nitens Effect of pruning and thinning intensity on Eucalyptus nitens leaf area

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Muñoz; Miguel Espinosa; Jorge Cancino; Rafael Rubilar; Miguel Herrera

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens es una especie de rápido crecimiento plantada principalmente en Chile y Australia (Tasmania). En Chile, no hay estudios publicados de área foliar en bosques adultos de E. nitens. Se investigó el efecto de la poda y el raleo en el área foliar de E. nitens. Los datos utilizados provienen de una plantación de 15 años de edad, luego de nueve años de establecido el ensayo. El estudio fue realizado en una plantación efectuada el año 1989, cercana a la localidad de Los Alamos, zona...

  10. Promoção de enraizamento de microestacas de um clone de Eucalyptus sp. por Trichoderma spp. Root induction from microcutting of an Eucalyptus sp. clone by Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Oliveira Fortes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o emprego de isolados antagonistas de fungos visando à promoção do enraizamento de microestacas de um clone de Eucalyptus sp. Utilizaram-se no teste de promoção de enraizamento de microestacas um isolado não-patogênico de Cylindrocladium spp. e mais três isolados antagonistas de Trichoderma spp. (E15, S2 e St, os quais apresentaram as melhores notas de antagonismo em teste in vitro, pelo método de confrontação direta contra isolado patogênico de Cylindrocladium spp., sendo inoculados no substrato de desenvolvimento das microestacas sob condições de estufa. Observou-se aumento de sobrevivência das microestacas na presença dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. e Cylindrocladium spp., em comparação com a testemunha, em ambiente naturalmente infestado por Botrytis cinerea. O tratamento com os isolados ST, E15 e S2 de Trichoderma spp. e Cyl de Cylindrocladium spp. aumentou a sobrevivência de microestacas de Eucalyptus sp. O isolado E15 promoveu o enraizamento de microestacas, apresentando aumento significativo na porcentagem de enraizamento (62,25% em relação ao tratamento-testemunha (28,77%.The purpose of this research was to apply antagonistic isolates of fungi to induce microcutting rooting of an Eucalyptus sp. clone. One non-pathogenic isolate of Cylindrocladium spp. and three antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp (E15, S2 and St were used for the microcutting rooting experiment. The latter gave better results in the antagonistic in vitro test using the method of direct confrontation against the pathogenic isolate of Cylindrocladium spp, being inoculated in the microcutting rooting substrate, in greenhouse conditions. Increase of microcutting survival was observed in the presence of isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Cylindrocladium spp. when compared with control in an environment naturally infested with Botrytis cinerea. The treatments with the isolates ST, E15 and S2 of Trichoderma spp. and Cyl of Cylindrocladium spp. increased the survival of Eucalyptus sp. microcuttings. The E15 isolate promoted a significant increase in the rooting percentage (62.25% compared to the control treatment (28.77% .

  11. Avaliação da superfície da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden tratada termicamente / Surface evaluation of the heat treated wood of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilmara Pires de Moura, Palermo; João Vicente de Figueiredo, Latorraca; Alexandre Monteiro de, Carvalho; Rosilei Aparecida, Garcia.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estudar a qualidade da superfície usinada da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, submetida ao processo de tratamento térmico. As operações de usinagens realizadas nas tábuas obtidas a partir do processamento de mecânico de seis árvores foram: desempeno, desengrosso, rasgo na f [...] uradeira horizontal, furação, furação para dobradiça e lixamento. Foram selecionadas 208 tábuas de 125 x 25 x 500 mm, sendo 104 não tratadas e 104 tratadas termicamente a uma temperatura final de 190ºC. A avaliação da superfície foi feita de acordo com a norma ASTM D-1666/87. O resultado mostrou que a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis apresenta um bom comportamento durante os testes de usinagem, obtendo notas 1 e 2 (excelente e bom), exceto para os testes de furação para a dobradiça no furo passante e furação com broca de 12, 8 e 6 mm, pois alcançaram notas entre 2 e 4 (bom, regular e ruim). O tratamento térmico diminuiu a quantidade de defeitos nas amostras usinadas, com exceção para o defeito grã arrancada, em algumas operações de usinagem. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge a [...] nd sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good), except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad). The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  12. Estudo da degradação térmica da madeira de Eucalyptus através de termogravimetria e calorimetria / Study of thermal degradation of Eucalyptus wood by thermogravimetry and calorimetry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bárbara Luísa Corradi, Pereira; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira, Carneiro; Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira, Carvalho; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves, Melo; Aylson Costa, Oliveira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradação térmica da madeira de diferentes clones de Eucalyptus, por meio de análises termogravimétrica (TG/DTG) e de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC), estabelecendo-se suas relações com a produção de carvão vegetal. Foram utilizados seis clones de [...] Eucalyptus spp. aos 7,5 anos de idade, provenientes de um teste clonal pertencente a uma empresa florestal. Foram realizadas as análises TG/DTG e DSC, sob atmosfera de gás nitrogênio. As curvas TG/DTG mostraram três faixas de degradação térmica, atribuídas à secagem da madeira e à degradação de hemiceluloses e celulose. Não foi detectada faixa específica de degradação de lignina. As curvas DSC evidenciaram um pico endotérmico entre as temperaturas de 50 e 100 ºC, o que pode ser atribuído à perda de água da madeira. A liberação de calor iniciou-se em temperaturas acima de 275 ºC, para todos os clones avaliados, sendo observados dois picos exotérmicos. As análises térmicas da madeira (TG/DTG e DSC) não apresentaram variações expressivas entre os clones. Conclui-se que, através das técnicas estudadas, é possível identificar as principais fases das reações de liberação ou absorção de energia e perda de massa, que estão diretamente ligadas à qualidade do carvão vegetal. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the wood thermal degradation of different Eucalyptus clones by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) by establishing their relationships with charcoal production. Six clones of Eucalyptus spp. were evaluated. Such [...] clones were from a clonal test of a forest company. The analyses of TG/DTG and DSC were carried out in nitrogen atmosphere. The TG/DTG curves showed three bands of thermal degradation attributed to the drying of wood, cellulose and hemicelluloses degradation. A specific range of lignin degradation was not detected. DSC curves showed an endothermic peak between 50 and 100ºC, which can be attributed to water loss. The heat release started at temperatures above 275 º C, for all clones, in which two exothermic peaks were found. The thermal analysis of wood (TG / DTG and DSC) showed no significant variations among the clones. It can be concluded that by using the studied techniques, it is possible to identify the major stages of release or absorption of energy, and weight loss, which are directly related to the quality of charcoal.

  13. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (sugar gum) using ISSR markers / Análise da diversidade genética de Eucalyptus cladocalyx usando marcadores ISSR.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulina, Ballesta; Freddy, Mora; Rodrigo Ivan, Contreras-Soto; Eduardo, Ruiz; Sandra, Perret.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell é distribuída em quatro regiões isoladas do sul da Austrália: Kangaroo Island, Flinders Ranges e em duas zonas da Eyre Peninsula. A espécie tem a capacidade de crescer em condições ambientais extremas como ambientes secos e solos salinos. O objetivo do presente estudo [...] foi examinar a diversidade genética em 45 famílias de meio-irmãos cultivadas no norte do Chile, as quais são originarias de cinco localidades diferentes (procedências). A variabilidade genética foi avaliada usando marcadores moleculares ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat). Os resultados mostraram baixo nível de diversidade genética dentro de populações (He = 0,113 a 0,268) em contraste com outras espécies de Eucalyptus. Adicionalmente, houve uma significativa diferenciação genética entre procedências (?st = 0.14), coincidindo com a reportada em estudos anteriores. Kangaroo Island é a procedência mais diferenciada. O presente estudo evidenciou que os recursos existentes no Chile são uma amostra representativa das populações Australianas e, portanto, o germoplasma cultivado no norte do Chile seria suficiente para os programas de melhoramento. A tecnologia de marcadores ISSR poderia ser uma alternativa para identificar genótipos de interesse no processo de seleção. Abstract in english Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell is a tree endemic to southern Australia and is distributed across four isolated regions: Kangaroo Island, southern Flinders Ranges, and two geographical zones in Eyre Peninsula. E. cladocalyx is capable of growing under extreme environmental conditions, including dry a [...] nd saline soils. The objective of this study was to analyze genetic diversity in 45 half-sib families planted in northern Chile that are distributed across five different zones (provenances). Genetic variability was assessed using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) molecular markers. The results showed low levels of genetic diversity within populations (He = 0.113 to 0.268) in contrast with other Eucalyptus species. In addition, there was a significant genetic differentiation among provenances (?st = 0.14); populations from the Kangaroo Island provenance showed more differentiation than any other population. These results are in agreement with previous studies of the species. Our study revealed that Chilean resources are a representative sample of Australian populations; therefore, the germplasm planted in northern Chile would be sufficient for the development of improvement programs. ISSR-Marker technology could be an alternative to identify genotypes of interest in material selection.

  14. Azafenidin: novo herbicida para o controle de plantas daninhas em Eucalyptus camaldulensis Azafenidin: a new herbicide for weed control in Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Constantin; R.S. Oliveira JR; C.D.G. Maciel

    2000-01-01

    Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Presidente Castelo Branco-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade do herbicida azafenidin para a cultura de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, assim como sua eficácia no controle de algumas plantas daninhas infestantes nessa cultura. Azafenidin foi aplicado nas doses de 300, 400, 500 600 e 800 g i.a. ha-1, em pré-emergencia das plantas daninhas. Tratamentos adicionais, incluindo oxyfluorfen (720 g i.a. ha-1), uma testemunha capinada e outra testemunha sem ...

  15. Caracterización fitosanitaria de astillas de Eucalyptus spp. y de especies nativas Phytosanitary characterization of Eucalyptus spp. and native species chips

    OpenAIRE

    DOLLY LANFRANCO; SANDRA IDE; CECILIA RUIZ; ISABEL VIVES; HERNAN PEREDO

    2003-01-01

    Se entregan los primeros antecedentes sobre el estado sanitario de astillas de Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens y de especies nativas. Se estudiaron ocho embarques de astillas, en los cuales el principal problema debido principalmente al tiempo de acanchado del producto fue la presencia de hongos manchadores pertenecientes al género Ceratocystis. No existen problemas ocasionados por insectos, sólo se detectó la presencia de galerías, en un porcentaje muy bajo de astillas de especies nativas (0,...

  16. Influência da arquitetura foliar de miniestacas na propagação clonal de Eucalyptus / Influence of leaf architecture of minicuttings in clonal propagation of Eucalyptus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alan Ferreira, Batista; Glêison Augusto dos, Santos; Luciana Duque, Silva; Franco Freitas, Quevedo; Teotônio Francisco de, Assis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do progresso da silvicultura clonal alcançado por meio da técnica de miniestaquia, pouco se avançou em relação às espécies recalcitrantes, sobretudo com relação ao manejo empregado em miniestacas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da arquitetura de miniestacas na produção de mudas de qua [...] tro clones de Eucalyptus, foram realizadas avaliações nas três fases de produção de mudas: 1) Sobrevivência aos 30 dias em casa de vegetação, 2) Enraizamento aos 45 dias em casa de sombra; e 3) Aproveitamento final aos 60 dias na área de rustificação. A taxa de enraizamento foi determinada com base na taxa de sobrevivência aos 30 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com arranjo de tratamento em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, sendo três tipos de arquitetura de miniestaca: 1) folha inteira (100%); 2) folha cortada (50%); e 3) miniestaca cortada em "árvore de natal" (folhas subapicais cortadas em ¾ e basais inteiras) e quatro clones de (Eucalyptus E. dunnii , E. saligna e dois de E. urophylla x E. globulus), com quatro repetições e 100 plantas por bloco. De acordo com os resultados, a produção de mudas foi afetada pelo tipo de arquitetura de miniestacas. A arquitetura que apresentou os melhores resultados nas avaliações foi "árvore de natal" e folha inteira. Abstract in english Despite the advances on minicutting techniques for clonal silviculture, little progress has been made considering recalcitrant species, especially for the handling in minicuttings practices. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the architecture of minicuttings in the production of four clo [...] nes of Eucalyptus seedlings. Evaluations in the three phases of seedlings production were performed: 1) Survival at 30 days in the greenhouse; 2) Rooting at 45 days in the shade house; and 3) Final exploitation at 60 days in the rustication area. The rooting rates was calculated based on the surviving rates at 30 days. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatment in a factorial scheme 3 x 4, with three types of minicutting architecture: 1) whole leaf (100%); 2) cut leaf (50%); and 3) minicutting in the form of a "christmas tree" (sub apical leaves cut in ¾ and basal leaves left uncut) and four clones of Eucalyptus (E. dunnii, E. saligna), and two clones of E. urophylla x E. globulus. We used 100 plants per block with four replications. The results have shown that the production of seedlings was affected by the type of architecture adopted in the minicuttings. The architecture that showed the best results in the evaluations were "christmas tree" and whole leaf.

  17. Aporte de la hojarasca al ciclo biogeoquímico en plantaciones de Eucalyptus nitens, X Región, Chile Litter contribution to biogeochemical cycle in Eucalyptus nitens plantations, X Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN E. SCHLATTER; Víctor Gerding; Sigrid Calderón

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo evalúa el flujo de hojarasca en una plantación de Eucalyptus nitens establecida en un andisol (comuna de Fresia, X Región, Chile), en un área con diferentes tratamientos de fertilización, desde el cierre de copas hasta el inicio de la edad fustal (4-7 años de edad). Al cierre de copas se alcanzó la máxima caída de hojarasca (7-11 t ha-1), siendo menor en los años siguientes (5-6 t ha-1); la mayor proporción (45-60%) cayó en verano. Con esta biomasa regresaron al suelo 20-5...

  18. Evaluation of Eucalyptus clones in different places seeking to the production of vegetal charcoal Avaliação de clones de Eucalyptus em diferentes locais visando à produção de carvão vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Andrade Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This research aim to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of three Eucalyptus clones planted at different places and to verify the existent functional relations between the basic density and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. Three Eucalyptus clones were evaluated and four trees were sample for each clone and place. It was determined the depth of penetration of a Pilodyn pin at 1.30 m of height of the soil (DBH, average basic density (DBm, the basic density at DBH, the calorific value, lignin, total extractive, ashes and holocellulose contents and elemental chemical analysis (C, H, N and O. The wood was carbonized and the charcoal produced was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In the evaluation of the wood characteristics a completely randomized design disposed in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 was used. A linear model was adjusted between DBm and the depth of penetration of the Pilodyn pin. It was possible to conclude that the clones present potential to be used for energy. The charcoal produced may be used in siderurgy. The linear model adjusted between DBm and the penetration of the Pilodyn pin was satisfactory.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a qualidade da madeira e do carvão vegetal de três clones de Eucalyptus plantados em diferentes locais e verificar a relação funcional existente entre a densidade básica e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foram avaliados três clones de Eucalyptus e amostradas quatro árvores por clone em cada local. Determinou-se a profundidade de penetração de um pino de aço do Pilodyn a 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP, a densidade básica média (DBm, a densidade básica no DAP, o poder calorífico superior e os teores de lignina, extrativos totais, cinzas, holocelulose e a análise química elementar (C, H, N e O. A madeira foi carbonizada e o carvão produzido foi avaliado quantitativamente e qualitativamente. Na avaliação das características da madeira, utilizou-se um DIC em um esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Foi ajustado um modelo linear entre a DBm e a profundidade de penetração do pino do Pilodyn. Foi possível concluir que os clones apresentaram potencial para o uso energético. O carvão vegetal produzido pode ser utilizado na siderurgia. O modelo linear ajustado entre a DBm e a penetração do pino do Pilodyn mostrou-se satisfatório.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.319

  19. Deriva simulada de triclopyr e fluroxypyr + triclopyr no desenvolvimento de mudas de clones de Eucalyptus / Simulated drift of triclopyr and fluroxypyr + triclopyr on development Eucalyptus clones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislean Pereira, Carvalho; André Amaral da, Silva; Thomas Vieira, Nunes; Fernando Araújo, Barbosa; José Iran Cardoso da, Silva; Fernando Barnabé, Cerqueira; Eduardo Andrea Lemus, Erasmo; Renato Almeida, Sarmento.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O Estado do Tocantins tem-se destacado nos últimos anos como promissor em reflorestamentos com eucalyptus . Um dos problemas com grande destaque na silvicultura tocantinense é o amplo número de espécies infestantes (conhecidas comumente como rebrotas de Cerrado), resultantes de áreas recém-desmatada [...] s. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da deriva simulada do herbicida triclopir e da mistura formulada triclopir + fluroxipir em mudas de clones de eucalipto, ambos em duas doses, correspondentes a 50 e 25% da dose de 7 L ha-1 p.c, recomendados tradicionalmente em pastagem. Foram avaliadas as variações em altura de plantas, variações de diâmetro do caule, relação altura/diâmetro, acúmulo de massa de matéria seca: de folhas, de caules, de ramos, de raízes e total. Os herbicidas afetaram negativamente o crescimento dos clones de eucalipto até os 28 dias após a aplicação. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que o efeito da deriva é menor quando os herbicidas triclopir e fluroxipir + triclopir são aplicados, ambos na dose de 25%, diminuindo, assim, o risco de perdas. Abstract in english Recently, Tocantins State, Brazil, has been noticed in the field of reforestation by using eucalyptus species. One of the main problems of forestry in this State is the wide range of weed species (commonly known as regrowth of savanna), resulting from newly deforested areas. Thus, the aim of this st [...] udy was to evaluate the effect of simulated drift auxin of two herbicides on growth of seedlings of eucalyptus clones. We used the herbicide fluroxypyr + triclopyr and triclopyr at two doses, corresponding to 50 and 25% of the dose of 7 L ha-1 pc, traditionally recommended for pasture. We evaluated the variation in plant height, stem diameter increment, height / diameter ratio, dry matter accumulation on leaves, stems, branches, roots and total. The herbicides studied negatively affected the growth of eucalyptus clones untill the 28th day after the application. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that the derived effect was lower when the herbicides triclopyr and fluroxypyr + triclopyr were applied, both at the dose of 25%, thus decreasing the risk of yield losses at this dose.

  20. Propriedades de painéis aglomerados fabricados com partículas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla), paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) e vassoura (Sida spp.) / Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla), parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) and vassoura (Sida spp.) particles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Jerásio, Bianche; Angélica de Cássia Oliveira, Carneiro; Benedito Rocha, Vital; Flávia Alves, Pereira; Rosimeire Cavalcante dos, Santos; Déborah Nava, Soratto.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Sida pode se tornar uma fonte alternativa bastante promissora para a produção de painéis de madeira aglomerada, uma vez que é utilizado na fabricação de cordas, em razão da qualidade de suas fibras, porém, são inexistentes pesquisas relacionadas à produção de painéis de aglomerado, utilizan [...] do este material lignocelulósico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de painéis aglomerados de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla) e paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) em associação com vassoura (Sida spp.). Para a produção dos painéis de aglomerado foram utilizadas misturas em 4 proporções (25, 50, 75 e 100%) de partículas de vassoura em associação com partículas de eucalipto e paricá, e associação de partículas de eucalipto em associação com paricá, sendo adicionadas a essas partículas dois teores de adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído (6% e 8%). Os ensaios físicos e mecânicos foram realizados segundo a norma NBR/ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002). Os resultados experimentais mostraram que o aumento no teor de adesivo na produção dos painéis de aglomerado contribuiu para melhorar algumas propriedades físicas e mecânicas. Concluiu-se que o incremento de partículas de vassoura nos painéis teve efeito diferenciado em função das espécies utilizadas. O incremento da porcentagem de partículas de vassoura aos painéis produzidos com eucalipto não afetou a resistência à tração perpendicular, arrancamento de parafuso e dureza Janka. O incremento da porcentagem de partículas de vassoura aos painéis produzidos com paricá não afetou a resistência à dureza Janka e ao arrancamento de parafuso. Os painéis produzidos com partículas de vassoura absorveram mais água e, por consequência, o inchamento em espessura aumentou, sendo, portanto não recomendados para uso em ambientes com alto teor de umidade. Concluiu-se que o gênero Sida, de modo geral, apresentou potencial para produção dos painéis de aglomerado. Abstract in english The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed t [...] o evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla), paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) and vassoura (Sida spp.) on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8%) amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002). It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  1. Crescimento e nutrição mineral de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla em solução nutritiva com concentração crescente de cobre / Growth and mineral nutrition of Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalypts urophylla in nutrient solution with increasing concentration of copper

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CLÁUDIO ROBERTO FONSÊCA SOUSA, SOARES; JOSÉ OSWALDO, SIQUEIRA; JANICE GUEDES DE, CARVALHO; FÁTIMA MARIA SOUZA, MOREIRA; PAULO HENRIQUE, GRAZZIOTTI.

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de concentrações crescentes de Cu no crescimento, teores e translocação de metais pesados e nutrientes no eucalipto em solução nutritiva. Mudas de Eucalyptus maculata e Eucalyptus urophylla foram crescidas em vasos de 2L contendo solução nutritiva de Clark, adicionando-se 0, 32, [...] 64, 128 e 192 m M de Cu fornecido como CuSO4. Após cinco semanas de exposição aos tratamentos, as plantas exibiram sintomas típicos de toxidez de Cu como manchas aquosas foliares, clorose e necrose internerval, além do escurecimento das raízes e inibição do crescimento mesmo nas menores concentrações do elemento. A concentração crítica de Cu na solução para reduzir em 10% a matéria seca da parte aérea foi de 8,3 miM e 3,3 miM para E. urophylla e E. maculata, respectivamente. O nível crítico de toxidez na matéria seca da parte aérea foi muito baixo, entre 12 e 13 mg Kg-1 para ambas espécies. E. urophylla mostrou-se menos sensível do que E. maculata, sendo isso relacionado à capacidade dessa em restringir a translocação do Cu das raízes para a parte aérea. Além disso, E. urophylla absorveu mais Fe na presença do excesso de Cu. A translocação de Fe das raízes para a parte aérea foi reduzida, independentemente da espécie, de 27% no controle para apenas 12% na concentração de 192 m M Cu, evidenciando a alta interferência do Cu na translocação do Fe, podendo ser uma das causas da fitotoxidez do Cu para o eucalipto. Altas concentrações de Cu não causaram redução na absorção e translocação de P, K, S, Ca e Mg, não representando, portanto, mecanismo de fitotoxidez desse metal pesado para essas espécies. Abstract in english The effects of increasing concentrations of Cu in nutrient solution on growth, content and translocation of heavy metals and mineral nutrients in eucalyptus were evaluated. Seedlings of Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalypts urophylla were grown in pots containing 2 L of Clark’s nutrient solution, amende [...] d with 0, 32, 64, 128 and 192 m M Cu supplied as CuSO4. After five weeks of growth in the treatments, plants exhibited typical symptoms of Cu toxicity characterized by aqueous stains, interveinal leaf chlorosis and tissue necrosis. In addition to inhibition of growth, roots were dark even at lower Cu concentrations. The critical Cu toxicity concentrations which decreased shoot dry matter by 10%, were 8,3 muM and 3,3 muM for E. urophylla and E. maculata, respectively, whereas plant tissue critical toxicity concentration was between 12 and 13 mg kg-1 for both species, therefore indicating the high sensitivity of the Eucalyptus spp. to Cu. E. urophylla was less sensitive to Cu than E. maculata and this was related to the capacity of this species to restrict Cu translocation to shoots. Fe translocation was reduced by increasing Cu in both species. Translocation index was, on average, 27% in the control and 12% with 192 muM Cu in nutrient solution. However, E. urophylla exhibited higher Fe uptake under excessive Cu. This effect could be one of the causes of the eucalypts sensitivity to Cu. Toxic concentrations of Cu did not reduce uptake or translocation of P, K, S, Ca e Mg. Therefore reduced nutrient uptake does not account for the Cu toxicity effects observed.

  2. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Inácio de, Campos; Francisco Antonio Rocco, Lahr.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard), in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from al [...] ternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  3. CERAMBYCIDAE BEETLES ASSOCIATED TO Eucalyptus spp. IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect, identify and carry out a faunistic characterization of Cerambycidae occurring in a forest of Eucalyptus spp., on São Manoel farm, in the municipality of Pinheiro Machado, RS. In the period from February 2006 to October 2007, collections of insects were performed every 15 days, with three ethanol traps. After selection procedures, the Cerambycidae were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. We collected 692 insects, distributed among 29 genera and 40 species. The most abundant species were Acanthoderes jaspidea, Chlorida costata, Compsocerus barbicornis, Eburodacrys sp., Eurysthea hirta, Neoclytus curvatus and Nyssodrysina lignaria, which represented 81.17% of the total individuals. Cerambycidae were collected during practically the entire sampling period, but the largest number at a single collection occurred in the month of December. Several species demonstrate potential for damaging Eucalyptus spp., of which Neoclytus curvatus deserves the most attention, because it represented almost half of the insects collected.

  4. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LEAF-CUTTING ANT NESTS (Hymenoptera: Formicidae IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Araújo Caldeira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Programs of integrated pest management in forest plantation require a sampling plan. Therefore, it is important todetermine the spatial distribution these pests, because it makes the decision process more precise, given that it takes into accounttheir local and regional spatial distribution variations. This work was carried out for evaluating the spatial distribution of antnests in eucalyptus plantations. Twelve eucalyptus stands belonging to V&M Florestal Ltd., in Bocaiúva county, Minas Gerais,were used. They were divided into 6m x 20m sub parcels, totalizing 120m2. The nests were identified, counted and measured ineach parcel. Both found and expected frequency of nests were calculated according to Poisson’s distribution, in order todetermine the type of spatial distribution of nests. The found and the expected frequency (x2; p>0.01 were similar. The result was a randomized distribution.

  5. Relationship between density and anatomical structure of different species of Eucalyptus and identification of preservatives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael C., Abruzzi; Berenice A., Dedavid; Marçal J. R., Pires; Suzana F., Ferrarini.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species and density of Eucalyptus wood poles installed in the electrical network are useful parameters which must be considered when it is necessary to establish the service life of these structures. In this work, eucalyptus poles samples were collected and analyzed by scanning electron microsco [...] py and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). SEM image analysis showed that the lumen diameter average of fiber substantially is variable between the three species studied, in line with the wood density obtained in laboratory, for poles with several years in service in the electricity network, as well as for not used poles. In addition, EDS microanalysis was utilized for identify the presence of chemical preservatives employed in the conservation these poles. The analysis method proposed proved effective for characterization for this timber.

  6. Adjusting the log-Pearson type III function to even-aged eucalyptus stands data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the log-Pearson tipo III function to describe the diameter structure of even-aged stands, and propose a diameter distribution model using the function. The modeling function performed by the log-Pearson tipo III was compared with the modeling performed with the Weibull function. For this we used data from permanent plots of eucalyptus, located in the Midwestern region of Minas Gerais. Adherence to the functions of the data was confirmed by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS. The diameter distribution models used were based on models proposed by Nogueira et al. (2005 and were evaluated in terms of RMSE (% and the correlation coefficient between estimated and observed values. All fitting to the data presented adherence by the KS test. All equations fitted for the recovery of the diameter distribution showed high correlation coefficients and can be used for modeling the diameter distribution of eucalyptus.

  7. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Michele Santos Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF NIRS CALIBRATION MODELS FOR MINIMIZATION OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Chagas de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to select Eucalyptus spp. wood samples for development of NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy calibration models aiming to minimize number of samples but maintaining the model precisions. A large number of Eucalyptus spp. wood samples (3369 samples were used to develop NIRS calibration models for the wood basic density, the lignin content and the ethanol-toluene extractives. The models developed with the total number of samples were compared with models developed using only 1000, 500, 200 and 100 samples, which were selected using the Kennard-Stone algorithm. Analysis of the models statistics parameters confirmed the similarity of all models, with exception of the 100 sample models, demonstrating the possibility of substantial savings in time and costs for wood laboratory analysis.  

  9. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaquis, Pascal J; Stanich, Kareen; Girard, Benoit; Mazza, G

    2002-03-25

    Essential oils from dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (seeds of Coriandrum sativum L.), cilantro (leaves of immature C. sativum L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dives) were separated into heterogeneous mixtures of components by fractional distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined for the crude oils and their fractions. Essential oil of cilantro was particularly effective against Listeria monocytogenes, likely due to the presence of long chain (C6-C10) alcohols and aldehydes. The strength and spectrum of inhibition for the fractions often exceeded those determined in the crude oils. Mixing of fractions resulted in additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual test microorganisms. PMID:11929164

  10. Influences of different control periods and coexistence with weed in eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kneipp Londero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the periods of control and coexistence of weeds with eucalyptus culture. The experiment was led in Candiota, RS, in the period from January to December, 2006. The treatments consisted of different control times and coexistence of the culture, these periods were divided in two groups; one was to determine the Period Previous to the Interference (PPI and the other to define the Total Period of Prevention of the Interference (TPFI. In the two groups the tested periods were: 00, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 210, 252, 294 and 336 days. The young trees of eucalyptus were susceptible to weed, presenting a period previous to the interference of 56 days. In order to guarantee its largest production, the total period of prevention of the interference was 140 days and the period previous to the interference was of 56 days.

  11. Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. juvenile wood by sap displacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Marcel de Arruda Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD AND SCAR MARKER RELATED TO EARLY FLOWERING IN Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Silva Domingues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There are few available tools in eucalyptus breeding to accelerate the selection of superior genotypes, and one of the main tools to improve this process is the use of molecular markers linked to traits of interest. Using “Bulked Segregant Analysis”, we evaluated 81 RAPD molecular markers in a Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden progeny that segregates for early flowering, and one marker was identified as related to this trait. This RAPD marker was converted into a Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR, which was then evaluated in a F1 progeny, and validated in other progenies that presents this trait. The SCAR marker was informative in the progeny in which one of the parental was the donor of the band, with an efficiency of 60%. These results describe the first SCAR marker developed for eucalypt and confirm this technique as a useful molecular tool for forestry breeding which could be employed to locate markers linked to other silvicultural traits.

  13. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  14. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. PMID:26255602

  15. Torrefaction and low temperature carbonization of oil palm fiber and Eucalyptus in nitrogen and air atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ke-Miao; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2012-11-01

    Torrefaction is a pretreatment method for upgrading biomass as solid fuels. To provide flexible operations for effectively upgrading biomass at lower costs, the aim of this study was to investigate the properties of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus pretreated in nitrogen and air atmospheres at temperatures of 250-350°C for 1h. Based on energy and solid yield and introducing an energy-mass co-benefit index (EMCI), oil palm fiber pretreatment under nitrogen at 300°C provided the solid fuel with higher energy density and less volume compared to other temperatures. Pretreatment of oil palm fiber in air resulted in the fuel with low solid and energy yields and is therefore not recommended. For eucalyptus, nitrogen and air can be employed to upgrade the biomass, and the suggested temperatures are 325 and 275°C, respectively. PMID:22940305

  16. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  17. Regeneration of plants from leaf explants of micropropagated clonal Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainé, E; David, A

    1994-05-01

    Callus production along with caulogenesis was obtained from leaf explants of micropropagated clonal Eucalyptus grandis after six to twelve weeks of culture. Out of eight clones tested, six were amenable to shoot production using simple media containing naphthaleneacetic acid and either 6-benzyladenine or zeatin. Differences in growth regulator requirements for organogenesis were observed between different clones. These shoots were then elongated on a medium containing gibberellic acid and rooted using media derived from the micropropagation medium. Light conditions were also found to be important for regeneration. This protocol is the first published on regeneration from nonseedling material and it will facilitate the Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of selected clonal Eucalyptus grandis. PMID:24194029

  18. SUPERVISED PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES FROM LEAVES NIR SPECTRA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROSARIO, CASTILLO; DAVID, CONTRERAS; JUANITA, FREER; JOSE, RUIZ; SOFÍA, VALENZUELA.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three supervised pattern recognition methods (SPRM) were evaluated to discriminate between Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens species applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy on leaves. The methods used were k-nearest neighbor (KNN), soft modeling class analogy (SIMCA) and discriminant parti [...] al least squares (PLS-DA). First and second derivatives were used as transform techniques and mean-center (MC) and autoscaling (AS) as preprocessing techniques. The training set was constitued by 288 samples and 20 samples were used as validation set. A significant difference between the assayed methods was not observed, however best results for separation of classes and prediction rate were obtained when first derivative and MC were used for all the recognition pattern methods. Use of leaves and NIR spectroscopy avoids the destructive usual wood analysis in forest industries and facilities the fast classification of these species for forest applications.

  19. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  20. Use of glass transition temperature for stabilization of board's cracks of Eucalyptus grandis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fred W., Calonego; Elias T.D., Severo; Antonio R., Cunha; Daiane C., Gaia.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As temperaturas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis, durante a vaporização, foram determinadas e correlacionadas com as rachaduras das tábuas. Nos centros das toras foram inseridos termopares e registradas suas temperaturas durante a vaporização à 90"C. As toras foram desdobradas e as rachaduras das tábu [...] as mensuradas. Concluiu-se que: (1) o modelo estatístico sigmoidal logístico explica a variação da temperatura nas toras; (2) as toras com 20 a Abstract in english The Eucalyptus grandis logs temperatures were determined and correlated with the board's cracks during steaming. Thermocouples were inserted in the logs center, registering their temperatures during steaming at 90"C. The logs were sawed and the board's cracks measured. It was concluded that: (1) the [...] logistic S-shaped curve explains the logs temperature variation; (2) the logs with diameter of 20 to

  1. Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Restrepo Estrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling’s method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

  2. Immunostimulant Effects of Essential Oils of Peppermint and Eucalyptus in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. H. Awaad*, G. A. Abdel-Alim, K. S. S. Sayed, Kawkab, A. Ahmed1, A. A. Nada2, A. S. Z. Metwalli and A. N. Alkhalaf3

    2010-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of peppermint and eucalyptus essential oils on cell mediated and/or humoral immunity in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) were investigated. The HI titers against both ND and AI vaccines were higher in volatile oils treated group as compared to the untreated control. The protection percentage reached 35% in volatile oils treated group as compared to 25% in untreated control group and 0% in unvaccinated negative control gr...

  3. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  4. Transcriptome Sequencing of Two Phenotypic Mosaic Eucalyptus Trees Reveals Large Scale Transcriptome Re-Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Padovan, Amanda; Patel, Hardip R; Chuah, Aaron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Krause, Sandra T; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J; Külheim, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic mosaic trees offer an ideal system for studying differential gene expression. We have investigated two mosaic eucalypt trees from two closely related species (Eucalyptus melliodora and E. sideroxylon), which each support two types of leaves: one part of the canopy is resistant to insect herbivory and the remaining leaves are susceptible. Driving this ecological distinction are differences in plant secondary metabolites. We used these phenotypic mosaics to investigate genome wide pa...

  5. Modelagem da produção de sortimentos em povoamentos de eucalipto / Modeling of assortment yields in eucalyptus stands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Ribeiro de, Mendonça; Natalino, Calegario; Gilson Fernandes da, Silva; Agostinho Lopes de, Souza; Paulo Fernando, Trugilho; Samuel Pádua Chaves e, Carvalho; Ernani Lopes, Possato.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar modelos para estimar a produção de sortimentos de plantios clonais do híbrido Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus urophylla com espaçamento 3 x 3 m, localizados em Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Para estimar a produção em área basal e volume dos sortim [...] entos de povoamentos, foram utilizados dados parcelas permanentes. Para estimar o volume dos sortimentos, foram analisados o modelo logístico com adição de covariáveis e o modelo de Clutter. Para a seleção do modelo mais preciso, foram utilizadas as estatísticas erro padrão relativo [Syx (%)], viés (V), média das diferenças (MD), desvio padrão das diferenças (DPD) e análise gráfica dos resíduos. De acordo com as análises, o modelo Logístico obteve o melhorresultado para estimar a produção em volume de madeira para energia e celulose. A metodologia de estimação da produção de sortimentos de plantações florestais analisada foi de fácil aplicação e precisa. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate models to estimate the assortment yield of clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid plantations with 3 x 3 m spacing in the Paraopeba city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. To estimate basal area and volume of the assortment yield data from permanent p [...] lots was used. To estimate the volume of assortments, we analyzed the logistic model with covariates and the Clutter model. The statistical standard error [Syx (%)], bias (V), average of the differences (MD), and standard deviation of the differences (DPD), as well as the graphical analysis of the residuals were used to select the most accurate model. According to the analysis, the Logistic model obtained the best results for estimation of the yield in wood volume for energy and pulpwood. The methodology to estimate assortment of forest plantations was considered easy to use and accurate.

  6. Location of O-acetyl substituents in xylo-oligosaccharides obtained from hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood

    OpenAIRE

    Kabel, M.A.; de Waard, P.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of techniques was used to localise the O-acetyl substituents in xylo-oligosaccharides, which are present in hydrolysates of hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood. Reversed-phase (RP)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to both a mass spectrometer and an evaporating light scattering (ELS) detector provided data about the order of elution of the various O-acetylated oligomers. The retention of the oligomers on the column depended on the number and positi...

  7. Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kidanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more resilient soils need intensification to sustain human needs. This thesis discusses the opportunities of a short rotation (3 years) eucalyptus based agroforestry system to intensify annual sole cro...

  8. Life-cycle assessment of eucalyptus short-rotation coppices for bioenergy production in Southern France

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Nguyen The, Nicolas; Maupu, Pauline; Vial, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRCs) are considered prime candidates for biomass production, yielding good-quality feedstock that is easy to harvest. Besides technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are important to take into account when developing SRCs. Here, we evaluated the environmental impacts of delivering 1 GJ of heat from eucalyptus SRC using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on management scenarios involving different rotations lengths, fertilizer input rates, stem ...

  9. Changes in carbon stocks in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations induced by different water and nutrient availability

    OpenAIRE

    Fabião, António; Madeira, M.; J.S. Pereira; Araújo, M.C.; Ribeiro, C.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the carbon stocks under different soil water and nutrient conditions were studied in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. stands in a field experiment, at O ´ bidos (central Portugal). The treatments were irrigation plus a complete fertiliser solution to simulate ‘near optimal’ nutrition (IF), irrigation only (I), and fertilisers added to rain-fed plots (F). The control (C) received neither water nor fertilisers (except a small amount at planting). The production of biomass (aboveg...

  10. Development of root biomass in an Eucalyptus globulus plantation under different water and nutrient regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Fabião, António; Madeira, M.; Steen, E. van der; Katterer, T.; Ribeiro, C.; de Araújo, C.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution along the soil profile of Eucalyptus globulus root biomass was followed in a plantation in central Portugal at 1, 2 and 6 years after planting, using an excavation technique. The experimental design consisted of a control (C)and 3 treatments: application of solid fertilizers twice a year (F), irrigation without the application of fertilizers (I) and irrigation combined with liquid fertilizers (IL). Bellow- and above-ground biomass decreased as follows: IL>I>F>C. So, water str...

  11. Eucalyptus Biomass and Volume Estimation Using Interferometric and Polarimetric SAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Furlan Gama; João Roberto dos Santos; José Claudio Mura

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to establish a relationship between volume and biomass with interferometric and radiometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) response from planted Eucalyptus saligna forest stands, using multi-variable regression techniques. X and P band SAR images from the airborne OrbiSAR-1 sensor, were acquired at the study area in the southeast region of Brazil. The interferometric height (Hint = difference between interferometric digital elevation model in X and P bands), contributed to the ...

  12. Supercritical Fluid Fractionation for Enhancement of Insecticidal Activity of Eucalyptus Extract.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topia?, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Maixnerová, Lucie; Pavela, R.

    Salerno : Centro Stampa di Ateneo, 2013 - (Reverchon, E.; De Marco, I.), s. 119-126 ISBN 88-7897-061-1. [Conference on Supercritical Fluids and Their Applications /10./. Napoli (IT), 29.05.2013-06.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical CO2 extraction * extract fractionation * eucalyptus Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. Two new triterpenoids from the bark of Eucalyptus exserta and their molluscicidal and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Xu, Hanhong; Tang, Wenwei; Song, Zhijun

    2012-03-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 2?-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid-3?-trans- isoferulate (1) and 2?, 3?, 24-trihydroxyolean-18-en-28-oic acid (2), together with three known triterpenoids (3-5) were isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Eucalyptus exserta. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 exhibited molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata. All isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against Spodoptera litura (SL) cells. PMID:22178417

  14. Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rojhan; Nouri, L.

    2013-01-01

    Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract) was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca star...

  15. Furfural production from "Eucalyptus globulus" : optimizing by using neural fuzzy models

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, M. T.; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; Gómez Lozano, D. M.; López Baldovín, Francisco; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus globulus were subjected to isothermal autohydrolysis (temperature: 220–250 °C and isothermal residence time 0–60 min). The effect of the R0 factor on the sugar yield and composition of both liquid and solid phases obtained after the treatments has been studied. The furfural concentration and composition has been determined. A central composite experimental design, in conjunction with the neural fuzzy model, was used to the furfural content maximization under isothermal a...

  16. Optimization of furfural production by acid hydrolysis of "Eucalyptus globulus" in two stages

    OpenAIRE

    López Baldovín, Francisco; García Domínguez, M. T.; Feria Infante, Manuel Javier; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Diego, C. M. de; Zamudio, Minerva A. M.; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the production of furfural by hydrolysis with dilute acid of Eucalyptus globulus wood in two stages, using a factorial experimental design and multiple regression models to maximize furfural yields. The two-stage process could provide a solid phase with less degraded cellulose and older applications that the solid phase of a conventional acid hydrolysis. The selectivity for furfural of the process was increased by effect of the glucan and lignin fractions...

  17. Maximizing furfural concentration from wheat straw and Eucalyptus globulus by nonisothermal autohydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    García Domínguez, M. T.; García Domínguez, Juan Carlos; López Baldovín, Francisco; Diego, C. M. de; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The autohydrolysis process as a method for selective extraction of hemicelluloses and conversion to furfural was proposed for lignocellulosic raw materials. Samples of wheat straw (WS) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were subjected to nonisothermal autohydrolysis, defined by temperature 180–240°C. Within a biorefinery scheme for the selected materials, the aim of this study is both (a) to optimize furfural processing technology to enable higher yields and improved productivity from EG and WS by ...

  18. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further asses...

  19. Phylogeny of the Quambalariaceae fam. nov., including important Eucalyptus pathogens in South Africa and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Michael J; Crous, Pedro W.; Geoff S. Pegg; Robert Bauer; Dominik Begerow; Z. Wilhelm de Beer

    2006-01-01

    The genus Quambalaria consists of plant-pathogenic fungi causing disease on leaves and shoots of species of Eucalyptus and its close relative, Corymbia. The phylogenetic relationship of Quambalaria spp., previously classified in genera such as Sporothrix and Ramularia, has never been addressed. It has, however, been suggested that they belong to the basidiomycete orders Exobasidiales or Ustilaginales. The aim of this study was thus to consider the ordinal relations...

  20. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  1. Characterization of lipophilic wood extractives from clones of Eucalyptus urograndis cultivate in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomide, J. L.; Pilo-Veloso, D.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Maltha, C. R. A.; L.C.A Barbosa; Siverio, F. O.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the lipophilic extractives from four clones of Eucalyptus urograndis cultivated in Brazil were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) before and after alkaline hydrolysis. The four E. urograndis clones showed similar amounts of dichloromethane soluble (lipophilic) extractives (0.38-0.55% w/w). The major groups of compounds identified in the lipophilic fraction of extractives consisted mainly of fatty acids (mainly palmitic linoleic and oleic acids...

  2. Complex xylo-oligosaccharides identified from hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A. G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrolysates from two hydrothermally treated xylan-rich agrobased materials, Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain were fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Hereby, several pools were obtained and they were characterised by their sugar composition. Additionally, the oligosaccharides in the pools described were further identified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry. The hydrothermally treated brewery's spent gr...

  3. Pretreatment with laccase and a phenolic mediator degrades lignin and enhances saccharification of Eucalyptus feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Rico Campos, Alejandro; Rencoret, Jorge; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; Martínez, Ángel T.; Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Biofuel production from lignocellulosic material is hampered by biomass recalcitrance towards enzymatic hydrolysis due to the compact architecture of the plant cell wall and the presence of lignin. The purpose of this work is to study the ability of an industrially available laccase-mediator system to modify and remove lignin during pretreatment of wood (Eucalyptus globulus) feedstock, thus improving saccharification, and to analyze the chemical modifications produced in t...

  4. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Masuh, Hector M.; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we rep...

  5. Structural features and properties of soluble products derived from Eucalyptus globulus hemicelluloses

    OpenAIRE

    Gullon, P.; M. J. González-Muñoz; Gool, M.P., van; Schols, H.A.; Hirsch, J.; Ebringerová, A.; Parajo, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to double hydrothermal processing to remove extractives in the first stage, and to cause the selective solubilisation of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan in the second stage. The hemicellulose-derived products present in the liquors from the second hydrothermal stage (substituted xylooligosaccharides, denoted XOS) were refined by treatments with membranes and ion exchange. The purified XOS product was assayed for composition and characterised by HPLC-RI...

  6. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Harkat-Madouri, Lila; Asma, Boudria; Madani, Khodir; Said, Zakia Bey-Ould Si; Rigou, Peggy; Grenier, Daniel; Allalou, Hanane; Remini, Hocine; Adjaoud, Abdennour

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are known for their use in various fields such as cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this work is to investigate the chemical composition of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves (E. globulus) by gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, and to evaluate their antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical scavenging effect, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity) as well as their antibacterial activity, against p...

  7. Life cycle assessment of printing and writing paper produced from Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, A.; Lopes, E.; Arroja, L.; Capela, M.; Pereira, F. [Environmental and Planning Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Tome, M. [Agronomy Superior Institute, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-06-01

    The environmental impacts of the production of Portuguese printing and writing paper from Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were assessed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system under study includes forestry, pulp production, paper production, wastepaper final disposal, transports and production of energy, chemicals and fuels. The results are presented and discussed at inventory analysis and impact assessment levels. The results suggest that the pulp and paper production processes contribute significantly to almost all of the analysed inventory parameters and impact assessment categories. (orig.)

  8. DETAILED MASS BALANCES OF THE AUTOHYDROLYSIS OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AT 170°C

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz Leschinsky; Herbert Sixta; Rudolf Patt

    2009-01-01

    Autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus was conducted at three different intensity levels typical for prehydrolysis kraft pulping as utilized for manufacturing dissolving pulp grades. The objective was to establish for the autohydrolysis process a detailed mass balance comprising the chemical composition of all three phases: the autohydrolysate, the released gas, and the solid residue. Carbohydrate determination involved both acid methanolysis combined with gas chromatography (GC) and sulfuric ...

  9. ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS, TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA ON MCF-7 CELL LINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sr. Prema Kumari* and Louis Jesudas

    2014-01-01

    Methanolic crude extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Tinosopra Cordifolia grown in natural and industrial polluted conditions were investigated for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines to study the pollution effect on Cytotoxicity.  It was carried out by the XTT assay using serial dilutions. The Cytotoxicity of individual plants and also the combined extracts of plants grown in polluted and natural area were carried out separately to check out the differences. The ...

  10. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Ângelo Luís; Duarte Neiva; Helena Pereira; Jorge Gominho; Fernanda Domingues; Ana Paula Duarte

    2014-01-01

    These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study ...

  11. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  12. Leachates of Eucalyptus globulus in Intermittent Streams Affect Water Parameters and Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Canhoto, Cristina; Laranjeira, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Low order streams running through Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Central Portugal are frequently reduced to isolated permanent or temporary summer pools with darkly stained water due to leaf leachates. Here we assess the toxicity of such leachates to the shredder Sericostoma vittatum. Leachates resulted in deoxygenated and more acid water, and increased its phenolic content and conductivity. S. vittatum exposed to high concentrations of leachates failed to grow and died within 30 days eve...

  13. Lipophilic extractives from Eucalyptus globulus pulp during kraft cooking followed by TCF and ECF bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Suárez, Ana; Romero Sánchez, Javier; Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of lipophilic extractives in paper pulps from Eucalyptus globulus wood during kraft cooking followed by TCF (“totally chlorine free”) and ECF (“elemental chlorine free”) bleaching sequences has been determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses revealed that the composition of the lipophilic extractives in pulp after kraft cooking and TCF bleaching with hydrogen peroxide was similar to that of E. globulus wood extract...

  14. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-05-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (900 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  15. Effects of Eucalyptus globulus Wood Autohydrolysis Conditions on the Reaction Products

    OpenAIRE

    Garrote, G.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Falque, E.; Domingues, H; Parajo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were reacted in aqueous media (hydrothermal treatments) at 160 °C for 30¿66 min. Liquors from the several experiments were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry for monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide substituents (arabinose moieties, uronic acids, and acetyl groups), acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and dichloromethane-soluble compounds. Individual components ...

  16. Sensitivity of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) to the vapors of Eucalyptus essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo N.; González Audino, Paola; Masuh, Hector M.

    2009-01-01

    Vapors of essential oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (E. gunnii, E. tereticornis, E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, E. dunnii, E. cinerea, E. saligna, E. sideroxylon, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. viminalis and the hybrids E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis) and their major components were found to be toxic to Aedes aegypti adults, the yellow fever mosquito. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber and the ...

  17. Early Ovule Development Following Self‐ and Cross‐pollinations in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus

    OpenAIRE

    POUND, L. M.; WALLWORK, M. A. B.; POTTS, B. M.; SEDGLEY, M.

    2002-01-01

    The study was conducted to identify the self‐incompatibility mechanism in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus. Controlled self‐ and cross‐pollinations were conducted on individual flowers from three mature trees that had self‐incompatibility levels of 76, 99·6 and 100 %. Flowers were harvested at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after pollination. Embryology was investigated by bright field microscopy on material harvested at 4 and 6 weeks after pollination. Fertilization had taken place at 4 weeks after po...

  18. Effects of inbreeding on population mean performance and observational variances in Eucalyptus globulus

    OpenAIRE

    Costa E Silva, João; Hardner, Craig; Tilyard, Paul; Pires, Ana M.; Potts, Brad M.

    2010-01-01

    * Mean performance and variances were studied in self (SELF), open pollinated (OP) and unrelated polymix (POL) crosses of common parentage in Eucalyptus globulus.* Inbreeding depression for survival (SURV) and basal area per hectare (BAH) was the highest reported for a SELF eucalypt population, increasing with age to reach 74 and 77%, respectively, over 10 years.* Inbreeding depression in the OP was 36% for SURV and 32% for BAH at age 10 years, and estimates of outcrossing rate from BAH were ...

  19. Essential oils from two Eucalyptus from Tunisia and their insecticidal action on Orgyia trigotephras (Lepidotera, Lymantriidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine Ben Slimane; Olfa Ezzine; Samir Dhahri; Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamaa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Essential oils extracted from aromatic and medicinal plants have many biological properties and are therefore an alternative to the use of synthetic products. The chemical composition of essential oils from two medicinal plants (Eucalyptus globulus and E. lehmannii) was determined and, their insecticidal effects on the third and fourth larval stages of Orgyia trigotephras were assessed. RESULTS: Larvae were collected from Jebel Abderrahmane (North-East of Tunisia), conserved in gr...

  20. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognouabi Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs. In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13 had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%. The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

  1. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Kabakci; Fatih Mengeloglu

    2008-01-01

    Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C an...

  2. Some Properties of Eucalyptus Wood Flour Filled Recycled High Density Polyethylene Polymer-Composites

    OpenAIRE

    MENGELO?LU, Fatih; KARAKU?, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eucalyptus wood flours (EWF) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were investigated. First thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were conducted for recycled HDPE and EWF. Later the effects of EWF and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) concentrations were studied. TGA analysis revealed that EWF and recycled HDPE started degrading around 230 °C and 280 °C, respectively. Melting temper...

  3. Heterosis May Result in Selection Favouring the Products of Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Eucalyptus

    O